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  • 1.
    Brüchert, Volker
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Bröder, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Sawicka, Joanna E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Tesi, Tommaso
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. nstitute of Marine Sciences, National Research Council, Italy.
    Joye, Samantha P.
    Sun, Xiaole
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre.
    Semiletov, Igor P.
    Samarkin, Vladimir A.
    Carbon mineralization in Laptev and East Siberian sea shelf and slope sediment2018In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 471-490Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Siberian Arctic Sea shelf and slope is a key region for the degradation of terrestrial organic material transported from the organic carbon-rich permafrost regions of Siberia. We report on sediment carbon mineralization rates based on O2 microelectrode profiling, intact sediment core incubations, 35 S-sulfate tracer experiments, porewater dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), δ13 CDIC, and iron, manganese, and ammonium concentrations from 20 shelf and slope stations. This data set provides a spatial overview of sediment carbon mineralization rates and pathways over large parts of the outer Laptev and East Siberian Arctic shelf and slope, and allowed us to assess degradation rates and efficiency of carbon burial in these sediments. Rates of oxygen uptake and iron and manganese reduction were comparable to temperate shelf and slope environments, but bacterial sulfate reduction rates were comparatively low. In the topmost 20 to 50 cm of sediment, aerobic carbon mineralization dominated degradation and comprised on average 82% of the depthintegrated carbon mineralization. Oxygen uptake rates and 35 S-sulfate reduction rates were higher in the eastern East Siberian Sea shelf compared to the Laptev Sea shelf. DIC/NH4 + ratios in porewaters and the stable carbon isotope composition of remineralized DIC indicated that the degraded organic matter on the Siberian shelf and slope was a mixture of marine and terrestrial organic matter. Based on dual end member calculations, the terrestrial organic carbon contribution varied between 32% and 36%, with a higher contribution in the Laptev Sea than in the East Siberian Sea. Extrapolation of the measured degradation rates using  isotope end member apportionment over the outer shelf of the Laptev and East Siberian Sea suggests that about 16 Tg C per year are respired in the outer shelf sea floor sediment. Of the organic matter buried below the oxygen penetration depth, between 0.6 and 1.3 Tg C per year are degraded by anaerobic processes, with a terrestrial organic carbon contribution ranging between 0.3 and 0.5 Tg per year.

  • 2. Grasse, Patricia
    et al.
    Brzezinski, Mark A.
    Cardinal, Damien
    de Souza, Gregory F.
    Andersson, Per
    Closset, Ivia
    Cao, Zhimian
    Dai, Minhan
    Ehlert, Claudia
    Estrade, Nicolas
    Francois, Roger
    Frank, Martin
    Jiang, Guibin
    Jones, Janice L.
    Kooijman, Ellen
    Liu, Qian
    Lu, Dawei
    Pahnke, Katharina
    Ponzevera, Emanuel
    Schmitt, Melanie
    Sun, Xiaole
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Sutton, Jill N.
    Thil, Francois
    Weis, Dominique
    Wetzel, Florian
    Zhang, Anyu
    Zhang, Jing
    Zhang, Zhouling
    GEOTRACES inter-calibration of the stable silicon isotope composition of dissolved silicic acid in seawater2017In: Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, ISSN 0267-9477, E-ISSN 1364-5544, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 562-578Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first inter-calibration study of the stable silicon isotope composition of dissolved silicic acid in seawater, delta Si-30(OH)(4), is presented as a contribution to the international GEOTRACES program. Eleven laboratories from seven countries analyzed two seawater samples from the North Pacific subtropical gyre (Station ALOHA) collected at 300 m and at 1000 m water depth. Sampling depths were chosen to obtain samples with a relatively low (9 mmol L-1, 300 m) and a relatively high (113 mmol L-1, 1000 m) silicic acid concentration as sample preparation differs for low- and highconcentration samples. Data for the 1000 m water sample were not normally distributed so the median is used to represent the central tendency for the two samples. Median delta Si-30(OH)(4) values of +1.66& for the low-concentration sample and +1.25& for the high-concentration sample were obtained. Agreement among laboratories is overall considered very good; however, small but statistically significant differences among the mean isotope values obtained by different laboratories were detected, likely reflecting inter-laboratory differences in chemical preparation including pre-concentration and purification methods together with different volumes of seawater analyzed, and the use of different mass spectrometers including the Neptune MC-ICP-MS (Thermo Fisher (TM), Germany), the Nu Plasma MC-ICP-MS (Nu Instruments (TM), Wrexham, UK), and the Finnigan (TM) (now Thermo Fisher (TM), Germany) MAT 252 IRMS. Future studies analyzing delta Si-30(OH)(4) in seawater should also analyze and report values for these same two reference waters in order to facilitate comparison of data generated among and within laboratories over time.

  • 3.
    Gustafsson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Hagens, Mathilde
    Sun, Xiaole
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre.
    Reed, Daniel C.
    Humborg, Christoph
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Slomp, Caroline P.
    Gustafsson, Bo G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre, Baltic Nest Institute. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Sedimentary alkalinity generation and long-term alkalinity development in the Baltic Sea2019In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 437-456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enhanced release of alkalinity from the seafloor, principally driven by anaerobic degradation of organic matter under low-oxygen conditions and associated secondary redox reactions, can increase the carbon dioxide (CO2) buffering capacity of seawater and therefore oceanic CO2 uptake. The Baltic Sea has undergone severe changes in oxygenation state and total alkalinity (TA) over the past decades. The link between these concurrent changes has not yet been investigated in detail. A recent system-wide TA budget constructed for the past 50 years using BALTSEM, a coupled physical-biogeochemical model for the whole Baltic Sea area, revealed an unknown TA source. Here we use BALTSEM in combination with observational data and one-dimensional reactive transport modelling of sedimentary processes in the Fårö Deep, a deep Baltic Sea basin, to test whether sulfate reduction coupled to iron (Fe) sulfide burial can explain the missing TA source in the Baltic Proper. We calculated that this burial can account for 26% of the missing source in this basin, with the remaining TA possibly originating from unknown river inputs or submarine groundwater discharge. We also show that temporal variability in the input of Fe to the sediments since the 1970s drives changes in sulfur burial in the Fårö Deep, suggesting that Fe availability is the ultimate limiting factor for TA generation under anoxic conditions. The implementation of projected climate change and two nutrient load scenarios for the 21st century in BALTSEM shows that reducing nutrient loads will improve deep water oxygen conditions, but at the expense of lower surface water TA concentrations, CO2 buffering capacities and faster acidification. When these changes additionally lead to a decrease in Fe inputs to the sediment of the deep basins, anaerobic TA generation will be reduced even further, thus exacerbating acidification. This work highlights that Fe dynamics play a key role in the release of TA from sediments where Fe sulfide formation is limited by Fe availability, as exemplified for the Baltic Sea. Moreover, it demonstrates that burial of Fe sulfides should be included in TA budgets of low oxygen basins.

  • 4.
    Humborg, Christoph
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Geibel, Marc C.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre.
    Sun, Xiaole
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre.
    McCrackin, Michelle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre.
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Stranne, Christian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Jakobsson, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Sokolov, Alexander
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre.
    Norkko, Alf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Norkko, Joanna
    High Emissions of Carbon Dioxide and Methane From the Coastal Baltic Sea at the End of a Summer Heat Wave2019In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 6, article id 493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The summer heat wave in 2018 led to the highest recorded water temperatures since 1926 - up to 21 degrees C - in bottom coastal waters of the Baltic Sea, with implications for the respiration patterns in these shallow coastal systems. We applied cavity ring-down spectrometer measurements to continuously monitor carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) surface-water concentrations, covering the coastal archipelagos of Sweden and Finland and the open and deeper parts of the Northern Baltic Proper. This allowed us to (i) follow an upwelling event near the Swedish coast leading to elevated CO2 and moderate CH 4 outgassing, and (ii) to estimate CH4 sources and fluxes along the coast by investigating water column inventories and air-sea fluxes during a storm and an associated downwelling event. At the end of the heat wave, before the storm event, we found elevated CO2 (1583 mu atm) and CH4 (70 nmol/L) concentrations. During the storm, a massive CO2 sea-air flux of up to 274 mmol m(-2) d(-1) was observed. While water-column CO2 concentrations were depleted during several hours of the storm, CH4 concentrations remained elevated. Overall, we found a positive relationship between CO2 and CH4 wind-driven sea-air fluxes, however, the highest CH4 fluxes were observed at low winds whereas highest CO2 fluxes were during peak winds, suggesting different sources and processes controlling their fluxes besides wind. We applied a box-model approach to estimate the CH4 supply needed to sustain these elevated CH4 concentrations and the results suggest a large source flux of CH4 to the water column of 2.5 mmol m(-2) d(-1). These results are qualitatively supported by acoustic observations of vigorous and widespread outgassing from the sediments, with flares that could be traced throughout the water column penetrating the pycnocline and reaching the sea surface. The results suggest that the heat wave triggered CO2 and CH4 fluxes in the coastal zones that are comparable with maximum emission rates found in other hot spots, such as boreal and arctic lakes and wetlands. Further, the results suggest that heat waves are as important for CO2 and CH4 sea-air fluxes as the ice break up in spring.

  • 5. Hutchings, Alec M.
    et al.
    Antler, Gilad
    Wilkening, Jean
    Basu, Anirban
    Bradbury, Harold J.
    Clegg, Josephine A.
    Gorka, Marton
    Lin, Chin Yik
    Mills, Jennifer
    Pellerin, Andre
    Redeker, Kelly R.
    Sun, Xiaole
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre.
    Turchyn, Alexandra
    Creek Dynamics Determine Pond Subsurface Geochemical Heterogeneity in East Anglian (UK) Salt Marshes2019In: Frontiers in Earth Science, ISSN 2296-6463, Vol. 7, article id 41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Salt marshes are complex systems comprising ephemerally flooded, vegetated platforms hydraulically fed by tidal creeks. Where drainage is poor, formation of saline-water ponds can occur. Within East Anglian (UK) salt marshes, two types of sediment chemistries can be found beneath these ponds; iron-rich sediment, which is characterized by high ferrous iron concentration in subsurface porewaters (up to 2 mM in the upper 30 cm); and sulfide-rich sediment, which is characterized by high porewater sulfide concentrations (up to 8 mM). We present 5 years of push-core sampling to explore the geochemistry of the porewater in these two types of sediment. We suggest that when organic carbon is present in quantities sufficient to exhaust the oxygen and iron content within pond sediments, conditions favor the presence of sulfide-rich sediments. In contrast, in pond sediments where oxygen is present, primarily through bioirrigation, reduced iron can be reoxidised and thus recycled for further reduction, favoring the perpetuation of iron-rich sedimentary conditions. We find these pond sediments can alter significantly over an annual timescale. We carried out a drone survey, with ground-truthed measurements, to explore the spatial distribution of geochemistry in these ponds. Our results suggest that a pond's proximity to a creek partially determines the pond subsurface geochemistry, with iron-rich ponds tending to be closer to large creeks than sulfide-rich ponds. We suggest differences in surface delivery of organic carbon, due to differences in the energy of the ebb flow, or the surface/subsurface delivery of iron may control the distribution. This could be amplified if tidal inundations flush ponds closer to creeks more frequently, removing carbon and flushing with oxygen. These results suggest that anthropogenic creation of drainage ditches could shift the distribution of iron- and sulfide-rich ponds and thus have an impact on nutrient, trace metal and carbon cycling in salt marsh ecosystems.

  • 6.
    Sun, Xiaole
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Isotope-based reconstruction of the biogeochemical Si cycle: Implications for climate change and human perturbation2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The global silicon (Si) cycle is of fundamental importance for the global carbon cycle. Diatom growth in the oceans is a major sequestration pathway for carbon on a global scale (often referred to as the biological pump). Patterns of diatoms preserved in marine sediment records can reveal both natural and anthropogenic driven environmental change, which can be used to understand silicon dynamics and climate change. Si isotopes have been shown to have great potential in order to understand the Si cycle by revealing both past and present patterns of dissolved Si (DSi) utilization, primarily when diatoms form their siliceous frustules (noted as biogenic silica, BSi). However, studies using Si isotopes are still scarce and only a few studies exist where stable Si isotopes are used to investigate the biogeochemical Si cycle in aquatic systems. Therefore, this thesis focuses on developing analytical methods for studying BSi and DSi and also provides tools to understand the observed Si isotope distribution, which may help to understand impacts of climate change and human perturbations on marine ecosystems. The Baltic Sea, one of the biggest estuarine systems in the world, was chosen as the study site. BSi samples from a sediment core in Bothnian Bay, the most northern tip of the Baltic Sea, and diatom samples from the Oder River, draining into the southern Baltic Sea were measured and reported in Paper II and III, after establishing a method for Si isotope measurements (Paper I). Si isotope fractionation during diatom production and dissolution was also investigated in a laboratory-controlled experiment (Paper IV) to validate the observations from the field. The major result is that Si isotope signatures in BSi can be used as an historical archive for diatom growth and also related to changes in climate variables. There is isotopic evidence that the Si cycle has been significantly altered in the Baltic Sea catchment by human activities. 

  • 7.
    Sun, Xiaole
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Andersson, Per
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Laboratoriet för isotopgeologi.
    Humborg, Christoph
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM). Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Gustafsson, Bo
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Conley, Daniel J.
    Lunds universitet.
    Crill, Patrick
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Climate Dependent Diatom Production is Preserved in Biogenic Si Isotope Signatures2011In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 8, no 11, p. 3491-3499Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to reconstruct diatom production in the subarctic northern tip of the Baltic Sea, Bothnian Bay, based on down-core analysis of Si isotopes in biogenic silica (BSi). Dating of the sediment showed that the samples covered the period 1820 to 2000. The sediment core record can be divided into two periods, an unperturbed period from 1820 to 1950 and a second period affected by human activities (from 1950 to 2000). This has been observed elsewhere in the Baltic Sea. The shift in the sediment core record after 1950 is likely caused by large scale damming of rivers. Diatom production was inferred from the Si isotope composition which ranged between δ30Si −0.18‰ and +0.58‰ in BSi, and assuming fractionation patterns due to the Raleigh distillation, the production was shown to be correlated with air and water temperature, which in turn were correlated with the mixed layer (ML) depth. The sedimentary record showed that the deeper ML depth observed in colder years resulted in less production of diatoms. Pelagic investigations in the 1990's have clearly shown that diatom production in the Baltic Sea is controlled by the ML depth. Especially after cold winters and deep water mixing, diatom production was limited and dissolved silicate (DSi) concentrations were not depleted in the water column after the spring bloom. Our method corroborates these findings and offers a new method to estimate diatom production over much longer periods of time in diatom dominated aquatic systems, i.e. a large part of the world's ocean and coastal seas.

  • 8.
    Sun, Xiaole
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geology and Geochemistry.
    Andersson, Per
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Laboratoriet för isotopgeologi .
    Land, Magnus
    WSP Environmental.
    Humborg, Christoph
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geology and Geochemistry.
    Stable silicon isotope analysis on nanomole quantities using MC-ICP-MS with a hexapole gas-collision cell2010In: Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, ISSN 0267-9477, E-ISSN 1364-5544, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 156-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate in this study that a single focusing multiple collector inductively coupled plasma massspectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) equipped with a hexapole gas-collision cell (GV-instrument Isoprobe) canprecisely determine the d29Si (2S.D., 0.2&) using a total Si consumption of less than 14 nmole (390 ngSi). Testing and evaluation of background, rinse time, and major matrix effects have been performed ina systematic way to establish a procedure to measure d29Si in small quantities. Chemical purificationprior to analysis is required to remove potential interferences. For data collected during a four-yearperiod, the average d29Si value of IRMM-018 relative to NBS-28 was found to be 0.95& (n ¼ 23,2S.D. 0.16&) with a 95% confidence interval (0.95 0.028&). The mean d29Si value of the Big-Batchstandard was found to be 5.50& (n ¼ 6, 2S.D. 0.26&). Although determination of the d30Simeasurements is not possible, with our current instrument we demonstrate that this system providesa fast and long-term reliable method for the analysis of d29Si in purified samples with low Siconcentration (18 mM Si).

  • 9.
    Sun, Xiaole
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Anersson, Per
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Laboratoriet för isotopgeologi .
    Humborg, Christoph
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Pastuszak, Marianna
    Department of Fisheries Oceanography and Marine Ecology, Sea Fisheries Institute, Gdynia, Poland.
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Silicon isotope enrichment in diatoms during nutrient-limited bloomsin a eutrophied river systemManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined the Si isotope fractionation in diatoms by following a massive nutrient limited diatom bloom from a eutrophied natural system. We hypothesized that the Si isotope fractionation should be larger in comparison to observations in less nutrient rich environments. The Oder River, which is a eutrophied river draining the western half of Poland and entering the southern Baltic Sea, shows that a diatom bloom may cause extreme Si isotope fractionation. The rapid nutrient depletion and fast biogenic silica (BSi) increase observed during the spring bloom suggests a Rayleigh behavior for a closed system for dissolved Si (DSi) and BSi in the river at certain time scales. An enrichment factor (ε) of up to -1.6‰ is found based on observations between April and June, 2004. A very high δ30Si value of up to +3.05‰ is measured in diatoms. This is about 2 times higher than previously recorded δ30Si in freshwater diatoms. The Rayleigh model used to predict the δ30Si values of DSi suggests that the initial value before the start of the diatom bloom is close to +2‰. This indicates that there is a biological control of the Si isotope compositions entering the river, probably caused by Si isotope fractionation during uptake of Si in phytoliths. Clearly, eutrophied rivers with enhanced diatom blooms deliver 30Si-enriched DSi and BSi to the coastal ocean, which can be used to trace the biogeochemistry of DSi/BSi in estuaries.

  • 10.
    Sun, Xiaole
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre.
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Humborg, Christoph
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Gustafsson, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre.
    Temporal and spatial variations of rock weathering and CO2 consumption in the Baltic Sea catchment2017In: Chemical Geology, ISSN 0009-2541, E-ISSN 1872-6836, Vol. 466, p. 57-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study provides the first estimate of silicate and carbonate weathering rates and derived CO2 consumption rates for the Baltic Sea catchment using river chemistry data of 78 rivers draining into the Baltic Sea. The silicate weathering rates (denoted as total dissolved solids) of individual river basin range from 0.014 Tg/year to 4.55 Tg/year and the carbonate weathering rates range from 0.079 Tg/year to 6.49 Tg/year. The total CO2 consumption across the Baltic catchment is approximately 3.9 Tg C/year and is almost equally shared by silicates and carbonates. Uncertainty associated with the weathering estimate is around 32%, which is mainly caused by incomplete pollution correction for a few major rivers in the south. The calculations for the boreal river basins have higher certainties because of less human impacts. The CO2 consumption rate of individual river basin vary between 0.53 and 5.66 g C/m(2)/year with an average of 2.97 g C/m(2)/year, in which carbonates consume CO2, 1.4 g C/m(2)/year and silicates take 1.5 g C/m(2)/year. This is in the same range as has been reported for the Mackenzie River and Siberian river basins, but at the lower range of tropical rivers, suggesting the Baltic Sea catchment holds solid weathering signals for high-latitude systems, especially in the pristine boreal silicatedominated areas. The amount of CO2 consumed by weathering in the Baltic Sea catchment accounts for approximately 3-30% of the net ecosystem carbon exchange (10-100 g C/m(2)/year), implying that weathering contributes as a significant sink of atmospheric CO2. Although many studies have shown the positive relation between temperature and weathering rates in various river catchments, multiple regression analysis using the 40-year continuous records of river chemistry in the boreal area of the Baltic Sea catchment reveals a strong correlation between weathering flux and precipitation, but no statistically significant correlation between weathering and temperature. This suggests not only that temperature is not necessarily to be primary controlling factor for weathering rates, but also besides precipitation, other factors, like increased soil organic matter contents and water path changes may have high impact on weathering rates. The 40-year data analysis also shows generally increasing weathering fluxes by 10-20% in the pristine boreal area over the past decades. This indicates that increased CO2 consumption by weathering and the resulting elevated dissolved inorganic carbon delivery to the ocean act as a negative feedback for ocean acidification, such as the Arctic Ocean that has become more acidic due to high terrestrial organic carbon delivery together with increased river water input.

  • 11.
    Sun, Xiaole
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Olofsson, Martin
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Anersson, Per
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Laboratoriet för isotopgeologi .
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Humborg, Christoph
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Effect of diatom growth and dissolution on silicon isotope fractionationin an estuarine systemManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Si isotopes provide a powerful tool to reveal past and present patterns in diatom production. Most studies have focused on Si fractionation factors during diatom growth in open ocean systems and have found lower Si isotope values in diatom shells (biogenic silica). Recent findings indicate that even the fractionation of Si isotopes during the physicochemical dissolution of diatom shells in the opposite direction produces higher δ30Si values in the remaining biogenic silica (BSi), allowing for the interpretation of diatom production patterns over geological time scales. However, estuarine and coastal primary production represents approximately 30-50% of global marine production, and there are hardly any studies on Si isotope fractionation during either diatom growth or dissolution. In this study, Si isotope fractionation during diatom growth and the dissolution of the frustule were measured. Two species of diatoms from the Baltic Sea, one of the largest estuarine systems in the world, were selected for this study. The results show that both species of diatoms during growth yields an identical Si isotope fractionation factor of 0.99925 for 29Si and 0.9984 for 30Si. In contrast to findings from open ocean species, no Si isotope fractionation during dissolution was observed even after 90% of the diatoms dissolved. Whether there is isotope fractionation during dissolution or not will have profound implications for studies using Si isotopes to interpret the Si cycle in marine and estuarine systems. We propose that the small size of the diatoms living in estuarine systems with low salinity may explain the non-existence of Si isotope fractionation during dissolution. Therefore, we suggest that Si isotopes are an instrumental variable holding information about original environmental conditions of estuarine and even coastal systems. Finally, we tested the Si isotope fractionation patterns gained from the lab experiments on a sediment core, corroborating the observed dissolved silicates (DSi) uptake rates in the above water column during diatom growth.

  • 12. Zhang, Zhouling
    et al.
    Sun, Xiaole
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre.
    Dai, Minhan
    Cao, Zhimian
    Fontorbe, Guillaume
    Conley, Daniel J.
    Impact of human disturbance on the biogeochemical silicon cycle in a coastal sea revealed by silicon isotopes2019In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogeochemical silicon (Si) cycling in coastal systems is highly influenced by anthropogenic perturbations in recent decades. Here, we present a systematic study on the distribution of stable Si isotopes of dissolved silicate (delta Si-30(DSi)) in a highly eutrophic coastal system, the Baltic Sea. Besides the well-known processes, diatom production and dissolution regulating delta Si-30(DSi) values in the water column, we combined field data with a box model to examine the role of human disturbances on Si cycling in the Baltic Sea. Results reveal that (1) damming led to increased delta Si-30(DSi) values in water but had little impacts on their vertical distribution; (2) decrease in saltwater inflow due to enhanced thermal stratification had negligible impacts on the delta Si-30(DSi) distribution. An atypical vertical distribution of delta Si-30(DSi) with higher values in deep water (1.57-1.95 parts per thousand) relative to those in surface water (1.24-1.68 parts per thousand) was observed in the central basin. Model results suggest the role of enhanced biogenic silica (BSi) deposition and subsequently regenerated dissolved silicate (DSi) flux from sediments. Specifically, eutrophication enhances diatom production, resulting in elevated exports of highly fractionated BSi to deep water and sediments. In situ sedimentary geochemical processes, such as authigenic clay formation, further fractionate Si isotopes and increase pore-water delta Si-30(DSi) values, which then leads to pore-water DSi flux carrying higher delta Si-30(DSi) compositions into deep water. Our findings provide new quantitative information on how the isotope-based Si cycle responds to human perturbations in coastal seas and shed lights on shifts of Si export to open ocean.

  • 13. Zhong, Jun
    et al.
    Li, Si-Liang
    Liu, Jing
    Ding, Hu
    Sun, Xiaole
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre.
    Xu, Sheng
    Wang, Tiejun
    Ellam, Rob M.
    Liu, Cong-Qiang
    Climate Variability Controls on CO2 Consumption Fluxes and Carbon Dynamics for Monsoonal Rivers: Evidence From Xijiang River, Southwest China2018In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences, ISSN 2169-8953, E-ISSN 2169-8961, Vol. 123, no 8, p. 2553-2567Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The feedbacks of climate variability on CO2 consumption fluxes and carbon dynamics are thought to play an important role in moderating the global carbon cycle. High-frequency sampling campaigns and analyses were conducted in this study to investigate temporal variations of river water chemistry and the impacts of climate variability on CO2 consumption fluxes and carbon dynamics for the Xijiang River, Southwest China. Physical processes modify biogeochemical processes, so major ions display different responses to changing discharge. The annual CO2 consumption rate is (6.8 +/- 0.2) x 10(6) ton/year by carbonate weathering and (2.4 +/- 0.3) x 10(6) ton/year by silicate weathering. The annual CO2 consumption flux is much higher than most world rivers, and strong CO2 consumption capacities are observed in catchments in Southwest China. Lower negative delta C-13(DIC) values are found in the high-flow season which corresponds with high temperatures compared to those in the low-flow season. High discharge will accelerate material transport, and high temperatures will increase primary production in the catchment, both of which can be responsible for the shift of delta C-13(DIC) values in the high-flow season. Increased mineral weathering and biological carbon influx in the catchment are the main factors controlling carbon dynamics. Overall, these findings highlight the sensitivity of CO2 consumption fluxes and carbon dynamics in response to climate variability in the riverine systems. Plain Language Summary There are feedbacks between climate variability and CO2 consumption fluxes by chemical weathering and carbon dynamics. Significant temporal variations of major ions and delta C-13(DIC) are observed in the Xijiang River. Multiple biogeochemical processes occur under various hydrological conditions, shifting major ions concentrations, and delta C-13(DIC). The annual CO2 consumption rate is (6.8 +/- 0.2) x 10(6) ton/year by carbonate weathering and (2.4 +/- 0.3) x 10(6) ton/year by silicate weathering. The annual CO2 consumption rates in the Xijiang River only account for a small fraction in the global CO2 consumption rates; the CO2 consumption capacity is much higher than the global average, while much lower than its source tributaries (Beipan and Nanpan Rivers). Slow subsurface flow paths with longer transit times switch to rapid near-surface flow paths with shorter transit times, as discharge increases. High temperatures increase reaction rates, and high discharge rates remove transport limitation, both of which would accelerate the chemical weathering rates. In the high-flow season, high discharge accompanying with high temperatures, large amounts of delta C-13-depleted biological carbon, flushes into the river, affecting the carbon dynamics.

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