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  • 1.
    Arvidsson, Klara
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    « C'est ça, en fait. » Développer l'idiomaticité dans une L2 pendant un séjour linguistique: Trois études sur le rôle des différences individuelles2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with the development of idiomaticity in French as a second language (L2). Idiomaticity in this context refers to knowledge and use of multiword expressions (MWEs), such as for example c'est ça and en fait. Developing idiomaticity is an important yet challenging aspect of L2 learning, and requires substantial exposure to the target language (TL). This makes the study abroad learning context ideal. However, research shows that learners vary considerably with respect to their linguistic development during their stay abroad. The aim of this thesis is to investigate what factors promote the development of idiomaticity in L2 French during a semester abroad. The thesis comprises three studies which are informed by usage-based approaches to language learning and individual difference research, and which include a total of 43 participants. Study I quantitatively investigates the role of quantity of TL contact for the learning of MWEs used in informal conversations. The results show that quantity of TL contact during the stay abroad did not predict the development of MWE knowledge. Study II qualitatively explores what kind of TL contact and what psychological orientation (a constellation of psychological factors) might promote MWE learning by focusing on contrasting cases of learners from Study I. The findings suggest that a relatively varied contact with the TL in combination with a favorable psychological orientation promoted MWE learning, including a self-reported tendency to notice language forms, a strong L2 motivation, a sense of self-efficacy and self-regulatory capabilities. Study III explores the role of social networks for the development of idiomaticity in spoken L2 French. It is found that the learner's repertoire of MWEs was promoted by a social network including several relationships sustained in the TL. Overall, the findings suggest that a relatively varied TL contact in combination with a favorable psychological orientation and/or a social network including TL speakers promote the development of L2 idiomaticity during the semester abroad. In other words, mere exposure to the TL does not seem to be enough to develop idiomaticity. This thesis contributes to SA research on L2 learning and can hopefully be of use to future SA participants who want to develop their knowledge and use of MWEs which are key to successful communication in an L2.

  • 2.
    Reite, Torun
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    Discursos fronteiriços de jovens moçambicanos: A linguagem, as ideologias e as subjetividades na colonialidade contemporânea2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Why are we talking about coloniality in postcolonial times? And what does language have to do with it? In addressing these two broad questions, this thesis sets out to provide empirically well-grounded reflections focusing: First, on how young Mozambicans’ linguistic repertoires and discursive practices relate to their sense of being in the world. And second, on how their perceptions resonate with recent sociolinguistic debates about the different roles language and ideologies play in constructing and reproducing conditions of contemporary coloniality. The role of postcolonial Portuguese is particularly highlighted. The introduction provides a critical, decolonial and epistemic reflexion that brings together four seemingly disparate studies. Moreover, it offers an invitation to critically reflect on discourses, ideologies and valuations that are carried in and on our individual and collective historical bodies and minds and are reproduced through different manifestations of what I call ‘discursive re(b)orderings’. Study I, explores how Portuguese spoken in Maputo has changed after independence and underpins the inquiry into the ‘construct’ of linguistic boundaries and its relation to ideas of language purity and how these ideologically laden notions impact knowledge production and perceived and lived mobilities in the ‘postcolony’. Study II, displays ‘languaging’ practices of young Mozambicans and their strategic orientations in their social-spatial deployment of linguistic resources, and explores ‘translanguaging’ as discursive space production. Study III, brings Frantz Fanon into the study of sociolinguistics of subjectivity and explores the reflexes of the ‘other’ in the constitution of the self of young Mozambicans, suggesting that intersubjectivity holds the promise of disentangling Fanon´s notion of ‘sociogenese’. Study IV brings Pierre Bourdieu´s Distinction (1984) into the ‘postcolony’ by emulating his methodology through multilevel big picture data, combining quantitative and qualitative data and analyses with approaches inspired by ethnography to look at ‘positions and dispositions’ of young Mozambicans across fields and markets. Theoretically, the thesis brings Bourdieu and Fanon together, and shows how nexus concepts, intersubjectivity and the historical bodies and minds represent promising avenues to the understanding of language in coloniality. Two nexus concepts, the habitus and the sociogenese, are adopted and complement each other. By mixing methodologies, the studies combined, manage to capture the complexities in the multi-layered and often subtle ways discursive bordering constructs and reproduces contemporary coloniality. Empirically, taken together, the four studies show how ideologies, the ‘constructs’ surrounding language and the symbolic value of Portuguese are taken up in language and discourses and in speakers’ strategic deployment of linguistic resources across fields and marketplaces in the ‘postcolony’. Moreover, it shows how all forms of capital: epistemic, economic, educational, linguistic and symbolic are reconfigured and revaluated. Nevertheless, mobility is contained, and socioeconomic inequalities are mirrored in sociolinguistic inequalities and even in material urban space to the effect of perpetuating conditions of contemporary coloniality.

  • 3.
    Belmar Shagulian, Jasmin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    El mito de la Quintrala: Estructuras simbólicas en dos novelas de Gustavo Frías2017Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this comparative study is to analyse La Quintrala’s myth as a symbolic discourse, thereby filling a gap in the previous studies about La Quintrala.

    The theoretical and methodological framework of this analysis consists of a hermeneutical approach based on the method of figurative structuralism: mythocriticism. This is a dual classification method of symbols: Diurnal and Nocturnal Orders that expose the symbolic structures formed by symbols and archetypes found in mythemes in a compilation of corpora. The first one is Gustavo Frías’ novels Tres Nombres para Catalina: Catrala (2008) and Tres nombres para Catalina: la doña de Campofrío (2008); the second is a historic essay (hypotext), Benjamín Vicuña Mackenna’s Los Lisperguer y la Quintrala (1944), and four novels: Magdalena Petit’s (2009) La Quintrala, Mercedes Valdivieso’s (1991) Maldita yo entre las Mujeres, Virginia Vidal’s (2002) Oro, veneno y puñal, and Gustavo Frías’ El Inquisidor (2008).

    Mythocriticism is employed in the analysis to show what the mythical structure of the hero’s journey (Separation, Initiation, Return) reveal. Such journey is combined structurally with the Mother archetype (White, Red and Black Goddess), the intrinsic archetype of La Quintrala’s myth. The heroic structure unveils its own mythemes, La Quintrala’s and the first corpus’s mytheme through the diachronic and synchronic flow of the hero’s journey. This method permits to identify and compare the progression of the symbolic structures.

    The analysis demonstrates a transformation of the symbolic structures between both corpora. This survey reveals that Vicuña Mackenna and Petit, and partially Vidal and El Inquisidor, exhibit an inclination to the diurnal symbols that strengthen, through a heterodiegetic narrator, the representations of the witch-femme fatale, counteractive attributes of the Red and Black Goddesses in the myth. Valdivieso, on the other hand, shows a propensity to the nocturnal symbols of inversion and intimacy that emphasize the Red Goddess’ features, though the novel also exposes La Quintrala as a witch-femme fatale. This exposure occurs through the use of both an autodiegetic narrator –La Quintrala– and a heterodiegetic one –the hypotext embodied in the popular voice– that appear to contrast each other. Finally, in Tres Nombres para Catalina, La Quintrala as the autodiegetic narrator dominates the whole story. She personifies the Great Goddess archetype who bestows her new positive attributes during the adventure. This novel assumes primordially the nocturnal symbolism incarnated by both the mystical and the synthetical structures and relegates the diurnal discourse of the hypotext to a secondary position in the narrative. Nonetheless, Tres Nombres para Catalina’s narrative still relies on the hypotext to reproduce and reconstruct all the mythemes in the myth of La Quintrala.

    Conclusively, the results of this analysis indicate that the identification of all the mythemes supports the hypothesis of a transformation in the symbolic structures which characterize La Quintrala in both corpora. This reveals the embodiment of Tres Nombres para Catalina’s own mytheme, consisting of a vindication and a recognition to her indigenous heritage, and the acceptance of her mestizaje. As a consequence, Tres nombres para Catalina, in comparison to the second corpus, diverges and expands the symbolic structures, but still shows a continuity of the myth.

  • 4.
    Quartararo, Geraldine
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    Evidencialidad indirecta en aimara y en el español de La Paz: Un estudio semántico-pragmático de textos orales2017Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation investigates the expression of the indirect evidential subdomain in two languages in contact, i.e. the northern variety of Central Aymara and the variety of Spanish spoken in La Paz (Bolivia).

    For this aim, the study uses first-hand data collected in La Paz and El Alto (Bolivia) during 2014 and 2015. Data was elicited through: the “Family Problems Picture” task (San Roque et al. 2012), formulated by the members of the Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics and created specifically for the activation of cognitive categories such as evidentiality and mirativity; the “Pear Story” designed for Wallace Chafe, professor at the University of California, to collect narrative texts that show how humans perceive, elaborate and verbalize experience; and, finally, personal narratives, traditional narratives and interviews. Thirty-three recordings (12h 48’) of 48 Spanish-Aymara bilingual speakers (17 males, age range: 18-64) were fully transcribed and annotated. The resulting corpus consists of 33 transcriptions of which 14 are in Aymara (c. 19 154 words), whereas 19 are in Spanish (c. 46 245 words).

    The dissertation is built around four research questions.

    First, the dissertation shows the functions of the forms identified in the data in both languages. The study identifies for each form both evidential and non-evidential functions. Indirect evidential functions are systematically analyzed and classified by combining Willett’s (1988) and Aikhnvald’s (2004) classifications. The analysis shows evidential functions of forms that have not been previously studied as such, i.e. digamos and diciendo in Spanish and sañani and sapxi in Aymara, but it also reveals unnoticed evidential functions for previously described forms.

    Second, the dissertation provides a clear view of the relationship between the evidential and the epistemic modal domain involved in the use of the forms identified. Two types of correlation are found. Both languages, indeed, show forms that only point out the way in which speakers acquired information and forms where the two domains overlap.

    Third, the dissertation investigates speakers’ epistemic stance, in terms of commitment, towards information involved in the use of the evidential forms identified. The study shows that the forms which convey merely evidential information express mainly a medium-high commitment degree, whereas the forms in which the distinction between the evidential and the epistemic modal domain is blurred indicate a low degree of commitment.

    Forth, the dissertation sheds light on the relationship between the expressions of the indirect evidential subdomain in the two languages. The study proposes a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the evidential types and subtypes in both languages. The results show a high degree of convergence between the two languages, suggesting also situations of influence of one language on the other.

  • 5.
    Duch, Anne
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    L’autoportrait textuel par Claude Cahun: Énonciation, formes génériques et détournement dans Aveux non avenus (1930)2017Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present thesis is to examine the modes of enunciation (“mode d’énonciation”) and the use of text genres in relation to thematic and semantic aspects of Claude Cahun’s book, Aveux non avenus (Disavowals: or, Cancelled Confessions)(1930), which consists of text fragments. Claude Cahun, who is mostly known for her photographic self-portraits, was active on the margins of surrealism in Paris in the 1920s. The text fragments of Aveux non avenus can be compared to a collage technique that she also uses in the photomontages which open each chapter of the book. As an author, Claude Cahun clearly resisted traditional confessional literature (as the title of the book also suggests), and this study focuses on how she creates images of herself through characters borrowed from mythology, the Bible, and popular and literary texts, but also through reflections on specific themes in dialogues, essays and aphorisms.

    The thesis examines how Aveux non avenus differs from an actual autobiography, how the fragmented self-portrait is constructed, and how the book expresses a critique of contemporary society. The method of the thesis is based on textual analysis, with the support of the concepts of modes of enunciation (”mode d’énonciation”), text genres, and détournement (”détournement”). It also rests on the contextualisation of Claude Cahun’s practice of writing in relation to the history of literary genres, surrealist avant-garde movement, and in relation to sources within cultural history and the history of women.

    The thesis analyses how Claude Cahun, through the use of different genres and shifting modes of enunciation, creates a fragmented, diverse, and contradictory portrait of herself, in a way that also conveys a critical image of contemporary society. The text functions, simultaneously, as a collage of different text genres. The conclusion thereby underlines the idea that the text is not arbitrarily fragmentary, but constructed on the principles that the analysis of the work has demonstrated. In previous research on Claude Cahun, the indefinite genre of the book has been emphasised. Instead, this thesis wants to show that the diversity of text genres is deliberately explored to develop varying modes of enunciation that give Claude Cahun the opporturity to reflect and give nuance to representations of the self and to convey a radical critique of society.

  • 6.
    Pauletto, Franco
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    L’ordine sociale a tavola: L’interazione tra genitori e figli in famiglie italiane e svedesi2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation examines mealtime conversations between parents and children in eight Swedish and eight Italian middle class, dual-earner households, exploring the ways in which children are engaged in the cooperative construction of social order. The study is part of an international project (cf. Aronsson & Pontecorvo, 2002), coordinated with prior work in the US (cf. Ochs & Kremer-Sadlik, 2013).

    Study I explores how children’s accounts work during family dinner conversations. So called proto-accounts (laments, multiple repeats, want-statements) and varied verbal accounts are analyzed in relation to age class or prior language socialization experiences.

    Study II focuses on the use of endearment terms in directive sequences between parents and children. The findings show an asymmetrical distribution of endearment terms, in that only parents make use of them when interactional problems – children’s non-compliance with parental requests in particular – arise.  

    Study III examines the ways in which Italian parents deploy the discourse marker dai (‘come on’) in directive sequences. This is a flexible linguistic resource that is employed by parents as a cajoling token when children fail to comply with parental requests, hindering the advancement of the in-progress activity.

    This thesis describes family mealtimes as parent-directed activities where sociality, morality and local understandings of the world (Ochs & Shohet, 2006) are collaboratively re-created and enacted. This confirms the crucial role of everyday family meals as rich cultural sites (Ochs & Shohet, 2006) for reasserting moral attitudes of the family: participants learn moment by moment how to be competent actors that are able to choose between alternative courses of action and that can therefore be held accountable for their actions (Bergmann, 1998: 284). From this point of view, a dinner is paradigmatic of the deep moral sense that permeates the making of a family.     

  • 7.
    Lindqvist, Helena
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    Marcadores metadiscursivos, fluidez y participación conversacional en español L2: La evolución de la competencia comunicativa durante la estancia en una comunidad de la lengua meta2017Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the acquisition and use of metadiscourse markers in learners/users of L2 Spanish and the role these markers play in the development of fluency and conversational participation during a five-month stay in Spain as exchange students of business administration.

    The study has been conducted in three steps. The first part focuses on the theory and categorization of metadiscourse markers, followed by an analysis of the use and development of these markers in learners of L2 Spanish. The second part deals with the categorization and operationalization of aspects of fluency and conversational participation that can be associated with the use of metadiscourse markers; followed by an analysis of these aspects in the performance of the learners. The third part of the study is a summary of the results obtained and a discussion of the relationship between the use of metadiscourse markers and the development of fluency and conversational participation.

    The data underlying the current study consists of a selection of 17 recorded conversations between learners of L2 Spanish and native speakers of Spanish taken from the AKSAM database. The conversations belong in two activity types: discussions and simulated negotiations. The selected sample has a duration of approx. 10 hours and comprises 87 683 words. The study focuses on nine learners who have been recorded at the beginning and at the end of their five month study-abroad stay.

    Results show that frequency of use of metadiscourse markers has increased considerably at the end of the stay in the majority of the learners under study. A qualitative development can also be found, through which the metadiscourse markers that characterize the learners’ L1 and/or interlanguage have been substituted by more target-like expressions. Furthermore, both their fluency and level of conversational participation have generally increased. Within this development, however, a notable individual variation can be found. The learners who show the strongest development as regards fluency and conversational participation are also found to exhibit the most salient development of metadiscourse markers. Since disfluency is reduced to a lesser degree in those participants who also exhibit a less developed use of metadiscourse markers, it is argued that the development of metadiscourse markers in the L2 learner runs parallel to the development of discourse skills, but also that acquiring an adequate use of metadiscourse markers helps developing these skills. 

  • 8.
    Donoso, Alejandra
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    Expresiones de movimiento en español como segunda lengua y como lengua heredada: Conceptualización y entrega del Camino, la Manera y la Base2016Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The current thesis is based on four individual studies which aim to account for the expression of motion events (ME) in Spanish and Swedish as first languages (L1), in Swedish as a second language (L2), and in Spanish as a heritage language (SHL). The data, resulting from audio-recordings of different sorts of stimuli, have been analyzed with special focus on (1) the most common structures used for referring to various types of ME, (2) the types and amount of information provided by the participants, in particular as regards the semantic components Path, Manner and Ground, and (3) grammatical aspect and types of syntactic structures resorted to, including the correlation between the two latter factors and speakers’ discursive preferences.

         Study 1 sets out to explore how Spanish and Swedish native speakers convey information about motion. The results show that the Swedish L1 speakers produced a wider range of descriptions concerning Manner and Path than the Spanish L1 speakers; furthermore, both groups delivered detailed Ground descriptions, although the Swedish native speakers expressed final destinations (endpoints) of ME to a greater extent.

         Study 2 aims to investigate to what extent Swedish L1 patterns for motion encoding are still at play in the acquisition of Spanish L2 even at advanced stages of L2 acquisition. The results show that the learner group used a larger amount of Path particles and Ground adjuncts (in particular those referring to endpoints) than did the Spanish natives; this finding supports the claim that L2 learners rely on the lexicalization patterns of their L1 when describing ME in an L2. As for Manner, the L2 speakers were found to express this component mainly outside the verb, and to deliver more information about Manner than the Spanish natives.

         Study 3 addresses the construal of ME in Swedish speakers of L2 Spanish, in particular concerning the encoding of motion endpoints and Manner of motion. The results show that the Swedish learners of Spanish exhibited the same, high frequencies of endpoint marking as did their monolingual Swedish peers, thus deviating from the Spanish native pattern. Moreover, the L2 speakers used the same amount of Manner verbs as did the Spanish natives but tended consistently to provide additional Manner information in periphrastic constructions.

         Finally, Study 4 sets out to analyze the ways in which L1 Spanish/L2 Swedish early and late bilinguals express ME in SHL. The aim is to show in which ways and to what extent the typological patterns for motion encoding in the L2 may impact on motion encoding in the L1 with regard to three parameters: (1) age of onset (AO) of the acquisition of L2, (2) length of residence (LoR) in the L2 environment and (3) contact level with the L1 (CL). The focus data, consisting of oral re-tellings produced by the bilinguals, were compared to analogous data produced by two control groups (native speakers of Spanish and Swedish) in order to analyze conflation patterns regarding Manner, Path and Ground information. The analysis points to the conclusion that both the individuals’ AO of L2 acquisition and their LoR in the L2 environment have affected their L1 conceptualization patterns while their CL plays a subordinate role.

         In summary, the findings lend support to the idea that the habitual conceptualization of events in the L1 influences L2 acquisition; conversely, the conceptual patterns of the L2 have an impact on L1 usage in bilinguals, especially in combination with an early AO and a long LoR.

  • 9.
    Negreiros Persson, Janaina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    La construcción discursiva de la responsabilidad civil durante una dictadura: Un análisis crítico de los discursos del juicio contra los excomandantes en Argentina en 19852016Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this study is to explore how people who have experienced events in the past re-contextualize these same events in the present. We analyse the discourse of the public trial in 1985 against the members of the first three Argentine military juntas in the most recent dictatorship in Argentina (1976-1983). The study focuses on the discursive construction of civil responsibility. We examine the discourses of the witnesses that were called to testify at the trial by the defence attorneys of the accused Jorge Rafael Videla and Roberto Eduardo Viola, former de facto presidents of Argentina. The analysed testimonies concerned a specific event during the dictatorship, namely the meetings between the military junta and civil actors that were held in 1979 and 1980 with the declared purpose to create political dialogue between the military and selected parts of the civil society. Prior to the trial, these political dialogue meetings had not been considered to be particularly important in the history of the dictatorship, but the testimonies at the trial draw attention to the responsibility of civil actors in the crimes committed during the military dictatorship. In this study we investigate this theme in a novel way, focusing on the discursive tools used by civilians at the trial to explain their involvement in the dictatorship. We adopt the perspective of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) and Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL).

    To establish relationships between social and linguistic aspects, we include the concepts of intertextuality, discursive strategies, appraisal and legitimation. The main research questions are: 1) How do people represent linguistically a historical event when they find themselves in a new historical context? 1a) What discursive representation of the latest Argentinean dictatorship are made by the participants (witnesses, judge, defence and prosecutor) in the trial against the military junta leaders in 1985?; 1b) What intertextual influences are present in the interactants’ discourses during the interrogations, and in what way do these discourses contribute to legitimise the historical past?; 1c) What language resources do the civilian witnesses use to represent the Armed Forces and the armed rebel groups)? and 2) In what way do the witnesses reconstruct their role in the political dialogue meetings, or more specifically, what linguistic resources do the witnesses use to represent themselves in relation to the responsibility of civilians in the military dictatorship?

    The results show that the witnesses, in general, interpreted the recent past of Argentina using discourses that on the one hand condemned the violence caused by the armed rebel groups and on the other hand justified the interference of the Armed Forces. These discourses were used in the construction of a positive identity of both the witnesses as individuals and the institutions to which they belonged. Furthermore, their discourses legitimized their own actions, when these supported the Armed Forces in their “war on subversion”. The overwhelming majority of the witnesses tried to evade the questions meant to clarify their responsibility on the events of the dictatorship. Most of the witnesses, during the interrogation tried to find discursive strategies and linguistic resources that could hide their support to the Armed Forces during the regime and they did not reveal clearly their position regarding the military illegal actions during the dictatorship.

  • 10.
    Barnohro Oussi, Broula
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    Sentieri e radure: Le forme del cronotopo d'iniziazione in Alessandro Baricco2016Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present dissertation is to study the elaborations of the initiation myth in contemporary Italian author Alessandro Baricco. The theoretical and methodological framework consists mainly of Mircea Eliade’s phenomenological theory of initiation. It is argued that the categories of space and time are interdepent in religious thought and should thus be studied as a unit, through the notion of the chronotope. The dissertation therefore proposes to introduce the concept of the chronotope of initiation as an operative tool, the intersection of the theories of Eliade and Mikhail Bakhtin, for the literary subgenre of the initiation novel.

    A hermeneutical analysis of the novels Oceano mare, Emmaus and Mr Gwyn demonstrates that the initiation myth is present in all three novels. The symbolism of death and rebirth is coherently enacted as a movement via the categories cosmos-chaos-cosmos, for which the author uses the symbolism of the earth to define cosmos (regularity and structure) and water symbolism for the regenerating chaos (dissolution and renewal). The different chapters of analysis accentuate the interaction of space and time within the different phases of the initiation pattern: the profane, the threshold, the sacred, the centre (the place where the actual ritual is enacted) and the return, which are all defined as chronotopes.

    The analysis shows that although the chronotope of initiation – the concept intending the fusion of the temporal event of ritual at the spatial centre – assumes different forms throughout the corpus, its function remains unmodified, with its purpose being the creation of ontological change. In its inherent structure, the chronotope of initiation unites antithetical spatial and temporal characteristics. Spatially it unites infinite and dissolving chaotic space with the constitutive envelope or sacred vertical centre, and temporally it brings together the ultimative ontological change at a fixed, historical moment with the eternal, sacred, time opened by ritual, representing the coincidentia oppositorum of the sacred. The analysis also shows that the so-called “portraits of the ineffable”, present in all three novels, reflect the same qualities. As immanent works of art, they function as thresholds into the infinite.

    From a chronological perspective, the dissertation shows a modification of the initiation pattern in Baricco’s writing: from the classical form in Oceano mare, via a more realistic application in Emmaus, to the most elaborate, meta-literary adaption in Mr Gwyn. Nevertheless, the use of the pattern and its thematic coherence reveals that Baricco consciously elaborates on the pattern to suit the contemporary context.

  • 11.
    Wahlsten Böckerman, Robin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    The Metamorphoses of Education: Ovid in the Twelfth-Century Schoolroom2016Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to explore the earliest known commentary on Ovid’s Metamorphoses, extant in the manuscript clm 4610, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, and thus to shed some light on the early reception on the Metamorphoses.

    Ovid’s Metamorphoses is today one of the most well-known works of literature from ancient Rome. This, however, has not always been the case. Ovid came upon the medieval literary scene surprisingly late compared to many of the other ancient authors. From the period before 1100 the Metamorphoses is preserved in only a handful of manuscripts. In addition to the manuscripts transmitting the text itself two commentaries on the work dated to around 1100 are extant. These commentaries, which seem to have been produced in the monastic environment in Bavaria, are the earliest witnesses to the reception of the Metamorphoses during the middle ages.

    These commentaries are, as far as we know, the first in burgeoning trend of commenting on the Metamorphoses. From the late twelfth century onwards there appear an increasing amount of commentaries on the work, which have received some attention in the scholarly world. These earliest witnesses, however, have in large been neglected.

    The core of this thesis is found in part II. It consists of an edition and translation of the previously unedited commentary in the manuscript clm 4610. Part I serves the function of contextualising and analysing the edited text. The first chapter, Ovid Enters the Scene, discusses the resurgent popularity of the Metamorphoses around year 1100. The following chapter, Situating the Commentary, contextualises the commentary in clm 4610 with regard to the commentary context, the school context and the Bavarian context. After this, different aspects of the form and function of the commentary are analysed in the chapter Form and Function. The final chapter of Part I consists of Three case studies that further investigate the relationship between clm 4610 and other commentary texts.

  • 12.
    Alfvén, Valérie
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    Violence gratuite et adolescents-bourreaux: Réception, traduction et enjeux de deux romans suédois pour adolescents, en France, au début des années 20002016Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to a better understanding of the role of Swedish literature for adolescents in the French literary scene in the early 2000s. The sociology of literature constitutes the main theoretical framework of this thesis.

    Drawing from examples that broach the sensitive topic of "unprovoked violence" as it is treated in two Swedish novels for teenagers, Spelar död [Play Death] by Stefan Casta and När tågen går förbi (Train Wreck) by Malin Lindroth, this thesis shows how these novels are innovative in Even-Zohar’s sense of the term, as addressed in his Polysystem Theory (1990). By introducing "unprovoked violence" and violent teenagers via a realistic genre, such works filled a vacuum in the French system and injected a new dynamic into it. This dynamic makes it possible for new literary models to be introduced in the system and to change the standards of that system.

    The analyses of the French and Swedish receptions of the two novels mentioned above show that they gave rise to a moral panic in France, which is not an unusual thing to happen in periods of ongoing change. This also clarifies the differences in norms between the two systems. The French system tends to reject dark topics, while the Swedish wishes to discuss them. The investigations of the translations of unprovoked violence show that adherence to Swedish norms determine the translation’s adequacy (Toury), which may be part of the reason for the stormy reception the two works received in France, and their undergoing censure. The position of translators and publishers in the literary system also plays a major role for a translated text not being censured during the transfer from one system to another.

    Even if the Swedish titles translated into French are few, this thesis shows that the impact of Swedish literature on adolescents in France is certain. By introducing new and sensitive topics, such novels could be early markers of an evolution of the French field of literature for adolescents.

  • 13.
    Bloom, Karin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    Cordelia, 1881–1942: Profilo storico di una rivista per ragazze2015Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this dissertation is to conduct a study of the history of the girls’ magazine Cordelia (1881–1942), founded in Florence by Angelo De Gubernatis. The analysis mainly focuses on the years 1881–1917; however, the latter period is also briefly treated. The theoretical framework consists of sociology of literature and gender history; the dissertation belongs to the field of history of publishing, which is integrated with a gender historical perspective. The methodological challenges faced when dealing with periodicals as research objects are also considered. In order to achieve bibliographic control and examine Cordelia’s contents and contributors, all issues of the magazine’s first 36 years were indexed. The study examines the commercial strategies of the magazine’s publishers, as well as the contributions of the chief editors and writers involved in the making of the magazine. Attention is drawn to the personal relationships between the individuals in these groups. As is shown, the magazine was not very successful in its first three years of publication, during the editorship of De Gubernatis. The two editors who followed, Ida Baccini and Jolanda (pseudonym for Maria Maiocchi Plattis), did succeed, however, in creating a familiar and attractive product for the young female public and to involve them in their magazine. Quantitative surveys of the contributors and contents have shown, for instance, that Baccini and Jolanda relied on regular contributions from relatively few writers and also published serial fiction to arouse the readers’ interest. Their comprehension of the potential of the periodical and the importance of their gender in addressing their readers, together with the capacity of long-time publisher Cappelli to develop commercial strategies to boost sales, seem to have been the reason for the longevity and success of Cordelia.

  • 14.
    Henning, Susanne
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    La construcción de la imagen social en dos pares adyacentes: Opinión-acuerdo/desacuerdo y ofrecimiento-aceptación/rechazo: Un estudio de la conversación familiar sueca y española2015Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study is to conduct a contrastive analysis on a corpus of Swedish and Spanish family conversations with respect to two adjacency pairs: opinion-agreement/disagreement (OADs) and offer-acceptance/rejection (OARs). On one hand, from a structural perspective, based on the methodology of Conversation Analysis, one of the objectives is to observe how (dis)preferred turns of the OADs and OARs are managed by the interlocutors. On the other hand, from a functional perspective, based on the methodology of Sociocultural Pragmatics, the intention is to study how face is constructed and how politeness is managed by the family members when expressing OADs and OARs.

    The structural analysis of OADs and OARs shows that the majority of agreements and acceptances follow the rules for preferred turns proposed by orthodox conversation analysts, i.e. they appear directly after the first part of the adjacency pair (opinion or offer), and they are brief and unambiguous. However, the structural analysis also reveals that 70% (Swedish corpus) and 72% (Spanish corpus) of the disagreements as well as 64% (Swedish corpus) and 70% (Spanish corpus) of the rejections have a tendency to not follow the proposed rules for dispreferred turns, i.e. they are not delayed or accompanied by hesitations, justifications, etc. and nor are they evaluated as dispreferred by the participants. This indicates that social perspective, especially face, has to be considered when deciding what is considered (dis)preferred.

    The functional analysis of the OADs indicates that the majority of the disagreements in both Swedish (68%) and Spanish (79%) corpus are not mitigated, but rather are expressed in a fairly direct manner. Swedes tend to avoid disagreements, and therefore we expected to find a major difference between the two groups. One explanation could be that family members enjoy close relationships, and therefore the Swedes feel free to express their disagreements. As for the impact on the family members face, in both groups, it is both autonomy face and affiliation face that are influenced when OADs are expressed. As for agreement, for example, it is usually autonomy face that is affected. We interpret this as a way for the participants to show that both speakers and listeners have valuable opinions that deserve to be both voiced and commented on. This reveals the more discursive (rather than ritual) nature of OADs.

    In addition, the functional study of OARs shows that acceptances and rejections in both corpora are expressed using both ritual and attenuating politeness according to the norms required by the situation. Concerning the impact on face, autonomy face has different requirements in the two cultures: in the Swedish conversations, it is important to offer food without insisting several times, and in the Spanish corpus, it is important to offer food more than one or two times, and there is also a tendency to refuse the offer several times before accepting it. Therefore, according to one’s situational role, one has to know how to both give and receive offers, which points to the more ritual nature of OARs.

    Finally, we want to emphasize that by adding a social perspective to the structural one, we can interpret the meaning of the conversations in a way that provides a broader understanding of what is being said as participants express OADs and OARs.

  • 15.
    Tabaku Sörman, Entela
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    “Che italiano fa” oggi nei manuali di italiano lingua straniera?: Tratti del neostandard in un corpus di manuali svedesi e italiani 2014Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The object of study of this thesis is the linguistic input in textbooks of Italian as a foreign language (FL). The intent is to study whether the linguistic changes, observed in contemporary Italian, have become part of the Italian offered as input to the learners. To identify the variety of language presented in the textbooks, some features of contemporary linguistic changes were chosen as verifiable indicators. These features, listed by Sabatini (1985: 155) as a basic part of "italiano dell’uso medio", and by Berruto (1987: 62) as part of "neostandard", are not occasional changes but are features that are gradually expanding and stabilizing into Italian standard (Sobrero 2005). A corpus consisting of 38 Italian textbooks published in Sweden and 8 in Italy in the years 2000-2012 were used to verify the manifestation of these features.

    The results show that the presence of neostandard features in the textbooks of Italian FL is conditioned, at first, by the rate of acceptance of those features by the linguistic norm. Thus, features that are nowadays commonly considered as normative have a high number of occurrences in the corpus. This is the case concerning lui, lei, loro as subject pronouns, the use of gli instead of loro, the use of the present tense for the future and the use of temporal che. On the other hand, features that are not considered as normative have no or very few occurrences. This is the case with gli instead of le and the use of imperfetto ipotetico. Secondly, the presence of the neostandard features in textbooks is conditioned by the instructive function of the textbooks, which shapes the typology of input introduced. Thus, occurrences of features such as cleft clauses and dislocations are mainly presented in authentic texts, oral texts, or introduced explicitly, but are rare or absent in textbooks characterized by simplified language.

  • 16.
    Ågerup, Karl
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    Didafictions: Littérarité, didacticité et interdiscursivité dans douze romans de Robert Bober, Michel Houellebecq et Yasmina Khadra2013Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Using as example twelve novels by Robert Bober, Michel Houellebecq and Yasmina Khadra, the dissertation discusses the aesthetic and pragmatic implications of integrating didactically historical reference in fictional narrative and personal theme. Rather than reducing the works of Bober, Houellebecq and Khadra to tendency novels sculptured to pass on a predetermined message, the study discusses the aesthetic values created by didactical play. Not only does historical reference form the setting of the novels but the feelings and ideas expressed by the characters also point outwards, challenging journalistic discourse and historical fact. After underlining the obvious heritage from social realism, littérature engagée and Tendenzliteratur, the study points to the possibility of a reading mode that uncannily marries self forgetting imaginary and historical learning. Finding no comprehensive description within existing theories of genre, the thesis proposes the neologism “didafiction” for a subcategory to the novel that, by systematic interdiscursive play, call for engagement without subscribing to pre-existent doctrines. The lessons given by this literature, rather than operating through a traditionally pedagogic rhetoric, work through sophisticated artistic procedures that integrate encyclopaedia and ethics in a personal theme structure.

  • 17.
    Lindström, Eva
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    L’acquisition du genre en français L2 – développement et variation2013Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the developpment of gender agreement in determiners and adjectives in the spontaneous speech of L2 French by five groups of Swedish learners: beginners at the university, secondary school students, university students, teacher candidates and PhD students. Different types of determiners are examined, such as definite and the indefinite articles. Adjectival agreement is studied in different positions in relation to the noun, such as the attributive anteposition, the attributive postposition and the predicative position. The aim is to identify the developmental sequence of gender agreement through a longitudinal study of learners at different levels of acquisition. The analysis is based on spoken language, i.e. 81 interviews belonging to the InterFra-corpus, Stockholm University. Our data also includes 8 oral productions from a control group of native speakers.

    The study is in three parts: one for the agreement between determiners and nouns, another for the agreement between adjectives and nouns and, finally, a study considering agreement between all three items within the noun phrase, i.e. determiner, noun and adjective (Det-N-Adj). A sequence of acquisition for gender agreement on determiners and adjectives is proposed based on the productions of four learner groups and compared to the six developmental stages suggested by Bartning and Schlyter (2004).

    Results have showed that there is an acquisition order of gender agreement in different parts of the nominal phrase, according to the type of determiner and the positions of the adjective. A qualitative analysis has shown a random use of gender agreement on determiners and some nouns are used with both genders on the determiner. Also, the type-token ratio is very low at the beginning of the acquisition, which partly explains the high accuracy rate (100 %). The study considering agreement between all three constituents within the noun phrase revealed that advanced learners have higher accuracy rate for gender agreement on adjectives within the noun phrase with the presence of a determiner that marks gender distinction (i.e. a non-elided, singular determiner). Results also showed that the feminine form of the adjectives remains difficult at higher acquisitional levels.

  • 18.
    Jouet, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    Le Roman d'Alexandre en prose: Le manuscrit Vu 20, Kungliga biblioteket, Stockholm Édition et étude linguistique2013Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation is an edition and a linguistic study of the manuscript Vu 20, Kungliga biblioteket, Stockholm. The manuscript contains the Old French Prose Alexander Romancele Roman d’Alexandre en prose. The text was translated into French in the thirteenth century from the Latin interpolated version J2 of the Historia de Preliis, which in turn is a translation of the Greek text commonly known as Pseudo-Callisthenes. The Stockholm manuscript Vu 20 is one of fifteen extant French manuscripts of the Roman d’Alexandre en prose. It belongs to the first redaction (I), which is the oldest one.

    The anonymous and undated manuscript Vu 20 contains characteristic features of a script used in the eastern Mediterranean around the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries – le français d’Outremer. This dialect was little studied for a long time, but scholarly interest in it has increased in recent years. The linguistic study of the manuscript suggests that it was written at the beginning of the fourteenth century. 

    The aim of this dissertation is to provide an edition of the manuscript Vu 20, Kungliga biblioteket, Stockholm, and make it accessible to other researchers. Another aim is to provide a study of its language, which has proven interesting in many respects, not least when it comes to the dialect, and as a result of the investigation to propose a possible place and time for its composition.

  • 19.
    Olsson Lönn, Eva M.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk.
    Thérèse Raquin d’Émile Zola: Répétitions lexicales, réseaux sémantiques et leurs traductions suédoises2013Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The subject of this thesis is Emile Zola’s novel Thérèse Raquin (1867). The principal aim is to examine lexical repetitions and their importance for semantic networks. The thesis studies the use of the noun cou and certain of its co-occurrences, as well as the use of colours and their derivatives. Employing the methods of Greimas and Rastier, the study is based upon two analyses, one narratological and the other thematic, an approach which allows us not only to study the importance of lexical repetitions, but also to study another aspect of the writing, Zola’s various sources of inspiration. This approach aids in showing the stylistic profile of the novel from a new perspective. Our second aim concerns the Swedish translations of the text. The degree of equivalence of lexical repetitions and their transmission has been studied in three versions (Wilson, 1884, Bjurman, 1911, and Bouleau, 1953). Our analysis draws on Berman’s and Heldner’s ideas about the critical evaluation of translated literary texts.

    The results of this thesis show that Zola, in Thérèse Raquin, uses lexical repetitions to create a stylistic effect that not only draws inspiration from literary and artistic sources, but that is also inspired by real events of the time. These stylistic properties, such as the system of colour leitmotivs, must be conveyed in a translation that is to be considered faithful to the original. The findings of this study suggest that there is a dependency between two of the examined versions and that it would be desirable to produce a new Swedish translation of the novel, equivalent to Zola’s text.

  • 20.
    Eliasson, Mary-Anne
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för spanska, portugisiska och latinamerikastudier.
    Aquisição bilíngue sueco-português: A produção do português brasileiro como a língua mais fraca em crianças bilíngues simultâneas em Estocolmo2012Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study concerns simultaneous bilingual acquisition (2L1) of Swedish-Brazilian children growing up in mixed-lingual families in Stockholm, with Swedish as their dominant language. Earlier studies on this language combination were not found. Not even were there any studies considering 2L1 children of the same age group as our main subjects (Anna 7;7,3–9;1,30, Maria 6;1,16–6;11,11).

    An analysis of their acquisition of Brazilian Portuguese (BP) as a weaker language (WL) was carried out in a Generative Grammar approach, mainly through the selective theory of language acquisition. The corpus consists of interviews with 2L1 children in a semi-longitudinal registration of their production.

    The focus of this analysis lies on the observation of three domains of BP grammar that differ morpho-syntactically from Swedish: verb inflection; VP as minimal responses; NP number and gender agreement. Three main research questions were formulated:

    1) Are the simple and robust structures, provided by domestic input enough for triggering the functional categories (FC) of their WL?

    2) If the FCs are activated, do they develop in the same sequence as a WL as they would in BPL1?

    3) If the 2L1 children show any deviations in acquiring the grammar of their WL, is it possible to distinguish any influence from Swedish?

    To answer these questions a contrastive study was carried out, comparing the acquisition of BPWL with studies on 2L1 and BPL1 acquisition. The results show that the domestic input is enough for triggering the grammar of the WL, and that it was triggered and developed through a similar procedure to that of BPL1, although delayed. Contact with BPL1 input in Brazil was necessary to activate the children’s oral production. When using VPs for minimal responses it requires more than domestic input, and the influence of Swedish was reflected in the subjects’ use of sim ‘yes’ instead of VPs, as in this case grammar enters the domain of discourse at the syntax/pragmatics interface. 

  • 21.
    Gudmundson, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk.
    L’accordo nell’italiano parlato da apprendenti universitari svedesi: Uno studio sull’acquisizione del numero e del genere in una prospettiva funzionalista2012Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the acquisition of grammatical gender and number agreement in Italian as a second language (L2). The theoretical framework is based on a functional approach that stresses the importance of form function mappings, cues, frequency effects and the statistical properties of the language input. The Competition Model is of particular importance and the Italian oral corpus LIP is used to make calculations that measure the validity, availability and reliability of the Italian noun endings. The data consists of 71 transcribed teacher-student dialogues with Swedish learners of Italian at Stockholm University. The results show that learners have problems with feminine gender in the plural and with ambiguous noun endings, i.e. cases where one form is connected to more than one function. These findings can be explained by cue competition and frequency effects and to some extent by a markedness effect. 

    A second study with time (longitudinal development) and reliability of the noun endings (high or low) as independent variables and degree of accuracy as dependent variable showed a positive increase in accuracy rates over time, both for low and high reliability noun endings. There was also a significant interaction effect between the two independent variables according to which cases of agreement with low validity noun endings showed a higher increase in accuracy rates than high validity noun endings. This could be explained by the power law of practice, i.e. cases of agreement with high reliability noun endings soon reach a very high level of accuracy from which it is difficult to make further progress.

  • 22.
    Moreno Teva, Inmaculada
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för spanska, portugisiska och latinamerikastudier.
    Las secuencias formulaicas en la adquisición de español L22012Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study is to observe the L2 acquisition effect of studying abroad during approximately four months in Swedish non-native speakers (NNSs) of Spanish with respect to their use of multi-word structures (MWSs) as compared to native speakers (NSs). In addition, this evolutionary study has a secondary aim which is to see the effect of the activity type on the amount and distribution of the MWSs encountered.   

    This study shows positive effects of a study abroad period in L2 use and, particularly, regarding MWSs. It has been shown that the amount and variety of the NNSs’ MWSs have increased during their stay in Spain, and that the differences with the NSs in the use of MWSs have diminished or even, in some cases, disappeared. It is notable the improvement in the NNSs’ discourse competence.

    The study also shows that the type of task affects the results. Thus, the negotiations that contain specialised vocabulary which participants are familiar with, yield a higher token frequency of MWSs among NSs and NNSs than the focus group discussions, more free and spontaneous. The negotiations also yield a higher token frequency of conceptual MWSs, especially noun phrases, because of the specialised vocabulary, more complex and subject to greater nominalisation.The focus group discussions have a higher token frequency of own-management MWSs than the negotiations, which is attributed to a higher communicative pressure. On the other hand, the token frequency of interaction management MWSs is higher among the NSs in the mixed group discussions compared to those with only NSs, as a result of collaborative interaction between the NSs and the NNSs.

    Individual differences among NNSs have also been observed and five profiles have been distinguished. These differences decrease in general at the end of the stay, which also indicates a positive development. There is a positive development in all profiles, which is reflected in significant changes in the amount and variety of the MWSs, their distribution in categories or in the emergence of more complex types. A direct link has also been observed between communication orientedness, participation in conversation and a positive development.

  • 23.
    Lodén, Sofia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk.
    Le chevalier courtois à la rencontre de la Suède médiévale: Du Chevalier au lion à Herr Ivan2012Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation investigates the links between Chrétien de Troyes’ romance Le Chevalier au lion from the late twelfth century and the Old Swedish text Herr Ivan, written at the behest of Queen Eufemia of Norway at the beginning of the fourteenth century. The study has two parts. The first sets out to determine the sources of the Swedish text: Was Le Chevalier au lion really the source text of Herr Ivan? The second part raises the question of what happened to the courtly ideals that characterize the French romance when they were transferred into Swedish.

    The analysis of the question concerning the sources of Herr Ivan confirms that Le Chevalier au lion was the translator’s main source, while the Old Norse version Ívens saga, from the middle of the thirteenth century, was used as a secondary source. The relationship between Le Chevalier au lion, Ívens saga and Herr Ivan is examined through a comparison of the three texts: the choice of verse or prose, the role of prologues and epilogues, and the use of the voice of a narrator and of direct and indirect discourse. Four specific passages are compared at a micro-level.

    By comparing Herr Ivan to its sources, it becomes clear that the Swedish translator wanted to stress certain courtly ideals by presenting a distinct and coherent interpretation of what Chrétien de Troyes refers to as courtoisie. This indicates that the function of the text was to present a set of ideological and aesthetic values. The analysis of the transmission of courtly ideals takes its point of departure in the uses of the French word courtois and the Swedish equivalent hövisker. As a next step, three elements intimately linked to courtliness are examined: aventure, gaieté and honneur. Also the different roles played by the lion are highlighted. Finally, it is shown how the courtly ideals of Herr Ivan can be read in the light of the other Old Swedish texts written at the behest of Queen Eufemia: Hertig Fredrik av Normandie and Flores och Blanzeflor.

  • 24.
    Nordgren, Lars
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk.
    The Greek Interjections: Studies on the Syntax, Semantics and Pragmatics of the Interjections in Fifth-Century Drama2012Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the linguistic and philological characteristics of the primary interjections in Ancient Greek drama. It employs Ameka’s definition and classification from 1992 as its theoretical base, and provides a comprehensive research survey. The thesis has a data-driven approach, and is based on all items traditionally classified as interjections.

    In the chapter on morphology and syntax, the unique characteristics of interjections are presented. E.g., NPs co-occurring with interjections form an interjection phrase, which follows a specific pattern, in accordance with a phrase schema.

    The chapter on semantics, which is the main part of the thesis, employs an analytical model based on a moderate minimalism approach. This assumes that all items have a core meaning that can be identified without the aid of context, yet allows different, but related, meanings. The definition adopted in the present thesis states that interjections share only formal characteristics, and thus can be divided into categories based on their semantic features, which are defined using Kaplan’s notion of informational equivalence. The thesis deals with three such categories, each with its individual semantic properties:

    1. expressive interjections, express the speaker’s experience of emotion and/or cognition;
    2. conative interjections, express what the speaker wants the addressee or auditor to do;
    3. imitative interjections, depict or reproduce sounds or events.

    Items in category 1 are the most frequent and thus receive most attention.

    In the chapter on pragmatics, it is proposed that the primary function of interjections is to express the core semantics in a specified context. Felicity conditions are suggested for an utterance to convey the primary meaning of an interjection. Interjections are also shown to have various secondary functions, e.g. that of strengthening markers.

    Finally, a lexicon is provided, which offers individual informational equivalents of all interjections under study.

  • 25.
    Snårelid, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk.
    Entre identification et différenciation: La mère et l’amour dans la constitution de l’identité féminine dans La fille démantelée, La plage d’Ostende et Orlanda de Jacqueline Harpman2011Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this dissertation is to investigate the importance of the mother figure for the definition of the female identity in three novels by the Belgian writer and psychoanalyst Jacqueline Harpman: La fille démantelée, La plage d’Ostende and Orlanda. This perspective is largely motivated by the specific character of the mother-daughter relation which is crucial to the formation of female identity. Freud already argued that it was impossible to understand the female identity without considering a woman’s preœdipal fixation to her mother. The analysis of the three novels is based on the concept of what Kristeva terms primary narcissism, which represents a delicate stage in the relationship between mother and child.

    In different ways, the analyzed novels are permeated by an oscillation between identification and differentiation. On a thematic level, the female protagonist’s desire to distance herself from the mother is always countered by an awareness of an intimate bond with her, and, paradoxically, it may seem, that the differentiation from the mother opens the way for a happy reunion between mother and daughter, now two individuals who no longer form a symbiotic unit. In this process of individuation described in the novels, a third instance which Freud called father of individual prehistory is crucial.

    Even though, at first sight, love appears to be the most important theme in the works of Harpman, this thesis argues that the theme of love is intimately linked to that of the mother figure and that it is necessary to read the works of Harpman through the spectrum of the mother-daughter relation in order to achieve a deeper understanding. Such a reading reveals among other things the key role of the inner dynamics of love. Love is not only the main theme of the work of Harpman, it’s also the meeting place of the two “love cures” of Harpman: literature and psychoanalysis, both situated in the field between narcissism and idealization, mechanisms that are inherent to what Freud called the subject’s eternal rebirth.

    The way in which writing functions as a way for the Harpman female protagonist to become a subject corresponds to Kristeva's idea of the entering into language, or into the symbolic system as Lacan put it, as a way to ward off the emptiness of the abjection. The symbolic system gives the subject a sense of being an individual with clear boundaries in a structured and intelligible world.

  • 26.
    Olsson, Kenneth
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk.
    Le discours beur comme positionnement littéraire: Romans et textes autobiographiques franςais (2005-2006) d'auteurs issus de l'immigration maghrébine2011Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The subject of this thesis is the contemporary literature written by the sons and daughters of North African immigrant families in France. Its main area of investigation is the place of this literature in the French literary field, in the Bourdieusian sense of the term, and the discursive features which motivate the ethnic based label of “Beur literature”. The study has a double approach in investigating both the argument for the socio-ethnic categorisation, and the reception of this literature in the French press. The literary corpus consists of twenty works from 2005 and 2006 by eighteen Beur writers. Thirteen of these works are subject to literary analysis. These are novels by Akli Tadjer, Zahia Rahmani, Faïza Guène, Mabrouck Rachedi, El Driss, Mohamed Razane, Houda Rouane, Nora Hamdi, Nor Eddine Boudjedia and Touhami Moualek, and three autobiographical narratives written by Razika Zitouni, Abel El Quandili and Aziz Senni. The press corpus from the corresponding period covers 14 titles of French national and regional daily papers, 8 titles of weekly general press and 6 titles of periodicals of literary and social debate.

    According to my hypothesis, the Beur fiction and the autobiographical narratives of my corpus are based on a common discourse that is expressed through certain literary means. A frequent strategy found in the novels is the subversion of French classics. Another feature is the constant referral to the French republican values. The novels share the latter of these two strategies with the autobiographical stories. This can be interpreted as resulting from a communication between a literary discourse and a social discourse which points toward a common ideological foundation. It also reveals the specific “Frenchness” of a literature that is often classified as “francophone” rather than “French” literature. The study of the journalistic reception confirms this aspect by the frequent referral of its authors to their ethnic and social origins.

  • 27.
    Andersson, Elin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för medeltidsstudier.
    Responsiones Vadstenenses: Perspectives on the Birgittine Rule in Two Texts from Vadstena and Syon Abbey. A Critical Edition with Translation and Introduction2011Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Syon Abbey, established as the first Birgittine monastery in England in 1415, quite soon became a powerful institution within the order. Although often asserting their own conceptions of the Rule, the English Birgittines still sought the advice of Vadstena, their mother house, when it came to certain important matters concerning monastic life.

    The present work contains editions of two Latin texts: Responsiones, a document consisting of 175 questions and answers on the Birgittine Rule and daily life in the monastery, and Collacio, a sermon reflecting similar matters.

    The first part of the Responsiones consists of answers to five questions, sent from Syon to Sweden by letter. An important issue concerns the leadership in the monastery and the role of the Birgittine brothers. Were they to be seen as monks, living in their own monastery, or as religious assistans to the sisters? The second part was written as a direct result of two English brothers visiting Vadstena in 1427 and contains 170 questions and answers dealing with various matters of importance: how to interpret certain Birgittine texts, regulations on food, silence and speech as well as questions on preaching, liturgy and introduction into the monastery.

    The Collacio, in the manuscript said to have been presented to the Swedish community, was probably written by Syon’s conservator, the Benedictine abbot John Whethamstede of St Albans. Written in a highly metaphorical language rich in references to the Bible and Classical authors, the message to the Birgittine order is clear: first, it is wrong to have two leaders (confessor general as well as abbess) in one community; second, the Birgittines should strive to dispose of later additions and explanations and seek the original and true intentions of the foundress, Saint Birgitta.

    The thesis contains an introduction, editions with translations, glossary, indices, bibliography and plates.

  • 28.
    Jon-And, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för spanska, portugisiska och latinamerikastudier.
    Variação, contato e mudança linguística em Moçambique e Cabo Verde: A concordância variável de número em sintagmas nominais do português2011Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates variable noun phrase number agreement (VNA) in two second language varieties of Portuguese, spoken in Maputo, Mozambique and in Mindelo, Cape Verde. Quantitative VARBRUL analysis is carried out based on recordings made in Maputo and Mindelo 2007 and 2008.

    Previous quantitative studies on VNA in varieties of Brazilian Portuguese (Guy, 1981; Lopes, 2001; Andrade, 2003) as well as on VNA in first and second language varieties of Portuguese from São Tomé (Baxter, 2004; Figueiredo, 2008, 2010) indicate contact between Portuguese and African languages as the main origin of this phenomenon. VNA in Brazilian Portuguese is, however, interpreted by Scherre (1988) and Naro & Scherre (1993, 2007) as the result of language internal drift.

    Varieties of Portuguese from Mozambique and Cape Verde are particularly interesting to contrast in order to investigate influences from African languages on VNA, as in Mozambique Bantu languages are first languages of the vast majority of Portuguese speakers, whereas in Cape Verde, practically all Portuguese speakers are first language speakers of Cape Verdean Creole, whose substrates are West African, and not Bantu, languages. Comparison is also made with previous studies from Brazil and São Tomé.

    The results of this study comment previously postulated explanations for VNA in Portuguese in various ways. The analysis of the variables onset age and age stratum indicates that VNA in the analyzed varieties is a phenomenon linked to the acquisition of Portuguese as a second language and/or language contact rather than the result of internal drift. The fact that all the compared varieties tend to mark plural on pre-head components contradicts Bantu transfer as an explanation for this pattern, and raises the need to also consider more general explanations based on language contact. The basic structural similarity between the compared varieties suggests the existence of a grammatical restructuring continuum.

  • 29.
    Engel, Hugues
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk.
    Dislocation et référence aux entités en français L2: Développement, interaction, variation2010Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the use and development of dislocations in oral productions by Swedish users of French as a second language (L2). Dislocations are highly frequent in French oral speech and play an essential role in building utterances. L2 users of French must therefore acquire the grammatical means necessary to build this structure as well as the pragmatic principles underlying its use.

    The study is empirical, and based on a corpus of oral productions from a wide range of non-native speakers (NNS), from beginners studying at university to L2 users who have spent many years in France. The analysis also includes oral productions from a control group of native speakers (NS). The aim is to identify a path of development by which the different forms and functions of dislocations are acquired. Furthermore, the study examines the influence of tasks on the use of dislocations, by analysing two tasks which place very different demands on the informants in terms of cognitive effort, namely interviews and retellings.

    The analysis focuses on two main kinds of dislocations: on the one hand, [moi je VP] (and its syntactical variants); on the other hand, dislocations referring to third entities (such as [NP il VP] and [NP c’est X]). The results show that both kinds go through a process of development in French L2. However, French learners seem to master the lexical dislocations referring to third entities as well as their pragmatic rules of use from the first stages of acquisition, yet with deviances in some cases. On the other hand, the frequency of use of [moi je VP] and its syntactical variants correlates highly with the level of development of the NNS. Moreover, there is a significantly greater frequency of dislocations in the NNS retelling tasks than in their interviews. In the NS group, the frequency of use remains comparable in both tasks. This difference between NS and NNS is probably due to the additional cognitive load that retellings demand compared with interviews—e.g., recalling the succession of events, solving the lexical problems posed by the story that is to be retold. It is proposed that this additional load may trigger, as a compensation strategy, an increase in the frequency of use of dislocations in the NNS speech.

  • 30.
    Henderson, Carlos
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för spanska, portugisiska och latinamerikastudier.
    El Pretérito Perfecto Compuesto del español de Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay: Aspectos semánticos y discursivos2010Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present work is to describe the semantics and the discursive functions from a general cognitivist point of view of the usage of the Present Perfect in the spoken Spanish of Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay. It is argued that cross-linguistic values often ascribed to perfect, such as continuity, current relevance and recency to the speech time –ST– do not offer a consistent view of the actual usage. It is assumed that a basic meaning of the perfect operates in the studied dialects and is retrievable in all tokens, which differs significantly from the current descriptions of the perfect of “general” Spanish.

    The results show that the ST might very well be an inference of the basic meaning of the Perfect but it is not an intrinsic component of the Perfect’s semantics. Based mainly on Dahl & Hedin (2000), as well as on Langacker (1987), the revitalizing of the concepts type and token reference are suggested as key principles for identifying the respective domains of the Spanish Present Perfect and the Simple Past in the studied area. The Perfect, through type reference, makes an assertion of a situation as a representation of the class-type of the verbal semantics. The Simple Past, however, through token reference conceptualizes the situation as having explicit or implicit anchoring in the chronological axis of time. Three main kinds of contexts occur typically with the Perfect in the samples: detemporalized ascertainment, summary (in a broad sense of the word) and aspectual complexity. Summary scanning (Langacker, 1987), i.e. the schematic and holistic detemporalized conceptualization of the development of a given situation, is claimed to be used by informants for discursive purposes, granting a greater rhetorical weight to the Perfect.

    The results founded in this thesis indicate that the perfect tenses in Spanish have followed (and are following) different developmental paths that are not necessarily restricted to the same sequences and mode of grammaticalization.

  • 31.
    García, Oscar
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för spanska, portugisiska och latinamerikastudier.
    Guerrilleros de papel: La representación del guerrillero en seis novelas centroamericanas de los años setenta y ochenta2010Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study is to analyze and compare the representation of the guerrilla soldier in six contemporary Central American novels. According to Claudio Guillén, the comparison is a dialogue between unity and diversity. It can be defined with the help of two coordinates: a spatial and a temporal. In this study the spatial coordinate includes Nicaragua, Guatemala and El Salvador, and the temporal extends from the mid-seventies to the eighties. The novels written in the seventies are Los compañeros (1976) by Marco Antonio Flores, ¿Te dio miedo la sangre? (1977) by Sergio Ramírez and Caperucita en la zona roja (1977) by Manlio Argueta. The ones written in the eighties are La mujer habitada (1988) by Gioconda Belli, La diáspora (1989) by Horacio Castellanos Moya and El hombre de Montserrat (1994) by Dante Liano.

    The novels are analyzed from a postcolonial perspective following the ideas of Alfonso de Toro and Santiago Castro-Gómez particularly. The method used is the phenomenological hermeneutics, as proposed by Mario J. Valdés. This implies an analysis performed on four levels: historical, formal, phenomenological and hermeneutic. Two of the key aspects in the analysis are the reader's aesthetic identification with the hero and the postcolonial concept subaltern.

    The main conclusion is that the representation of the guerrilla soldier in the corpus is very heterogeneous and that almost no protagonist can be considered a subaltern. The reader's identification with the guerrilla soldier ranges from admirative to ironic, though the main type is sympathetic. Hence, the representation may be considered a hybrid, using a term borrowed from anthropologist Néstor García Canclini that opposes binary schemes and essentialist thinking. The guerrilla soldier is regarded as an individual and not as an abstract idea, which indicates that the civil wars in Central America were not just a conflict between two ideologies, but above all a human experience.

  • 32.
    Brun, Laurent
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk.
    Le Miroir historial de Jean de Vignay: Édition critique du livre I (Prologue) et du livre 5 (Histoire d'Alexandre le Grand)2010Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In the mid-thirteenth century, the Dominican friar Vincent of Beauvais compiled the largest encyclopedia ever during the Middle Ages: the fourfold Speculum maius, whose Latin Speculum historiale became by far its most copied and widespread volume. During the 1320's and early 1330's, Jean de Vignay translated the whole Speculum historiale into French and dedicated the work to the French queen Joan of Burgundy, wife of Philip of Valois. This dissertation consists in a partial critical edition of this French translation, the Miroir historial. Two books have been selected: Book I, which contains Vincent's prologue to the whole encyclopedia, and Book V, featuring one of the longest medieval histories of Alexander the Great. Book I's obvious interest lies in that it is the most detailed account of an encyclopedist's work, providing us with one of the most valuable insights into a compiler's mind and philosophy. Book V is certainly one the most influential histories of the Macedonian emperor, which inspired many late medieval and Renaissance authors, although very few scholars have looked into it and thoroughly examined its structure, contents and sources.

    This dissertation features two previously unpublished books in addition to giving access to the most extensive extract from the Miroir historial that has ever appeared in print. The edition includes a thorough examination and identification of every source used by the translator but also by Vincent de Beauvais. The investigation shows, among other things, that nearly three quarters of the history of Alexander are in fact an abridged version of the account found in Helinand of Froidmont's Chronicon (Books XVII and XVIII), to which Vincent added additional sources, mainly theological and philosophical. The edition is based on three fourteenth-century manuscripts and includes a detailed analysis of the translator's life and works, a glossary as well as an index of all the proper nouns.

  • 33.
    Bylund Spångberg, Emanuel
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för spanska, portugisiska och latinamerikastudier.
    Conceptualización de eventos en español y en sueco: Estudios sobre hablantes monolingües y bilingües2009Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with language-specific patterns in the selection and organization of information (i.e., conceptualization) reflected in the expression of events by monolingual and bilingual speakers of Spanish and Swedish. Previous research on language specificity in event conceptualization shows that speakers of languages with grammatical aspect exhibit fine-grained event segmentation and deictic temporal linkage patterns, whereas speakers of non-aspect languages resort to coarse-grained segmentation patterns and anaphoric linkage. This finding has led to the hypothesis that grammatical aspect induces specific event conceptualization patterns. The overall aim of the current thesis is, first, to test this hypothesis on Spanish and Swedish, and second, to extend this line of research to the domain of bilingualism. The thesis is based on four individual studies: Study I examines monolingual speakers of Spanish and Swedish. The results show that event conceptualization in these languages patterns with the dichotomy +/- grammatical aspect; Study II explores the relationship between endpoint encoding patterns and proficiency with aspectual contrasts in the Spanish of Spanish-Swedish bilinguals. The findings show that the less Spanish-like a participant’s endpoint encoding frequencies are, the less sensitive he/she is to aspectual contrasts; Study III explores the degree to which language-specific patterns of segmentation and temporal linking of events are fused/separated in Spanish-Swedish bilinguals. The results show that whereas the bilinguals resort to an event segmentation pattern that is midway between the Spanish fine-grained patterns and the Swedish coarse-grained patterns, they exhibit nativelike temporal linking patterns in both Spanish and Swedish; Study IV contextualizes some of the author’s studies from a general viewpoint, with the intention of illustrating the fruitfulness of extending the research on event conceptualization to the domain of bilingualism.

  • 34.
    Sörstad, Fredrik
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för spanska, portugisiska och latinamerikastudier.
    Conciencia y temporalidad: Un estudio sobre la concepción del tiempo en seis poemarios de José Hierro2009Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study is to analyze the conception of time in six books of poems by José Hierro (1922-2002): Tierra sin nosotros (1947), Alegría (1947), Con las piedras, con el viento… (1950), Quinta del 42 (1952), Cuanto sé de mí (1957) and Libro de las alucinaciones (1964).

    It is suggested that the theme of time in Hierro´s poetry can be approached from three different points of view: existence, essence and consciousness. Furthermore, these three different perspectives are reflected in a chronological division of Hierro´s books of poems into three periods: existential poetry, intimist poetry and hallucinatory poetry. In order to develop and reinforce the thematic study, on the one hand, a comparative study is carried out that focuses on the relationship between poetry and philosophy, and, on the other, the thematic configuration on the surface level is considered. The methodological foundations that make it possible to achieve this objective are provided by Jean-Pierre Richard´s thematic criticism, Edmund Husserl´s phenomenology and Paul Ricoeur´s phenomenological hermeneutics. The dissertation concludes that Tierra sin nosotros and Alegría represent Hierro´s existential poetry, written during the post-war period and the reigning atmosphere of existentialism. Alegría, Con las piedras, con el viento… and Quinta del 42 constitute his intimist poetry. The second book, Alegría, is described as a “bridging book” between the first two periods. When the immediacy of the Civil War begins to fade, the literary scene shifts towards the more intimate theme of knowledge, and in Hierro´s poetry especially the phenomenon of time. In Quinta del 42, Cuanto sé de and Libro de las alucinaciones the reader encounters Hierro´s hallucinatory poetry. Quinta del 42 is another example of a “bridging book” between two periods. His hallucinatory poems transmit an extreme form of the search for inner truth which entails the deconstruction of time and space.

  • 35.
    Tchehoff, Igor
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk.
    Il soggetto corporale nella narrativa di Paolo Volponi2009Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis offers an interpretation of three novels by Paolo Volponi (1924-1994), focusing on the representation of the human subject. The analysis shows how this representation is centred on the experiences of the body, which becomes the true subject that acts and explores the world. It is argued that this narrative strategy allows the author to develop an original account of the modern condition and contributes to the innovative character of his writing. The method employed in the study shows how the corporal subject determines the plot, shapes the text through representation of perception, and carries central narrative meanings, and is thus crucial on all the levels of the novel’s organization.

    In Memoriale, the problematic encounter of the subject with the new industrial reality is analyzed by focusing on the malady of the protagonist who is trapped between the countryside and the factory. This ambivalent position is seen as emblematic for the corporal subject in Volponi’s novels that is bound to nature and is a participant of history. The body emerges not only as decisive in the plot but also as the main object of writing and interpretation for the protagonist and the medical institutions. In Corporale, the protagonist loses contact with the surrounding reality; the only certainty that can be offered is in the suffering or euphoric body. The novel becomes a space where the protagonist rebels against his own historic condition and challenges the limits of the thinkable and of language, approaching the absurd. This subversion of reason is examined as a case of carnivalesque writing in Bakhtin’s sense, while the subject’s frequent states of extreme crisis are read in the light of Kristeva’s notion of abjection. The reading of Il sipario ducale is structured around the concept of chronotope, defined as a spatio-temporal interconnectedness. Each of the two chronotopes of the novel determines a particular type of corporal subject, while the ending is interpreted as the impossibility of tranquil existence outside the turmoil of history. This interpretation of Volponi’s narrative shows how by staging a subject whose body is central in the process of knowing and operating in the world, fiction both changes its character and contributes to a deeper understanding of modernity and its paradoxes.

  • 36.
    Lindqvist, Karin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk.
    Les appositions adnominales en français et en suédois écrits: Étude contrastive des prédications secondes détachées dans une perspective quantitative et informationnelle2009Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates differences in the use of the “apposition”, in French and Swedish formal, written language. The apposition is defined as a secondary predication, detached from the rest of the sentence by, for instance, commas, and determining a noun phrase. The apposition can take on the following forms: noun phrase, prepositional phrase, adjective phrase, past and present participle phrase and the so-called absolute construction. The corpus consists of parts of 20 French and 20 Swedish texts, fiction and non-fiction, and translations into the other language.

    In the first part of the analysis, the quantitative use of appositions in the two languages is studied. The results show that the apposition is considerably more frequent in the French texts than in the Swedish texts. Also, the relation between the form of the apposition and its correspondence in the other language is examined. For example, it is shown that the French NP apposition often corresponds to an apposition in Swedish, whereas the French present participle apposition rarely does so. It is also shown that when an apposition is used in the French text, the Swedish text often contains a finite clause or a structure where the commas have been omitted: a pre- or postposed modifier. These differences can partly be explained by the fact that French is a noun-oriented language, whereas Swedish is verb-oriented. There also seems to be a norm according to which commas are used more frequently in French.

    In the second part of the study, the differences in the use of appositions are studied in an informational perspective. The apposition is described as a unit associated with a low degree of “communicative dynamism” in the sentence, expressing for instance explanations, descriptions or examples. The analysis demonstrates that in French, information is often hierarchically structured in different units, whereas in Swedish, this information structure is often implicit, to be worked out by the reader.

  • 37.
    Dilks, Charlotte
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk.
    Les métaphores de guerre dans la prose journalistique du français 2009Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the use of war metaphors, more specifically metaphors centred on the verb, in modern French newspaper prose from three principal angles. 

    The first part of the analysis shows that the verbs of war used are metaphorical rather than concrete. However, the vast majority of the metaphors stem from only five verbs, namely attaquer, affronter, combattre, défendre and lutter

    The second part of the analysis focuses on these five verbs and their metaphorical uses. It is shown that it is the semantic role of patient that separates a metaphorical use from a concrete use. A classification of the patients according to semantic fields reveals that each of the five verbs shows a distinct preference for a certain type of patient and the verbs also differ in whether their patients have negative or positive connotations. This creates an image of five verbs, each of which is conventionalised in a certain linguistic context. 

    The final chapter of the analysis investigates war metaphors from a textual perspective, analysing their usage according to three parameters: position, function and target domains. The position that is the most susceptible to war metaphors is the initial position. The textual functions of metaphors are divided into one semantic and three pragmatic functions. The semantic function structures the theme of an article in terms of war, construing an antagonism by means of elaborating or extending a conventional metaphor. The pragmatic functions considered are argumentative, descriptive and expressive. In the articles studied, war metaphors have mostly a descriptive or argumentative function. Finally, the target domains and their interconnections with the source domain WAR are considered, showing that the war metaphors are linked to power or the lack thereof. The metaphor often describes the person in power, but the case can be reversed with the metaphor describing the powerless resisting or fighting the person in power. 

  • 38.
    Tikka, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk.
    Manifestarsi plurilingui a tavola: La commutazione di codice di una famiglia italo-svedese 2009Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study is to examine the interactional functions of code-switching in plurilingual conversation, with a particular focus on those related to the elaboration of the social identities of the interlocutors, i. e. their identity work. The adopted analytical model was initiated by Auer, and further developed by Gafaranga, who combined it with the Membership Categorization Analysis elaborated by Sacks.

    The study is based on a corpus consisting of the audio recorded dinner talk of an Italian-Swedish family whose members use Swedish, Italian and a Ligurian dialect, and focuses on the sequential progression of the talk in interaction, thus based on an approach proper of conversation analysis. The participants create and display their different roles (identities), which are related to both group membership and individuality, a subsequent distinction made by Fant. Code-switching is used as a communicative strategy among the speakers and is used to make relevant identities, as well as a tool for the management of the interaction. The analysis is divided in two distinctive parts: one related to the code-switching connected to the organisational management of the conversation, the other connected to the identity work of the interlocutors.

    The linguistic codes used within the group are either inclusive (Swedish, Italian) or selective (Ligurian) and the analysis indicates a general inclusion rather than exclusion of interlocutors, as the speakers accommodating to the linguistic preferences and competences of the interlocutor. The speakers, when selecting a code, thus make use of recipient design, a concept worked out by Sacks, Schegloff & Jefferson. They choose code in order to include a particular interlocutor, adjusting to the language preferences of the other. There are some instances of asymmetrical plurilingual conversation, in which the interlocutors maintain different codes, but since the code choice appears to be anticipated by the addressee the interaction runs smoothly between them. As for the direction of the code switch, two different tendencies emerge: one in the switches connected to the identity work of the participants in which the direction of the switches seems to be highly significant. The other in the switches connected to the management of the conversation in which the direction proves to be reversible.

  • 39.
    Carlshamre, Katarina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk.
    Pulsion et résistance: Émancipation, liberté et tendances conservatrices dans trois romans d'Anne Hébert2009Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates some motifs in the fiction of Québec writer Anne Hébert (1916-2000), largely by exploring interesting affinities with notions in the philosophy of Luce Irigaray (1930-). The main focus is on the young female characters and their way to adulthood in three of Hébert’s books: her first novel, Les chambres de bois (LCB, 1958) and two of her later works, Aurélien, Clara, Mademoiselle et le Lieutenant anglais (AC, 1995) and Est-ce que je te derange ? (ECD, 1998). The study also addresses the situation of the male characters and the difficulties which confront them within a phallocentric order. It is argued that a comparison with features of Irigaray’s thought can shed light both on the emancipatory and the conservative tendencies in the novels. In particular, it is Irigaray’s notion of mimesis that proves to be fruitful for a deeper understanding of the female protagonists in the analysed works, but her specific use of the Oidipus complex, and her vision of a culture of sexual difference, also give important clues for the interpretation of both male and female figures in Herbert’s texts. With regard to LCB, it is shown that it is only when the female protagonist consciously positions herself as a reflection of male desire, as a mimetic figure, that substantial change comes about. In AC the female character is an incarnation of “utopian mimesis” and represents a new order. In ECD the female protagonist functions as a manifestation of a “symptomatic mimesis” and thereby becomes a catalyst for the revelation of the repressed sensibility of the male subject. Irigaray’s reading of the Oidipus complex is used to evince the utopian tendencies in AC, but also to explore how the male characters of all three works are stuck in a denied repetition of their childhood, which leaves little room for change. Irigaray’s vision of a culture of sexual difference provides a comprehensive picture of a place towards which all three novels can be seen to aim.

  • 40.
    Lindström Leo, Ingrid
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för spanska, portugisiska och latinamerikastudier.
    Scribo ergo sum: Aspectos existenciales en tres novelas tardías de Carmen Martín Gaite2009Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation examines three of Carmen Martín Gaite’s later novels, identifying existential issues that are presented through the narrative. It aims to unravel issues pertaining to personal identity, freedom, communication and ethical stances in a postmodern context.

    The thesis is divided into three studies, one for each novel examined. The corpus of novels includes Nubosidad variable (1992), La reina de las nieves (1994) and Lo raro es vivir (1996). The Introduction and the General Conclusions cover all three studies.

    The first examines the epistolary nature of Nubosidad variable, presenting the subjective and dialogical aspects of the texts in question. The protagonists’ quest for true identity, concealed beneath acquired social roles, elicits a search for authenticity. The second study analyses the intertextual character of La reina de las nieves, identifying the existential issues that are imbedded in the intertexts and the narrative. The third study looks into the importance of communication in a self-exploratory process in which death and life-giving issues are discussed.

    Identity is understood as a combination of ipse, selfhood, and idem, sameness and narrative identity as a narrative formation of discourse in which human experience is articulated and subject to change over time (Ricoeur). Freedom, responsibility, authenticity and subjectivity are viewed in light of theoretical considerations offered, inter alia, by Sartre and Kierkegaard.

    The study concludes that the main idea of these novels is that the act of writing gives purpose or meaning to life. Although death is ever-present, emphasis is placed on life challenges and the subject’s existential sense of direction. As regards ethical inclinations in the novels, there is an appraisal of the effort to acquire self-knowledge and self-fulfilment, assuming personal responsibility for choices made in life.

  • 41.
    Bruchmüller, Ulrike
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk.
    Die Lebensperioden von Kosmos, Polis und Individuum in der Philosophie Platons: Zur platonischen Seelenlehre in ihren ontologischen Voraussetzungen2008Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation offers a systematic treatment of all the changes to which the soul is subject according to Plato’s philosophy. Its starting-point is the rational soul’s structural bipolarity, which can be reduced, via the binary opposites of the highest kinds (megista gene), to the ultimate principles of the One and the Indefinite Dyad. The result is that the soul, living without the body, participates to an ever higher degree in the positive series of the highest kinds (identity, rest), whereas during the lifetime, it is increasingly determined by the kinds subordinate to the second principle (difference, motion). Although Plato’s conceptual series correspond to the opposition between the principles, the highest degree of unity can only be reached through the coactivity of the negative series due to the soul’s ontological deficiency. Consequently, there is need for an equalization of the opposites (mesotes). Both conceptual series correspond to properties assigned to the parts of the soul, which, according to the rule of mesotes, only deserve to be called virtues (noetic and dianoetic thinking, self-control and bravery, self-control and freedom) in relation to each other.

    Since the period of life is determined by difference, only the knowledge of the positive kinds, gained by recollection (anamnesis), can provide the right mixture of the forthes of the soul. This anamnesis is achieved gradually through an education of the soul that is adapted to its three parts and occurs during the first half of the lifespan. During the second half, the anamnesis can no longer compensate for the rising influence of Plurality. The individual dies, and the soul again subjects itself to the rule of the positive kinds.

    After a detailed presentation of the Platonic theory of the soul as applied to the universe (kosmos), the state (polis) and the individual, the authoress shows how Plato’s literary art illustrates his theory.

  • 42.
    Rosenberg, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk.
    La formation agentive en français: les composés [VN/A/Adv/P]N/A et les dérivés V-ant, V-eur et V-oir(e)2008Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addresses the French morphological construction [VN/A/Adv/P]N/A. The main objectives are to posit a single rule for its formation and to question the implications of the agent polysemy. The theoretical framework is lexeme-based morphology, which adheres to weak lexicalism.

    The first part of our analysis is qualitative and concerns the availability aspect of productivity. The method is introspective. The internal semantic patterns of the French construction are examined. Our results give evidence for the claim that a single morphological construction rule, [VN/A/Adv/P]N/A, is responsible for the cases where the first constituent is a verb stem, and the second constituent may correspond to an internal argument, an external argument or a semantic adjunct. All cases manifest the same patterns, which are related to the denotative meanings included in the agent polysemy: Agent, Instrument, Locative, Action, Result and Cause. Our contrastive analysis shows that the same patterns are found in the four Swedish agentive formations, [N/A/Adv/PV-are]N, [N/A/Adv/PV]N, [N/A/Adv/PV-a]N and [VN]N, which correspond to the French [VN/A/Adv/P]N/A construction and which also contain a verbal constituent and its internal or external argument, or an adjunct.

    The second part of our analysis is quantitative and concerns the profitability aspect of productivity. The method is inductive. The aim is to explore the polysemy of agent and its assumed hierarchical structure, in synchrony and diachrony. Four French agentive formations, [VN/A/Adv/P]N/A compounds and V-ant, V-eur and V-oir(e) derivations, are included in order to examine semantic competition and blocking effects. Our results give evidence for the existence of an agent polysemy but deny that it has a hierarchical structure valid for every agentive formation. The meanings in the agent polysemy are more or less profitable according to formation type: blocking effects could explain this behaviour.

  • 43.
    Ahnfelt, Vigdis
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för spanska, portugisiska och latinamerikastudier.
    La recuperación de la identidad en la novela Sefarad de Antonio Muñoz Molina2008Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the signification of identitary discourses in the novel Sefarad: Una novela de novelas by Antonio Muñoz Molina and determine to what extent these discourses represent and respond to identitary discourses in contemporary Spanish society. The analysis focuses on three principal questions: how is the narrative constructed, what is conveyed as a result, and what is the aim of the narrative.

    Identity is understood as a social construction, an individual and continuous process of assuming, defining, negotiating and maintaining cultural identities, elements of the surrounding world that provide the individual with a sense of meaning (Fromm 1956; Castiñeira 2005; Marsella 2008).

    The novel consists of different stories that manifest the social impact of the totalitarian regimes in Europe during the twentieth century, told by a diversity of voices. First, the analysis deals with the structure of the text, examined through the model of mise en abyme (Dällenbach 1989). Secondly, the significations of transition, transgression (Lotman 1978) and, analogically, stigmatization are deduced (Goffman 1972), processes that are related to the effects of the frontier as a metaphor (Pratt Ewing 1998) and to limit situations (Jaspers 1974). Thirdly, the study stresses the representation of the past, in which trauma, melancholy and mourning are significant (Benjamin 1992; Freud 1986).

    The conclusions confirm the claim that the novel corresponds to humanity’s treasure of suffering (Leidschatz), a cultural possession that thematizes the processes of memory and oblivion (Assmann 1999), represented through stories told by the victims of intolerance at different levels. The text is accordingly conceived as a mirror through which the narrator constructs his identity as a writer and transmits meaning to the reader by providing the opportunity to reflect upon identity issues today.