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  • 1.
    B. Boistrup, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Challenging theory versus practice: Connections between mathematics and vocational education2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we discuss connections between two teaching contents in Swedish upper secondary school programs in vocational education; mathematics and vocational content. Simultaneously, we challenge a dichotomous understanding of theory and practice, while paying an interest in connections between the two. We have adopted the framework of praxeology by Chevallard. Through analysis of empirical examples, we illuminate how, for example, theoretical aspects may derive from both mathematics and vocational content, challenging mathematics as mainly theoretical and vocations as only practical.

  • 2.
    Berglund, Ingrid
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Assessment of vocational knowing: experiences from the Swedish pilot project with upper secondary apprenticeship 2008-20112012In: Bulletin of Institute of Vocational and Technical Education, ISSN 1348-4893, no 9, p. 24-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2008, a pilot project with apprenticeship as an alternative pathway of upper secondary vocational education (USVE) started in Sweden. This paper is based on a follow-up study 2009-2011, funded by the Swedish National Agency for Education (SNAE) focusing on pedagogical aspects of apprenticeship. We interpreted ‘pedagogical aspects’ as concerning teachers’ curriculum work, i.e. the organisation and design of apprenticeship in relation to following aspects: division of labour between school and work; the content; the roles of teacher and supervisor; and follow-up and assessment of students’ development regarding vocational knowing in relation to the Swedish national curriculum for each of the programmes. In this article, we present results related to assessment in upper secondary VET apprenticeship. The issue for this article is to illuminate conditions for assessment in USVE-apprenticeship, the foci of assessment and the tools used for assessment.

    According to regulations of apprenticeship, trilateral assessment sessions (teacher-supervisor-apprentice) are to be held regularly for follow-up and, at the end of a course, marking students knowing. As a representative for the education authority, the teacher is responsible for marking, but the supervisor is to provide the teacher with the information needed for follow-up and marking. The assumption is that during these sessions, there will be a dialogue between supervisor, apprentice, and teacher that will contribute to both follow-up and marking.

    The results presented in this paper build on interviews with teachers, apprentices and supervisors, as well as some audio-recorded trilateral sessions for assessment. Our preliminary results show that these trilateral sessions are one of the critical situations in USVE-apprenticeship. A main result is that assessment was either focused on social and behavioural aspects or on vocational knowing. Which one that dominated was related to firstly, the qualifications of the teacher; secondly, to the division of labour on the workplace; and thirdly, to the local history of USVE-apprenticeship. These results and the consequences of them will be further developed in our article.

  • 3. Berthén, Diana
    et al.
    Eriksson, Inger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Emerging educational action?: BA-Thesis work in maritime higher education2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The issue of this paper is related to those students’ who enrols the higher education in Maritime Studies at the Åland University of Applied Sciences (ÅUAS) but has problem getting their bachelor degree du to uncompleted thesis work.

     

    The R&D project, here referred to, was initiated by ÅUAS in order to help out some of those students that had left the school without a full exam. Further the aim of the project was to help the teachers to develop a better competence to supervise students’ thesis work. It was not only a problem for the school that several students did not complete their bachelor degree. This was also a problem for the shipping companies since there is a shortage of fully educated master mariners (e.g. Captain). For the drop-out students this was a personal problem in relation to what jobs they could apply for. Realising the problem the ÅUAS had tried to improve the education in different way. The thesis work was thus talked about as an important part of the education; an educational action that played a central role in the educational programme.

     

    The R&D-project was sectioned into two sub-projects. The first sub-project was conducted as an investigation where we tried to get a picture of the problem from the students as well as from the teachers’ perspective. The second sub-project (e.g. the main project) was formed as an intervention divided into three parts. The first was arranged as a series of tutorial sessions where one maritime teacher (subject supervisor) and the interventionist (supervisor of the supervisor) could collaborate in order to help the drop-out student to fulfil his (it was only male students) thesis work. The second part was arranged as a formal in-service course focusing thesis work and supervision. The third part was aiming the organisation of the thesis work.

     

    In the beginning of the R&D-project the teachers and the management ascribed the problem as on the one hand related to AKADEMISERINGEN that had led to a thesis work was og no use for their coming carrier as master mariners, and on the other to students’ lack of motivation, and laziness.

     

    During the investigative sub-project an other picture was growing. The interviews with the students’ gave indications of an education where the thesis work had only a peripheral position. Firstly, the timetabled time was made in relation to free periods and some occasional days spread over three semesters. Secondly, this time was also used when extra time was needed. The students did not always know who their supervisor was and the supervision was not timetabled. The student often felt that asking for help was to burdening the teachers.

     

    These issues that the students where signalling has been focused in the D&R-project both in discussions with the management and in seminars with the teachers. There are still a lot of organisational obstacles e.g. concerning the timetabeling. But, there are indications that the teachers are starting to see the thesis work as core part (and meaningful) of the education. And in addition they have started to address the management with requests of time, both scheduled time with the students and time where the teachers can develop their supervision together as a team. Thus, we can se how the R&D-project has led to an emerging central educational action. An action that perhaps will prevent other students to drop-out due to being left to them self to accomplish a thesis on their spear time beside the regular course.

     

     

     

    @font-face { font-family: "Times"; }@font-face { font-family: "Cambria"; }p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal { margin: 0cm 0cm 0.0001pt; font-size: 12pt; font-family: "Times New Roman"; }div.Section1 { page: Section1; }

    The issue of this paper is related to those students’ who enrols the higher education in Maritime Studies at the Åland University of Applied Sciences (ÅUAS) but has problem getting their bachelor degree du to uncompleted thesis work.

     

    The R&D project, here referred to, was initiated by ÅUAS in order to help out some of those students that had left the school without a full exam. Further the aim of the project was to help the teachers to develop a better competence to supervise students’ thesis work. It was not only a problem for the school that several students did not complete their bachelor degree. This was also a problem for the shipping companies since there is a shortage of fully educated master mariners (e.g. Captain). For the drop-out students this was a personal problem in relation to what jobs they could apply for. Realising the problem the ÅUAS had tried to improve the education in different way. The thesis work was thus talked about as an important part of the education; an educational action that played a central role in the educational programme.

     

    The R&D-project was sectioned into two sub-projects. The first sub-project was conducted as an investigation where we tried to get a picture of the problem from the students as well as from the teachers’ perspective. The second sub-project (e.g. the main project) was formed as an intervention divided into three parts. The first was arranged as a series of tutorial sessions where one maritime teacher (subject supervisor) and the interventionist (supervisor of the supervisor) could collaborate in order to help the drop-out student to fulfil his (it was only male students) thesis work. The second part was arranged as a formal in-service course focusing thesis work and supervision. The third part was aiming the organisation of the thesis work.

     

    In the beginning of the R&D-project the teachers and the management ascribed the problem as on the one hand related to AKADEMISERINGEN that had led to a thesis work was og no use for their coming carrier as master mariners, and on the other to students’ lack of motivation, and laziness.

     

    During the investigative sub-project an other picture was growing. The interviews with the students’ gave indications of an education where the thesis work had only a peripheral position. Firstly, the timetabled time was made in relation to free periods and some occasional days spread over three semesters. Secondly, this time was also used when extra time was needed. The students did not always know who their supervisor was and the supervision was not timetabled. The student often felt that asking for help was to burdening the teachers.

     

    These issues that the students where signalling has been focused in the D&R-project both in discussions with the management and in seminars with the teachers. There are still a lot of organisational obstacles e.g. concerning the timetabeling. But, there are indications that the teachers are starting to see the thesis work as core part (and meaningful) of the education. And in addition they have started to address the management with requests of time, both scheduled time with the students and time where the teachers can develop their supervision together as a team. Thus, we can se how the R&D-project has led to an emerging central educational action. An action that perhaps will prevent other students to drop-out due to being left to them self to accomplish a thesis on their spear time beside the regular course.

     

     

     

     

     

  • 4.
    Björklund Boistrup, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    A framework for analysing assessment in working life and vocational education2019In: Nofa7 Abstracts, Stockholm, Sweden: Stockholm University, 2019, p. 36-36Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we aim to discuss a research framework for analysing assessment in working life. We view assessment as a broad notion, taking place formally, through tests, coursework and the like, and informally through for example feedback during ongoing work. We argue that education, and significantly vocational education, has much to learn from taking knowledge about assessment as part of working life into account.

    Assessment in working life is in this paper viewed as a teaching content in vocational education. For students in vocational programmes, part of Swedish upper secondary school, it is highly relevant to learn about how working competence may be evaluated in their future occupations. Moreover, teachers carrying out assessment within the vocational programmes have much to learn from the ways assessment may be ‘done’ in working life. To assess vocational competence, also within vocational education, is different from formal educational assessment, since it is about capturing contextual knowing in action. In these actions, there are different logics (see Ellström, 2010) to pay attention to. One logic is a logic of production, where conformity and regulations are essential, and one is a logic of development, where problem solving and creativity are essential. So far, not much research has focused on assessment in working life in a broad sense, with relevance for vocational education.

    Assessment of vocational knowing is a field of research shared by disciplines like education, linguistics, economics and sociology. One theme in the literature addresses assessment for employment. This part of the research field is dominated by economists focusing on management issues, such as tests designed for selection of employees. Another theme is rather new in this field of research; assessment in skills competitions. A third theme is assessment in workplaces. Apart from some studies on assessment of employees’ performances and behaviour, there are few studies (eg. Kvale, 2007; Tanggaard & Elmholt, 2008) on assessment of vocational knowing at work.

    When discussing a framework for analysing assessment in working life, we will draw on theoretical considerations and make critical connections to previous research. In our theoretical considerations we incorporate three levels of practice: personal, interpersonal, and community processes (Rogoff, 2008), all in relation to assessment. To further examine aspects of vocational content in assessment, we adopt a framework of praxeology by Chevallard (2006), where praxis corresponds to ‘know-how’ and logos to ‘know-why’.

  • 5.
    Carlgren, Ingrid
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences.
    Forsberg, Eva
    Uppsala universitet, pedagogiska institutionen.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Didactic Science and Early Childhood Education.
    Perspektiv på den svenska skolans kunskapsdiskussion2009Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Perspektiv på den svenska skolans kunskapsdiskussion skrevs på uppdragav Skolverket våren 2009. Några frågor som analyseras och diskuteras irapporten är:– Hur ser bakgrunden ut till den kunskapssyn som formulerades i sambandmed 1990-talets läroplansreform?– Vilka diskurser om kunskap finns i policydokument från EU och OECD?– Hur ser kunskapsuppfattningarna ut i olika bedömningsinstrument?– Vilka är de vanligast förekommande taxonomierna för bedömning?– Vilka särdrag går att urskilja i den ”den svenska kunskapssynen” i ettinternationellt perspektiv?Rapporten omfattar en beskrivning av kunskapssynen i Skola för bildning(SOU 1992:94). Kunskapssynen diskuteras i relation till internationellatrender i policytexter och kunskapsdiskurser. Den diskuteras också irelation till konstruktionen av läroplaner och kursplaner samt i relationtill ett bildningsperspektiv. Genom att skilja mellan det kunnande someleverna förväntas utveckla, kunskapsinnehållet i skolans undervisningoch bedömningen av elevernas kunnighet, kan både likheter och skillnadermellan den svenska och den internationella kunskapsdiskursenidentifieras.Rapporten vänder sig till skolledare, studerande på skolledarutbildningenoch på lärarutbildningen.

  • 6.
    Christidis, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. The Swedish Red Cross University College, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Subject-Integrated Teaching for Expanded Vocational Knowing and Everyday Situations in a Swedish Upper Secondary Health and Social Care Program2019In: Vocations and Learning, ISSN 1874-785X, E-ISSN 1874-7868, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 479-498Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to explore what subject-integrated teaching of vocational subjects, ethics and health care, contributed with in terms of vocational knowing. The case study was ethnographically inspired and followed a group of students (16 +) and their teachers in a Swedish Health and Social Care Program while they worked with a theme unit called Death for two weeks in autumn 2012. Data comprised observations, field notes, and audio recordings of the planning and teaching of the theme unit, informal discussions with teachers and students, handouts, a theme booklet, and student assignments. Analysis was based on concepts related to cultural historical activity theory, especially emphasizing rules, tools, actions, operations, and contradictions. Results showed three major objects emphasized in the teacher–student interaction and the tools chosen to support the subject-integrated teaching activity: vocational knowing related to vocational ethics, to everyday ethics, and argumentative skills. Manifestations of contradictions in the form of dilemmas related to the examples that teachers copied from a textbook. As these examples were mainly contextualized in everyday situations, and there are no formal ethical guidelines for nursing assistants on which teachers could rely on, teachers’ narratives were used to complement these examples. Students’ argumentative skills were emphasized and related to personal situations, in which ethical arguments for justification in vocationally relevant situations were made unclear.

  • 7.
    Eriksson, Inger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Berg, Astrid
    Danielsson, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Ekvall, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    Ståhle, Ylva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Vilket kemiinnehåll görs tillgängligt i finlandssvenska och svenska klassrum? Kemitexter som redskap för naturvetenskapligt lärande2010In: Resultatdialog 2010: aktuell forskning om utbildning och lärande, Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet , 2010, p. 51-56Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Svenska och finska (och finlandssvenska) elevers naturvetenskapliga prestationer uppvisar markanta skillnader i internationella mätningar som PISA. Mot bakgrund av att Finland och Sverige har ett till synes likartat skolsystem är det inte helt enkelt att förstå varför de finska och finlandssvenska eleverna presterar så mycket bättre än de svenska. Vad är det som skapar sådana skillnader? Många olika förklaringar har förts fram, tex i relation till lärarutbildning. Men vilket kemilärande möjliggörs i svenska och finlandssvenska undervisningspraktiker? Kemiinnehållet i läromedel från Sverige och Finland är i stort det samma och i finlandssvenska skolor fram till 2007 användes ofta svenska läromedel. I projektet genomfördes 20-40h videobandade klassrumsobservationer relaterade till kemiundervisningen i tre skolor vardera i Svenskfinland (2007-08) och Sverige (2009). Observationerna, kombinerade med intervjuer och dokumentationer, fokuserade periodiska systemet och kemiska bindningar. De första analyserna ger en bild av att det finns skillnader i innehållets behandling och vad som karaktäriserar de konstituerade undervisningspraktikerna i de båda länderna. I finlandssvenska skolor fokuseras t.ex. faktareproduktion (memorering), formelskrivning och detaljerade provfrågor, samma läromedel används i alla skolor. I svenska skolor betonas förståelse av vardagsfenomen, diskussioner och prov som skiljer på G, VG och MVG-frågor där G-frågor utgörs av enkla faktakunskaper. Undervisningen i de finlandssvenska skolorna framstår således som mera lika varandra medan undervisningen i de svenska skolorna uppvisar större variation gällande innehållets behandling och klassrumskommunikation.

  • 8.
    Eriksson, Inger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Enriching ‘learning activity’ with ‘epistemic practices’ – enhancing students’ epistemic agency and authority2016In: Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy, ISSN 2002-0317, Vol. 2, no 1, article id 32432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is an unchanged, re-published version of: Inger Eriksson & Viveca Lindberg, ‘Enriching learning activities with epistemic practices – enhancing students’ epistemic agency and authority’, with Maja Elmgren, Maria Folke-Fichtelius, Stina Hallsén, Henrik Román (2016), Att ta utbildningens komplexitet på allvar. En vänskrift till Eva Forsberg, Uppsala Universitet: Uppsala Studies in Education 138.

  • 9.
    Eriksson, Inger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Linking teaching/learning activities to epistemic practices2013In: ECER 2013: Creativity and innovation in educational research, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Eriksson, Inger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Didactic Science and Early Childhood Education.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Didactic Science and Early Childhood Education.
    Matematikundervisningens innehåll: Avrapportering av ett kollaborativt forskningsprojekt om att utveckla redskap och innehåll i arbetet med att realisera ”strävansmålen” i matematik2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskningsprojektet Matematikundervisningens innehåll byggdes upp som ett kollaborativt projekt där forskare och lärare arbetade med att analysera innehållet i strävansmålen (mål att sträva mot) i kursplanen för matematik. Ett syfte var att forskare och lärare i samverkan skulle utveckla kunskaper om de förmågor som eleverna förväntas utveckla i matematik.

    Det kollaborativa arbetet mellan lärarna och forskarna startade höstterminen 2004 och pågick under två läsår. Projektet genomfördes under det första året tillsammans med åtta lärare från fyra Farstaskolor i år 1-6. Det andra projektåret deltog sex lärare från tre Farstaskolor – år 7-9.

    Under det första projektåret handlade det matematiska innehållet om mätning av volym och under det andra ekvationer. Centralt för projektet var frågan om vad det är man kan när man är kunnig (innehållsanalys) och i vilket sammanhang detta kunnande efterfrågas. För att organisera en undervisning där strävansmålen kan realiseras arbetade lärarna och forskarna tillsammans med att genomföra innehållsanalyser och konstruera sådana uppgifter som gör det möjligt för eleverna att utforska kunskapsinnehållet.

  • 11.
    Eriksson, Inger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Didactic Science and Early Childhood Education.
    Lindberg, VivecaStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Didactic Science and Early Childhood Education.Österlind, EvaStockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Education in Arts and Professions.
    Uppdrag undervisning: kunskap och lärande2010Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Eriksson, Inger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ståhle, Ylva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Kemikemi eller samhällskemi? Skilda betoningar i finlandssvenska och svenska kemiklassrum2011In: Kemiundervisning, text och textbruk i finlandssvenska och svenska skolor: en komparativ tvärvetenskaplig studie / [ed] Inger Eriksson, Stockholm: Stockholms universitets förlag, 2011, p. 76-113Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 13. Hirsh, Åsa
    et al.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Formativ bedömning på 2000-talet – en översikt av svensk och internationell forskning2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This systematic review maps and reports on 21st century Swedish and international research into the field of formative assessment in compulsory school. Our analysis shows that theoretical studies are increasingly positioning formative assessment as a context-bound social practice, rather than a set of general methods. Meanwhile a few large meta-studies, featuring remarkable effect sizes of increased learning on behalf of students, have contributed to policy decisions advocating large-scale implementation of formative assessment practices in many countries around the world. Researchers seem to agree that classroom implementation of formative assessment practices needs to be supported by processes in which professional learning is given space, but in reality such processes are often lacking. It has been seen that the lack of peer learning among teachers and school leaders often means that pseudo-formative practices evolve, where the understanding of formative assessment tends to be instrumental and linked to ritual work with a general method package. We have also seen that ICT-related tools for formative assessment are gaining ground. When formative assessment is regarded as time consuming from the teacher point of view, ICT tools are seen as one way to streamline instructional processes. It is evident in some of these studies that computers/mobile devices tend to be understood as independent actors, who in themselves are regarded as formative, i. e. as being the ones analysing students’ "learning" (answers to questions) and providing feedback. As a result, we predict that important issues for future research will concern, for instance, which type of feedback that can be provided by computers, and with what quality it can be provided. The consequence of digital tests and digital feedback for teachers’ professionalism is of course another important issue, since formative assessment serves to develop not only the students but also the teachers’ understanding of how learning processes can be customized to meet students’ needs. A third interesting question, linked to the former, concerns who develops the software used for this purpose. Generally, it can be concluded that empirical studies conducted at compulsory school level are few, and that we often rely on studies conducted in higher education when commenting on beneficial effects of formative assessment on student learning. Meta studies dealing with general effects of formative assessment are problematized, in part because the umbrella term formative assessment involves so many and disparate phenomena that it is problematic to speak of one overall effect. Swedish research into formative assessment is rather scarce, especially considering how large impact formative assessment as a set of methods/approaches seems to have in Swedish schools. Nevertheless, the results from the various Swedish studies point to a certain coherence. Studies of documentation, mainly through individual development plans, dominate the research field, along with a few classroom studies of teachers’ formative assessment work. There are also studies that focus on national - and to some extent local/municipal - governance of the school, and the consequences of various types of control for teachers’ assessment work. The need for different types of studies that include the perspectives of multiple levels of actors, is evident: a collaboration between research based on qualitative and quantitative data are needed. Intervention studies that measure the impact of different aspects of formative assessment need to be complemented by studies of how teachers, principals and local/municipal policy levels analyse and use assessment information to shape the instructional processes that will ultimately lead to increased learning/higher goal attainment among students. In addition, surveys and studies of Swedish teacher training would be desirable, given that international research shows that too few educators within teacher education programs have the in-depth knowledge required for adequately making teacher students assessment literate. Our review also shows that a very small percentage of studies take the students' perspective, wherefore we know very little about how they perceive and are affected by various methods which are classified as formative assessment.

  • 14. Kaiser, Franz
    et al.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Vocational teachers in the Swedish and Finnish vocational education systems2019In: Pedagogical concerns and market demands in VET: Proceedings of the 3rd Crossing Boundaries in VET conference, Vocational Education and Training Network (VETNET) / [ed] Fernando Marhuenda, María José Chisvert-Tarazona, Valencia: Publicacions de la Universitat de València, 2019, p. 301-307Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vocational education in Finland and Sweden has many similarities, including the cultural values of Nordic welfare state action, school based system and VET teachers with a large experiences in working life. In order to examine the similarities and differences at the level of the actors, vocational school teachers from both countries will be analysed with a quantitative survey, based on previous research and expert surveys in the countries. In both countries efforts are currently being made to promote work based learning or apprenticeship models in vocational education and training, which also places changing demands on teachers as well as globalisation, digitalisation and inclusion.

  • 15.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Bedömning av lärares yrkeskunnande2013In: Mentorskap i skola och förskola / [ed] Ylva Ståhle & Agneta Bronäs, Stockholm: Norstedts Förlag, 2013, 1, p. 148-174Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education, Department of Social and Cultural Studies in Education .
    Bedömning i förändring2005In: Pedagogisk bedömning: att dokumentera, bedöma och utveckla kunskap / [ed] Lars Lindström, Viveca Lindberg, Stockholm: HLS Förlag, 2005, 1. uppl., p. 39-56Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Betyg och bedömning i svensk didaktisk forskning 1990—20092011In: Pedagogisk bedömning: Att dokumentera, bedöma och utveckla kunskap / [ed] Lars Lindström, Viveca Lindberg & Astrid Pettersson, Stockholm: Stockholms universitets förlag, 2011, 2 revid., p. 235-267Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Didactics in VET - crisis, demands, concepts and open issues: a Swedish perspective2013In: ECER 2013: Creativity and innovation in educational research, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Didactic Science and Early Childhood Education.
    Elevuppgifter inom ett specialutformat program: En fallstudie om förväntningar på elevers kunnande2008In: Kunskapande, kommunikation och bedömning i gestaltande utbildning / [ed] Kajsa Borg & Viveca Lindberg, Stockholm: Stockholms universitets förlag , 2008, p. 93-105Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Formative assessment: Nordic studies in relation to an international review2015In: Abstract book, 2015, p. 190-190Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The issue for this paper is to compare features of the Nordic studies with those found in the main international review. A general strategyfor the review was a systematic search, which was done using national and international databases with two major keywords: formativeassessment and assessment for learning, and corresponding Nordic keywords. From the approximately 2000 hits that these searchesresulted in, a first limitation was to exclude articles not explicitly relating to compulsory school. The largest share of the international articleswas related to either upper secondary school or higher education. Approximately 360 articles concerned compulsory school. Includedstudies were analysed and thematised in relation to the focus of the studies, but also in relation to whether they were based on qualitativeor quantitative data. General findings are that the concepts formative assessment/assessment for learning are used with many meanings.Based on e.g. Shepard (2000) we can see that differences in understanding of these concepts in some – but not all – cases are related todifferent theoretical perspectives. Narrow definitions tend to be instrumental whereas broad definitions display the different levels related toteachers’ classroom assessment. Studies based on quantitative data are coherent in terms of methodological choices and assumptions.Studies based on qualitative data are less coherent in perspectives and methods, but come closer to teachers’ assessment practices.Instead of supporting each other, these two types of studies seem to address quite different issues. When it comes to Nordic studies,formative assessment is still a field within educational research that has received comparatively little interest. Classroom studies are so farfew but dominate the Nordic field.

  • 21.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Hesitation in vocational learning situations – opportunities for learning2019In: NORDYRK 2019: Abstracts, 2019, p. 69-70Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse empirical situations from a previous project on vocational learning in Swedish upper secondary vocational education, in order to identify ‘critical aspects’ of vocational knowing. The vocational areas for the programs were textile respective wood work. 

    The research design was ethnographically inspired: in each school, initial data were a series of collective remembering sessions with all teachers in each of the two participating schools and programs, followed by a sequence of video-recorded teaching/learning in schools, 

    focusing on a few students in each program while they were working with their assignments. Complementary to the video-recordings, teachers were audio-recorded for the purpose of documentation of their conversations with these students during their work. On several occasions, students showed hesitation in their work, but also the pattern observed for these students was similar. All examples analysed for this paper concern students’ hesitation while working with different assignments in school workshops or classrooms. 

    The theoretical framework for the project is activity theory. The assignments, the communication between the students and their teacher, the tools they use and the material they were working with were analysed, focusing the ‘critical aspects’ – aspects that seems difficult for students to discern and therefor a didactic challenge since a common aspect of the result they seem crucial with regards to vocational knowing. 

  • 22.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Kollektionen inom gymnasieskolan - vilka kvalitetsaspekter bedöms och hur värderas de vid betygssättning?2019In: Make & Learn: Book of abstracts, Göteborg: Göteborgs universitet, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här bidraget bygger på data från forskningsprojektet Kommunikation och lärande i slöjdpraktiker (2004-2008) som inte tidigare publicerats. Under åren 2005-2007 följde jag undervisningen i två gymnasieprogram, Hantverksprogrammet med inriktning skrädderi och ett Specialutformat program med inriktning textil design. Inom båda programmet var den avslutande uppgiften densamma: Eleverna förväntas designa och sy upp en kollektion bestående av tre plagg som de sedan presenterade på tre olika sätt. I uppgiften ingick att de skulle beräkna materialåtgång och kostnader. Det här bidraget baseras på materialbaserade intervjuer, där en yrkeslärare bedömde några elevers arbeten. För var och en av de kollektioner läraren valt ut för intervjun visade hon plaggen och värderade olika kvalitetsaspekter genom att kommentera dem. Som intervjuare hade jag möjlighet att ställa frågor under hennes bedömning. Intervjuerna video- och ljudbandades, så det läraren talar om kompletteras med visuella data. Syftet med detta bidrag är att analysera vilka kvalitetskrav som ligger till grund för godkänt resultat liksom för det högsta betyget. Den fråga som ligger till grund för bidraget är vilka kvalitetsaspekter som blir avgörande vid sådana gränsdragningssituationer?

  • 23.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Literacy practices in Swedish VET: preparing for vocational literacy2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is firstly to describe the literate practices within vocational education in Swedish upper secondary school, and secondly to discuss vocational literacy in terms of cultural historical activity theory (Leontiev 1986). The paper is based on a reanalysis of two previous studies (Lindberg 2003), where the assignments the students worked with were focused. Assignments in vocational subjects as well as so called infused tasks in academic subjects are included. In this paper, the issue is to illuminate the literacy required of the students in their working with assignments within these two kinds of subjects. Special attention is paid to the literate aspects of the assignments – what texts the students were given to read or write for the work with the tasks and how the texts were used in classrooms, workshops or kitchens. In both studies, classroom observations related to instructions for the assignments, and students’ work with the assignments, were combined with sequential interviews with the teachers. In a first step, New Literacy Studies (Barton &Hamilton 2005; Hull 1997; Street 2003) inspired the analysis. In a second step, the literacy practices identified where related to Cultural historical activity theory has been used for interpreting the results.

    In a broad sense, a variety of texts were used in the two studies. Most texts in the vocational subjects were vocational texts – texts produced for working life. These texts were used differently early in the programme and at the end of the programme. Early in the programme they were part of the content – the students were instructed how to use them. Later on they became used in similar ways as within the vocation – i.e. as tools. School texts (e.g. text books) were in minority. When they were used, it was for the purpose of introducing new subjects or new content within a subject. Many of the texts used for the work with infused tasks in academic subjects were also used for work within the vocation. These texts were, however, not the same as those used in vocational subjects. Instead they were either imposed by others (e.g. national or local authorities) or informative texts about a company or a vocational area. In all, students within vocational education in Sweden read a lot during their education. The tasks they are given to work with in vocational subjects require ‘reading for learning’ as well as ‘reading for doing’ (Sticht et al 1977) – often these two ways of reading a text are used for the same texts but at various stages in the programme. In academic subjects, the texts were read for informing the students’ writing. is mostly different from practices described within school. Occasionally, writing also occurred. Here school texts dominated and vocational texts were few. The tasks indicate that changes in working life have had consequences for the content of work. This, in turn is reflected in the tasks within vocational education, within vocational subjects as well as within academic subjects. Further, the infused tasks within this study are proposed as possible boundary objects between the two cultures. As a whole, the result problematises the mainstream division in practical versus theoretical knowledge and vocational key competencies versus general key competencies on the other hand within VET-research.

  • 24.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education, Department of Social and Cultural Studies in Education .
    Långtgående slutsatser trots få lärare och elever i studierna2007In: Sporre eller otyg: om bedömning och betyg / [ed] Agneta Petterson, Stockholm: Lärarförbundets förlag , 2007, p. 131-154Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Same syllabus in two contexts: Vocational/liberal education?2007In: Knowledge, qualities and sloyd / [ed] Marléne Johansson, Mia Porko-Hudd, Vaasa: NordFo , 2007, Vol. 10, p. 75-95Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The context for this paper the research project "Communication and learning in sloyd practices", funded by the Swedish Research Council. Within the project, we explore sloyd practices from comprehensive school to higher education. In upper secondary education, which is the focus of this paper, the sloyd-related content can be found in various programmes. This paper is related to one of the subprojects, "Sloyd in a changing world", with a general issue concerning what kind of sloyd- and craft-related competence is in demand in society today. Here, the focus is on variations and similarities in content in two vocational programmes related to craft and design within Swedish upper secondary education and the implications of these with regards to competence. The data produced are based on group interviews, designed as three sequential sessions for collective remembering (Middleton & Edwards, 1990). Activity theoretical aspects inform the analysis of data. The schools represent different programmes but they all include textile craft in the main vocational subject. The identified similarities and differences in what the teachers want their students to learn is discussed in relation to historically developed traditions and how these shape the actions that frame the content, in order to achieve the sloyd- and craft-related competencies important for professional or personal development.

  • 26.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Didactic Science and Early Childhood Education.
    Skolans kunskapsinnehåll i ljuset av elevers uppgifter: – exemplet matematik2010In: Uppdrag undervisning: kunskap och lärande / [ed] Inger Eriksson, Viveca Lindberg, Eva Österlind, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2010, p. 109-124Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education, Department of Social and Cultural Studies in Education .
    Skriftspråklighet inom yrkesutbildning och arbetsliv: en kunskapsöversikt2007Report (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Traditional assignments in Swedish contemporary vocational carpentry education: but changed vocational knowing2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is related to a study on Swedish upper secondary vocational education in carpentry, part of a broader study financed by the Swedish Research Council. The issue is related to vocational knowing, for this particular paper the questions that will be illuminated are what emerges as vocational knowing for carpenters during sequential interviews with teachers and in video-recorded observations in workshops? The data used for this part of the study are firstly sequential group interviews, inspired by previous work on collective remembering (Konkola 2002; Middleton & Brown 2005; Middleton & Edwards 1990); secondly video-recorded sequences of teaching/learning in a school workshop for carpenters, and thirdly texts and documents related to vocational education. While the initial group interviews were narrative in their character and focusing changes in the local education over time related to teachers, equipment and external demands, the final interview was formed as a presentation of the workshop, tools, material and machines but also introducing the students´educational path through the workshop focusing on questions like: What is the first assignment given to students? What machines and tools do they use? What is the final assignment of the program?

    For the analysis of the interviews cultural historical activity theory has been used as follows: the content of the interviews was organised in relation to a time-arrow, starting with the employment date of the teacher who had been employed for the longest period at the school and ending at the date of the interview. Then teachers’ narratives related to assignments, spaces, tools, materials and rules were used in relation to the time-arrow, which made changes in these visible. In a second step of analysis the findings from the first step in relation to digital photos and video-recorded observations from the workshop were related to vocational knowing for carpentry.

    Preliminary results show that although assignments may remain the same for a long period of time – for some there is evidence that can be traces to the 1920s – the content of vocational knowing has changed due to new tools, technology and material but also in relation to societal demands, related to for instance security and environmental issues.

  • 29.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Traditional assignments in Swedish vocational carpentry education of today but changed vocational knowing2019In: Facets and aspects of research on vocationale education and training at Stockholm University: emerging Issues in research on vocational education & training Vol. 4 / [ed] Lázaro Moreno Herrera, Marianne Teräs, Petros Gougoulakis, Stockholm: Premiss förlag, 2019, p. 24-49Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Te aim of this chapter is to investigate what emerges as vocational knowing based on the main assignments students in a Swedish upper secondary vocational Craf programme are expected to produce. Assignments were chosen as the main focus since they determine what materials and tools are to be used and how they are to be used. In this way they are understood as the core of a learning practice. Methods: three audio-recorded group-interviews and videorecorded sequences of teaching/learning in the school workshop as well as digital photos for the data for the study. Result: Te roots of the assignments were traced to 1920s, while interviews and video-recordings revealed that several changes in tools, materials and safety regulations had occurred over the decades. A conclusion is that although the assignments could be considered old, they still crystallize vocational knowing that is central for carpenters. However, the content of vocational knowing of the 21st century has changed as tools and materials no longer are the same.

  • 30.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Vocational literacy as part of carpentry knowing2019In: NOFA7 Abstracts, Stockholm University, 2019, p. 139-139Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    When it comes to upper secondary vocational education there still is a societal understanding of vocational knowing as related to manual work that has noting to do with literacy work. However, New Literacy Studies, as introduced by e.g. Street (1982) Barton (2001) and others, has shown that there are different kinds of literacies - what people read and write, how they do it, and for what purposes - that are socially constituted. Within this research tradition, several literacy practices related to work have been explored and analysed. Also various school subjects have been subject for research. However, less attention has been paid to the literacy practices in vocational education. Although there are some studies this is still a field of research that needs further attention. The issue of this paper is firstly to describe the different literacy options present in a school workshop within the Swedish Upper secondary Craft programme specialising on carpentry, and secondly to exemplify the kinds of discussions about vocational text that are part of didactic situations in students' problem solving. Fort this paper, a visit guided by the vocational teachers through the carpentry workshop reveals the kind of literacy that the students encounter on daily basis. The teacher-student-conversations are examples from classroom study of the carpentry programme. Together these materials illuminate what kind of vocational literacy a future carpenter must be able to manage as part of the vocational knowing.

  • 31.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Yrkesutbildning i omvandling: en studie av lärandepraktiker och kunskapstransformationer2003Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the thesis was to explore what students within vocational education are expected to learn and the practices that constitute vocational education in Swedish upper secondary school. The empirical basis for the thesis is two studies, both of which have been reported separately. In the first study, twelve vocational teachers were interviewed sequentially. Classroom observations were made of the tasks their students worked with and these supplemented the interviews. The second study consists of case studies of five teachers in academic subjects within vocational education. Here sequential interviews of the teachers and classroom observations of the tasks their students worked with were supplemented with group interviews of their students and, in two cases, of collaborating vocational teachers.

    A social perspective on knowing and learning was used for analysing data. The results from the interviews with the vocational teachers show that what they wanted their students to learn in vocational education (their object) is related to vocational knowing but is not the same thing. Knowing in school can be regarded as preparation for work within the respective vocational area, as preparation for further learning and as preparation for citizenship. The first category relates to vocational knowing, whereas the latter two relate to a broader commission of education in late modernity – the risk and uncertainty of the future work situation that the students are likely to encounter. The tasks were analysed regarding their content, form, and the tools used for completing the tasks. Three categories of tasks were construed: school tasks, simulated tasks and vocational tasks. School tasks are characterised by that they employ the practice of school, whereas the vocational tasks employ the practice of the respective vocation. Simulated tasks are specific in that they allow a testing and correction of the result before the job is done. Through school tasks the students were introduced into a new content. Vocational tasks were used in bridging school and work. Besides the obvious tools of the respective vocation, texts were also used as tools in the work with the tasks. Most texts were vocational texts, i.e. texts that were used in similar ways in school as within the vocation.

    The second study, case studies of five teachers in academic subjects within vocational education, focused the infused tasks their students worked with. These results showed that the teachers used three different steering documents for planning their work: the national curriculum for upper secondary school, the objectives of the respective programme, and the syllabuses for their subject. By using all three documents, they were able to construct infused tasks. These tasks made it possible for the students to see other aspects of their respective vocational area than within the vocational subjects, e.g. the environmental work, historical aspects etc. The texts the academic teachers used were not the same as those used by vocational teachers. These texts were texts ‘imposed by others’ (e.g. local authorities) but also used for work within the vocation.

    The ‘theorisation’ of vocational education, that has been claimed to be a consequence of the academic subjects, can be seen rather as a change within the vocations from an oral to a literate culture. In completing many of the tasks observed, theoretical knowledge from different domains, as well as skills were needed. Vocational education as a purely ‘practical’ education is therefore a myth. A variety of texts were used within vocational education for the work, mostly as tools. The literate practices of vocational education are similar to the literate practices of the vocations rather than to those of school. New tools seem to change working life and vocational education as well. This implies that a different kind of vocational knowing is needed. When employers control or simulate production processes instead of doing the manual work, vocational knowing becomes something else. This new kind of work is dependent on a different kind of experience. Thus the theorisation of the vocational education is a theorisation – or rather an abstraction – on many levels. Some of them have been developed within the vocations, others are imposed from the outside.

    Three social practices, vocational education, working life and academic education, formally have a joint responsibility for the vocational education. Depending on if and to what extent they collaborate, the learning practices offered to the students will differ. With collaboration, as in these two studies, the students encounter learning practices where the content from each of the three contexts can be experienced as reembedded into new contexts.

  • 32.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Asghari, Hamid
    Vocational teachers’ experiences of assessing vocational knowledge2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment is described as a process that includes the collection, interpretation and presentation of data which leads to a defined decision (Nyström, 2004). In recent years, the models of formative and summative assessment have been frequently discussed and debated by school researchers such as Gipps (2001), Jönsson (2009), Korp (2011), Lundahl (2006, 2011), Moss, Girard and Haniford (2006), Pettersson (2011) and Wiliam (2006). Formative assessment is a smoothly flowing process of assessment and summative assessment is assessment of the student’s acquired knowledge at a certain time or an exam (see e.g. Black&Wiliam, 2003; Gipps, 2001; Moss et al., 2006; Wiliam, 2006). The discussion of assessment is often about how a teacher, based on curricular goals and knowledge requirements, can implement a similar and equivalent assessment of student knowledge (cf. ibid.). Equivalent assessment is a central concept in earlier research on grading and assessment (see e.g. Black&Wiliam, 2003; Gipps, 2001; Lundahl, 2006, 2011). Teachers’ assessment should not rest on their personal ideas of what knowledge they see as important for the education. Assessment must be based on established criteria (see e.g. Black&Wiliam, 1998) if students are to be assessed equally and fairly. Assessment takes place in an interaction between teachers, students, their environments, language, and the objects which are used in the process, such as or computers, and books (Moss et al., 2006). By assessing, teachers try to create opportunities for students to show what they can (Nyström, 2004). Research on vocational education shows that the relationship between the vocational teacher and the students is very important in the formative assessment model (Asghari, 2014). Equally important is the vocational teacher’s feedback to the students (Öhman, 2015). In the summative assessment model, students’ vocational theoretical knowledge is often assessed (Lindberg, 2003). Studies of vocational teachers’ assessment practice can contribute to previously unknown views of teachers’ work (Lindberg, 2011). In the forthcoming article, which this presentation is a part of, two vocational teachers’ assessment practice when they talk about their experiences of teaching will be shown and discussed. Assessment can be discussed from many different aspects. It can serve as a way to motivate students in their learning, it can make students’ reasoning about the topic visible for teachers, it can create opportunities for feedback to students, and it can construct different identity formations in students (Moss et al., 2006). And identity formation is what the article, based on the studies of vocational teachers’ assessment practice, will focus on. The assumption is that vocational teachers’ assessment practice leads eventually to the students’ grades and those students can through their grades construct different identities in different contexts (cf. ibid.). It means that a non-­‐passing grade can bring consequences in students’ lives, like losing their self-­‐confidence, dropping out of school and education, and even in some cases, become gang members and get into crime. It appears from vocational teachers told experiences that students, through a pass grade, may identify themselves as students, who may have enough knowledge, are good enough as citizens and are proud to be skilled workers. It also appears that vocational teachers in such situations identify themselves as a caring teacher. Vocational teachers told experiences show different considerations that qualify for a pass-­‐grade and may be categorized as “pass grade in advance”, “pass grade as praise”, “pass grade as a last chance” and “pass grade for being well behaved and socially competent”. These categories of assessment do not proceed from curricular goals and knowledge requirements, but they may be related to vocational teachers’ care for their students.

  • 33.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Didactic Science and Early Childhood Education.
    Berglund, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Didactic Science and Early Childhood Education.
    Bedömning i gymnasieskolans yrkesförberedande program2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Didactic Science and Early Childhood Education.
    Berglund, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Didactic Science and Early Childhood Education.
    En framtidsväg eller en återvändsgränd?: En kritisk kommentar till Gymnasieutredningen2009In: Krut : kritisk utbildningstidskrift, ISSN 0347-5409, no 1/2, p. 79-87Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 35.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Berthén, Diana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Eriksson, Inger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Emerging educational action? Diploma project in Maritime higher education2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is framed within a 3-year R&D-project at the Åland University of Applied Sciences (ÅUAS), aiming at changing the current practice related to the final diploma project (a thesis of 15 credit points) for the bachelor degree. A survey preceding the project showed that a majority of students within the Maritime programme never completed their studies. This has become a problem on three levels: firstly, the individuals experience failure in their studies and thus they don’t get the job they where aiming at by attending the education. Secondly, on the organisational level the student drop-out is defined as a quality problem. Thirdly, the shipping industry cannot, due to international security regulations, employ these students as anything but seamen. Well aware of the problem, ÅUAS had already made efforts to improve their education. Rhetorically, the thesis (although a problem) was considered an important part of the education. Based on an activity theoretical perspective the diploma project was presented as an educational action central to the Maritime programme (Engeström, 1987; Leont’ev, 1978). Being described as a central action the problems can be seen as somewhat contradictory (Engeström, 1987).

    The R&D-project, here presented, was initiated by ÅUAS. A short-term aim was to help this group of students to complete their thesis and thereby finishing their studies whit a bachelor degree as master mariners. The long-term aim was to identify needs and initiate changes in the educational practice.

    The project started with an investigation aiming at mapping the problem from the perspective of central actors. Teachers and management ascribed the problem as related to academization of the education, resulting in a diploma project “of no use” for students’ future career as master mariners on the one hand, and in students’ “lack of motivation and laziness” on the other (Berthén, Eriksson & Lindberg, 2006; Haggis, 2003; Hagström, 2005; Mulligan & Kirkpartick, 2000).

    Interviews with students, however, gave a different picture, indicating that the diploma project was peripheral to the programme. Students were scheduled for the diploma project during three semesters in total, but mostly for random free periods and a few occasional days. Further, these periods and days were cancelled when time was needed for something else. Also, it was common that students had no idea of who their supervisor was and no supervision was scheduled. According to the students, asking for help meant increasing the burden of the teachers.

    Based on these findings, intervention studies on three levels were designed: hands-on teachers’ supervision work (intervention in action), in-service course on diploma projects and supervision as part of polytechnics/professional higher education (intervention for action), and organising for diploma project (organisational level, intervention for action).

    The issue of this paper is to discuss the indications of change that we have identified at the end of the project. The preliminary result shows that teachers’ conceptions of the diploma project have changed. This is shown in their talk and actions when meeting the students. Both those enrolled in the project and those that still are participating in the education. The diploma project is now seen as a possibility instead of as a problem. In addition, the teachers’ have started to address the management with requests of time – scheduled supervision with students, time for teachers to develop their supervision collaboratively. Based on these indicators, we argue that the project has contributed to the diploma project have (at least partly) becoming a central educational action. Instead of leaving the students to their fate when it comes to accomplishing a thesis – on their spare-time and beside the regular programme – it seems to becoming a part of the programme and supervision something more than certifying whether the students have managed on their own or not.

  • 36.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    et al.
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education, Department of Social and Cultural Studies in Education .
    Berthén, Diana
    Karlstad universitet.
    Eriksson, Inger
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education, Department of Social and Cultural Studies in Education .
    Yrkeshögskolelärare i lära: Att guida högskolestuderande till studierelevanta läs- och skrivstrategier2006Report (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Binde, Andrew
    Hirsh, Åsa
    Pre- and post tests as a tool in Lesson & Learning Studies: searching for effects of students’ learning or for understanding what students needs to learn?2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This symposium addresses the preliminary results from a collaborative and comparative research project in which Lesson and Learning Studies have been used as a model to explore possibilities and demands for teacher driven school development in Sweden and Tanzania.

    International comparisons of educational performances (PISA, TIMSS, and SACMEQ etc) have generated an almost universal competition to improve national educational systems. Education reforms have replaced each other without evaluation and research. Further, it is commonly agreed that education lacks the ability to self-renew as well as an orientation towards innovation (Foray, 2007). The relationship between how teachers design and carry out their teaching activities and the anticipated learning outcomes has mostly not been focus for research and reflection (Nuthall, 2004).

    It is against these backgrounds that the interest in the Japanese Lesson Study tradition from the 19th century must be examined. This tradition seems to have resulted in a culture of inquiry and innovation in teaching (Lewis, 2009). At the heart of a Lesson Study is the collaborative development of a lesson that is revised in an iterative process (Elliott, 2012). According to Hiebert, Gallimore and Stigler (2002), it offers a way of transforming teachers’ craft knowledge into professional knowledge. Learning Study originates from the Lesson Study tradition but with a stronger focus on what aspects students need to discern and how this is made available through teaching (Marton, 2005).

    The purpose for the project has been to examine and develop the Lesson/Learning Study as a model for improving the quality of teaching and learning in schools through teacher driven research and to explore Lesson/Learning Study as model for school development and teacher continuous professional development. The project implemented a series of Lesson/Learning Studies cases in each country respectively (English, Mathematics, Science, and Crafts (cooking) as a strategy for a research based, bottom up school development.

  • 38.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Didactic Science and Early Childhood Education.
    Borg, KajsaUmeå universitet.
    Kunskapande, kommunikation och bedömning i gestaltande utbildning2008Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Christidis, Nikolaos
    Christidis, Maria
    Louca Jounger, Sofia
    Higher education for professional and/or academic literacy?2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As in other professional programmes within academia, part of the learning outcomes relates to content like anatomy and physiology, others relate to tools, and materials used for dental work and their properties – in everyday terminology the ‘theoretical’ aspects of dental work. Other learning outcomes relate to what a dentist does – the ‘practical’ (clinical) aspects of dental knowledge. Aspects of these are both understanding patient needs, hands-on-skills, being able to construct an anamnesis and explain oral conditions, treatment need and prognosis (Kurz, Draper & Silverman, 2016). Furthermore, as becoming a dentist requires attending an educational programme, reading and writing, i.e. literacy competences, are seen as self-evident aspects of contemporary education. While it seems obvious that it takes time to become a skilled dentist and a degree is the necessary beginning in this direction, it seems less obvious that it also takes time to become a skilled writer in academia. 

    But future dentists not only examine or repair their clients’ teeth. Part of a dentist’s everyday work is also to document examinations and treatment, prescribe medicines, but also to communicate with other professionals about clients that may need complementary or specialist treatment. Transition from higher education to work requires that students can cope also with the literacy practices of the profession. Studies with this focus show that although a person may be a successful student, (s)he isn’t necessarily well acquainted with the kinds of literacy demands that (s)he will encounter when entering the world of work (Ask, 2017; Dias et al., 1999). 

    Since the 1980s there has been a growing interest in literacy practices, that is, what people read and write in specific activities, how people are expected to read and write (what qualifies as an acceptable text) and for what purposes representatives for the activity read and write. Our focus is on literacy practices in professional higher education, since these prepare for professional as well as for academic writing. On the one hand, students in professional higher education write as part of their studies, but part of professional higher education there also is a practicum or clinical part (what this part is called varies between programmes). During this part students also write, but the purpose for writing is not necessarily the same.

    The issue for this paper is firstly, to analyse one of the Swedish dental programmes in relation to its design in relation to possible content of relevance for academic and professional literacy, and secondly to explore the literacy practices of the first two modules of a course, specifically from the perspective of students: what do they read and write, how do they read the texts related to this module, how do they write, and what purposes do they express for their reading and writing?

    In Sweden previous research concerns professional education for engineers (Hållsten, 2008; Berthén, Eriksson & Lindberg, 2006), teachers (Ask, 2007; Blåsjö 2007) and policemen (Ask, 2014). Furthermore, the academic literacy has been studied by Blåsjö (2004) and (Hagström 2005). Our study aligns with the theoretical framings for such studies – text-cultures (Bazerman, 1995), the New Literacy Tradition (NLS) (Street, 2003) with specific focus on literacy in higher education (Jones, Turner & Street, 1999; Lea & Street, 1998, 2006) as well as literacy at work (Barton, Hamilton & Ivanič, 2000). Activity theory has also been used by e.g. Dias and Freedman (1999) in relation to professional higher education and corresponding work (see also Engeström, 1998).

    Methods/methodology

    In line with studies framed by NLS, ethnographic mapping of literacy events - what students read or wrote, and text-related communication (Barton 2007; Karlsson 2006; Street 2003) informed the data produced. They comprise of the following:

    • Formal documents: the curriculum for the study programme in dentistry as well as the curriculum for the modules Orofacial pan and jaw function 1 and 2 
    • Course literature (recommended however not compulsory): Jeffrey P Okeson (Ed.) (2013). Management of temporomandibular disorders and occlusion. 7th Ed.  St. Louis: Mosby. The book is on 488 pages (of which approx. 100 pages consist of references). Of the 68 students, 16 bought the book. 
    • Teaching material: hand-outs (copies of lecturers’ power-points) to students. Power-points for all lectures are based on core content from the book. 
    • Students' notes (N=10), all anonymised. In total, 68 students attended the modules. The group pf students was informed about the study and or interest in having copies of their notes but that participation was voluntary.
    • Audio-recordings of the lectures (N=8) – permission given by the two teachers – with the microphone placed close to the teacher. The audio-recordings were complemented by field-notes from one or two researchers attending each lecture
    • Multiple-choice tests and students’ results (although not used for this paper).
    • Complementary to the multiple-choice test there were three mandatory clinical skills demonstrations. For the clinical skills demonstration, no documentation was demanded of the students. The teacher filled in a template for each student, based on observation of students’ performances.
    • Video-recorded, material based thematic interviews with students. During one of the final lectures, students were asked if they could consider being interviewed based on their notes from the lectures. All three student that registered were interviewed. The video recording focused only on students’ notes and their hands, the main point with this procedure was to capture if and when a student pointed at some specific part of their notes.

    Data was processed and analysed in the following steps: The formal documents were read in order to identify parts of the programme and curricula were academic and/or professional literacy was likely to occur. For this part, the dental researchers in the group necessary. Secondly, the teaching material provided by the two teachers (hand-outs of their Power-point presentations) were compared to students’ notes in order to identify what kinds of notes students made. Thirdly, the interviews with students about their were analysed (this part is still in progress).

    Expected outcomes/preliminary results/implications 

    The analysis of the programme showed that there, in principle, are several options for addressing both academic and professional literacy. During the first semester the curriculum indicates that students are expected to read academic articles. Attention should be paid both to the content and the structures of these articles. During the following semesters, professional literacy is focused in terms of communication with clients, colleagues and teams of various professions, but also written documentation for various professional purposes. From the sixth semester, academic writing is introduced. In parallel, more complex professional communication and documentation becomes part of the curriculum.

    The analysis of students’ notes was performed by two researchers, one specialized in dentistry and the other in pedagogy, for reasons of double-control. Both researchers had participated in data collection and observation of lectures. This analysis was developed and tried out based on randomly selected notes from one student before the main analysis of all student texts. The initial analytical template of the student texts was then compared to the main analysis, and the congruency was satisfactory. We found that some students took notes in hand-writing, while others took digital notes. In relation to what was noted, we found three types of notes: 1) copied text from teachers’ power-points, 2) re-formulated text in teachers’ power-points, and 3) written complementing text. The amount of each type pf notes was then estimated and patterns of the three types of notes (copied, re-formulated, or complementary) for each student were mapped and patterns were then constructed into profiles for students’ note-taking. The result of this analysis was used for developing some of the questions for the thematic interviews with students. Preliminary findings of the interviews show that students are aware of professional as well as of academic writing throughout the programme.

  • 40.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Christidis, Nikolaos
    Christidis, Maria
    Louca Jounger, Sofia
    Literacy as Part of Professional Knowing in Dental Education2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The issue of this paper to scrutinise Swedish dental students’ writing in academic setting: what these students are expected to read and write, how they are expected to do this, and for what purposes they read and write.

    Dental education is one of several professional programmes in higher education. The national learning outcomes stated in the Higher Education Ordinance (SFS 1993:100- SFS 2017:284) point out for example the importance of knowledge of the scientific basis as well as of proven experience for dental work, the capability of making diagnoses aw well as treating various dental diseases and malformations, but also leadership and collaboration. Such learning outcomes obviously are abstract, as they coven a whole program of 300 ECTS, and are to be somewhat more concretized in syllabuses for the various courses that together form the programme. However, as in other professional programmes within academia, part of the learning outcomes relate to content like physiology and neurology, others relate to tools, and materials used for dental work and their properties – in everyday terminology the ‘theoretical’ aspects of dental work. Other learning outcomes relate to what a dentist does – the ‘practical’ (clinical) aspects of dental knowledge. Furthermore, as becoming a dentist requires attending an educational programme, reading and writing are seen as self-evident aspects of the education. While it seems obvious that it takes time to become a skilled dentist and a degree is the necessary beginning in this direction, it seems less obvious that it also takes time to become a skilled writer in academia – where the meaning of being a skilled writer varies between disciplines (Bazerman, 1995; Blåsjö, 2004; Hjalmarsson et al. 2017; Lea & Street 1998; Airey 2011). Being a student in any higher education assumes participating in an activity that to a large extent is literacy based. To have the literacy competences and strategies needed for educational activities are crucial resources for students – these are the means for coping with literacy demands in varying but relevant situations, depending on the purpose of reading and or writing (Bazerman 1995; Dias et al. 1999; Berthén et al. 2006; Street, 2003). For students in professional programmes, there is also another aspect – today part of a dentist professional work is literacy-related: documentation of work done, reports, subscriptions, referrals – these are one type of examples of what dentists are expected to write as part of their work. Other types of writing that today are imposed on most professions, be they academic or not, are related to quality control, sustainability and security (Lindberg, 2003). Previous studies show that the transition from upper secondary school to higher education is challenging for students (Ask 2007), since the literacy practices they have experiences of differ from those they encounter in academia. Appropriating relevant academic literacies is relational – i.e. students of course need to struggle but it is also a question of what is made available to them (Edwards 2005). Characteristic for of academic literacies, whether in science (Airey 2011); engineering (Berthén et al. 2006; Hållsten 2008); in history or national economy (Blåsjö 2004), is that students nee to master different genres (a breadth), but also a progression, in terms of complexity, in order to become successful within a programme or a discipline. So the overarching question for this paper is what literacy practices that characterise one of the Swedish dental programmes? 

    Method

    The present study is conducted during the third year of the study programme in dentistry (SPD), during the modules “orofacial pain and jaw function 1 and 2”, at the Department of Dental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden. The SPD has a duration of five years (300 credits) divided into 10 semesters. Each of the 10 semesters is composed by courses and the courses in modules. The third year consist of the fifth and sixth semesters. The modules “orofacial pain and jaw function 1 and 2” are closely connected with each other and are divided into two modules due to the semester break. The data analysed for this paper are modules part of the courses ”clinical odontology 2 and 3. For the overall project, the data produced are of three types: (i) curricular documents, including information given in study guides to the students; (ii) ethnographic data from lectures and clinical work (sound-recordings and field-notes during lectures, textbooks, hand-outs from the lectures, student notes from the given lectures, multiple-choice questions from the digital examination and clinical instructions); as well as (iii) interviews with students and teachers. Literacy events, i.e. what students read or write, and text-related communication (Barton 2007; Karlsson 2006; Street 2003) are mapped throughout all activities (lectures, clinical work, and examinations). During clinical work, only field-notes were taken and only one of the researchers that also were teachers in the programme took the notes since clinical work also involves patients. As a first step of the analysis, we use literacy event for identifying patterns related to text genres (Barton 2007; Street, 2003), and will pay attention to multimodal aspects (Airey 2011; Kress 2003) of text used and produced. The second step is to analyse relations between patterns, i.e. questions like What literacy practices characterize dental education? Which of these patterns are related to dental academic literacy practices, and which are related to professional dental literacy practices? Since data produced so far are from the first phase of the project, this is how far we have come.

    Expected Outcomes

    As some of the data production will continue during spring, we have so far concentrated on the mapping of literacy events (step 1 in the analysis), which mainly is a descriptive result. During lectures, powerpoints were used for structuring the physiological knowledge related to orofacial pain and jaw function. All slides were distributed in advance to the students via the digital learning environment used by KI. Most slides were multimodal in that they combined graphical pictures of neurological and physiological information related to the construction of a jaw and the different functions of the parts, highlighting aspects specifically related to orofacial pain. Students’ notes vary: while some made notes directly in the powerpoint, others took notes separately. During clinical work, students were given forms to fill in with the purpose of two types of documentation: medical and narrative. The analytic result will complement this descriptive result.

  • 41.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Inger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Sextio år av formativ bedömning2019In: Formativ bedömning: Utmaningar för undervisningen / [ed] Viveca Lindberg, Inger Eriksson, Astrid Pettersson, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2019, p. 18-34Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utgångspunkten för kapitlet är tidig utveckling av och forskning om formativ bedömning – den historiska bakgrunden till ett intresse för annan information om elevers prestationer än ett betygsresultat eller ett poängresultat. Centralt i kapitlet är att den information läraren får genom elevers prestationer också behöver användas för att utvärdera och utveckla undervisningen. Kapitlet syftar till att betona den dubbla funktionen hos feedback och utgör samtidigt en kritik mot den utbredda uppfattningen att återkoppling formuleras till eleverna för att de ska veta var de står i förhållande till målen och hur de ska arbeta för att nå målen. Författarna menar att innan feedback till eleven formuleras ska läraren först försäkra sig om att det inte är undervisningen som i första hand behöver utvecklas. 

  • 42.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Didactic Science and Early Childhood Education.
    Eriksson, Inger
    Bergen university College.
    What makes a teaching practice an epistemic one?: Examining a mathematicteaching project2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation is related to the praxis-developmental collaborative research project“Farstaprojektet” conducted 2004-2006. The project was developed as a collaborative projectwith teachers, educational researchers and mathematical researchers. The aim for the projectwas to explore the meaning of the goals to strive for (~subject specific qualities of knowing)stated in the National mathematic syllabus, in order to design and try out experimentalteaching related to these goals, i.e. a capability to solve mathemati-cal problems. The dataused in this presentation was produced during the second project year. The content chosen wasequation, since the teachers experienced that students had difficulties to master equations asa method in problem solving assignments. The collabo-rative work was divided into to parts.Firstly, we analysed mathematical textbooks in or-der to explore which assignments actuallyrequested equation as a method for solving them. The result was that most assignments wereeasier to solve using other methods. Secondly, the collaborative work was directed towardsdesign of experimental teaching. In this work we drew upon Davydov’s ideas of Developmentalteaching. In relation to this we aimed at developing assignments that, in their construction,require these capabilities here a confidant use of equations. This type of assignments wenamed key-assignments or epistemic assignments. In this paper we describe teachers’ use ofone assignment, which, according to our judgement, had the potential of becoming a keyassignment.A conclusion is that assignments cannot be designed as epistemic assignments;instead they become (or will not become) epistemic as a consequence of the teaching practice.

  • 43.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Didactic Science and Early Childhood Education.
    Eriksson, Inger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Didactic Science and Early Childhood Education.
    Berthén, Diana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    In-service training as cognitive apprenticeship2008In: Lifelong Learning in Europe, ISSN 1239-6826, Vol. XIII, no 4, p. 266-272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The issue of this article is to present and discuss a project for in-service training of teachers employed by a school for vocational higher education (VHE). The basis for the project was an emerging need among teachers. Political visions of an increased proportion of people with higher education have contributed to teachers encountering new groups of students who have been accepted for studies but fail in examinations. Teachers at this specific VHE were concerned about how the situation had developed. As their initial understanding was that an increasing amount of the students had dyslexia, they attended in-service training on this. However, the information did not help them in their everyday work. An expert was enrolled, in order to work with the students. Her work, focusing students’ reading and writing actions, became a success. Therefore, the school wanted her to work with increasingly more students. Instead an in-service training project, aiming at the teachers appropriating the competence of the expert, was initiated. The project was designed based on socio-cultural perspectives on learning, drawing on the concepts distributed expertise (Palinscar & Brown, 1984) and cognitive apprenticeship (Rogoff, 1990). The results of the project are discussed on two levels: competence as an individual vs. a collective/organisational matter.

  • 44.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Inger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Pettersson, Astrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Formativ bedömning – utmaningar för undervisningen: en inramning2019In: Formativ bedömning: Utmaningar för undervisningen / [ed] Viveca Lindberg, Inger Eriksson, Astrid Pettersson, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2019, p. 9-16Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Inger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Pettersson, Astrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Formativ bedömning: Utmaningar för undervisningen2019Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under 2000-talet har frågan om formativ bedömning förts fram som ett av de mer kraftfulla pedagogiska/didaktiska redskapen för att främja elevers lärande. Fler och fler forskare, skolpolitiker, utbildningsledare och lärare framställer formativ bedömning som nästintill en mirakelkur.

    Det går nästan att säga att formativ bedömning idag uteslutande ses som en central del för och av elevers lärande. Men det som vanligen glöms bort eller i alla fall inte framhävs lika ofta och tydligt är att formativ bedömning också utgör en viktig förutsättning för lärares utveckling av undervisningen.

    I boken Formativ bedömning – utmaningar för undervisningen tar författarna på sig uppgiften att problematisera och utmana den dominerande relativt snäva uppfattningen om formativ bedömning. En del av kapitlen förhåller sig till formativ bedömning som ett gemensamt didaktiskt fenomen för all undervisning. Andra kapitel bygger på ämnesdidaktiska exempel. Boken syftar till att både kvalificera diskussionen om formativ bedömning och att diskutera vikten av en kvalificerad undervisning, därav titeln Formativ bedömning – utmaningar för undervisningen.

  • 46.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Eriksson, IngerStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.Pettersson, AstridStockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Lärares bedömningsarbete : förutsättningar, villkor, agens2018Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige hör till de länder i världen som bytt betygssystem oftast, vilket inneburit att vi vid ett flertal tillfällen satt rättssäkerheten gällande bedömning ur spel. Forskning visar nämligen att det tar lång tid att utveckla den förtrogenhet med betygsskala, mål, kriterier, kunskapsområden och nationella prov, som behövs för en välgrundad, likvärdig bedömning. Eftersom lärare vid betygsreformerna i praktiken gjorts till nybörjare i bedömningsarbetet, har utomstående aktörer fått utrymme att dominera debatten. Kritiken gällande felaktiga bedömningar och bristande likvärdighet har då oftast ensidigt riktats mot lärares bedömningsarbete, utan hänsyn till det sammanhang och system som arbetet ingår i. Boken Lärares bedömningsarbete vill balansera bedömningsdebatten genom att öka förståelsen för hur arbetet påverkas av avgörande faktorer som ligger utanför klasslärarens inflytande och ansvar. Boken vänder sig till lärare, lärarstudenter och beslutsfattare i syfte att belysa lärares förutsättningar och villkor för agens att bedriva ett professionellt bedömningsarbete.

  • 47.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Eriksson, Inger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Pettersson, Astrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Lärares bedömningsarbete: en inramning2018In: Lärares bedömningsarbete: förhållningssätt, villkor, agens / [ed] Viveca Lindberg, Inger Eriksson, Astrid Pettersson, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2018, p. 5-16Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Hirsh, Åsa
    Formativ bedömning på 2000-talet: En översikt av svensk och internationell forskning2015In: Forskning och skola i samverkan – Kartläggningar av forskningsresultat med relevans  för praktiskt arbete i skolväsendet, Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet , 2015, p. 105-109Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I översikten redovisas läget i Sverige och internationellt med avseende på 2000-talets forskning kring formativ bedömning i relation till grundskolan. Analysen visar att teoretiska studier i hög utsträckning positionerar formativ bedömning som en kontextbunden social praktik, snarare än en uppsättning generella metoder. Samtidigt har storskaliga metastudier som presenterar anmärkningsvärda effektstorlekar på ökat lärande hos elever lett till att man på policynivå fattat beslut om storskalig implementering i klassrum världen över, vilket i sin tur bidragit till att formativ bedömning blivit ett koncept som anammats som ett generellt metodpaket. Empiriska studier genomförda i grundskolemiljö är få, och ofta stödjer man sig på studier genomförda i högre utbildning då man uttalar sig om gynnsamma effekter på lärande. Metastudier som uttalar sig om generella effekter av formativ bedömning problematiseras, bland annat för att paraplybegreppet formativ bedömning innefattar så många och disparata företeelser att det är närmast omöjligt att uttala sig om en samlad effekt. På frammarsch är IKT-relaterade studier, där teknologi i sig betraktas som formativ och i viss mån som ersättande läraren. Det svenska forskningsfältet är oerhört knapphändigt, i synnerhet med tanke på hur stort genomslag formativ bedömning som en uppsättning metoder/arbetssätt fått i den svenska skolan. Behovet av olika typer av studier som innefattar flera nivåer av aktörer är påtagligt.

  • 49.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Hirsh, Åsa
    Svensk forskning om formativ bedömning i grundskolan – en översikt2019In: Formativ bedömning: Utmaningar för undervisningen / [ed] Viveca Lindberg, Inger Eriksson, Astrid Pettersson, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2019, p. 134-175Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kapitlet baseras på en uppdatering av en omfattande översikt av formativ bedömning i nationell och internationell forskning från 2015 avseende grundskolan. Huvudfokus för kapitlet är på de svenska studierna. För kapitlet har översikten kompletterats med studier publicerade efter 2015. 

  • 50.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Hirsh, Åsa
    Wallander, Agneta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Udin, Agneta
    Garay, Juan
    Att ge röst åt de yngre barnen: en kartläggning i nio kommuner läsåret 2014-20152015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under läsåret 2014-2015 kartlades nio kommuners arbete med på vilka sätt elever i förskoleklass till årskurs 3 'ges röst' i skolan. I var och en av kommunerna genomfördes fokusgrupp intervjuer med nyckelpersoner representerade administrativ/pedagogisk ledning och verksamma pedagoger. Inför intervjuerna ombads kontakpersonen i var och en av kommunerna aända in sådan dokumentation eller mallar för dokumentation som de ansåg vara av relevans för projektet. Fokusgruppsntervjuerna baserades dels på den dokumentaiton vi fått in, dels på de erfarenheter de olika typerna av deltagare hade av skolornas arbete med att ge röst åt de yngre barnen. Vidare analsyerades styrdokument, myndigheters uppföljnings- och utvärderingsrapporter samt viss tidigare forskning inom området. 

    Resultatet av studien visar dels att yngre elevers inflytande och delaktighet i skolans verksamhet vanligen relateras till rådsfunktioner såsom klass- och elevråd, matråd etc. och att inflytande gäller val mellan förutbestämda alternativ. Det är ovanligare att elever får inflytande över innehållet i skolarbetet - däremot kan de få välja i vilken ordning de ska göra olika uppgifter. Medverkande kommuner efterfrågar redskap med vilka de kan arbeta med elevers reella inlytande och delaktighet i klass.

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