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  • 1.
    Eckerström-Liedholm, Simon
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Sowersby, Will
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico.
    Rogell, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Time-limited environments affect the evolution of egg-body size allometry2017In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 71, no 7, p. 1900-1910Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Initial offspring size is a fundamental component of absolute growth rate, where large offspring will reach a given adult body size faster than smaller offspring. Yet, our knowledge regarding the coevolution between offspring and adult size is limited. In time-constrained environments, organisms need to reproduce at a high rate and reach a reproductive size quickly. To rapidly attain a large adult body size, we hypothesize that, in seasonal habitats, large species are bound to having a large initial size, and consequently, the evolution of egg size will be tightly matched to that of body size, compared to less time-limited systems. We tested this hypothesis in killifishes, and found a significantly steeper allometric relationship between egg and body sizes in annual, compared to nonannual species. We also found higher rates of evolution of egg and body size in annual compared to nonannual species. Our results suggest that time-constrained environments impose strong selection on rapidly reaching a species-specific body size, and reproduce at a high rate, which in turn imposes constraints on the evolution of egg sizes. In combination, these distinct selection pressures result in different relationships between egg and body size among species in time-constrained versus permanent habitats.

  • 2.
    Eckerström-Liedholm, Simon
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Sowersby, Will
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Morozov, Sergey
    van der Bijl, Wouter
    Rowiński, Piotr
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Rogell, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Macroevolutionary evidence suggests trait-dependent coevolution between behaviour and life-historyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Species with fast life-histories prioritize current over future reproduction, which ought to require greater energetic resources, but also results in a shorter time-period to realize their reproductive potential, compared to slow life-histories, which prioritize future reproduction. Hence, behaviours that increase access to both resources and mating opportunities, at a cost of increased mortality risk, are thought to coevolve with the pace of life-history. However, whether this prediction holds across species, is yet to be tested under standardized conditions. Here, we test how potentially risky behaviours, which facilitate access to resources and mating opportunities (i.e. activity, boldness and aggression), along with metabolic rate, correlates with the pace of life-history across 20 species of killifish, which present a remarkable divergence in the pace of their life-histories. We found a positive correlation between the pace of life-history and aggression, but not with any other behavioural traits or metabolic rate. Aggression is often expressed in the context of mating, while the other behaviours we measured might be more relevant for access to energetic resources. Our results therefore suggest that the trade-off between current and future reproduction plays a more prominent role in shaping mating behaviour, while behaviours related to acquisition of energetic resources may be more affected by ecological factors.

  • 3.
    Sowersby, Will
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Monash University, Australia.
    Lehtonen, Topi K.
    Wong, Bob B. M.
    Temporal and sex-specific patterns of breeding territory defense in a color-polymorphic cichlid fish2017In: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 791, no 1, p. 237-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In biparental species, the costs and benefits of parental investment can vary between the sexes and shift over time. However, such sex-specific and temporal changes in territory defense are not well understood. Here, we experimentally investigated parental investment in breeding territory defense in a feral population of the color-polymorphic, biparental cichlid fish, the red devil (Amphilophus labiatus). We presented either gold- or dark-colored conspecific intruder models (i.e., dummy models) to A. labiatus pairs at three key stages during the breeding cycle (i.e., after pair formation, after eggs have been laid, and when fry were free-swimming). We found that males were more aggressive when the pair first formed, whereas females significantly increased their territory defense with time, and were most aggressive when fry were free-swimming. These results show that parental roles in territory defense can markedly shift over key stages of the breeding cycle. Our results demonstrate that parental behaviors may not only vary between the sexes, but can also shift dramatically over the course of the brood cycle.

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