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  • 1.
    Ahnfelt, Vigdis
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för spanska, portugisiska och latinamerikastudier.
    La recuperación de la identidad en la novela Sefarad de Antonio Muñoz Molina2008Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the signification of identitary discourses in the novel Sefarad: Una novela de novelas by Antonio Muñoz Molina and determine to what extent these discourses represent and respond to identitary discourses in contemporary Spanish society. The analysis focuses on three principal questions: how is the narrative constructed, what is conveyed as a result, and what is the aim of the narrative.

    Identity is understood as a social construction, an individual and continuous process of assuming, defining, negotiating and maintaining cultural identities, elements of the surrounding world that provide the individual with a sense of meaning (Fromm 1956; Castiñeira 2005; Marsella 2008).

    The novel consists of different stories that manifest the social impact of the totalitarian regimes in Europe during the twentieth century, told by a diversity of voices. First, the analysis deals with the structure of the text, examined through the model of mise en abyme (Dällenbach 1989). Secondly, the significations of transition, transgression (Lotman 1978) and, analogically, stigmatization are deduced (Goffman 1972), processes that are related to the effects of the frontier as a metaphor (Pratt Ewing 1998) and to limit situations (Jaspers 1974). Thirdly, the study stresses the representation of the past, in which trauma, melancholy and mourning are significant (Benjamin 1992; Freud 1986).

    The conclusions confirm the claim that the novel corresponds to humanity’s treasure of suffering (Leidschatz), a cultural possession that thematizes the processes of memory and oblivion (Assmann 1999), represented through stories told by the victims of intolerance at different levels. The text is accordingly conceived as a mirror through which the narrator constructs his identity as a writer and transmits meaning to the reader by providing the opportunity to reflect upon identity issues today.

  • 2.
    Alfvén, Valérie
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    Violence gratuite et adolescents-bourreaux: Réception, traduction et enjeux de deux romans suédois pour adolescents, en France, au début des années 20002016Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to a better understanding of the role of Swedish literature for adolescents in the French literary scene in the early 2000s. The sociology of literature constitutes the main theoretical framework of this thesis.

    Drawing from examples that broach the sensitive topic of "unprovoked violence" as it is treated in two Swedish novels for teenagers, Spelar död [Play Death] by Stefan Casta and När tågen går förbi (Train Wreck) by Malin Lindroth, this thesis shows how these novels are innovative in Even-Zohar’s sense of the term, as addressed in his Polysystem Theory (1990). By introducing "unprovoked violence" and violent teenagers via a realistic genre, such works filled a vacuum in the French system and injected a new dynamic into it. This dynamic makes it possible for new literary models to be introduced in the system and to change the standards of that system.

    The analyses of the French and Swedish receptions of the two novels mentioned above show that they gave rise to a moral panic in France, which is not an unusual thing to happen in periods of ongoing change. This also clarifies the differences in norms between the two systems. The French system tends to reject dark topics, while the Swedish wishes to discuss them. The investigations of the translations of unprovoked violence show that adherence to Swedish norms determine the translation’s adequacy (Toury), which may be part of the reason for the stormy reception the two works received in France, and their undergoing censure. The position of translators and publishers in the literary system also plays a major role for a translated text not being censured during the transfer from one system to another.

    Even if the Swedish titles translated into French are few, this thesis shows that the impact of Swedish literature on adolescents in France is certain. By introducing new and sensitive topics, such novels could be early markers of an evolution of the French field of literature for adolescents.

  • 3.
    Alvarez López, Laura
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för spanska, portugisiska och latinamerikastudier.
    A língua de Camões com Iemanjá: Forma e funções da linguagem do candomblé2004Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The present thesis addresses the relationship between the structure and social functions of language through the study of an Afro-Brazilian Portuguese speech community. The adopted methodological, analytical, and theoretical standpoints have their origin in linguistic anthropology, social psychology of language and discourse analysis. A set of data was collected during extensive fieldwork in Salvador (Brazil), and consists of recordings of informal conversations with and between followers of Candomblé, an Afro-Brazilian religion.

    Focusing on the communicative process in a specific communicative setting, the linguistic analyses illustrate the relationship between language and identity by examining theway in which expressions of African origin function as identity markers. In order to connect such Africanisms used by Candomblé followers in their everyday speech with the linguistic attitudes and ideologies found in Brazilian society throughout history, an interdisciplinary approach was called for and factors that affect the speech community’s ethnolinguistic vitality were explored. Linguistic attitudes and ideologies that have influenced group vitality were analyzed in the socio-political context (or macro-context). At the same time, the purpose was to understand communication within the sacred space of Candomblé by examining issues such as changes in linguistic forms and functions in the communicative situation (or microcontext).

    Apart from revealing patterns of communication in Candomblé communities, the results of the analyses show how linguistic changes such as re-Africanization are triggered by changes of attitudes in society. These changes affect speakers’ identities and language use within speech communities.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Elin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för medeltidsstudier.
    Responsiones Vadstenenses: Perspectives on the Birgittine Rule in Two Texts from Vadstena and Syon Abbey. A Critical Edition with Translation and Introduction2011Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Syon Abbey, established as the first Birgittine monastery in England in 1415, quite soon became a powerful institution within the order. Although often asserting their own conceptions of the Rule, the English Birgittines still sought the advice of Vadstena, their mother house, when it came to certain important matters concerning monastic life.

    The present work contains editions of two Latin texts: Responsiones, a document consisting of 175 questions and answers on the Birgittine Rule and daily life in the monastery, and Collacio, a sermon reflecting similar matters.

    The first part of the Responsiones consists of answers to five questions, sent from Syon to Sweden by letter. An important issue concerns the leadership in the monastery and the role of the Birgittine brothers. Were they to be seen as monks, living in their own monastery, or as religious assistans to the sisters? The second part was written as a direct result of two English brothers visiting Vadstena in 1427 and contains 170 questions and answers dealing with various matters of importance: how to interpret certain Birgittine texts, regulations on food, silence and speech as well as questions on preaching, liturgy and introduction into the monastery.

    The Collacio, in the manuscript said to have been presented to the Swedish community, was probably written by Syon’s conservator, the Benedictine abbot John Whethamstede of St Albans. Written in a highly metaphorical language rich in references to the Bible and Classical authors, the message to the Birgittine order is clear: first, it is wrong to have two leaders (confessor general as well as abbess) in one community; second, the Birgittines should strive to dispose of later additions and explanations and seek the original and true intentions of the foundress, Saint Birgitta.

    The thesis contains an introduction, editions with translations, glossary, indices, bibliography and plates.

  • 5.
    Andrews Johansson, Ann-Katrin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk.
    Tropes for the proper of the mass, 4: The feasts of the blessed Virgin Mary1998Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 6.
    Andrée, Alexander
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk.
    Gilbertus Universalis: Glossa ordinaria in Lamentationes Ieremie prophete. Prothemata et Liber I.: A Critical Edition with an Introduction and a Translation2005Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The Glossa ordinaria on the Bible stands as one of the prime achievements of the period in western intellectual history known as the Renaissance of the twelfth century. In spite of the great number of still extant manuscripts very little is known about the circumstances around its composition. This state of affairs is partly explained by the lack of modern and critical editions of the books of the Glossa ordinaria.

    The present work is the first critical edition of the Glossa ordinaria on the Book of Lamentations, and consists of the forewords, or prothemata, and the first book (of five) of this text, which was compiled early in the twelfth century by the theologian and Ciceronian rhetorician Gilbert the Universal (†1134), schoolmaster at Auxerre and subsequently Bishop of London.

    The introduction includes a background sketch of the environment in which the Glossa ordinaria was conceived – the school of Laon – with a short biography of Gilbert the Universal, as well as a study of the sources to this particular part of the Gloss, chief among them the ninth-century commentary of Paschasius Radbertus. It is shown that Gilbert’s major improvement to his source, apart from drastically rewriting it, consists of the introduction of Ciceronian rhetorical loci to the verses of Lamentations. The introduction furthermore provides the reader with an analysis of the manuscript tradition of the early twelfth century and a selective analysis of the later manuscript tradition (some 86 manuscripts have so far been traced). One of the conclusions reached is that the Gloss on Lamentations exists in two textual recensions, the one original, the other a later redaction made once the Gloss had become a success and preserved in nearly all the later manuscripts. The manuscripts of the first recension, which is the one edited in the present work, may be organised into a stemma codicum consisting of two major families originating in a single archetype. It is possible to reconstruct this archetype on the basis of the five oldest manuscripts. An English translation of the edited text is included, as well as a ‘semi-critical’ edition of the text of the second recension.

    An important part of the present work consists of an effort to combine the sophisticated mise-en-page of the glossed manuscripts with the standards of presentation to be expected of a modern critical edition.

  • 7.
    Annani, Stella
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk.
    A la Recherche d’El Djezaïr. Postmodernisme et postcolonialisme dans deux romans algériens: L’Amour, la fantasia et L’Honneur de la tribu2003Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 8.
    Barnohro Oussi, Broula
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    Sentieri e radure: Le forme del cronotopo d'iniziazione in Alessandro Baricco2016Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present dissertation is to study the elaborations of the initiation myth in contemporary Italian author Alessandro Baricco. The theoretical and methodological framework consists mainly of Mircea Eliade’s phenomenological theory of initiation. It is argued that the categories of space and time are interdepent in religious thought and should thus be studied as a unit, through the notion of the chronotope. The dissertation therefore proposes to introduce the concept of the chronotope of initiation as an operative tool, the intersection of the theories of Eliade and Mikhail Bakhtin, for the literary subgenre of the initiation novel.

    A hermeneutical analysis of the novels Oceano mare, Emmaus and Mr Gwyn demonstrates that the initiation myth is present in all three novels. The symbolism of death and rebirth is coherently enacted as a movement via the categories cosmos-chaos-cosmos, for which the author uses the symbolism of the earth to define cosmos (regularity and structure) and water symbolism for the regenerating chaos (dissolution and renewal). The different chapters of analysis accentuate the interaction of space and time within the different phases of the initiation pattern: the profane, the threshold, the sacred, the centre (the place where the actual ritual is enacted) and the return, which are all defined as chronotopes.

    The analysis shows that although the chronotope of initiation – the concept intending the fusion of the temporal event of ritual at the spatial centre – assumes different forms throughout the corpus, its function remains unmodified, with its purpose being the creation of ontological change. In its inherent structure, the chronotope of initiation unites antithetical spatial and temporal characteristics. Spatially it unites infinite and dissolving chaotic space with the constitutive envelope or sacred vertical centre, and temporally it brings together the ultimative ontological change at a fixed, historical moment with the eternal, sacred, time opened by ritual, representing the coincidentia oppositorum of the sacred. The analysis also shows that the so-called “portraits of the ineffable”, present in all three novels, reflect the same qualities. As immanent works of art, they function as thresholds into the infinite.

    From a chronological perspective, the dissertation shows a modification of the initiation pattern in Baricco’s writing: from the classical form in Oceano mare, via a more realistic application in Emmaus, to the most elaborate, meta-literary adaption in Mr Gwyn. Nevertheless, the use of the pattern and its thematic coherence reveals that Baricco consciously elaborates on the pattern to suit the contemporary context.

  • 9.
    Belmar Shagulian, Jasmin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    El mito de la Quintrala: Estructuras simbólicas en dos novelas de Gustavo Frías2017Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this comparative study is to analyse La Quintrala’s myth as a symbolic discourse, thereby filling a gap in the previous studies about La Quintrala.

    The theoretical and methodological framework of this analysis consists of a hermeneutical approach based on the method of figurative structuralism: mythocriticism. This is a dual classification method of symbols: Diurnal and Nocturnal Orders that expose the symbolic structures formed by symbols and archetypes found in mythemes in a compilation of corpora. The first one is Gustavo Frías’ novels Tres Nombres para Catalina: Catrala (2008) and Tres nombres para Catalina: la doña de Campofrío (2008); the second is a historic essay (hypotext), Benjamín Vicuña Mackenna’s Los Lisperguer y la Quintrala (1944), and four novels: Magdalena Petit’s (2009) La Quintrala, Mercedes Valdivieso’s (1991) Maldita yo entre las Mujeres, Virginia Vidal’s (2002) Oro, veneno y puñal, and Gustavo Frías’ El Inquisidor (2008).

    Mythocriticism is employed in the analysis to show what the mythical structure of the hero’s journey (Separation, Initiation, Return) reveal. Such journey is combined structurally with the Mother archetype (White, Red and Black Goddess), the intrinsic archetype of La Quintrala’s myth. The heroic structure unveils its own mythemes, La Quintrala’s and the first corpus’s mytheme through the diachronic and synchronic flow of the hero’s journey. This method permits to identify and compare the progression of the symbolic structures.

    The analysis demonstrates a transformation of the symbolic structures between both corpora. This survey reveals that Vicuña Mackenna and Petit, and partially Vidal and El Inquisidor, exhibit an inclination to the diurnal symbols that strengthen, through a heterodiegetic narrator, the representations of the witch-femme fatale, counteractive attributes of the Red and Black Goddesses in the myth. Valdivieso, on the other hand, shows a propensity to the nocturnal symbols of inversion and intimacy that emphasize the Red Goddess’ features, though the novel also exposes La Quintrala as a witch-femme fatale. This exposure occurs through the use of both an autodiegetic narrator –La Quintrala– and a heterodiegetic one –the hypotext embodied in the popular voice– that appear to contrast each other. Finally, in Tres Nombres para Catalina, La Quintrala as the autodiegetic narrator dominates the whole story. She personifies the Great Goddess archetype who bestows her new positive attributes during the adventure. This novel assumes primordially the nocturnal symbolism incarnated by both the mystical and the synthetical structures and relegates the diurnal discourse of the hypotext to a secondary position in the narrative. Nonetheless, Tres Nombres para Catalina’s narrative still relies on the hypotext to reproduce and reconstruct all the mythemes in the myth of La Quintrala.

    Conclusively, the results of this analysis indicate that the identification of all the mythemes supports the hypothesis of a transformation in the symbolic structures which characterize La Quintrala in both corpora. This reveals the embodiment of Tres Nombres para Catalina’s own mytheme, consisting of a vindication and a recognition to her indigenous heritage, and the acceptance of her mestizaje. As a consequence, Tres nombres para Catalina, in comparison to the second corpus, diverges and expands the symbolic structures, but still shows a continuity of the myth.

  • 10.
    Bengtsson, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk.
    La Vie de sainte Bathilde. Quatre versions en prose des XIIIe et Xve siècles, publiées avec introduction, notes et glossaire1996Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 11.
    Bernal Linnersand, María
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för spanska, portugisiska och latinamerikastudier.
    Categorización sociopragmática de la cortesía y de la descortesía: Un estudio de la conversación coloquial española2007Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study is to establish a socio-pragmatic categorization of politeness and impoliteness activities in informal interactions. In doing this, we describe the communicative strategies related to (im) politeness phenomena and how they are used to produce certain social effects in face-to-face interaction through the ongoing negotiation of participants’ face (Goffman, 1967). This study is based on informal conversations extracted from a corpus of spoken Spanish gathered in the metropolitan area of Valencia, Spain (Briz and Val.Es.Co. Group, 2002). Focusing on methodology, this study combines a qualitative method inspired in CA with a DA interpretative approach that analyzes communicative acts (Allwood 1995; Bravo, e. p.1). Face contents such as autonomy and affiliative face, role face, group and individual face, are a resource for analyzing what happens during interaction along with the resulting interpersonal effects. The integration of the analysis of context, which includes the co-text, the situational context and the socio-cultural context (cultural settings and shared assumptions), is equally important in this study. The empirical analysis of both the conversations and a questionnaire on impoliteness bring us to propose a series of categories of (im) politeness. The categories are as follow: Strategic Politeness (within this category we find attenuating politeness and reparatory politeness), Enhancing Politeness, Group Politeness, Ritual Politeness (here we differentiate between meeting situations and visit situations) and Discursive Politeness (we divide this category into conventional and thematic). Concerning Impoliteness, we find situations in informal conversation in which impoliteness is expected (normative impoliteness) and when threatening acts (reproaches, criticism, etc.) do not imply directly, per se, a negative personal effect. We next find two types of impoliteness: one produced by threats to the face of the speaker which are neither mitigated nor amended and the other caused by a break from the normal rules of politeness.

  • 12.
    Bladh, Elisabeth
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk.
    La Bible traduite en français contemporain: forme, signification et sens2003Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation analyses seven modern Bible translations in French with respect to their renderings of Koine Greek participles. The sample consists of the Passion Story from the four Gospels (Matt 26-28, Mark 14-16, Luke 22-24 and John 18-21), and is comprised of 603 Hellenistic participles in all. The participle forms are studied in six categories according to their syntactic function. The comparison focuses on differences in translation strategy, i.e. formal equivalence, omission and different kinds of transpositions, with special attention given to the choice of verb form. There is a discussion of the adequacy of contemporary, explicative theories of systemic differences between the passé simple/passé composé and the imparfait. A large number of examples are analysed in detail.

    The results of the survey show that the most prominent differences in translation strategies concern the predicative participle. Furthermore, this was the category that occurred most frequently in the sample. The Catholic scientific and literary translation La Bible de Jérusalem (1998) is the most literal of the seven versions. A high level of formal equivalence is also registered in the other scientific translation, La Traduction Œcuménique de la Bible (1988), even though application of this strategy outweighs the use of finite verbs, that is to say, the most common transposition. La Bible en français courant (1996) is the least literal: generally, it transposes the participle of the source text with a finite verb. This transposition is also very frequent in the literary La Bible de la Pléiade (1971). Most of the omissions are recorded in the recent literary La Bible, Nouvelle traduction (2001), which is shown to be the most divergent translation. Omissions are also frequent in the pastoral La Bible des moines de Maredsous (1968) and the liturgical La Traduction liturgique de la Bible (1977).

    When translated in conjunction with an element comprising a verb in one of the non-indicative moods (infinitive, imperative, participle and subjunctive), both the present and the aorist predicative participles are, to a large extent, rendered by a simple form, expressing non-accomplishment. However, the Bible de Jérusalem stands out with its greater use of compound present participles than any other version. When the predicative participle of the source text is transposed with a verb in the indicative mood, the passé simple is generally used to render the aorist; for the present participle, the imparfait is more frequent than the passé simple. Nevertheless, here too the passé simple accounts for a significant portion of the equivalents, especially in the two translations where transpositions formed by finite verbs are particularly important. There exist a few cases where some translators chose to use the passé simple/passé compose, while others chose the imparfait.

    The various details, tables and linguistic analyses in this dissertation provide a solid basis for accurately characterizing the various modern attempts made at reproduce this ancient text – a text so often translated, paraphrased, interpreted and deeply integrated in our cultural heritage.

  • 13.
    Bloom, Karin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    Cordelia, 1881–1942: Profilo storico di una rivista per ragazze2015Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this dissertation is to conduct a study of the history of the girls’ magazine Cordelia (1881–1942), founded in Florence by Angelo De Gubernatis. The analysis mainly focuses on the years 1881–1917; however, the latter period is also briefly treated. The theoretical framework consists of sociology of literature and gender history; the dissertation belongs to the field of history of publishing, which is integrated with a gender historical perspective. The methodological challenges faced when dealing with periodicals as research objects are also considered. In order to achieve bibliographic control and examine Cordelia’s contents and contributors, all issues of the magazine’s first 36 years were indexed. The study examines the commercial strategies of the magazine’s publishers, as well as the contributions of the chief editors and writers involved in the making of the magazine. Attention is drawn to the personal relationships between the individuals in these groups. As is shown, the magazine was not very successful in its first three years of publication, during the editorship of De Gubernatis. The two editors who followed, Ida Baccini and Jolanda (pseudonym for Maria Maiocchi Plattis), did succeed, however, in creating a familiar and attractive product for the young female public and to involve them in their magazine. Quantitative surveys of the contributors and contents have shown, for instance, that Baccini and Jolanda relied on regular contributions from relatively few writers and also published serial fiction to arouse the readers’ interest. Their comprehension of the potential of the periodical and the importance of their gender in addressing their readers, together with the capacity of long-time publisher Cappelli to develop commercial strategies to boost sales, seem to have been the reason for the longevity and success of Cordelia.

  • 14.
    Bruchmüller, Ulrike
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk.
    Die Lebensperioden von Kosmos, Polis und Individuum in der Philosophie Platons: Zur platonischen Seelenlehre in ihren ontologischen Voraussetzungen2008Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation offers a systematic treatment of all the changes to which the soul is subject according to Plato’s philosophy. Its starting-point is the rational soul’s structural bipolarity, which can be reduced, via the binary opposites of the highest kinds (megista gene), to the ultimate principles of the One and the Indefinite Dyad. The result is that the soul, living without the body, participates to an ever higher degree in the positive series of the highest kinds (identity, rest), whereas during the lifetime, it is increasingly determined by the kinds subordinate to the second principle (difference, motion). Although Plato’s conceptual series correspond to the opposition between the principles, the highest degree of unity can only be reached through the coactivity of the negative series due to the soul’s ontological deficiency. Consequently, there is need for an equalization of the opposites (mesotes). Both conceptual series correspond to properties assigned to the parts of the soul, which, according to the rule of mesotes, only deserve to be called virtues (noetic and dianoetic thinking, self-control and bravery, self-control and freedom) in relation to each other.

    Since the period of life is determined by difference, only the knowledge of the positive kinds, gained by recollection (anamnesis), can provide the right mixture of the forthes of the soul. This anamnesis is achieved gradually through an education of the soul that is adapted to its three parts and occurs during the first half of the lifespan. During the second half, the anamnesis can no longer compensate for the rising influence of Plurality. The individual dies, and the soul again subjects itself to the rule of the positive kinds.

    After a detailed presentation of the Platonic theory of the soul as applied to the universe (kosmos), the state (polis) and the individual, the authoress shows how Plato’s literary art illustrates his theory.

  • 15.
    Brun, Laurent
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk.
    Le Miroir historial de Jean de Vignay: Édition critique du livre I (Prologue) et du livre 5 (Histoire d'Alexandre le Grand)2010Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In the mid-thirteenth century, the Dominican friar Vincent of Beauvais compiled the largest encyclopedia ever during the Middle Ages: the fourfold Speculum maius, whose Latin Speculum historiale became by far its most copied and widespread volume. During the 1320's and early 1330's, Jean de Vignay translated the whole Speculum historiale into French and dedicated the work to the French queen Joan of Burgundy, wife of Philip of Valois. This dissertation consists in a partial critical edition of this French translation, the Miroir historial. Two books have been selected: Book I, which contains Vincent's prologue to the whole encyclopedia, and Book V, featuring one of the longest medieval histories of Alexander the Great. Book I's obvious interest lies in that it is the most detailed account of an encyclopedist's work, providing us with one of the most valuable insights into a compiler's mind and philosophy. Book V is certainly one the most influential histories of the Macedonian emperor, which inspired many late medieval and Renaissance authors, although very few scholars have looked into it and thoroughly examined its structure, contents and sources.

    This dissertation features two previously unpublished books in addition to giving access to the most extensive extract from the Miroir historial that has ever appeared in print. The edition includes a thorough examination and identification of every source used by the translator but also by Vincent de Beauvais. The investigation shows, among other things, that nearly three quarters of the history of Alexander are in fact an abridged version of the account found in Helinand of Froidmont's Chronicon (Books XVII and XVIII), to which Vincent added additional sources, mainly theological and philosophical. The edition is based on three fourteenth-century manuscripts and includes a detailed analysis of the translator's life and works, a glossary as well as an index of all the proper nouns.

  • 16.
    Bylund Spångberg, Emanuel
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för spanska, portugisiska och latinamerikastudier.
    Conceptualización de eventos en español y en sueco: Estudios sobre hablantes monolingües y bilingües2009Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with language-specific patterns in the selection and organization of information (i.e., conceptualization) reflected in the expression of events by monolingual and bilingual speakers of Spanish and Swedish. Previous research on language specificity in event conceptualization shows that speakers of languages with grammatical aspect exhibit fine-grained event segmentation and deictic temporal linkage patterns, whereas speakers of non-aspect languages resort to coarse-grained segmentation patterns and anaphoric linkage. This finding has led to the hypothesis that grammatical aspect induces specific event conceptualization patterns. The overall aim of the current thesis is, first, to test this hypothesis on Spanish and Swedish, and second, to extend this line of research to the domain of bilingualism. The thesis is based on four individual studies: Study I examines monolingual speakers of Spanish and Swedish. The results show that event conceptualization in these languages patterns with the dichotomy +/- grammatical aspect; Study II explores the relationship between endpoint encoding patterns and proficiency with aspectual contrasts in the Spanish of Spanish-Swedish bilinguals. The findings show that the less Spanish-like a participant’s endpoint encoding frequencies are, the less sensitive he/she is to aspectual contrasts; Study III explores the degree to which language-specific patterns of segmentation and temporal linking of events are fused/separated in Spanish-Swedish bilinguals. The results show that whereas the bilinguals resort to an event segmentation pattern that is midway between the Spanish fine-grained patterns and the Swedish coarse-grained patterns, they exhibit nativelike temporal linking patterns in both Spanish and Swedish; Study IV contextualizes some of the author’s studies from a general viewpoint, with the intention of illustrating the fruitfulness of extending the research on event conceptualization to the domain of bilingualism.

  • 17.
    Carlshamre, Katarina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk.
    Pulsion et résistance: Émancipation, liberté et tendances conservatrices dans trois romans d'Anne Hébert2009Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates some motifs in the fiction of Québec writer Anne Hébert (1916-2000), largely by exploring interesting affinities with notions in the philosophy of Luce Irigaray (1930-). The main focus is on the young female characters and their way to adulthood in three of Hébert’s books: her first novel, Les chambres de bois (LCB, 1958) and two of her later works, Aurélien, Clara, Mademoiselle et le Lieutenant anglais (AC, 1995) and Est-ce que je te derange ? (ECD, 1998). The study also addresses the situation of the male characters and the difficulties which confront them within a phallocentric order. It is argued that a comparison with features of Irigaray’s thought can shed light both on the emancipatory and the conservative tendencies in the novels. In particular, it is Irigaray’s notion of mimesis that proves to be fruitful for a deeper understanding of the female protagonists in the analysed works, but her specific use of the Oidipus complex, and her vision of a culture of sexual difference, also give important clues for the interpretation of both male and female figures in Herbert’s texts. With regard to LCB, it is shown that it is only when the female protagonist consciously positions herself as a reflection of male desire, as a mimetic figure, that substantial change comes about. In AC the female character is an incarnation of “utopian mimesis” and represents a new order. In ECD the female protagonist functions as a manifestation of a “symptomatic mimesis” and thereby becomes a catalyst for the revelation of the repressed sensibility of the male subject. Irigaray’s reading of the Oidipus complex is used to evince the utopian tendencies in AC, but also to explore how the male characters of all three works are stuck in a denied repetition of their childhood, which leaves little room for change. Irigaray’s vision of a culture of sexual difference provides a comprehensive picture of a place towards which all three novels can be seen to aim.

  • 18.
    Carlstedt, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk.
    La poésie oraculaire de Nostradamus: Langue, style et genre des Centuries2005Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation is a study of the work of Michel de Nostredame (Nostradamus). Born in Provence, France in 1503, this true "Renaissance man” (astrologer, doctor of medicine and translator) achieved fame with the publication of his Centuries or “Prophecies”. This work presents 10 centuries of quatrains – almost a thousand short poems of only four rhymed lines each. The first third was published in 1555, another third in 1557 and finally the ten Centuries all together, posthumously, in 1568. The present study concentrates on the first edition, consisting of the first 353 quatrains.

    The main purpose of this thesis is to explore and analyse the language, the style and the genre of the Centuries, aspects rather neglected by the critics hitherto. The large number of quatrains analysed in detail provides a solid basis for accurately characterizing the distinctive features of the text. The methods applied are mainly quantitative and comparative.

    Initially, a short presentation of Nostradamus’ life and work sketches in the background for the creation of the Centuries. The analysis of the poetic form illustrates the stylistic as well as linguistic consequences of the use of the quatrain: it is argued that the poetical structure of the text influences its language as well as its oracular genre. The language of the Centuries is quantitatively examined, first at the sentence level and then at the phrase level. In order to define its specific nature, comparisons are made with the language of other texts from the same period, i.e. the Délie by Maurice Scève and the Pantagrueline Pronostication by François Rabelais. The results demonstrate that the most prominent differences concern what may be referred to as Nostradamus’ strategy of omission, where the restrictive metrical form of the quatrain demands that he be sparing of words.

    Thereafter, the dissertation concludes that the number of textual themes and motives of the Centuries is quite limited (war, catastrophe, government), the prodigy being identified as the general poetic topic that contributes to the coherence of the text. A subsequent section thoroughly investigates stylistic elements such as enumeration, repetition and onomastics. The objective of the final section is to define the genre of the Centuries. The close connection between the concepts of poetry and prophecy during the French Renaissance is well documented. It is thus suggested that the enigmatic, dark oeuvre of Nostradamus inspired several of the Pléiade poets, whose group that in many ways explored the oracular genre in the 1550s and 1560s. It is furthermore demonstrated that the concept of oracular poetry is appropriate for defining the style and the genre of the Centuries.

    Together, the different results of our survey lead to a discussion of the poetic qualities of the Centuries. The present study promotes the conclusion that Nostradamus is to be considered much less a prophet than an author of oracular poetry.

  • 19.
    Cavaliere, Mauro
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för spanska, portugisiska och latinamerikastudier.
    As Coordenadas da Viagem no Tempo: Uma contribuição para a teoria da ficção histórica baseada em alguns textos portugueses dos séculos XVI, XIX e XX2002Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In Portugal, as in other countries, a common characteristic of many of the novels published in the past twenty years is the recourse to a repertoire of literary devices that recall those of the historical novel.

                    On the basis of critical studies published in the 1990’s, and in particular Fernández Prieto’s Poética de la Novela Histórica, this thesis undertakes a study of the Portuguese historical novel with the aim of defining, to the extent possible, the limits of this literary genre, and to examine in detail some of its intrinsic—and pertinent—semantic and pragmatic traits: the setting of a fictional narrative in the past, the

    introduction of historical persons and events and, not the least, the transtextual relationship between the fictional and the historiographic text.

           Special attention is given to some of the more innovative forms of the contemporary historical novel, to highlight how by emphasising certain generic traits —that refer to the reader’s acquired knowledge— the author can compensate for the absence of others. Despite the inherent ”heterodoxy”, this device justifies grouping these novels under the general heading of the historical novel.

    The thesis explores the analogies between some of these innovative narrative strategies of the contemporary historical novel with transtextual practices characteristic of literature predating the 19th Century and by which a certain ”historical knowledge” is requisite for decoding the text. The thesis also establishes a set of generic traits that the historical novel shares with epic poetry. In light of these

    analogies, the thesis proposes a reading of Os Lusíadas as a historical poem. With this the author hopes to provide a contribution to a theory of historical fiction, understood as a genre encompassing, in addition to the novel, all forms of fictionalisation that rely on the historical discourse.

    © Mauro Cavaliere                                          

    ISBN  91-7265-442-2                                      

     

     

  • 20.
    Cedergren, Mickaëlle
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk.
    L'écriture biblique de Strindberg: Étude textuelle des citations bibliques dans Inferno, Légendes et Jacob lutte2005Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Inferno constitutes a turning point in Strindberg's literary production in that scriptural quotations appear more frequently and a new style emerges. This thesis presents the characteristics of the scriptural quotations appearing in Inferno (1897) and Jacob Wrestles (a fragment following Légendes, written in French and in Swedish in 1898). Comparative, discourse, textual and intertextual approaches are used to define the place and role of scriptural quotations in this literary corpus.

    From a historical point of view, both novels are part of the religious history of late 19th century France, where religion played a more important role than during the scientific, rationalist era characterizing the preceding decades. Strindberg adopts a new style corresponding to the spirit of his time. The art of "quoting the Bible at random" is a rhapsodic style, which appears mainly in Strindberg’s correspondence, in his Occult Diary (writings contemporary with Inferno) and in the work of some French 19th century writers. This style originates, above all, in the occult tradition, but it is also a means of imitating the Bible and identifying with a prophetic figure.

    The research discussed in this dissertation has made it possible to determine, for the first time, what Bible translations are used in the two novels by Strindberg (translations by Ostervald and Martin / Roques). Five different types of rewritings of quotations were found: omissions, cutting of verses, substitutions, typographical changes and inversions. These variations were aimed at harmonising the Biblical text and the Strindbergian text, while removing contextual and theological elements that bothered the writer. The discourse analysis has concentrated on the quotations viewed as reported speech, distinguishing different ways of introducing Biblical verses in the novel. It was found that the narrator's subjectivity is present in the comments leading up to the quotations. The polyphonic character of some quotations has stressed the importance of identification play between the narrator and certain quotations characters such as Christ, Job and the psalmist.

    The intertextual analysis has revealed a large number of similarities in the scriptural quotations in the literary production of Strindberg, Swedenborg and French 19th century literature. It is shown that Inferno contains various quotations that appear in Occult Diary and in other writers’ works, such as those of Swedenborg, Péladan, Zola, Huysmans and Chateaubriand. Jacob Wrestles, on the other hand, does not include as many intertextual elements but instead reassembles many scriptural quotations that were underlined in the Bible translation used for this novel: La Sainte Bible, Ostervald's translation from 1890, which can be found in Blå Tornet (The Strindberg Museum in Stockholm). Strindberg is consequently recycling Biblical material when he writes Inferno, while resorting to the French Bible of Ostervald from 1890 to write Jacob Wrestles.

    The quotations strewn in Inferno constitute a crescendo and reveal the narrator’s unsuccessful attempt at conversion, at the same time forming the structure of a complaint psalm in which the narrator cries out his suffering and awaits liberation. In the French text of Jacob Wrestles, the writer offers a package of scriptural quotations in order to identify the narrator as "a religious man", imploring God's mercy like Moses and Job. In the Swedish text of Jacob Wrestles, a new perspective is introduced as a result of the change in language, the change from Old to New Testament, the new spiritual disposition of the narrator and the sudden intrusion of the writer in the narrator’s space. The role of scriptural quotations in the entire fragment of Jacob Wrestles is a true linguistic, thematic and theological revolution, which accounts for the narrator's extraordinary religious evolution. The misery of the narrator in Inferno allows a ray of Christian hope, which will persist in Strindbergs’s literary production post-Inferno.

  • 21.
    Chryssafis, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk.
    La création de mots savants dans le français médiéval: Étude sur un choix de textes de la fin du XIIIe et du début du XIVe siècles, notamment leRoman de la Roseet laConsolation de Philosophiepar Jean de Meun2003Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 22.
    Dilks, Charlotte
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk.
    Les métaphores de guerre dans la prose journalistique du français 2009Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the use of war metaphors, more specifically metaphors centred on the verb, in modern French newspaper prose from three principal angles. 

    The first part of the analysis shows that the verbs of war used are metaphorical rather than concrete. However, the vast majority of the metaphors stem from only five verbs, namely attaquer, affronter, combattre, défendre and lutter

    The second part of the analysis focuses on these five verbs and their metaphorical uses. It is shown that it is the semantic role of patient that separates a metaphorical use from a concrete use. A classification of the patients according to semantic fields reveals that each of the five verbs shows a distinct preference for a certain type of patient and the verbs also differ in whether their patients have negative or positive connotations. This creates an image of five verbs, each of which is conventionalised in a certain linguistic context. 

    The final chapter of the analysis investigates war metaphors from a textual perspective, analysing their usage according to three parameters: position, function and target domains. The position that is the most susceptible to war metaphors is the initial position. The textual functions of metaphors are divided into one semantic and three pragmatic functions. The semantic function structures the theme of an article in terms of war, construing an antagonism by means of elaborating or extending a conventional metaphor. The pragmatic functions considered are argumentative, descriptive and expressive. In the articles studied, war metaphors have mostly a descriptive or argumentative function. Finally, the target domains and their interconnections with the source domain WAR are considered, showing that the war metaphors are linked to power or the lack thereof. The metaphor often describes the person in power, but the case can be reversed with the metaphor describing the powerless resisting or fighting the person in power. 

  • 23.
    Donoso, Alejandra
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    Expresiones de movimiento en español como segunda lengua y como lengua heredada: Conceptualización y entrega del Camino, la Manera y la Base2016Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The current thesis is based on four individual studies which aim to account for the expression of motion events (ME) in Spanish and Swedish as first languages (L1), in Swedish as a second language (L2), and in Spanish as a heritage language (SHL). The data, resulting from audio-recordings of different sorts of stimuli, have been analyzed with special focus on (1) the most common structures used for referring to various types of ME, (2) the types and amount of information provided by the participants, in particular as regards the semantic components Path, Manner and Ground, and (3) grammatical aspect and types of syntactic structures resorted to, including the correlation between the two latter factors and speakers’ discursive preferences.

         Study 1 sets out to explore how Spanish and Swedish native speakers convey information about motion. The results show that the Swedish L1 speakers produced a wider range of descriptions concerning Manner and Path than the Spanish L1 speakers; furthermore, both groups delivered detailed Ground descriptions, although the Swedish native speakers expressed final destinations (endpoints) of ME to a greater extent.

         Study 2 aims to investigate to what extent Swedish L1 patterns for motion encoding are still at play in the acquisition of Spanish L2 even at advanced stages of L2 acquisition. The results show that the learner group used a larger amount of Path particles and Ground adjuncts (in particular those referring to endpoints) than did the Spanish natives; this finding supports the claim that L2 learners rely on the lexicalization patterns of their L1 when describing ME in an L2. As for Manner, the L2 speakers were found to express this component mainly outside the verb, and to deliver more information about Manner than the Spanish natives.

         Study 3 addresses the construal of ME in Swedish speakers of L2 Spanish, in particular concerning the encoding of motion endpoints and Manner of motion. The results show that the Swedish learners of Spanish exhibited the same, high frequencies of endpoint marking as did their monolingual Swedish peers, thus deviating from the Spanish native pattern. Moreover, the L2 speakers used the same amount of Manner verbs as did the Spanish natives but tended consistently to provide additional Manner information in periphrastic constructions.

         Finally, Study 4 sets out to analyze the ways in which L1 Spanish/L2 Swedish early and late bilinguals express ME in SHL. The aim is to show in which ways and to what extent the typological patterns for motion encoding in the L2 may impact on motion encoding in the L1 with regard to three parameters: (1) age of onset (AO) of the acquisition of L2, (2) length of residence (LoR) in the L2 environment and (3) contact level with the L1 (CL). The focus data, consisting of oral re-tellings produced by the bilinguals, were compared to analogous data produced by two control groups (native speakers of Spanish and Swedish) in order to analyze conflation patterns regarding Manner, Path and Ground information. The analysis points to the conclusion that both the individuals’ AO of L2 acquisition and their LoR in the L2 environment have affected their L1 conceptualization patterns while their CL plays a subordinate role.

         In summary, the findings lend support to the idea that the habitual conceptualization of events in the L1 influences L2 acquisition; conversely, the conceptual patterns of the L2 have an impact on L1 usage in bilinguals, especially in combination with an early AO and a long LoR.

  • 24.
    Duch, Anne
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    L’autoportrait textuel par Claude Cahun: Énonciation, formes génériques et détournement dans Aveux non avenus (1930)2017Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present thesis is to examine the modes of enunciation (“mode d’énonciation”) and the use of text genres in relation to thematic and semantic aspects of Claude Cahun’s book, Aveux non avenus (Disavowals: or, Cancelled Confessions)(1930), which consists of text fragments. Claude Cahun, who is mostly known for her photographic self-portraits, was active on the margins of surrealism in Paris in the 1920s. The text fragments of Aveux non avenus can be compared to a collage technique that she also uses in the photomontages which open each chapter of the book. As an author, Claude Cahun clearly resisted traditional confessional literature (as the title of the book also suggests), and this study focuses on how she creates images of herself through characters borrowed from mythology, the Bible, and popular and literary texts, but also through reflections on specific themes in dialogues, essays and aphorisms.

    The thesis examines how Aveux non avenus differs from an actual autobiography, how the fragmented self-portrait is constructed, and how the book expresses a critique of contemporary society. The method of the thesis is based on textual analysis, with the support of the concepts of modes of enunciation (”mode d’énonciation”), text genres, and détournement (”détournement”). It also rests on the contextualisation of Claude Cahun’s practice of writing in relation to the history of literary genres, surrealist avant-garde movement, and in relation to sources within cultural history and the history of women.

    The thesis analyses how Claude Cahun, through the use of different genres and shifting modes of enunciation, creates a fragmented, diverse, and contradictory portrait of herself, in a way that also conveys a critical image of contemporary society. The text functions, simultaneously, as a collage of different text genres. The conclusion thereby underlines the idea that the text is not arbitrarily fragmentary, but constructed on the principles that the analysis of the work has demonstrated. In previous research on Claude Cahun, the indefinite genre of the book has been emphasised. Instead, this thesis wants to show that the diversity of text genres is deliberately explored to develop varying modes of enunciation that give Claude Cahun the opporturity to reflect and give nuance to representations of the self and to convey a radical critique of society.

  • 25.
    Edfeldt, Chatarina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för spanska, portugisiska och latinamerikastudier.
    Uma história na História: Representacões da autoria feminina na História da Literatura Portuguesa do século XX2005Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to examine discursive aspects and practices concerning recognition of literature written by women in 20th century Portuguese literary history. It endeavours to reveal and identify organizational elements along with author representations that, in a historical perspective, lead to marginalization of women writers. The research material consists of narrative literary histories and Encyclopaedias of authors and literature, which have assumed the task of summarizing and retelling the literary development of 20th century Portuguese literature.

    In order to deconstruct the dominant historiographical discourse and to reinterpret the marginalization of women writers, the theoretical and methodological frameworks of this dissertation are taken from the fields of Discourse Analysis and Gender Studies. The combination of these theoretical perspectives provides tools for analysing the questions of power and ideology inherent in the construction of a traditional literary history discourse. Furthermore, this theoretical framework allows us to understand the contingency and historicity of knowledge established in a historiographical discourse.

    The main part of this study consists of a qualitative analysis of representations of women writers along with a discursive analysis of the construction of literary history. The conclusion emphasises five observed discursive strategies, which lead to a reduced narrative history for literature written by women. They could be summarized as follows. Female authorships are conceptualized in a separate strand as “women writers”. Female authorships before 1950 are in literary, socio-political, terms not contextualized. They are not conceptualized within the main lines of historical narratives (literary movements, schools etc.), the female tradition as such is not contextualized, and moreover, the political expression of female authors is reduced.

    Apart from this result this study gives an increased understanding of the different ways in which hegemony in historical discourses opposes representations of “the other”.

  • 26.
    Edmar, Ingrid
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk.
    Le Statut linguistique du sigle. Étude du sigle dans les textes législatifs communautaires1998Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the use of initialisms ("sigles") in a European Community law corpus consisting of the Maastricht Treaty and thirty-eight issues of the Official Journal (300,000 running words). A total of 156 initialisms with over 2,800 occurrences have been excerpted and recorded in a database. The general aim of the study is to investigate the linguistic status of the initialism, which is a sign with a double nature -an abbreviation of a word group and at the same time a lexical unit in itself.

    Initialisms form a heterogeneous group. They are either common or proper nouns referring to nine different semantic categories altogether (organizations dominate, with 58 %), and two fifths are loans, i.e. of foreign origin. The large proportion of hapax legomena (42 %) shows that initialisms are lexical units rather than abbreviations of a frequent word group.

    For one and the same meaning, there are two forms - the initialism and its source. A comparison of the importance of source length versus source frequency shows that source length is a more determining factor in the abbreviating process. This is also confirmed by the considerable number of hapax legomena.

    An initialism has a semantic binding to its source, but it becomes a completely independent unit when the underlying source is unknown (laser, radar, Fiat, etc.). This dependency is investigated in a context study of how the two forms interact. Typically, the initialism is first deciphered via its source, then used by itself. An interesting finding is the group where the initialism and its source alternate. In such instances, they both are frequent, and the usage of the initialism emphasizes its abbreviating function.

    Initialisms are used like any other noun in a given context. In addition, the initialism is a particularly manageable unit: for example, it can easily be attached to a noun (cf. société CE and société communautaire). A study of initialisms in the nominal group [Noun + Initialism] shows that they have three functions: to identify (la banque de données TED), to classify (un client OEM) and to complement (les communications COREU) the noun.

    The context studies reveal that the initialism acts like an independent lexical unit in context even when it has a strong semantic binding to its source. This could help explain the instances where the initialism has an uncertain linguistic status, appearing more like a temporary abbreviation of a word group than as an established lexical unit.

  • 27.
    Eklund–Braconi, Paula
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk.
    Il linguaggio normativo delle Comunità europee: studi quantitativi e semantici sul lessico con particolare riguardo al concetto di ambiente2000Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of this research is to present some aspects and linguistic characteristics of the language used in law documents of secondary legislation, issued in Italian by the European Community. The documents deal with questions regarding environmental politics and are part of a corpus created at the French and Italian department of Stockholm university.

    The work is divided into two main parts. The first part presents the results of the research, which in turn provide general information about the material presented. A chapter dedicated to statistical analysis also indicates how the various categories of words are distributed.

    The second part of this research concentrates on the concept of 'ambiente' which emerges from the documents. A semasiological analysis of the concept of 'ambiente' (eng. environment) follows the development of this word from when it first appeared up to the present day and there is also a lexical-semasiological study both of the single words and the syntagms which are connected to the semantics of 'ambiente'.

    This analysis clearly indicates that from a purely linguistic point of view, syntagms and not single words constitute the specialist element of the material examined. Furthermore, in most cases the meaning of 'ambiente' implicitly implies the idea of manmade alterations, usually linked (as can be seen by the widespread use of the neologism 'ecologia', eng. ecology) to an image of risk and negativity deriving from the shifting of an equilibrium.

    Finally, there is an analysis of nominal syntagms made up of qualifying adjectives and nouns. The results obtained from this analysis lead to the hypothesis that although the adjectives are qualifying, they do not have an attributive function. They are either strongly referential or deictic-anaphoric. Furthermore adjectives are often combined with nouns in syntagms, with varying degrees of cohesiveness, in order to form technical terms. However, despite this, there is abundant use of synonyms, probably for stylistic or rhetorical reasons.

  • 28.
    Eliasson, Mary-Anne
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för spanska, portugisiska och latinamerikastudier.
    Aquisição bilíngue sueco-português: A produção do português brasileiro como a língua mais fraca em crianças bilíngues simultâneas em Estocolmo2012Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study concerns simultaneous bilingual acquisition (2L1) of Swedish-Brazilian children growing up in mixed-lingual families in Stockholm, with Swedish as their dominant language. Earlier studies on this language combination were not found. Not even were there any studies considering 2L1 children of the same age group as our main subjects (Anna 7;7,3–9;1,30, Maria 6;1,16–6;11,11).

    An analysis of their acquisition of Brazilian Portuguese (BP) as a weaker language (WL) was carried out in a Generative Grammar approach, mainly through the selective theory of language acquisition. The corpus consists of interviews with 2L1 children in a semi-longitudinal registration of their production.

    The focus of this analysis lies on the observation of three domains of BP grammar that differ morpho-syntactically from Swedish: verb inflection; VP as minimal responses; NP number and gender agreement. Three main research questions were formulated:

    1) Are the simple and robust structures, provided by domestic input enough for triggering the functional categories (FC) of their WL?

    2) If the FCs are activated, do they develop in the same sequence as a WL as they would in BPL1?

    3) If the 2L1 children show any deviations in acquiring the grammar of their WL, is it possible to distinguish any influence from Swedish?

    To answer these questions a contrastive study was carried out, comparing the acquisition of BPWL with studies on 2L1 and BPL1 acquisition. The results show that the domestic input is enough for triggering the grammar of the WL, and that it was triggered and developed through a similar procedure to that of BPL1, although delayed. Contact with BPL1 input in Brazil was necessary to activate the children’s oral production. When using VPs for minimal responses it requires more than domestic input, and the influence of Swedish was reflected in the subjects’ use of sim ‘yes’ instead of VPs, as in this case grammar enters the domain of discourse at the syntax/pragmatics interface. 

  • 29.
    Engel, Hugues
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk.
    Dislocation et référence aux entités en français L2: Développement, interaction, variation2010Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the use and development of dislocations in oral productions by Swedish users of French as a second language (L2). Dislocations are highly frequent in French oral speech and play an essential role in building utterances. L2 users of French must therefore acquire the grammatical means necessary to build this structure as well as the pragmatic principles underlying its use.

    The study is empirical, and based on a corpus of oral productions from a wide range of non-native speakers (NNS), from beginners studying at university to L2 users who have spent many years in France. The analysis also includes oral productions from a control group of native speakers (NS). The aim is to identify a path of development by which the different forms and functions of dislocations are acquired. Furthermore, the study examines the influence of tasks on the use of dislocations, by analysing two tasks which place very different demands on the informants in terms of cognitive effort, namely interviews and retellings.

    The analysis focuses on two main kinds of dislocations: on the one hand, [moi je VP] (and its syntactical variants); on the other hand, dislocations referring to third entities (such as [NP il VP] and [NP c’est X]). The results show that both kinds go through a process of development in French L2. However, French learners seem to master the lexical dislocations referring to third entities as well as their pragmatic rules of use from the first stages of acquisition, yet with deviances in some cases. On the other hand, the frequency of use of [moi je VP] and its syntactical variants correlates highly with the level of development of the NNS. Moreover, there is a significantly greater frequency of dislocations in the NNS retelling tasks than in their interviews. In the NS group, the frequency of use remains comparable in both tasks. This difference between NS and NNS is probably due to the additional cognitive load that retellings demand compared with interviews—e.g., recalling the succession of events, solving the lexical problems posed by the story that is to be retold. It is proposed that this additional load may trigger, as a compensation strategy, an increase in the frequency of use of dislocations in the NNS speech.

  • 30.
    Fernández-Corugedo, Victor
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för spanska, portugisiska och latinamerikastudier, Avdelningen för spanska.
    El ingenio desde los presocráticos hasta Gracián1998Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The literary and philosophical theory of the Spanish seventeenth century writer Baltasar Gracián is based upon the notions of ingenio, agudeza, prudencia and concepto. This theory tells us about "two intelligences". One juicio (judgement), the other ingenio or creative imagination, which is not a rational intelligence, but a relational, metaphorical intelligence that in a world of perpetual change allows mankind to grasp the truth of the instant, of the thing, or particulars, by means of metaphorical and allegorical language, which allows us to discover reality in the unfolding of its innumerable facets.

    Since Gracián writes in his work Agudeza y Arte de Ingenio that he considers himself the first thinker in trying to give rules for the use of such "intelligence" by creating an art or science, which he calls Agudeza, for the Classics did not devote themselves to the study of this matter, and therefore never gave it a definition, we have gone ad fontes in order to find whatever the Ancients and their successors all the way to Gracián said about it. Having done that, we devote the last chapter to the disclosure in detail of Gracián's theory.

    At the end of this study we come to the conclusion that Gracián is another link in the preservation of the poetical philosophy of the ancient Greeks, for through the history of mankind, as from the appearence of the logos, it is possible to see the existence of two approaches to reality: that of reason and that of creative imagination.

  • 31.
    Forsberg, Fanny
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk.
    Le langage préfabriqué en français parlé L2: Étude acquisitionnelle et comparative2006Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the use of formulaic language in spoken French produced by native and non-native speakers. It aims at describing the development of formulaic sequences in learners ranging from beginners to very advanced users. It draws on data from the InterFra corpus, which includes both formal and semi-formal learners. Four measures are used to characterize this development: extent of formulaic language used, category distribution, type / token ratio and frequency of types.

    It has been shown that a user’s knowledge of formulaic sequences impacts heavily on language proficiency and idiomaticity. Because these sequences follow neither grammatical nor lexical rules, they constitute the last threshold for advanced L2 learners. In second language acquisition, the term formulaic sequence not only applies to strict idiomatic constructions, but it is also used to refer to sequences that appear to be acquired in a holistic manner during the first phases of acquisition. A categorization is therefore proposed that can account for native and non-native usage of formulaic sequences (prefabs). Five categories of prefabs are included: Lexical, Grammatical, Discourse, Situational and Idiosyncratic.

    The extent of a learner’s use of formulaic language increases as the learner progresses, the largest amount found in the production of native speakers and very advanced learners. The learner’s distribution of categories moves towards native speaker distribution, albeit slowly. Situational and Idiosyncratic prefabs are found to characterize the early phases of acquisition, while Lexical prefabs are mastered later and are a major difficulty for L2 learners. Only very advanced learners who have spent considerable time in France produce the same proportion of Lexical prefabs as native speakers. Discourse prefabs constitute the most important category for all groups, including natives and non-natives. It can therefore be postulated that the main function of formulaic sequences in spoken French is that of discourse structuring and speech management. The development and use of formulaic language is explained within a framework of Frequency Effects. Coupled with other factors, frequency can account for why Lexical prefabs are hard to acquire and why formulaic sequences take a long time to master.

  • 32.
    Färnlöf, Hans
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska och italienska.
    L’Art du récit court: Pantins et parasites dans les nouvelles de Maupassant2000Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 33.
    Förnegård, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk.
    Le Miroir historial de Jean de Noyal: Livre X : édition du ms. Paris, BnF, fr. 10138 avec introduction, notes et index2005Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In the 1380s, Jean de Noyal, Abbot of the Benedictine monastery of Saint Vincent in Laon between 1367 and 1396, authored his universal history, the Miroir Historial. The mirror, which described the history of the world from the creation until the year 1380, originally comprised 12 books, presumably organized into three volumes. However, only the three final books, X, XI and XII, have been preserved for posterity and are to be found in a sole manuscript: Paris, BnF, fr. 10138. Until today, only short excerpts of Jean de Noyal’s history have been published. In all cases, except one, these excerpts have been taken from books XI and XII. This thesis provides a critical edition of book X, the longest of the three, which comprises the initial 101 folio pages of the manuscript’s total 191. The edited text is preceded by an introduction, followed by a complete index verborum including all of the words found in the text, as well as a complete index nominum.

    Book X describes the period from 1223 to 1328. Its contents cover the history of Western Europe and the north and eastern Mediterranean fairly well. Although France and its kings maintain a privileged position in the book, the Holy Roman Empire, the Holy See and the Iberian Peninsula are devoted considerable space. The geography of the Near East, the Muslim rulers and the Mongols are also described in brief. The mirror also has a local perspective – in part, Jean de Noyal provides a rather detailed account of Philip the Fair’s Flemish campaign, which took place not far from the place in which the history was authored and, in part the Abbot’s predecessors at Saint Vincent are presented, albeit laconically.

    Like other universal histories of the same period, the Abbot’s mirror is a compilation. The original passages in book X are particularly few and quite brief. Apart from a few passages dealing with the history of Laon, the original material in the mirror is generally limited to explanatory sub-clauses. The remaining material is entirely comprised of borrowings from other French texts or of translations from Latin works. Eight sources have been used for book X. The work from which the largest amount of text has been borrowed is the Chronique amplifiée des rois de France by Guillaume de Nangis, and no less than three quarters of book X have been borrowed from this source. Other sources used are Martin of Troppau’s and Bernard Gui’s chronicles of popes and emperors and the Chronique normande du XIVe siècle. The remaining four sources are probably secondary and have quite likely been taken from another compilation, possibly Vincent of Beauvais’ Speculum historiale. The third chapter of the introduction includes a presentation of the eight sources for book X that it has been possible to identify. Finally, this work gives a tabular account of the book’s sources excerpt by excerpt.

    Jean de Noyal’s narrative style is thematic rather than chronological – events are retold only partly in chronological order. Furthermore, the Abbot sometimes gives two or three different versions of the same event. The fact that these repetitions are, without doubt, a deliberate method of compilation is proven by the references inserted by the Abbot in these instances. This method provides the reader with several interpretations of the same event.

    Linguistically, the mirror is very heterogeneous – the parts that have been borrowed from Guillaume de Nangis differ considerably from those taken from the Chronique normande. There are lexical differences and morphosyntactic differences – including the use of the two-case system, which is highly sporadic in the former but entirely consistent in the latter. The remaining parts of book X, which Jean de Noyal probably translated from Latin himself, form a third group, which, in turn, contrast with the parts borrowed from the two French sources.

  • 34.
    García, Oscar
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för spanska, portugisiska och latinamerikastudier.
    Guerrilleros de papel: La representación del guerrillero en seis novelas centroamericanas de los años setenta y ochenta2010Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study is to analyze and compare the representation of the guerrilla soldier in six contemporary Central American novels. According to Claudio Guillén, the comparison is a dialogue between unity and diversity. It can be defined with the help of two coordinates: a spatial and a temporal. In this study the spatial coordinate includes Nicaragua, Guatemala and El Salvador, and the temporal extends from the mid-seventies to the eighties. The novels written in the seventies are Los compañeros (1976) by Marco Antonio Flores, ¿Te dio miedo la sangre? (1977) by Sergio Ramírez and Caperucita en la zona roja (1977) by Manlio Argueta. The ones written in the eighties are La mujer habitada (1988) by Gioconda Belli, La diáspora (1989) by Horacio Castellanos Moya and El hombre de Montserrat (1994) by Dante Liano.

    The novels are analyzed from a postcolonial perspective following the ideas of Alfonso de Toro and Santiago Castro-Gómez particularly. The method used is the phenomenological hermeneutics, as proposed by Mario J. Valdés. This implies an analysis performed on four levels: historical, formal, phenomenological and hermeneutic. Two of the key aspects in the analysis are the reader's aesthetic identification with the hero and the postcolonial concept subaltern.

    The main conclusion is that the representation of the guerrilla soldier in the corpus is very heterogeneous and that almost no protagonist can be considered a subaltern. The reader's identification with the guerrilla soldier ranges from admirative to ironic, though the main type is sympathetic. Hence, the representation may be considered a hybrid, using a term borrowed from anthropologist Néstor García Canclini that opposes binary schemes and essentialist thinking. The guerrilla soldier is regarded as an individual and not as an abstract idea, which indicates that the civil wars in Central America were not just a conflict between two ideologies, but above all a human experience.

  • 35.
    Gille, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för spanska, portugisiska och latinamerikastudier.
    Pautas argumentativas en el diálogo espontáneo.: Un estudio de conversaciones intra e interculturales2001Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aims to develop a method for the analysis of argumentative patterns in spontaneous dialogue (Chapters 1-3), and to apply this method to samples of face-to-face interaction (Chapters 4-7). The purpose of the applied study is twofold: to evaluate the proposed method and to provide a contrastive description of the communicative style of Swedish and Spanish speakers in intra- and intercultural same-gender and mixed-gender dialogues.

    The study emphasises the co-operative and dynamic features inherent in argumentation in interaction as well as the dialogical nature of all conversational contributions. Argumentation is defined as a dynamic process whereby opinions are negotiated in interaction. The argumentative process is analysed into separable

    argumentative moves that are performed explicitly or implicitly, and whose domain is the idea unit (sense unit). The primary aim of argumentation is identified as that of making one standpoint, as reflected in an overtly or covertly expressed opinion, prevail over other possible or expressed standpoints/opinions. This general objective encompasses the specific interactive aims of creating adherence in the audience to a standpoint, and that of making the audience prepared to act.

    The model proposed comprises a set of argumentative and non-argumentative moves, defined by four sets of binary distinctive features: [+/– new topic], [+/– agreement], [+/– new information], and [+/– standpoint]. In addition, the model discriminates between self-directed and other-directed moves.

    The empirical study focuses on six of the argumentative moves (acceptance, rejection, other-support, self-support, other-objection, and self-objection). Linguistic strategies used for implementing these moves are identified. The strategies and the

    frequencies with which the various moves occur are correlated with two prototypical communicative styles: ‘collaborative’ vs. ‘self-assertive’. On the basis of the analysis, argumentative profiles are traced for each of the four participant categories in each of

    the four contexts analysed. The analysis, apart from revealing systematic differences between the groups, lends empirical support to the proposed method.

  • 36.
    Gudmundson, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk.
    L’accordo nell’italiano parlato da apprendenti universitari svedesi: Uno studio sull’acquisizione del numero e del genere in una prospettiva funzionalista2012Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the acquisition of grammatical gender and number agreement in Italian as a second language (L2). The theoretical framework is based on a functional approach that stresses the importance of form function mappings, cues, frequency effects and the statistical properties of the language input. The Competition Model is of particular importance and the Italian oral corpus LIP is used to make calculations that measure the validity, availability and reliability of the Italian noun endings. The data consists of 71 transcribed teacher-student dialogues with Swedish learners of Italian at Stockholm University. The results show that learners have problems with feminine gender in the plural and with ambiguous noun endings, i.e. cases where one form is connected to more than one function. These findings can be explained by cue competition and frequency effects and to some extent by a markedness effect. 

    A second study with time (longitudinal development) and reliability of the noun endings (high or low) as independent variables and degree of accuracy as dependent variable showed a positive increase in accuracy rates over time, both for low and high reliability noun endings. There was also a significant interaction effect between the two independent variables according to which cases of agreement with low validity noun endings showed a higher increase in accuracy rates than high validity noun endings. This could be explained by the power law of practice, i.e. cases of agreement with high reliability noun endings soon reach a very high level of accuracy from which it is difficult to make further progress.

  • 37.
    Hancock, Victorine
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk.
    Quelques connecteurs et modalisateurs dans le français parlé d’apprenants avancés. Étude comparative entre suédophones et locuteurs natifs2000Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The intention of this study is to give a qualitative and quantitative description of the usage of connectors, especially mais, parce que and donc, and of some epistemic modifiers in the spoken French of Swedish advanced learners. The study includes eight advanced learners, six highly advanced learners and eight native speakers from the French learner corpus InterFra, all interviewed by the same native speaker. In total, 22 interviews of learners (39,000 words) and eight interviews of native speakers (23,000 words) were examined. One of the goals was to find typical advanced learner features (interlanguage features) in connector and modifier usage, and also to describe individual variation in the group. We highlight the importance of comparative studies and of taking into account recent studies of spoken French to establish advanced interlanguage features, as normative French grammar fails to account for some spoken usage of connectors.

    The aim in studying interlanguage features that involve connectors and modifiers is twofold: first, we try to understand the function of certain connectors/modifiers at the semantic, discourse organizing, interactional and speech act levels. Second, we look at the syntactic dependence and integration of discourse sequences introduced by parce que and modifiers like je crois (que).

    The study of mais (chapters 2 and 3) showed that learners used turn-introducing mais more often than native speakers. Mais was also found to be an important reformulation marker in the learner group. In the study of parce que (chapter 4), we found that the macro-syntactic (paratactic) parce que was frequent in both speaker groupes, but that a function like introducing ”specifications” was more frequent in the learner group, while parce que introducing parenthetic remarks (incises) – commonly used by native speakers of French – was found in only a few cases in the learner corpus. We suggest that this latter usage is a property of the highly advanced user. The study of epistemic phrases like je crois/ je pense/ je trouve (que) (chapter 5) revealed a small quantitative difference in syntactic dependence between the two groupes of speakers: the learners more frequently used independent expressions. From a qualitative point of view, the difference was partly due to the high number of isolated phrases (like je crois oui) and post-positioned phrases in the learner material. Both groups of speakers used modifiers as discourse-structuring devices and as fillers, but their use as fillers was more frequent in the learner group. Finally (chapter 6), by carrying out a prosodic analysis (variation in fundamental frequency) coupled with an analysis of the information structure, we segmented the speech into functional discourse units (les paragraphes oraux). This analysis suggested some characteristics of highly advanced learner usage for the position of the connector donc. One such feature was the incorporation of donc in a constituent of the discourse unit, both from a syntactic and prosodic point of view.

  • 38.
    Hedegård, Gösta
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk.
    Liber iuratus Honorii: a critical edition of the Latin version of the Sworn book of Honorius2002Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The Liber iuratus Honorii, or the Sworn Book of Honorius, as it is often called, has been the focus of a steadily growing interest ever since the occult revival in the late 19th century. This exponent of pseudo-Solomonic magic has been mentioned from time to time in the literature on magic up to the present day. Unfortunately, scholars have hitherto had to rely far too much upon a poor edition of a partial English translation of this work, which is, in fact, originally in Latin. The contents of the book include complex magic rituals, a list of one hundred names of God, presentations of angels, spirits, and demons of diverse orders, instructions on how to prepare and use magic seals and circles etc.

    The present work is the editio princeps of the Latin text, and it is accompanied by an index of so-called voces mysticae and of divine, angelic, and demonic names. Furthermore, a partial edition of the Ars Notoria text Flores aurei Apollonii, which has turned out to be one of the sources of the Liber iuratus Honorii, is appended.

    The introduction includes a description of the manuscript tradition, a discussion of the date and attribution of the text and of its relation to other texts within the same genre, an analysis of its contents and structure, and a description of how the rituals contained in the book were performed. One of the conclusions reached is that the three extant Latin manuscripts represent a closed recension which can be described in stemmatic form, and that even other witnesses to the text can be fitted into this tradition. It is further proved that the Flores aurei Apollonii is one of the major sources of the Liber iuratus Honorii.

  • 39.
    Henderson, Carlos
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för spanska, portugisiska och latinamerikastudier.
    El Pretérito Perfecto Compuesto del español de Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay: Aspectos semánticos y discursivos2010Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present work is to describe the semantics and the discursive functions from a general cognitivist point of view of the usage of the Present Perfect in the spoken Spanish of Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay. It is argued that cross-linguistic values often ascribed to perfect, such as continuity, current relevance and recency to the speech time –ST– do not offer a consistent view of the actual usage. It is assumed that a basic meaning of the perfect operates in the studied dialects and is retrievable in all tokens, which differs significantly from the current descriptions of the perfect of “general” Spanish.

    The results show that the ST might very well be an inference of the basic meaning of the Perfect but it is not an intrinsic component of the Perfect’s semantics. Based mainly on Dahl & Hedin (2000), as well as on Langacker (1987), the revitalizing of the concepts type and token reference are suggested as key principles for identifying the respective domains of the Spanish Present Perfect and the Simple Past in the studied area. The Perfect, through type reference, makes an assertion of a situation as a representation of the class-type of the verbal semantics. The Simple Past, however, through token reference conceptualizes the situation as having explicit or implicit anchoring in the chronological axis of time. Three main kinds of contexts occur typically with the Perfect in the samples: detemporalized ascertainment, summary (in a broad sense of the word) and aspectual complexity. Summary scanning (Langacker, 1987), i.e. the schematic and holistic detemporalized conceptualization of the development of a given situation, is claimed to be used by informants for discursive purposes, granting a greater rhetorical weight to the Perfect.

    The results founded in this thesis indicate that the perfect tenses in Spanish have followed (and are following) different developmental paths that are not necessarily restricted to the same sequences and mode of grammaticalization.

  • 40.
    Henning, Susanne
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    La construcción de la imagen social en dos pares adyacentes: Opinión-acuerdo/desacuerdo y ofrecimiento-aceptación/rechazo: Un estudio de la conversación familiar sueca y española2015Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study is to conduct a contrastive analysis on a corpus of Swedish and Spanish family conversations with respect to two adjacency pairs: opinion-agreement/disagreement (OADs) and offer-acceptance/rejection (OARs). On one hand, from a structural perspective, based on the methodology of Conversation Analysis, one of the objectives is to observe how (dis)preferred turns of the OADs and OARs are managed by the interlocutors. On the other hand, from a functional perspective, based on the methodology of Sociocultural Pragmatics, the intention is to study how face is constructed and how politeness is managed by the family members when expressing OADs and OARs.

    The structural analysis of OADs and OARs shows that the majority of agreements and acceptances follow the rules for preferred turns proposed by orthodox conversation analysts, i.e. they appear directly after the first part of the adjacency pair (opinion or offer), and they are brief and unambiguous. However, the structural analysis also reveals that 70% (Swedish corpus) and 72% (Spanish corpus) of the disagreements as well as 64% (Swedish corpus) and 70% (Spanish corpus) of the rejections have a tendency to not follow the proposed rules for dispreferred turns, i.e. they are not delayed or accompanied by hesitations, justifications, etc. and nor are they evaluated as dispreferred by the participants. This indicates that social perspective, especially face, has to be considered when deciding what is considered (dis)preferred.

    The functional analysis of the OADs indicates that the majority of the disagreements in both Swedish (68%) and Spanish (79%) corpus are not mitigated, but rather are expressed in a fairly direct manner. Swedes tend to avoid disagreements, and therefore we expected to find a major difference between the two groups. One explanation could be that family members enjoy close relationships, and therefore the Swedes feel free to express their disagreements. As for the impact on the family members face, in both groups, it is both autonomy face and affiliation face that are influenced when OADs are expressed. As for agreement, for example, it is usually autonomy face that is affected. We interpret this as a way for the participants to show that both speakers and listeners have valuable opinions that deserve to be both voiced and commented on. This reveals the more discursive (rather than ritual) nature of OADs.

    In addition, the functional study of OARs shows that acceptances and rejections in both corpora are expressed using both ritual and attenuating politeness according to the norms required by the situation. Concerning the impact on face, autonomy face has different requirements in the two cultures: in the Swedish conversations, it is important to offer food without insisting several times, and in the Spanish corpus, it is important to offer food more than one or two times, and there is also a tendency to refuse the offer several times before accepting it. Therefore, according to one’s situational role, one has to know how to both give and receive offers, which points to the more ritual nature of OARs.

    Finally, we want to emphasize that by adding a social perspective to the structural one, we can interpret the meaning of the conversations in a way that provides a broader understanding of what is being said as participants express OADs and OARs.

  • 41.
    Iversen, Gunilla
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk.
    Corpus Troporum IV, Tropes de l'Agnus Dei: Edition critique suivie d'une étude analytique1980Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 42.
    Johansson, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för spanska, portugisiska och latinamerikastudier.
    El sueño de la razón de A. Buero Vallejo: una aspérrima crítica social en vestimenta trágico-histórica1999Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 43.
    Johnsson, Hans-Roland
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk.
    Le Conte de la lyre brisée: Significations et structures dans les œuvres en prose de Pierre Louÿs2000Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 44.
    Jon-And, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för spanska, portugisiska och latinamerikastudier.
    Variação, contato e mudança linguística em Moçambique e Cabo Verde: A concordância variável de número em sintagmas nominais do português2011Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates variable noun phrase number agreement (VNA) in two second language varieties of Portuguese, spoken in Maputo, Mozambique and in Mindelo, Cape Verde. Quantitative VARBRUL analysis is carried out based on recordings made in Maputo and Mindelo 2007 and 2008.

    Previous quantitative studies on VNA in varieties of Brazilian Portuguese (Guy, 1981; Lopes, 2001; Andrade, 2003) as well as on VNA in first and second language varieties of Portuguese from São Tomé (Baxter, 2004; Figueiredo, 2008, 2010) indicate contact between Portuguese and African languages as the main origin of this phenomenon. VNA in Brazilian Portuguese is, however, interpreted by Scherre (1988) and Naro & Scherre (1993, 2007) as the result of language internal drift.

    Varieties of Portuguese from Mozambique and Cape Verde are particularly interesting to contrast in order to investigate influences from African languages on VNA, as in Mozambique Bantu languages are first languages of the vast majority of Portuguese speakers, whereas in Cape Verde, practically all Portuguese speakers are first language speakers of Cape Verdean Creole, whose substrates are West African, and not Bantu, languages. Comparison is also made with previous studies from Brazil and São Tomé.

    The results of this study comment previously postulated explanations for VNA in Portuguese in various ways. The analysis of the variables onset age and age stratum indicates that VNA in the analyzed varieties is a phenomenon linked to the acquisition of Portuguese as a second language and/or language contact rather than the result of internal drift. The fact that all the compared varieties tend to mark plural on pre-head components contradicts Bantu transfer as an explanation for this pattern, and raises the need to also consider more general explanations based on language contact. The basic structural similarity between the compared varieties suggests the existence of a grammatical restructuring continuum.

  • 45.
    Jouet, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    Le Roman d'Alexandre en prose: Le manuscrit Vu 20, Kungliga biblioteket, Stockholm Édition et étude linguistique2013Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation is an edition and a linguistic study of the manuscript Vu 20, Kungliga biblioteket, Stockholm. The manuscript contains the Old French Prose Alexander Romancele Roman d’Alexandre en prose. The text was translated into French in the thirteenth century from the Latin interpolated version J2 of the Historia de Preliis, which in turn is a translation of the Greek text commonly known as Pseudo-Callisthenes. The Stockholm manuscript Vu 20 is one of fifteen extant French manuscripts of the Roman d’Alexandre en prose. It belongs to the first redaction (I), which is the oldest one.

    The anonymous and undated manuscript Vu 20 contains characteristic features of a script used in the eastern Mediterranean around the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries – le français d’Outremer. This dialect was little studied for a long time, but scholarly interest in it has increased in recent years. The linguistic study of the manuscript suggests that it was written at the beginning of the fourteenth century. 

    The aim of this dissertation is to provide an edition of the manuscript Vu 20, Kungliga biblioteket, Stockholm, and make it accessible to other researchers. Another aim is to provide a study of its language, which has proven interesting in many respects, not least when it comes to the dialect, and as a result of the investigation to propose a possible place and time for its composition.

  • 46.
    Kihlman, Erika
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk.
    Expositiones sequentiarum: Medieval Sequence Commentaries and Prologues. Editions with Introductions2006Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The sequence commentary emerged as a new branch of medieval commentary literature in the twelfth century. The sequence itself, sung in the Roman Mass, was a hugely influential genre—several thousands of sequence texts are known today—but the fact that the Middle Ages also produced commentaries on this liturgical poetry has been hitherto practically unknown and very few commentary texts have been edited.

    The present work is the first attempt at a broader presentation of the sequence commentary genre. It makes available in modern editions seven previously unedited expositions on the sequence Ad celebres rex for the feast of St Michael. Introductions to each edition discuss the motifs interpreted, the commentary technique used and the sources drawn upon. Manuscript interrelations and textual problems are also treated here.

    Editions of four prologues introducing collections of commentaries are also included. These texts, though not specifically tied to the commentaries on Ad celebres rex, are presented here since they provide useful evidence of the interpretative frameworks chosen by the commentators.

    The complex textual transmissions of these texts have required three different editorial methods, which are discussed in a separate chapter.

    A general introduction surveys the sequence commentary material found to date. From these textual witnesses—nearly a hundred manuscripts listed in an appendix—we may conclude that the genre flourished mainly in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Most manuscripts present large collections of commentaries on sequences for the whole liturgical year, generally preceded by a prologue and sometimes accompanied by a corresponding group of hymn commentaries.

  • 47.
    Kihlstedt, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk.
    La Référence au passé dans le dialogue: Étude de l’acquisition de la temporalité chez des apprenants dits avancés de français1998Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The present thesis is a study of past time reference by Swedish university students in interaction with a native speaker of French. Most previous studies in the field of language acquisition have focussed on learners at early stages of acquisition. It is less known how adult, qualified learners use a second language. This study aims at, through the description of the form and function of verbs with past reference, establishing what characterizes advanced learners at different levels.

    The considerable individual variation found in advanced learner language is an often mentioned factor. However, the relationship between the level of acquisition and this factor has not, thus far, been explicitly examined. In order to distinguish features of individual variation from features characterizing different acquisitional levels, the production of four learners from the InterFra project were chosen for this study. These learners differed with respect to their competence level and interactional style. The learners' use of tense and aspect in 18 interviews, recorded regularly during four university terms, was systematically compared with that of four native speakers. They were interviewed on the same topics by the same native speaker of French as the learners. From the 5746 finite verbs in these interviews, 1210 forms carrying past time reference were coded according to various temporal/semantic factors: the semantic features inherent in the verb (Aktionsart), perfect or aoriste function of le passé composé, the contextual aspectual values of l'imparfait, the use of a base form and the marking of the temporal relations between the events spoken about.

    As a result of the analyses, 26 features were singled out as indicative of competence level, irrespective of indivual variation. A general tendency in the data was that production of tense forms preceded mastery of semantic function. This was especially clear in the case of l'imparfait, which was limited to a small number of verb types and to a limited range of aspectual values, in comparison to native French. The learners preferred l'imparfait for situations where the actual time of the event was completely overlapping with the time spoken about.

    Despite the systematic morphological marking of past time reference by the learners, in the context of stative verbs, they retracted to the use of a non-target like base form. This form typically occurred when two points of time in the past were involved.

    On a more general level, the capacity to mark temporal moves between the events spoken about was found to be a decisive variable, which separated the most advanced learners from the least advanced, and the learners from the native speakers. In the native data, and, to a lesser degree, in the highest acquisitional level, the marking of temporal moves in the past were frequent. The less advanced learners relied more on the interlocutor's time anchoring. On the other hand, temporal movement between "now" and "then" was often marked by a few temporal adverbs, especially maintenant (= now). These were frequently used by the learners. Since the native speakers did not use these adverbs, it is suggested that the learners' first language, where a past event is morphologically marked as linked either to the moment of speech (perfekt) or to a definite time in the past (preteritum), could account for this strategy.

  • 48.
    Kilito, Sarah
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk.
    Femmes-sujets: Étude sur les oeuvres de romancières marocaines francophones entre 1982 et 19992004Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation explores and analyses an emergent literature, namely the Moroccan francophone novel written by female authors. The novels selected were published between 1982 and 1999 in Morocco and in France. The criteria enumerated in the introduction of the dissertation yielded a corpus of 27 novels that hitherto have never been studied as a whole.

    The approach to this vast material has been twofold. Firstly, the social context has been considered, in order to bring to light the historical and political conditions which inevitably impact upon these authors. Since the period examined is from 1982 to 1999, the focus is upon the contemporary social and political situation. As part of this examination, the pertinent chapters in the Moroccan Moudawana (marriage code) are examined for their bearing on the legal situation of women. How important this is may be seen in the fact that through their characters and plots, a great many of these novels seem to call some of these laws into question.

    Secondly, and this is the main task of the thesis, these literary texts have been studied from a thematic perspective. Particularly frequent themes such as colonization and married life have been studied and divided in more detailed themes, such as cultural identity, marriage, sexuality and female emancipation. The sociological perspective has been maintained throughout the analysis, in order to show the connection between reality and fiction. It has been found that this connection is very close: the novels deal to a great extent with social questions.

    The analysis of the literary treatment of the two main themes and their constituents leads to the conclusion that colonisation and marriage are described in the same terms and as structurally similar experiences, both being characterised by hierarchy, force, and self-denial.

    It is furthermore argued that women’s writing in general and in Morocco in particular is a prise de pouvoir, and the thesis takes a considerable interest in the relation between writing and political power/action.

  • 49.
    Kirchmeyer, Nathalie
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk.
    Étude de la competence textuelle des lectes d’apprenants avancés. Aspects structurels, fonctionnels et informationnels2002Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 50.
    Künzli, Alexander
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk.
    Quelques stratégies et principes en traduction technique français-allemand et français-suédois2003Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation investigates translation strategies and translation principles in technical translation. Five translation students and 5 professional translators from German-speaking Switzerland and 4 translation students and 6 professional translators from Sweden were asked to think aloud while translating a user guide from French into German and from French into Swedish, respectively. The focus of the analysis was on the strategies that could be observed by comparing the translation products with the source text; and on the principles underlying these strategies as revealed by the think-aloud protocols of the translation processes. In order to evaluate the extent to which the translation products complied with the fictitious translation brief given to the participants, 2 reviewers per language pair proofread the translation products. The analysis also included contrastive analyses of certain linguistic features of technical texts in French-German and French-Swedish. The results show that experience of translation does play a role in the choice of translation strategy. It is, however, an even more important factor with respect to knowing and applying translation principles in the translation process. Also, students more often display uncertainty regarding translation principles, and conflict between the principles verbalised and those actually followed. Language-pair specific differences were mostly found in connection with translation strategies. Comments about future directions include the need for clearer definitions and more systematic manipulations of the variables involved in translation, and the potential interest in investigating the principles governing how translations are revised through the use of think-aloud protocols.

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