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  • 1.
    Boonstra, Wiebren J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Conceptualizing power to study social-ecological interactions2016In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 21, no 1, article id 21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    My aim is to conceptualize power using social science theory and to demonstrate why and how the concept of power can complement resilience studies and other analyses of social-ecological interaction. Social power as a scientific concept refers to the ability to influence both conduct and context. These two dimensions of power (conduct and context) can be observed by differentiating between various sources of power, including, for example, technology or mental power. The relevance of the conceptualization of power presented here is illustrated with the example of fire as a source of social-ecological power. I conclude by discussing how attention to power can help to address issues of social justice and responsibility in social-ecological interactions.

  • 2.
    Boonstra, Wiebren J.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Ahnstrom, Johan
    Hallgren, Lars
    Swedish Farmers Talking about Nature - A Study of the Interrelations between Farmers' Values and the Sociocultural Notion of Naturintresse2011In: Sociologia Ruralis, ISSN 0038-0199, E-ISSN 1467-9523, Vol. 51, no 4, p. 420-435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agro-environmental schemes (AES) aim to counteract declining biodiversity on farmland and to improve ecosystem services, such as pollination and pest regulation. Studies show, however, that an involvement in AES does not lead to any substantive cognitive or motivational change in farmers' behaviour. Hermeneutic studies have tried to explain these modest effects by analysing farmers' mentalities and behaviour. This article contributes to these studies by using self-identifications and stories of 16 Swedish farmers about nature and AES to create a typology of different farmers' valuations. In pursuit of this objective the article establishes a conceptual link between these hermeneutic studies and so-called farming style analysis (FSA). The study lays bare latent points of friction between the views of these farmers and more conventional sociocultural notions about nature and nature conservation.

  • 3.
    Boonstra, Wiebren J.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Oslo, Norway.
    Birnbaum, Simon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Institute for Futures Studies, Stockholm.
    Björkvik, Emma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    The quality of compliance: investigating fishers' responses towards regulation and authorities2017In: Fish and Fisheries, ISSN 1467-2960, E-ISSN 1467-2979, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 682-697Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A substantial amount of scientific effort goes into understanding and measuring compliance in fisheries. Understanding why, how and when fishers follow or violate rules is crucial for designing effective fishery policies that can halt overfishing. Non-compliance was initially explained almost exclusively with reference to economic and self-interested motivations. More recently, however, most explanations involve a combination of economic, social, political and environmental factors. Despite this recent development towards more holistic explanations, many scientists continue to frame the issue in binary terms: fishers either follow rules, or they don't. In this article we challenge this binary interpretation and focus attention on the diversity of fishers' dispositions and perceptions that underpin compliant behaviour. To this aim we construct a typology of fishers' responses towards regulation and authorities, thereby developing conceptual tools to understand different motivations and attitudes that underlie compliance outcomes. For this purpose, we identify the motivational postures of 'creativity' and 'reluctance', and then highlight their empirical relevance with an interview study of Swedish fishers. Reasons for studying the quality and diversity of fishers' motivations and responses are not purely academic. Conceptualizing and observing the quality of compliance can help policymakers and managers gauge and anticipate the potentiality of non-compliant fishing practices that may threaten the resilience of marine ecosystems.

  • 4.
    Boonstra, Wiebren J.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Oslo, Norway.
    Hentati-Sundberg, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Classifying fishers' behaviour. An invitation to fishing styles2016In: Fish and Fisheries, ISSN 1467-2960, E-ISSN 1467-2979, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 78-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study and classification of fishers’ behaviour remains a much debated topic. There is a tension between detailed empirical studies, which highlight the variety and diversity of fisheries, and the parsimony and generalization required to satisfy science and policy demands. This study contributes to this debate. The first sec- tion reviews quantitative methods currently used for classifying fishing practices. The review uncovers significant weaknesses in quantitative classification methods, which, we argue, can be improved through the complementary use of qualitative methods. To this purpose, we introduce the concept of ‘fishing style’, which integrates quantitative classification methods with qualitative analysis. We explain the scientific premises of the fishing-style concept, outline a general methodological framework and present a fishing-style analysis of Swedish Baltic Sea fisheries. Based on these results, we conclude that it is possible to classify fishing practices in a rel- atively uniform and limited number of styles that can highlight the rich, empirical diversity of fishers’ behaviour. We therefore propose that fishing-style analysis, based on an integration of quantitative and qualitative methods, can be an impor- tant step towards more effective and sustainable fisheries management.

  • 5.
    Boonstra, Wiebren J.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Joosse, Sofie
    The Social Dynamics of Degrowth2013In: Environmental Values, ISSN 0963-2719, E-ISSN 1752-7015, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 171-189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Degrowth cannot be realised from within a capitalist society, since growth is the sine qua non for capitalism. But, societies are no blank slates; they are not built from scratch. Putting these two thoughts together seems to make degrowth logically impossible. In this paper we argue that this paradox can be solved with the use of classical and contemporary concepts from the social sciences. We illustrate the use of these concepts with reference to studies on current practices and patterns of food production and consumption. The concept of social mechanism is used to illustrate how social practices can simultaneously reinforce and challenge the dominant (food) regime. We argue that current discussions on degrowth fail to envision how such contrasting developments are linked, and that the degrowth paradox originates in the idea of capitalism and the steady-state economy as alternative systems. The paradox dissolves with studies of mechanisms and social practices that show how the two systems are not autonomous, but 'hybridised' and come into existence and gain shape as reactions to each other.

  • 6.
    Boonstra, Wiebren J.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Ottosen, K. M.
    Ferreira, A. S. A.
    Richter, A.
    Rogers, L. A.
    Pedersen, M. W.
    Kokkalis, A.
    Bardarson, H.
    Bonanomi, S.
    Butler, W.
    Diekert, F. K.
    Fouzai, N.
    Holma, M.
    Holt, R. E.
    Kvile, K. O.
    Malanski, E.
    Macdonald, J. I.
    Nieminen, E.
    Romagnoni, G.
    Snickars, M.
    Weigel, B.
    Woods, P.
    Yletyinen, Johanna K
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Whittington, J. D.
    What are the major global threats and impacts in marine environments? Investigating the contours of a shared perception among marine scientists from the bottom-up.2015In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 60, p. 197-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine scientists broadly agree on which major processes influence the sustainability of marine environments worldwide. Recent studies argue that such shared perceptions crucially shape scientific agendas and are subject to a confirmation bias. Based on these findings a more explicit engagement with scientists' (shared) perceptions of global change in marine environments is called for. This paper takes stock of the shared understanding in marine science of the most pertinent, worldwide threats and impacts that currently affect marine environments. Using results from an email survey among leading academics in marine science this article explores if a shared research agenda in relation to global change in marine environments exists. The analysis demonstrates that marine scientists across disciplines are largely in agreement on some common features of global marine change. Nevertheless, the analysis also highlights where natural and social scientists diverge in their assessment. The article ends discussing what these findings imply for further improvement of interdisciplinary marine science.

  • 7.
    Boonstra, Wiebren J.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Tong, Thi
    Adaptation to climate change as social-ecological trap: a case study of fishing and aquaculture in the Tam Giang Lagoon, Vietnam2015In: Environment, Development and Sustainability, ISSN 1387-585X, E-ISSN 1573-2975, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 1527-1544Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ways in which people respond to climate change are frequently analyzed and explained with the term adaptation. Conventionally, adaptation is understood as adjustments in behavior either to mitigate harm or to exploit opportunities emerging from climate change. The idea features prominently in scientific analyses as well as in policy programs. Despite its growing popularity over the years, the concept has also received critique. Social scientists in particular take issue with the implicit assumptions about human behavior and fitness advantages (or optimal behavior) that come with the term. Clearly, not all human and animal behavioral responses are optimal or display fitness advantages. To the contrary, sub-optimal and maladaptive behavior is rather widespread. Explaining the possibility of maladaptive or sub-optimal behavior led scholars to introduce the idea of traps. Trap situations refer to a mismatch between behavior and the social and/or ecological conditions in which this behavior takes place. This paper reviews the analytical value of traps for the study of human responses to climate change. It first lays out the theoretical assumptions underpinning the concept. A case study of the Tam Giang Lagoon, in central Vietnam, is used to evaluate how well the trap concept captures the sub-optimality and variety of human responses to climate change.

  • 8.
    Boonstra, Wiebren J.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Oslo, Norway.
    Valman, Matilda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Björkvik, Emma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    A sea of many colours - How relevant is Blue Growth for capture fisheries in the Global North, and vice versa?2018In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 87, p. 340-349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Blue Growth is a relatively new term that is meant to realize economic growth based on the exploitation of marine resources, while at the same time preventing their degradation, overuse, and pollution. This article discusses the relevance and usefulness of this new concept for the development of capture fisheries, a sector where growth largely seems impossible without ecological devastation. An analytical distinction between intensive and extensive growth is used to argue that certain development trajectories of capture fisheries might qualify as Blue Growth. Such trajectories of growth are illustrated with the development of the Swedish bleak roe trawl fishery in the Bothnian Bay and Norwegian whitefish fishery in the Barents Sea. Comparison of the cases highlights aspects that Blue Growth advocates might want to include if they choose to consider capture fisheries as a relevant economic activity. These aspects include: a) adding value through certification; b) technological development to make more efficient use of resources used up in the fishing operation, and to upgrade their fish as commodity; and c) specialization.

  • 9.
    Boonstra, Wiebren Johannes
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Björkvik, Emma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Haider, L. Jamila
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Masterson, Vanessa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Human responses to social-ecological traps2016In: Sustainability Science, ISSN 1862-4065, E-ISSN 1862-4057, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 877-889Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social-ecological (SE) traps refer to persistent mismatches between the responses of people, or organisms, and their social and ecological conditions that are undesirable from a sustainability perspective. Until now, the occurrence of SE traps is primarily explained from a lack of adaptive capacity; not much attention is paid to other causal factors. In our article, we address this concern by theorizing the variety of human responses to SE traps and the effect of these responses on trap dynamics. Besides (adaptive) capacities, we theorize desires, abilities and opportunities as important additional drivers to explain the diversity of human responses to traps. Using these theoretical concepts, we construct a typology of human responses to SE traps, and illustrate its empirical relevance with three cases of SE traps: Swedish Baltic Sea fishery; amaXhosa rural livelihoods; and Pamir smallholder farming. We conclude with a discussion of how attention to the diversity in human response to SE traps may inform future academic research and planned interventions to prevent or dissolve SE traps.

  • 10.
    Boonstra, Wijnand
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Hobbes' Erfenis2011In: Sociologie, ISSN 2108-8845, E-ISSN 2108-6915, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 183-189Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 11. Cooke, Benjamin
    et al.
    West, Simon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Boonstra, Wiebren J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Dwelling in the biosphere: exploring an embodied human-environment connection in resilience thinking2016In: Sustainability Science, ISSN 1862-4065, E-ISSN 1862-4057, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 831-843Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Resilience has emerged as a prominent paradigm for interpreting and shaping human-environment connections in the context of global environmental change. Resilience emphasizes dynamic spatial and temporal change in social-ecological systems where humans are inextricably interwoven with the environment. While influential, resilience thinking has been critiqued for an under-theorized framing of socio-cultural dynamics. In this paper, we examine how the resilience concepts of planetary boundaries and reconnecting to the biosphere frame human-environment connection in terms of mental representations and biophysical realities. We argue that focusing solely on mental reconnection limits further integration between the social and the ecological, thus countering a foundational commitment in resilience thinking to social-ecological interconnectedness. To address this susceptibility we use Tim Ingold's 'dwelling perspective' to outline an embodied form of human-environment (re)connection. Through dwelling, connections are not solely produced in the mind, but through the ongoing interactivity of mind, body and environment through time. Using this perspective, we position the biosphere as an assemblage that is constantly in the making through the active cohabitation of humans and nonhumans. To illustrate insights that may emerge from this perspective we bring an embodied connection to earth stewardship, given its growing popularity for forging local to global sustainability transformations.

  • 12.
    Enqvist, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Tengö, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Boonstra, Wiebren J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Against the current: rewiring rigidity trap dynamics in urban water governance through civic engagement2016In: Sustainability Science, ISSN 1862-4065, E-ISSN 1862-4057, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 919-933Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates how the agency of local residents can affect persistent and unsustainable practices in urban water supply governance. Using a case study from Bangalore, India, we analyze a social-ecological trap which developed after a shift to external water provision paired with rapid urbanization. The reluctance of forsaking initial investments in infrastructure and competence, and the subsequent loss of the local network of lakes built for harvesting rainwater, reinforced dependence on external sources while undermining groundwater levels in the city. These feedbacks made water scarcity a structurally persistent feature of Bangalore. This situation started to change when local residents recently started organizing to preserve and restore Bangalore's lakes. By entering collaborative management agreements with municipal authorities, these lake groups have restored and established effective protection of five lakes. Through a case study of this civic engagement we show that the lake restorations have the potential to counteract trap mechanisms by restoring ecological functions, and by reducing water scarcity as groundwater levels rise and authorities are relieved from maintenance and monitoring tasks. Importantly, these lake groups have also created opportunities for over a dozen similar groups to form across the city. This demonstrates that social movements can be an important source of change in social-ecological traps.

  • 13.
    Garavito-Bermúdez, Diana
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Boonstra, Wiebren J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Knowing by fishing: Conceptualising ecological knowledge as working knowledgeManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    That the ecological knowledge of local users has great value for sustainable resource use and human development is widely accepted. Underneath this broad consensus about its importance nevertheless lies uncertainty and debate about the ways in which it can be best conceptualized. Is this knowledge best understood as a ‘system of knowledge’ or as ’ways of knowing’? And how can it be conceptually and methodologically operationalized as grounded in processes of work? In this study, we explore how fishers’ work in ecosystems influences what they know. We combine a Fishing Style Analysis with the Structure-Dynamic-Function Framework for a systematic study of the ecological knowledge used in Baltic coastal fisheries in Blekinge, Sweden. The results are used to discuss the theoretical and methodological implications of perceiving fishers’ ecological knowledge as generated, accumulated, transferred and adjusted through processes of work.

  • 14.
    Haider, L. Jamila
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Boonstra, Wiebren J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Akorbirshoeva, Anzurat
    Schlüter, Maja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    The effects of development interventions on coevolved practices in biocultural landscapesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Baht, a festive porridge prepared for the Persian New Year in the Pamir Mountains is made from a sweet variety of red wheat, Rashtak, which grows only in the high reaches of its most remote valley. The relationship between ecology and culture in landscapes like the Pamirs runs deep, with everyday practices and rituals having co-evolved with the harsh environment over millennia. Such tightly intertwined biocultural landscapes are, however, often among the world’s poorest and thus are particularly subject to external development interventions. This paper investigates the effects of a particular development intervention, the introduction of an improved wheat seed, on everyday traditional practices and the rituals that maintain them. The intervention contributed towards the near extinction of Rashtak, along with many other traditional seed varieties. Using Norgaard’s coevolutionary framework we analyse the changes in relations between ecology and society resulting from diverse community responses to the intervention. We observe that rituals, which emerge from successful everyday practices, can provide a valuable entry point to understanding co-evolutionary processes in biocultural landscapes. Through participatory observation in two villages, specifically around the practices of food preparation, we examine contrasting responses to the introduced seed in the context of larger-scale development in the region. Our findings show how in one village, Rashtak has been lost but the ritual of baht remains, though the daily practices and social-ecological relationships linked to the ritual have been strongly altered. In the other community, the new ‘improved’ seed was only cultivated on small areas of land in a process of trial and error and farmers maintained their traditional varieties alongside the new seed. Thereby, the rituals around baht remain deeply rooted in social-ecological relationships that have been maintained over the years. The paper describes innovative individual responses to development interventions in everyday life in both communities and finds that some can be important sources of resilience. For example, in the community that lost Rashtak, along with many other local seeds, the knowledge around how to cultivate the land is maintained in a ‘harvest dance’ choreographed and taught be a local school teacher. Rituals, as a repository of social memory, can play an important role in development processes whilst maintaining important social-ecological relationships for future resilience. A deeper understanding of coevolutionary processes in a landscape may help develop approaches for identifying and harnessing endogenous responses to local, regional and global change and help empower more appropriate and effective development pathways.

  • 15.
    Haider, L. Jamila
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Boonstra, Wiebren J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Peterson, Garry D.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Schlüter, Maja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Traps and Sustainable Development in Rural Areas: A Review2018In: World Development, ISSN 0305-750X, E-ISSN 1873-5991, Vol. 101, p. 311-321Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of a poverty trap—commonly understood as a self-reinforcing situation beneath an asset threshold—has been very influential in describing the persistence of poverty and the relationship between poverty and sustainability. Although traps, and the dynamics that lead to traps, are defined and used differently in different disciplines, the concept of a poverty trap has been most powerfully shaped by work in development economics. This perspective is often constraining because, as many studies show, poverty arises from complex interactions between social and environmental factors that are rarely considered in development economics. A more integrated understanding of poverty traps can help to understand the interrelations between persistent poverty and key social and ecological factors, facilitating more effective development interventions. The aim of this paper is to provide a critical appraisal of existing trap conceptualizations in different disciplines, and to assess the characteristics and mechanisms that are used to explain poverty traps in rural contexts, thereby broadening the traps concept to better account for social-ecological interactions. Complementarities and tensions among different disciplinary perspectives on traps are identified, and our results demonstrate that different definitions of traps share a set of common characteristics: persistence, undesirability, and self-reinforcement. Yet these minimum conditions are not sufficient to understand how trap dynamics arise from complex social-ecological interactions. To broaden the utility of the concept we propose a more social-ecologically integrated definition of traps that includes four additional considerations: cross-scale interactions, path dependencies, the role of external drivers, and social-ecological diversity. Including these wider dimensions of trap dynamics would help to better account for the diverse social-ecological feedbacks that produce and maintain poverty traps, and could strengthen strategies to alleviate poverty in a more integrated way.

  • 16.
    Hentati Sundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Hjelm, J.
    Boonstra, Wiebren J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Oslo, Norway.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Management Forcing Increased Specialization in a Fishery System2015In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 45-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fisheries systems are shaped by dynamic social-ecological interactions that determine their capacity to provide ecosystem services. Human adaptation is often considered a key uncertainty, and there are few quantitative empirical analyses that address long-term social and ecological change in the analyses of fisheries systems. The aim of this study was twofold: (i) to understand how different drivers influenced the adaptations by fishers, and (ii) to evaluate different consequences of such adaptations, especially with regard to diversity of social and ecological links. We used the Baltic Sea as a case study, a system with different fisheries, largely managed with a single-stock advice, in a top-down basis. The study period 1995-2009 was characterized by profound inter-annual fluctuations in fish stock status and prices, and introduction of new types of management measures. We used multivariate statistical methods to define longitudinal changes in fishing tactics and strategies based on logbook data. Our results indicate that changes in fishing strategies have mainly been driven by regulations, and there were only weak linkages between fishing activities, fish stocks, and price fluctuations. We found contrasting trends between large- and small-scale fishers, where large-scale fishers became more specialized and inflexible, whereas small-scale fishers diversified over time. We conclude that management has had a dominating role in shaping fishing patterns, leading to a reduction of important qualities related to the resilience in this social-ecological system.

  • 17.
    Lade, Steven J.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (Nordita).
    Niiranen, Susa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Hentati-Sundberg, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Blenckner, Thorsten
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Boonstra, Wiebren J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Orach, Kirill
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Quaas, Martin F.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Schlüter, Maja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    An empirical model of the Baltic Sea reveals the importance of social dynamics for ecological regime shifts2015In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 112, no 35, p. 11120-11125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regime shifts triggered by human activities and environmental changes have led to significant ecological and socioeconomic consequences in marine and terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. Ecological processes and feedbacks associated with regime shifts have received considerable attention, but human individual and collective behavior is rarely treated as an integrated component of such shifts. Here, we used generalized modeling to develop a coupled social-ecological model that integrated rich social and ecological data to investigate the role of social dynamics in the 1980s Baltic Sea cod boom and collapse. We showed that psychological, economic, and regulatory aspects of fisher decision making, in addition to ecological interactions, contributed both to the temporary persistence of the cod boom and to its subsequent collapse. These features of the social-ecological system also would have limited the effectiveness of stronger fishery regulations. Our results provide quantitative, empirical evidence that incorporating social dynamics into models of natural resources is critical for understanding how resources can be managed sustainably. We also show that generalized modeling, which is well-suited to collaborative model development and does not require detailed specification of causal relationships between system variables, can help tackle the complexities involved in creating and analyzing social-ecological models.

  • 18. Pedersen, M. W.
    et al.
    Kokkalis, A.
    Bardarson, H.
    Bonanomi, S.
    Boonstra, Wiebren J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Butler, W. E.
    Diekert, F. K.
    Fouzai, N.
    Holma, M.
    Holt, R. E.
    Kvile, K. O.
    Nieminen, E.
    Ottosen, K. M.
    Richter, A.
    Rogers, L. A.
    Romagnoni, G.
    Snickars, M.
    Törnroos, A.
    Weigel, B.
    Whittington, J. D.
    Woods, P.
    Yletyinen, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Ferreira, A. S. A.
    Trends in marine climate change research in the Nordic region since the first IPCC report2016In: Climatic Change, ISSN 0165-0009, E-ISSN 1573-1480, Vol. 134, no 1-2, p. 147-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oceans are exposed to anthropogenic climate change shifting marine systems toward potential instabilities. The physical, biological and social implications of such shifts can be assessed within individual scientific disciplines, but can only be fully understood by combining knowledge and expertise across disciplines. For climate change related problems these research directions have been well-established since the publication of the first IPCC report in 1990, however it is not well-documented to what extent these directions are reflected in published research. Focusing on the Nordic region, we evaluated the development of climate change related marine science by quantifying trends in number of publications, disciplinarity, and scientific focus of 1362 research articles published between 1990 and 2011. Our analysis showed a faster increase in publications within climate change related marine science than in general marine science indicating a growing prioritisation of research with a climate change focus. The composition of scientific disciplines producing climate change related publications, which initially was dominated by physical sciences, shifted toward a distribution with almost even representation of physical and biological sciences with social sciences constituting a minor constant proportion. These trends suggest that the predominantly model-based directions of the IPCC have favoured the more quantitatively oriented natural sciences rather than the qualitative traditions of social sciences. In addition, despite being an often declared prerequisite to successful climate science, we found surprisingly limited progress in implementing interdisciplinary research indicating that further initiatives nurturing scientific interactions are required.

  • 19.
    Spijkers, Jessica
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Boonstra, Wiebren J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Environmental change and social conflict: the northeast Atlantic mackerel dispute2017In: Regional Environmental Change, ISSN 1436-3798, E-ISSN 1436-378X, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 1835-1851Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A recurrent critique of the proposition of a causal relation between environmental change and social conflict is that it fails to account for the complexities and dynamics of processes of social-ecological change. In this article, we open the black box of contextual factors that influence the causal pathway from environmental change to social conflict. Firstly, we argue for the consideration of three social factors that influence that pathway: (a) institutions, (b) power, and (c) knowledge. Taking a deductive approach, we ascertain their causal importance in the case of the mackerel dispute, an interstate conflict that unfolded after the abrupt and rapid change in distribution of the northeast Atlantic mackerel stock after 2007. We analyze the historical development of the mackerel dispute through process tracing and demonstrate the importance and causal role of the three factors. Secondly, based on our assessment, we argue to increase the diversity of the scope conditions relevant for the environmental change-social conflict nexus. We propose to consider a wider variety of conflicts as outcome of environmental change, high-income regions as an arena for those conflicts, and a wider variety of environmental change, such as alterations in abundance in the context of climate change. Lastly, we discuss how future research on this topic can handle the wider scope conditions and greater case variability.

  • 20.
    Österblom, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Merrie, Andrew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Metian, Marc
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Boonstra, Wiebren J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Blenckner, Thorsten
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Watson, James R.
    Rykaczewski, Ryan R.
    Ota, Yoshitaka
    Sarmiento, Jorge L.
    Christensen, Villy
    Schlüter, Maja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Birnbaum, Simon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gustafsson, Bo G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Humborg, Christoph
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Muller-Karulis, Bärbel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Tomczak, Maciej T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Modeling Social—Ecological Scenarios in Marine Systems2013In: BioScience, ISSN 0006-3568, E-ISSN 1525-3244, Vol. 63, no 9, p. 735-744Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human activities have substantial impacts on marine ecosystems, including rapid regime shifts with large consequences for human well-being. We highlight the use of model-based scenarios as a scientific tool for adaptive stewardship in the face of such consequences. The natural sciences have a long history of developing scenarios but rarely with an in-depth understanding of factors influencing human actions. Social scientists have traditionally investigated human behavior, but scholars often argue that behavior is too complex to be repre-ented by broad generalizations useful for models and scenarios. We address this scientific divide with a framework for integrated marine social ecological scenarios, combining quantitative process-based models from the biogeochemical and ecological disciplines with qualitative studies on governance and social change. The aim is to develop policy-relevant scenarios based on an in-depth empirical understanding from both the natural and the social sciences, thereby contributing to adaptive stewardship of marine social-ecological systems.

1 - 20 of 20
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