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  • 1.
    Gabarró-López, Sílvia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Describing buoys from the perspective of discourse markers: a cross-genre study in French Belgian Sign Language (LSFB)2020Ingår i: Sign Language and Linguistics, ISSN 1387-9316, E-ISSN 1569-996X, Vol. 2, nr 22Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides a description of the distribution of buoys across genres and of their possible functions as discourse markers in French Belgian Sign Language (LSFB). We selected a sample of dialogic genres—argumentative, explanatory, narrative and metalinguistic—produced by different signers from the LSFB Corpus. In our dataset, buoys are unequally distributed across genres, and list and fragment buoys are the most frequent. Apart from a pointer and a point buoy, only some list buoys have discourse-marking functions, including enumeration, alternative and addition. On the basis of the distribution of all types of buoys, the narrative dialogic genre is the most different as compared to the other three genres. It is characterised by a lower frequency of list buoys and a higher frequency of fragment buoys. When focusing on discourse-marking buoys, the explanatory genre attracts the higher number of tokens, which we relate to the higher degree of preparation as compared to the other genres.

  • 2.
    Gabarró-López, Sílvia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Discourse markers, where are you? Investigating the relationship between their functions and their position in French Belgian Sign Language conversations2020Ingår i: Sign Language Studies, ISSN 0302-1475, E-ISSN 1533-6263, Vol. 20, nr 2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the position of two discourse markers, namely PALM-UP and SAME, and the existence of a possible functional paradigm in French Belgian Sign Language. The position is investigated at three different levels: the clause, the basic discourse unit and the turn. The positions in which PALM-UP can appear in the basic discourse unit and the turn are more varied than the positions in which SAME can be found. Most functions of the two discourse markers predominantly appear in a particular position, whereas other functions have a great deal of variation. Most subjective meanings (i.e., related to the signer) expressed by the two discourse markers appear in left peripheral positions, but intersubjective meanings (i.e., related to the addressee) are not restricted to right peripheral positions. The two discourse markers in this position will predominantly occur with a directed gaze towards the addressee, but those in the left periphery occur with either an addressed or a non-addressed eye gaze.

  • 3. Schoffelen, Jan-Mathijs
    et al.
    Oostenveld, Robert
    Lam, Nietzsche H. L.
    Uddén, Julia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik. Radboud University, The Netherlands; Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, The Netherlands; Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study, Sweden.
    Hultén, Annika
    Hagoort, Peter
    A 204-subject multimodal neuroimaging dataset to study language processing2019Ingår i: Scientific Data, E-ISSN 2052-4463, Vol. 6, artikel-id 17Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This dataset, colloquially known as the Mother Of Unification Studies (MOUS) dataset, contains multimodal neuroimaging data that has been acquired from 204 healthy human subjects. The neuroimaging protocol consisted of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to derive information at high spatial resolution about brain anatomy and structural connections, and functional data during task, and at rest. In addition, magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to obtain high temporal resolution electrophysiological measurements during task, and at rest. All subjects performed a language task, during which they processed linguistic utterances that either consisted of normal or scrambled sentences. Half of the subjects were reading the stimuli, the other half listened to the stimuli. The resting state measurements consisted of 5 minutes eyes-open for the MEG and 7 minutes eyes-closed for fMRI. The neuroimaging data, as well as the information about the experimental events are shared according to the Brain Imaging Data Structure (BIDS) format. This unprecedented neuroimaging language data collection allows for the investigation of various aspects of the neurobiological correlates of language.

  • 4.
    Gerholm, Tove
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Kallioinen, Petter
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Tonér, Signe
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Frankenberg, Sofia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Kjällander, Susanne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Palmer, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Lenz-Taguchi, Hillevi
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    A randomized controlled trial to examine the effect of two teaching methods on preschool children’s language and communication, executive functions, socioemotional comprehension, and early math skills2019Ingår i: BMC Psychology, E-ISSN 2050-7283, Vol. 7, artikel-id 59Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    During the preschool years, children’s development of skills like language and communication, executive functions, and socioemotional comprehension undergo dramatic development. Still, our knowledge of how these skills are enhanced is limited. The preschool contexts constitute a well-suited arena for investigating these skills and hold the potential for giving children an equal opportunity preparing for the school years to come. The present study compared two pedagogical methods in the Swedish preschool context as to their effect on language and communication, executive functions, socioemotional comprehension, and early math. The study targeted children in the age span four-to-six-year-old, with an additional focus on these children’s backgrounds in terms of socioeconomic status, age, gender, number of languages, time spent at preschool, and preschool start. An additional goal of the study was to add to prior research by aiming at disentangling the relationship between the investigated variables.

    Method

    The study constitutes a randomized controlled trial including 18 preschools and 29 preschool units, with a total of 431 children, and 98 teachers. The interventions lasted for 6 weeks, preceded by pre-testing and followed by post-testing of the children. Randomization was conducted on the level of preschool unit, to either of the two interventions or to control. The interventions consisted of a socioemotional and material learning paradigm (SEMLA) and a digitally implemented attention and math training paradigm (DIL). The preschools were further evaluated with ECERS-3. The main analysis was a series of univariate mixed regression models, where the nested structure of individuals, preschool units and preschools were modeled using random variables.

    Results

    The result of the intervention shows that neither of the two intervention paradigms had measurable effects on the targeted skills. However, there were results as to the follow-up questions, such as executive functions predicting all other variables (language and communication, socioemotional comprehension, and math). Background variables were related to each other in patterns congruent with earlier findings, such as socioeconomic status predicting outcome measures across the board. The results are discussed in relation to intervention fidelity, length of intervention, preschool quality, and the impact of background variables on children’s developmental trajectories and life prospects.

  • 5.
    Marklund, Ellen
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Amount of speech exposure predicts vowel perception in four- to eight-month-olds2019Ingår i: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, ISSN 1878-9293, E-ISSN 1878-9307, Vol. 36, artikel-id 100622Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During the first year of life, infants shift their focus in speech perception from acoustic to linguistic information. This perceptual reorganization is related to exposure, and a direct relation has previously been demonstrated between amount of daily language exposure and mismatch response (MMR) amplitude to a native consonant contrast at around one year of age. The present study investigates the same relation between amount of speech exposure and MMR amplitude to a native vowel contrast at four to eight months of age. Importantly, the present study uses spectrally rotated speech in an effort to take general neural maturation into account. The amplitude of the part of the MMR that is tied specifically to speech processing correlates with amount of daily speech exposure, as estimated using the LENA system.

  • 6. Sundberg, Johan
    et al.
    Salomão, Gláucia Laís
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för fonetik.
    Scherer, Klaus R.
    Analyzing emotion expression in singing via flow glottograms, long-term-average spectra, and expert listener evaluation2019Ingår i: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 7.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    'As long as’, 'until' and 'before' clauses: Zooming in on linguistic diversity2019Ingår i: Baltic Linguistics, ISSN 2081-7533, Vol. 9, s. 141-236Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates 'before', 'until' and 'as long as' clauses in the Baltic languages in their wider areal and genealogical context in a sample of 72 modern and ancient doculects of European and Indo-European languages. In a bottom-up construction of the semantic map of 'before', 'until' and 'as long as' connectors from parallel text data, a fourth cluster intermediate between 'before' and 'until' with negative main clauses is identified. The typology resulting from the different overlaps of clusters locates Baltic languages in an intermediate zone between Western, Eastern, and Northern European languages. This goes hand-in-hand with a high diversity of Baltic languages in their typology of 'before', 'until' and 'as long as' clauses. The temporal connectors found in Baltic varieties can be classified according to whether they originate from strategies expressing temporal identity (simultaneity) or non-identity (non-simultaneity). Many connectors in Baltic derive from correlative constructions and originally express identity, but can then shift from simultaneity towards posteriority as they gradually lose their association with correlative constructions. Since temporal clauses are never atemporal and are hence incompatible with permanent states and since negation often expresses permanent states, negation—a marker of non-identity—is prone to develop non-polarity functions in 'before' and 'until' clauses. The Baltic and Slavic languages are rich in various kinds of expanded negation (translation equivalents in other languages lack negation) and expletive negation (negation does not have the function of expressing negative polarity) in 'before' and 'until' clauses. However, indefinite negative pronouns often retain their negative semantic value when standard negation in temporal clauses is expanded and semantically bleached.

  • 8.
    Frankenberg, Sofia J.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Lenz Taguchi, Hillevi
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Gerholm, Tove
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Bodén, Linnea
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Kallioinen, Petter
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Kjällander, Susanne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Palmer, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Tonér, Signe
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Bidirectional collaborations in an intervention randomized controlled trial performed in the Swedish early childhood education context2019Ingår i: Journal of Cognition and Development, ISSN 1524-8372, E-ISSN 1532-7647, Vol. 20, nr 2, s. 182-202Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the field of developmental science, there is a general agreement of the need to work together across academic disciplinary boundaries in order to advance the understandings of how to optimize child development and learning. However, experience also shows that such collaborations may be challenging. This paper reports on the experiences of bidirectional collaboration between researchers in a multidisciplinary research team and between researchers and stakeholders, in the first randomized controlled trial in Swedish preschool. The objective of the trial was to investigate the effects of two pedagogical learning strategies evaluating language, communication, attention, executive functions and early math. The interdisciplinary team includes researchers from early childhood education, linguistics, developmental psychology and cognitive neuro science. Educational researchers and theorists within the field of early childhood education in Sweden have during the last two decades mainly undertaken small-scale qualitative praxis-oriented and participative research. There is a widespread skepticism with regards to some of the core principles in controlled intervention methodologies, including a strong resistance towards individual testing of children. Consequently unanticipated disagreements and conflicts arose within the research team, as RCT methodology requires the measurement of effects pre and post the intervention. The aim of this article is to discuss the conditions for bidirectional collaboration both between researchers and stakeholders and between researchers in the research team. The findings illustrate strategies and negotiations that emerged in order to address ontological and epistemological controversies and disagreements. These include (a) the negotiation of research ethics, (b) making divergences visible and learning from each other, (c) using a multi-epistemological and methodological approach as a complement to the RCT design and (d) the negotiation of research problems that are shared between educators and researchers.

  • 9. Engström, Elisabet
    et al.
    Kallioinen, Petter
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    von Mentzer, Cecilia Nakeva
    Lindgren, Magnus
    Ors, Marianne
    Sahlén, Birgitta
    Lyxell, Björn
    Uhlén, Inger
    Computer-assisted reading intervention for children with sensorineural hearing loss using hearing aids: Effects on auditory event-related potentials for and mismatch negativity2019Ingår i: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, ISSN 0165-5876, E-ISSN 1872-8464, Vol. 117, s. 17-25Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The primary aim was to investigate whether computer-assisted reading intervention somehow can affect event-related potentials (ERP) and mismatch negativity (MMN) in hearing impaired (HI) children with hearing aids (HAs) and normal hearing (NH) children.

    Methods: The study included 15 HI children with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) using bilateral HAs and 14 NH children as a reference group; all children between the ages of 5 and 8. A multi-feature MMN-paradigm, Optimum-1, with a standard stimulus alternating with 5 different deviants was used. ERPs were recorded pre and post intervention, i.e. one month of repeatedly computer-assisted training (GraphoGame). MMN was calculated from the average ERP of each deviant minus standard. Data were based on samples within a specific time interval, 80-224 ms, and repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyze possible interactions.

    Results: There was a significant difference between groups before training, though, the mean obligatory responses or MMN was not statistically significantly different before versus after training, neither among the NH nor the HI children. Further, the HI children did generally achieve lower levels in GraphoGame compared to the NH children. Altogether, our findings indicate differences between the groups and that training may affect the neurophysiological processing in the brain, gaining the HI children. Both MMN and positive mismatch response (pMMR) were seen among both the HA and NH children, irrespective to deviant type. Individually, changes of the MMN and pMMR after training seem unpredictable.

    Conclusion: There are statistically significant differences in both the obligatory responses in ERP and the MMNs between the NH and HI groups before the computer-assisted training. Though, these differences disappear after the intervention. This suggests possible training effects regarding the central auditory processing among the HI children.

  • 10.
    Schönström, Krister
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för svenska som andraspråk för döva.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Corpus in Swedish Sign Language as a Second Language (SSLC-L2) – A Report2019Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2013 we have been building up a learner corpusin Swedish Sign Language (SSL) as a second language (L2). From 2017 this work has been funded by Riksbanken Jubileumsfond (RJ) for three years. In our presentation we will report on the work with the SSLC-L2. A short overview and some examples of the corpus design will be provided. The main scope of the talk, however, will be description of the annotation work of the L2 structures, i.e. the learners’ interlanguage. Here we discuss some challenges in annotating the L2 interlanguage. This include analysis ofspecific L2 structures and how to annotate them as well as examples on some preliminary results.

  • 11.
    Ek, Adam
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för datorlingvistik.
    Wirén, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för datorlingvistik.
    Distinguishing Narration and Speech in Prose Fiction Dialogues2019Ingår i: Proceedings of the Digital Humanities in the Nordic Countries 4th Conference / [ed] Costanza Navarretta, Manex Agirrezabal, Bente Maegaard, CEUR-WS.org , 2019, s. 124-132Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a supervised method for a novel task, namely, detecting elements of narration in passages of dialogue in prose fiction. The method achieves an F1-score of 80.8%, exceeding the best baseline by almost 33 percentage points. The purpose of the method is to enable a more fine-grained analysis of fictional dialogue than has previously been possible, and to provide a component for the further analysis of narrative structure in general.

  • 12.
    Grzech, Karolina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Schwarz, Anne
    Ennis, Georgia
    Divided we stand, unified we fall? The impact of standardisation onoral language varieties: a case study of Amazonian Kichwa2019Ingår i: Revista de Llengua i Dret, ISSN 0212-5056, nr 71, s. 123-145Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article adds to the discussion on standardisation of minority languages spoken in primarily oral cultures. Focusingon Amazonian Kichwa (Quechuan, lowland Ecuador), we show how the introduction of a written standard can undermine language transmission, prompt contradictory ideologies, and instil conflicting aims within speech communities. Our approach combines descriptive linguistics and ethnography. First, we examine the extent of variation within Amazonian Kichwa and compare the local varieties with the standard. We juxtapose this with the speakers’ perceptions of and attitudes towards variation, evidenced in their linguistic practices and discourse. We show that these perceptions have little to do with the features being standardised, but this does not preclude the speakers’ having clear attitudes towards what the perceived standard. To explain this, we propose that Amazonian Kichwa speakers value authenticity above mutual intelligibility, contrary to ideologies assigning value to languages as potential tools of wider communication. To conclude, we provide policy recommendations grounded in this study, but applicable to minoritised oral varieties in other contexts.

  • 13.
    Holmström, Ingela
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Döva nyanländas språkliga situation – en förstudie2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Förstudiens övergripande syfte var att undersöka hur den språkliga situationen ser ut för döva nyanlända över 18 år i Sverige. Mer specifikt undersöktes hur döva nyanlända identifieras och emottas, hur de placeras inom olika utbildningsinstanser och vad syftet är med olika placeringar. Dessutom undersöktes vilken tidigare forskning som genomförts med fokus på målgruppen och vilka kunskaper det finns om deras språkliga situation.

    - Vilka särskilda svårigheter/problemområden kan identifieras för framtida forskning?

  • 14.
    Grzech, Karolina Zofia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Elizabeth Couper-Kuhlen and Margret Selting, Interactional Linguistics: Studying Language in Social Interaction, Cambridge University Press, 20172019Ingår i: Linguist List, E-ISSN 1068-4875, nr 30, artikel-id 338Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 15. Sarolidou, Georgia
    et al.
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Sundelin, Tina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; New York University, USA.
    Lasselin, Julie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Regenbogen, Christina
    Sorjonen, Kimmo
    Lundström, Johan N.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Monell Chemical Senses Center, USA; University of Pennsylvania, USA.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Olsson, Mats J.
    Emotional expressions of the sick face2019Ingår i: Brain, behavior, and immunity, ISSN 0889-1591, E-ISSN 1090-2139, Vol. 80, s. 286-291Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To handle the substantial threat posed by infectious diseases, behaviors that promote avoidance of contagion are crucial. Based on the fact that sickness depresses mood and that emotional expressions reveal inner states of individuals to others, which in turn affect approach/avoidance behaviors, we hypothesized that facial expressions of emotion may play a role in sickness detection. Using an experimental model of sickness, 22 volunteers were intravenously injected with either endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; 2 ng/kg body weight) and placebo using a randomized cross-over design. The volunteers were two hours later asked to keep a relaxed expression on their face while their facial photograph was taken. To assess the emotional expression of the sick face, 49 participants were recruited and were asked to rate the emotional expression of the facial photographs of the volunteers when sick and when healthy. Our results indicate that the emotional expression of faces changed two hours after being made temporarily sick by an endotoxin injection. Sick faces were perceived as more sick/less healthy, but also as expressing more negative emotions, such as sadness and disgust, and less happiness and surprise. The emotional expressions mediated 59.1% of the treatment-dependent change in rated health. The inclusion of physical features associated with emotional expressions to the mediation analysis supported these results. We conclude that emotional expressions may contribute to detection and avoidance of infectious individuals and thereby be part of a behavioral defense against disease.

  • 16.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Expectation-based processing of grammatical functions in Swedish2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Much research indicate that language processing is expectation-based, drawing on statistical patterns in the input (MacDonald 2013). In this talk, I present evidence for this idea from experimental and corpus-based studies on the comprehension and production of grammatical functions (GFs) in Swedish transitive sentences. The preferred word order in such sentences is SVO. However, Swedish also allows for OVS word ordering, with the object placed sentence-initially and the subject post-verbally. Since the NP argument GFs of such sentences may not be correctly determined from the sentence constituent order (i.e., NPs and verb), they are potentially ambiguous. They can therefore be costly to comprehend when the initial NP lacks case marking. In such cases, comprehenders need to revise their initial sentence interpretation as subject-initial upon encountering the disambiguating post-verbal subject NP (Hörberg et al. 2013).

    However, corpus-based and typological research shows that GFs correlate with prominence-based (e.g., animacy and definiteness) and verb-semantic (e.g., volitionality) information, both in the frequency distributions in language use within individual languages (e.g., Bouma 2008), and the grammatical encoding of GFs across languages (e.g., Aissen 2003), creating complex statistical regularities in the distribution of  prominence-based, morphosyntactic and verb-semantic properties. These properties and their interplay may be utilized during encoding and decoding of GFs in production and comprehension in order to overcome potential ambiguity problems.

    I will present results from a corpus study of written Swedish investigating the distribution of these properties in subject-initial, object-initial and passive sentences. I will argue that writers tend to balance their use of these properties in order to avoid GF ambiguities. In particular, writers less frequently use OVS sentences when other morphosyntactic or animacy-based information about GFs are unavailible (Hörberg 2018). In such cases, writers more frequently use the unambiguous passive construction.

    I will then present an expectation-based model of processing difficulty during incremental GF assignment in Swedish transitive sentences, based upon the statistical regularities observed in the corpus data (Hörberg 2016). Processing difficulty is quantified as the on-line change in the expectation of a particular GF assignment (subject- or object-initial) upon encountering the properties of a constituent (e.g., NP2) with respect to the previously encountered properties (e.g., NP1 and verb(s)) in terms of Bayesian surprise.

    I will finally provide empirical evidence for this expectation-based model on the basis of a self-paced reading experiment, testing some of the most prominent model predictions. Here, by-region reading times converged with the region-specific Bayesian surprise predicted by the model. For example, NP2 reading times in ambiguous OVS sentences were mitigated when NP1 animacy and its interaction with verb class bias towards an object-initial word order.

    These findings provide evidence for the expectation-based account in that they indicate that language users are sensitive to statistical regularities in their language during both production and comprehension of GFs. During production, writers seem to balance their use of morphosyntactic and prominence-based cues to GFs in a manner that accommodates comprehension. During comprehension, incremental GF assignment draws upon statistical regularities in the distribution of morphosyntactic, prominence-based and verb-semantic properties.

  • 17.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Sandöy, Camilla
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Ekström, Ingrid
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Incongruent odors suppress perceptual categorization of visual objects2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During multisensory experiences, visual stimuli typically suppress non-visual stimuli. Such ”visual dominance” effects might stem from inhibition across sensory systems. Does visual dominance generalize to odor-visual pairings? We developed a categorization task (fruits vs flowers) with congruent and incongruent odor-picture pairings and a delayed auditory response target that informed about categorization modality (olfactory vs visual). We investigated behavioral and cortical (ERP) responses. For congruent pairings, we found better accuracy for visual decisions. However, for incongruent pairings, we insteadobserved faster RTs for olfactory decisions. Incongruent olfactory stimuli thus interfere more with visualdecisions than vice versa. Our ERP results from auditory targets on incongruent trials gave supporting evidence of olfactory suppression over visual perception; higher P300 amplitudes were more strongly correlated with faster RTs during visual categorization. A late “slow wave” ERP effect had later onset andlonger latency during visual vs olfactory decisions. This indicates that in order to rapidly and successfully categorize visual stimuli (and ignore incongruent odors), participants need to allocate additional attentional and working memory resources. In sum, both behavioral and ERP effects suggest a higher level of interference from incongruent olfactory, compared to visual, input. These findings suggest that asymmetric inhibition across sensory systems is a fruitful way of studying sensory dominance, and that olfactory stimuli can dominate visual stimuli, refuting the general notion of ”visual dominance”.

  • 18.
    Di Garbo, Francesca
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Matthew Baerman, Dunstan Brown & Greville G. Corbett. Morphological Complexity (Cambridge Studies in Linguistics 153). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 20172019Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Linguistics, ISSN 0332-5865, E-ISSN 1502-4717, Vol. 42, nr 1, s. 129-134Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 19.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Motivation in pidgin and creole genesis2019Ingår i: Language Dynamics and Change, ISSN 2210-5824, E-ISSN 2210-5832, Vol. 9, nr 2, s. 238-264Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Almost all creolists see creole formation as a case of (failed) second language acquisition. I argue that there are good reasons to distinguish between second language acquisition and pidginisation/creolisation, and that little is gained by equating the two. While learners have an extant language as their target, pidginisers typically aim to communicate (in any which way) rather than to acquire a specific language. In this sense, pidginisation represents, if not conscious language change, at least conscious language creation.

  • 20. Opendak, Maya
    et al.
    Robinson-Drummer, Patrese
    Blomkvist, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. New York University School of Medicine, USA; Nathan Kline Institute, USA.
    Zanca, Roseanna M.
    Wood, Kira
    Jacobs, Lily
    Chan, Stephanie
    Tan, Stephen
    Woo, Joyce
    Venkataraman, Gayatri
    Kirschner, Emma
    Lundström, Johan N.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Wilson, Donald A.
    Serrano, Peter A.
    Sullivan, Regina M.
    Neurobiology of maternal regulation of infant fear: the role of mesolimbic dopamine and its disruption by maltreatment2019Ingår i: Neuropsychopharmacology, ISSN 0893-133X, E-ISSN 1740-634X, Vol. 44, nr 7, s. 1247-1257Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Child development research highlights caregiver regulation of infant physiology and behavior as a key feature of early life attachment, although mechanisms for maternal control of infant neural circuits remain elusive. Here we explored the neurobiology of maternal regulation of infant fear using neural network and molecular levels of analysis in a rodent model. Previous research has shown maternal suppression of amygdala-dependent fear learning during a sensitive period. Here we characterize changes in neural networks engaged during maternal regulation and the transition to infant self-regulation. Metabolic mapping of 2deoxyglucose uptake during odor-shock conditioning in postnatal day (PN) 14 rat pups showed that maternal presence blocked fear learning, disengaged mesolimbic circuitry, basolateral amygdala (BLA), and plasticity-related AMPA receptor subunit trafficking. At PN18, when maternal presence only socially buffers threat learning (similar to social modulation in adults), maternal presence failed to disengage the mesolimbic dopaminergic system, and failed to disengage both the BLA and plasticity-related AMPA receptor subunit trafficking. Further, maternal presence failed to block threat learning at PN14 pups following abuse, and mesolimbic dopamine engagement and AMPA were not significantly altered by maternal presence-analogous to compromised maternal regulation of children in abusive relationships. Our results highlight three key features of maternal regulation: (1) maternal presence blocks fear learning and amygdala plasticity through age-dependent suppression of amygdala AMPA receptor subunit trafficking, (2) maternal presence suppresses engagement of brain regions within the mesolimbic dopamine circuit, and (3) early-life abuse compromises network and molecular biomarkers of maternal regulation, suggesting reduced social scaffolding of the brain.

  • 21.
    Kurfali, Murathan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Noisy Parallel Corpus Filtering through Projected Word Embeddings2019Ingår i: Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Machine Translation (WMT), Association for Computational Linguistics, 2019, Vol. 3, s. 279-283Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a very simple method for parallel text cleaning of low-resource languages, based on projection of word embeddings trained on large monolingual corpora in high-resource languages. In spite of its simplicity, we approach the strong baseline system in the downstream machine translation evaluation.

  • 22.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Palula dictionary2019Ingår i: Dictionaria, artikel-id 3Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 23. Lieberman, Marion
    et al.
    Lohmander, Anette
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Parents' contingent responses in communication with 10-month-old children in a clinical group with typical or late babbling2019Ingår i: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, ISSN 0269-9206, E-ISSN 1464-5076Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Parental responsive behaviour in communication has a positive effect on child speech and language development. Absence of canonical babbling (CB) in 10-month-old infants is considered a risk factor for developmental difficulties, yet little is known about parental responsiveness in this group of children. The purpose of the current study was to examine proportion and type of parental responsive utterances after CB and vocalization utterances respectively in a clinical group of children with otitis media with effusion, with or without cleft palate. Audio-video recordings of interactions in free play situations with 22 parents and their 10-month-old infants were used, where 15 infants had reached the CB stage and 7 infants had not. Fifty consecutive child utterances were annotated and categorized as vocalization utterance or CB utterance. The parent's following contingent response was annotated and labelled as acknowledgements, follow-in comments, imitations/expansions or directives. The Average intra-judge agreement was 90%, and the average inter-judger agreement was 84%. There was no significant difference in proportion contingent responses after vocalizations and CB, neither when considering all child utterances nor the child's babbling stage. However, imitations/expansions tended to be more common after CB in the typical babbling group, whereas acknowledgements were more common after CB in the late babbling group. Our findings imply that responsiveness is a supportive strategy that is not fully used by parents of children with late babbling. Implications for further research as well as parent-directed intervention for children in clinical groups with late babbling are suggested.

  • 24. Lieberman, Marion
    et al.
    Lohmander, Anette
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för fonetik.
    Parents’ contingent responses in communication with 10-month-old children in a clinical group with typical or late babbling2019Ingår i: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, ISSN 0269-9206, E-ISSN 1464-5076Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Parental responsive behaviour in communication has a positive effect on child speech and language development. Absence of canonical babbling (CB) in 10–month–old infants is considered a risk factor for developmental difficulties, yet little is known about parental responsiveness in this group of children. The purpose of the current study was to examine proportion and type of parental responsive utterances after CB and vocalization utterances respectively in a clinical group of children with otitis media with effusion, with or without cleft palate. Audio-video recordings of interactions in free play situations with 22 parents and their 10-month-old infants were used, where 15 infants had reached the CB stage and 7 infants had not. Fifty consecutive child utterances were annotated and categorized as vocalization utterance or CB utterance. The parent’s following contingent response was annotated and labelled as acknowledgements, follow-in comments, imitations/expansions or directives. The Average intra-judge agreement was 90%, and the average inter-judger agreement was 84%. There was no significant difference in proportion contingent responses after vocalizations and CB, neither when considering all child utterances nor the child’s babbling stage. However, imitations/expansions tended to be more common after CB in the typical babbling group, whereas acknowledgements were more common after CB in the late babbling group. Our findings imply that responsiveness is a supportive strategy that is not fully used by parents of children with late babbling. Implications for further research as well as parent-directed intervention for children in clinical groups with late babbling are suggested.

  • 25.
    Holmström, Ingela
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Bagga-Gupta, Sangeeta
    Patient or customer? Interpretation, accessibility, and participation for deaf people in Sweden2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The key aim of the study presented in this poster is to illustrate the nature of accessibility and participation in the current provision of the Swedish county councils’ interpretation services for young deaf adults. Since interpretation services are affiliated to the health care system, deaf people in Sweden are often considered and treated as patients in need of assistance for accessing different contexts through Swedish Sign Language (STS) interpreters. The interpretation services are however multifaceted: at times facilitative, for example when deaf people listen to a public lecture thanks to the provision of interpreters, in other contexts obstructive, for example due to the administrative load surrounding it. The study focused upon in this paper highlights this complicated issue by presenting analysis of data from the Swedish Research Council supported project PAL, Participation for All (www.ju.se/ccd/pal), that focuses upon the trajectories of schooling and the post-school situation of young deaf people in Sweden. Taking both a sociocultural perspective and a decolonial framework on human communication, learning and identity, young deaf individuals’ life pathways are currently being mapped through an ethnographic approach in project PAL.

    A specific issue that has emerged in the on-going analysis is the importance of and the ways in which STS interpreters shape different forms of deaf people’s experiences and participation. One key preliminary finding is that although deaf people are often treated as patients, they are simultaneously tasked with the provision of information, preparation, and organization of the activities where the interpreters are needed. The latter results in that they get positioned as active customers of the interpretation services. This, thus, becomes a contradictory treatment of deaf people: on the one hand there is unequal power relations that positions deaf people in passive roles with limited, if any, possibilities to impact the interpreter services, and on the other hand they are given major responsibility for it, requiring them to be active and well-informed.

  • 26. Persson, Jonas
    et al.
    Szalisznyó, Krisztina
    Antoni, Gunnar
    Wall, Anders
    Fällmar, David
    Zora, Hatice
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Bodén, Robert
    Phosphodiesterase 10A levels are related to striatal function in schizophrenia: a combined positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging study2019Ingår i: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, ISSN 0940-1334, E-ISSN 1433-8491Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Pharmacological inhibition of phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) is being investigated as a treatment option in schizophrenia. PDE10A acts postsynaptically on striatal dopamine signaling by regulating neuronal excitability through its inhibition of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), and we recently found it to be reduced in schizophrenia compared to controls. Here, this finding of reduced PDE10A in schizophrenia was followed up in the same sample to investigate the effect of reduced striatal PDE10A on the neural and behavioral function of striatal and downstream basal ganglia regions. A positron emission tomography (PET) scan with the PDE10A ligand [11C]Lu AE92686 was performed, followed by a 6 min resting-state magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan in ten patients with schizophrenia. To assess the relationship between striatal function and neurophysiological and behavioral functioning, salience processing was assessed using a mismatch negativity paradigm, an auditory event-related electroencephalographic measure, episodic memory was assessed using the Rey auditory verbal learning test (RAVLT) and executive functioning using trail-making test B. Reduced striatal PDE10A was associated with increased amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) within the putamen and substantia nigra, respectively. Higher ALFF in the substantia nigra, in turn, was associated with lower episodic memory performance. The findings are in line with a role for PDE10A in striatal functioning, and suggest that reduced striatal PDE10A may contribute to cognitive symptoms in schizophrenia.

  • 27.
    Zora, Hatice
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för fonetik.
    Riad, Tomas
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Svenska/Nordiska språk.
    Ylinen, Sari
    Prosodically controlled derivations in the mental lexicon2019Ingår i: Journal of Neurolinguistics, ISSN 0911-6044, E-ISSN 1873-8052, Vol. 52, artikel-id 100856Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish morphemes are classified as prosodically specified or prosodically unspecified, depending on lexical or phonological stress, respectively. Here, we investigate the allomorphy of the suffix -(i)sk, which indicates the distinction between lexical and phonological stress; if attached to a lexically stressed morpheme, it takes a non-syllabic form (-sk), whereas if attached to a phonologically stressed morpheme, an epenthetic vowel is inserted (-isk). Using mismatch negativity (MMN), we explored the neural processing of this allomorphy across lexically stressed and phonologically stressed morphemes. In an oddball paradigm, participants were occasionally presented with congruent and incongruent derivations, created by the suffix -(i)sk, within the repetitive presentation of their monomorphemic stems. The results indicated that the congruent derivation of the lexically stressed stem elicited a larger MMN than the incongruent sequences of the same stem and the derivational suffix, whereas after the phonologically stressed stem a non-significant tendency towards an opposite pattern was observed. We argue that the significant MMN response to the congruent derivation in the lexical stress condition is in line with lexical MMN, indicating a holistic processing of the sequence of lexically stressed stem and derivational suffix. The enhanced MMN response to the incongruent derivation in the phonological stress condition, on the other hand, is suggested to reflect combinatorial processing of the sequence of phonologically stressed stem and derivational suffix. These findings bring a new aspect to the dual-system approach to neural processing of morphologically complex words, namely the specification of word stress.

  • 28.
    Mesch, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Raanes, Eli
    Questions and response in tactile sign language use2019Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we will focus on questions and responses of deafblind people in two sign languages in tactual modality: Swedish Sign Language and Norwegian Sign Language. Everyday conversation in sign language works by the combination of manual expressions made by the hands and body in combination with non-manual (visual) expressions. The visual non-manual expressions may include eye gaze, facial expressions and mouth movement. The usage of interrogative structures (how to express questions) is a typical part of signed languages where the visual and non-manual components have specific importance as signals of a question or a wish for response. Many studies have focused on various aspects of question and response in several sign languages, giving insight on the importance of precise usage of the non-manual parts of signing (e.g. Zeshan, 2006). Tactile sign languages are used in dialogical situations where those involved in the interaction not are able to see each other. Based on earlier studies of tactile sign languages (Mesch, 1998, 2013; Mesch, Raanes, & Ferrara, 2015; Raanes, 2006, 2011), we are investigating understanding practices and mistakes concerning questions and responses. Based on our empirical data from natural interaction between adult deafblind signers, we will focus on a selection on ways of getting attention towards request for response and how to question-constructions are formed in datasets from those two sign languages. The findings from this study show that there are different type of questions (content, polar, rhetorical) and type of social actions (e.g. request for confirmation or clarification, repair, etc.), where deafblind signers have their own strategies (e.g. fingerspelling, repetition etc.) to understand each other.

  • 29. Hedblom, Marcus
    et al.
    Gunnarsson, Bengt
    Iravani, Behzad
    Knez, Igor
    Schaefer, Martin
    Thorsson, Pontus
    Lundström, Johan N.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik. Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Monell Chemical Senses Centre, USA; University of Pennsylvania, USA.
    Reduction of physiological stress by urban green space in a multisensory virtual experiment2019Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, artikel-id 10113Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although stress is an increasing global health problem in cities, urban green spaces can provide health benefits. There is, however, a lack of understanding of the link between physiological mechanisms and qualities of urban green spaces. Here, we compare the effects of visual stimuli (360 degree virtual photos of an urban environment, forest, and park) to the effects of congruent olfactory stimuli (nature and city odours) and auditory stimuli (bird songs and noise) on physiological stress recovery. Participants (N = 154) were pseudo-randomised into participating in one of the three environments and subsequently exposed to stress (operationalised by skin conductance levels). The park and forest, but not the urban area, provided significant stress reduction. High pleasantness ratings of the environment were linked to low physiological stress responses for olfactory and to some extent for auditory, but not for visual stimuli. This result indicates that olfactory stimuli may be better at facilitating stress reduction than visual stimuli. Currently, urban planners prioritise visual stimuli when planning open green spaces, but urban planners should also consider multisensory qualities.

  • 30. Lillo-Martin, Diane
    et al.
    Rathmann, Christian
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Sign Language Linguistics Society: Sign language research and sign language rights for all2019Ingår i: Sign Language Rights for All: Programme & Abstracts, 2019, s. 128-128Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The international Sign Language Linguistics Society was founded by a group of sign language linguists in 2000 and aims to promote sign language research on an international scale and the maintenance of high scientific and ethical standards of research into the languages of deaf communities. SLLS encourages the exchange of information through meetings and publications, particularly the Theoretical Issues in Sign Language Research (TISLR) conference series. SLLS signed a memorandum of understanding with the WFD in 2016. In this presentation, we will discuss some of the ways that SLLS members are involved in activities that support sign language rights for all. Many SLLS members work on research into sign language acquisition by deaf and hearing children (Chen Pichler et al., 2018), and on promoting linguistic human rights and the avoidance of language deprivation for deaf children (Humphries et al., 2016). Most SLLS members also work in other less obvious ways in supporting sign language rights, particularly in the linguistic description and documentation of the sign languages of deaf communities. In the last decade, we have seen the rise of corpus-based approaches to sign language linguistics. Corpora are large representative samples of language data that can be search by computer and which can provide a collection for many uses. We have also seen more online dictionaries of sign languages, many of them supported by the work done by sign language researchers. Linguists also work on reference grammars, and work with deaf communities in many parts of the world to document their sign languages, including many endangered village sign languages. Sign language researchers provide evidence to language policy makers, and work to promote linguistic and cultural diversity to government. Sign language corpora, reference grammars and online dictionaries provide invaluable resources to sign language teachers, students and trainee interpreters. The increased understanding of sign language structure and use that comes from the work of linguists leads to improved sign language teaching resources that describe how the language is used within deaf communities. This will in turn enable us to create more reliable and valid sign language assessment instruments, for example. The greater understanding of and improved resources for sign language teaching and learning will also provide an evidence base for policy makers in supporting appropriate education, training and services for deaf children and adults. More appropriate resources for the bilingual education of deaf children and for sign language teaching interpreter training will lead to improved quality of educational and interpreting services for deaf people and provide more opportunities for self-development and employment. All of these aspects of the struggle for sign language rights are supported by the work of SLLS members.

  • 31. Hedblom, Marcus
    et al.
    Gunnarsson, Bengt
    Schaefer, Martin
    Knez, Igor
    Thorsson, Pontus
    Lundström, Johan N.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Monell Chemical Senses Center, USA; University of Pennsylvania, USA.
    Sounds of Nature in the City: No Evidence of Bird Song Improving Stress Recovery2019Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, nr 8, artikel-id 1390Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Noise from city traffic is one of the most significant environmental stressors. Natural soundscapes, such as bird songs, have been suggested to potentially mitigate or mask noise. All previous studies on masking noise use self-evaluation data rather than physiological data. In this study, while respondents (n = 117) watched a 360 degrees virtual reality (VR) photograph of a park, they were exposed to different soundscapes and mild electrical shocks. The soundscapesbird song, bird song and traffic noise, and traffic noisewere played during a 10 min recovery period while their skin conductance levels were assessed as a measure of arousal/stress. No significant difference in stress recovery was found between the soundscapes although a tendency for less stress in bird song and more stress in traffic noise was noted. All three soundscapes, however, significantly reduced stress. This result could be attributed to the stress-reducing effect of the visual VR environment, to the noise levels being higher than 47 dBA (a level known to make masking ineffective), or to the respondents finding bird songs stressful. Reduction of stress in cities using masking with natural sounds requires further studies with not only larger samples but also sufficient methods to detect potential sex differences.

  • 32.
    Wikse Barrow, Carla
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för fonetik. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Nilsson Björkenstam, Kristina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för datorlingvistik.
    Strömbergsson, Sofia
    Subjective ratings of age-of-acquisition: exploring issues of validity and rater reliability2019Ingår i: Journal of Child Language, ISSN 0305-0009, E-ISSN 1469-7602, Vol. 46, nr 2, s. 199-213Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to investigate concerns of validity and reliability in subjective ratings of age-of-acquisition (AoA), through exploring characteristics of the individual rater. An additional aim was to validate the obtained AoA ratings against two corpora – one of child speech and one of adult speech – specifically exploring whether words over-represented in the child-speech corpus are rated with lower AoA than words characteristic of the adult-speech corpus. The results show that less than one-third of participating informants’ ratings are valid and reliable. However, individuals with high familiarity with preschool-aged children provide more valid and reliable ratings, compared to individuals who do not work with or have children of their own. The results further show a significant, age-adjacent difference in rated AoA for words from the two different corpora, thus strengthening their validity. The study provides AoA data, of high specificity, for 100 child-specific and 100 adult-specific Swedish words.

  • 33.
    Wirén, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för datorlingvistik.
    Matsson, Arild
    Rosén, Dan
    Volodina, Elena
    SVALA: Annotation of Second-Language Learner Text Based on Mostly Automatic Alignment of Parallel Corpora2019Ingår i: Selected papers from the CLARIN Annual Conference 2018, Pisa, 8-10 October 2018 / [ed] Inguna Skadina, Maria Eskevich, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2019, s. 222-234, artikel-id 023Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Annotation of second-language learner text is a cumbersome manual task which in turn requires interpretation to postulate the intended meaning of the learner’s language. This paper describes SVALA, a tool which separates the logical steps in this process while providing rich visual support for each of them. The first step is to pseudonymize the learner text to fulfil the legal and ethical requirements for a distributable learner corpus. The second step is to correct the text, which is carried out in the simplest possible way by text editing. During the editing, SVALA automatically maintains a parallel corpus with alignments between words in the learner source text and corrected text, while the annotator may repair inconsistent word alignments. Finally, the actual labelling of the corrections (the postulated errors) is performed. We describe the objectives, design and workflow of SVALA, and our plans for further development.

  • 34.
    Lindström, Eva
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Zetterholm, Elisabeth
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkdidaktik.
    Tangentnedslag och pauser i flerspråkiga elevers skrivprocess2019Ingår i: RASK: Internationalt tidsskrift for sprog og kommunikation, ISSN 0909-8976, nr 49, s. 67-86Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 35.
    Holmström, Ingela
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Teaching a Language in Another Modality: A Case Study from Swedish Sign Language L2 Instruction2019Ingår i: Journal of Language Teaching and Research, ISSN 1798-4769, E-ISSN 2053-0684, Vol. 10, nr 4, s. 659-672Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on a Swedish Sign Language (STS) interpreting education, in which the students learn a second language (L2) that is expressed in the visual-gestural modality instead of the auditory-vocal one. Due to the lack of research on sign language L2 instruction, the teachers have limited scientific knowledge and proven experience to lean on in their work. Therefore, an action research-based project was started with the aim to enhance teachers’ knowledge about effective ways of teaching STS as an L2, and to examine how teaching can lead to students making good progress and attaining deep knowledge in STS. The article presents results from one of the projects’ sub-studies, Initial teaching through different primary languages, where a hearing STS L2 teacher’s approaches are examined when teaching the hearing students the new language in another modality than their previous language(s). The results show how this teacher uses her own knowledge from learning STS as an L2 and how she, through using spoken Swedish, provides rich metalinguistic knowledge that contributes to the students’ deeper theoretic knowledge about STS in addition to their practical STS learning. This had pedagogical implications for the further development of the instruction at the interpreting program.

  • 36.
    Holmström, Ingela
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Teckenspråksforskningen under 2000-talet: En översikt2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns många olika inriktningar inom teckenspråksforskningen idag och en avsevärd mängd studier utifrån olika perspektiv och på olika språkliga nivåer. I den här forskningsrapporten görs en översikt över svensk och internationell teckenspråksforskning under 2000-talet, med särskilt fokus på allmänspråkvetenskap. Rapporten berör dock även kognitiv lingvistik, psyko- och neurolingvistik samt sociolingvistik. Dessutom fokuseras i ett varsitt avsnitt barns teckenspråk och inlärning av teckenspråk som andraspråk. Det som tas upp är ett urval av den forskning som bedrivits och rapporten gör inte anspråk på att vara heltäckande, men ger utöver de översiktliga beskrivningarna också ett stort antal referenser för fortsatt egen läsning inom de olika områden som tas upp.

  • 37.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    The extension of person name markers to noun class markers2019Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a diverse convenience sample with languages from all continents, this paper explores how noun class markers can develop from person name markers or from personal pronouns via person name markers.

    Person name markers can grammaticalize from nouns or from personal pronouns. They can have or lack sex distinctions. In some languages they cumulate with case or topic. Noun classes fall into gender and classifiers, which typologists find increasingly difficult to distinguish. Gender tends to be more grammaticalized, which is largely due to cumulation with another grammatical category, notably number, case and/or person. Instances of recent origin of gender, such as animacy in Slavic, where gender has developed from different object marking and has travelled down the animacy hierarchy from pronouns to proper names and further to appellative humans and animals, as can be observed in Old Russian and Russian, demonstrate that the tight interaction of gender with case, number or person can date back to the origin of the gender category, and need not be a secondary development from classifiers.

    A first step in the extension of person name markers is older kinship terms, notably ‘father’ and ‘mother’ and human interrogatives ‘who?’. Person name markers can then further develop to uniqueness markers. There are several instances where non-canonical noun class systems can be shown to have originated from person name markers, notably Nalca (Mek, Trans-New Guinea phylum), Owa (Oceanic, Austronesian) and Mopan Maya.

    In a wide range of languages from different places in the world, noun class markers are so-called pronominal articles, which means that noun class markers have the same form as third person pronouns and have developed from third person pronouns. Interestingly, many languages with pronominal articles use pronominal articles with proper names. This suggests that pronominal articles can grammaticalize via person name markers.

  • 38.
    Zora, Hatice
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för fonetik.
    Rudner, Mary
    Magnusson, Anna
    The role of affective and linguistic prosody in the cognitive emotional appraisal of language2019Ingår i: Abstract book: Fifth International Conference on Cognitive Hearing Science for Communication, 2019, s. 174-174, artikel-id 60Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Prosody offers a unified expression domain for affective and linguistic communication. Affective prosody (e.g., anger vocalization) reflects pre-cognitive processes, whereas linguistic prosody (e.g., lexical tone) is an acquired cognitive skill. In the present study, we explored the interplay between subcortical affective prosody and cortical linguistic cues during emotional appraisal of speech using stereotyped electroencephalography (EEG) responses. We hypothesized that concurrent affective and linguistic prosody with the same valence will evoke a late positive frontal response, reflecting emotional appraisal supported by complex cognitive processing in frontal cortical areas. Using an auditory oddball paradigm, neural responses to a spoken pair of Swedish words that differed in emotional content due to linguistic prosody were investigated as pronounced with an angry and a neutral voice. The results indicate that when co-occurring, affective and linguistic prosody with the same valence elicit a unique late positive response in the frontal region that is distinct from the neural responses of affective and linguistic prosody alone. This study provides experimental evidence that both affective and linguistic prosody contribute synergistically to the cognitive emotional appraisal of language, and highlights the significance of pre-cognitive affective prosody in language processing, having important implications for both language learning and learning through language.

  • 39.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Vestbrant, Karolina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Döllinger, Lillian
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Liuzza, Marco Tullio
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. University of Catanzaro, Italy.
    Olsson, Mats J.
    Blomkvist, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Lundström, Johan N.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Monell Chemical Senses Center, USA; University of Pennsylvania, USA.
    The scent of security: Odor of romantic partner alters subjective discomfort and autonomic stress responses in an adult attachment-dependent manner2019Ingår i: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 198, s. 144-150Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    When in a stressful situation, access to adult attachment figures (e.g., romantic partners) is an important means by which adults regulate stress responses. The practice of smelling a partner's worn garment is reported as a self-treatment against stress. Here, we experimentally determined whether exposure to a partner's body odor attenuates adults' subjective discomfort and psychophysiological responses, and whether such effects are qualified by adult attachment security. In a blocked design, participants (N = 34) were presented with their partner's body odor, their own body odor, the odor of a clean t-shirt and rose odor, while exposed to weak electric shocks to induce discomfort and stress responses. Results showed that partner body odor reduces subjective discomfort during a stressful event, as compared with the odor of oneself. Also, highly secure participants had attenuated skin conductance when exposed to partner odor. We conclude that partner odor is a scent of security, especially for attachment-secure adults.

  • 40.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    The semantic organization of the English odor vocabulary2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Most people find it difficult to name familiar odors. Many languages, including English, lack a vocabulary devoted to describing odor qualities (compared to, e.g., a color term vocabulary), and little is known about the vocabulary used to describe odors. Attempts to establish “primary odor descriptors” have been unsuccessful. To date, research on odor vocabulary has rarely been done from a data-driven, empirical perspective.

    We present a study on the semantic organization of odor vocabulary, based on the distribution of words in olfactory and gustatory contexts, using a three-billion-word corpus of written English. Using a data-driven, computational linguistic approach developed in our lab, we quantify terms with respect to the degree of olfactory-semantic content they convey. We then derive the semantic organization of the top 200 olfactory-related terms, using a distributional-semantic word vector model, which represent semantic distances as multidimensional vector distances. The model is trained on olfactory and gustatory contexts, using the word2vec neural network implementation. Based on the semantic distances, we then use dimensionality reduction and clustering techniques (i.e., PCA and hierarchical clustering) to derive a 3-dimensional, corpus-based semantic space, and six principal descriptor clusters.

    Using distances based on the Draveneiks odor-term ratings data set, we also derive a semantic space with six specific clusters for the Draveneiks terms. The organization and clustering of our corpus-based semantic space match with the ratings-based semantic space, thereby showing the viability of our corpus-based approach. Based on our corpus-based data, we finally propose a novel domain-general odor term taxonomy (i.e., a domain-general odor wheel) that captures the dimensions and clusters identified in our analyses.

  • 41.
    Di Garbo, Francesca
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Torres Cacoullos, Rena and Catherine E. Travis. 2018. Bilingualism in the community. Code-switching and grammars in contact. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press2019Ingår i: Linguistic typology, ISSN 1430-0532, E-ISSN 1613-415X, Vol. 23, nr 2, s. 381-393Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 42.
    Safar, Josefina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Translanguaging in Yucatec Maya signing communities2019Ingår i: Applied Linguistics Review, ISSN 1868-6303, E-ISSN 1868-6311, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 31-53Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article looks at translanguaging practices in four Yucatec Maya communities with a high incidence of deafness in the peninsula of Yucatán, Mexico. Deaf and hearing community members draw from a broad spectrum of semiotic resources to interact with each other and with people from other villages in the region: they sign with different degrees of fluency, speak Yucatec Maya and/or Spanish, gesture, draw, point and incorporate objects in their physical surroundings. Human beings have a general tendency to communicate between and beyond different languages and modalities and to creatively adapt their semiotic repertoires to each other to negotiate meaning. On top of that, I show that sociolinguistic and cultural features of Yucatec Maya communities scaffold translanguaging practices. The rich inventory of conventional co-speech gestures of Yucatec Maya speakers, positive attitudes towards deafness and signed language and a critical amount of shared cultural knowledge facilitate communication between deaf and hearing and contribute to the emergence of similar sign languages in historically unrelated communities. The investigation of Yucatec Maya signing communities through a translanguaging lens allows us to critically deconstruct existing classifications of sign languages and varieties. Yucatec Maya Sign Languages are portrayed as a multi-layered network of different villages, families, generations and overlapping deaf and hearing spaces, where translanguaging takes place.

  • 43.
    Mesch, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för svenska som andraspråk för döva.
    Use of non-manual mouth actions in L1 and L2 signers based on data from two different SL corpora (SSLC and SSLC-L2)2019Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation focuses on non-manual mouth actions performed by deaf signers and adult second language (L2) learners of Swedish Sign Language (SSL). The discussion of the linguistic status of mouth actions in the literature motivates our work and study. Based data from SSLC (Swedish Sign Language Corpus) (Mesch & Wallin 2015) and SSLC-L2 (L2 learner corpus in SSL) (Mesch & Schönström 2018), we compare the use of mouth actions in L1 as well as L2learners. The presentation will also describe the annotation work of non-manual mouth actions. The annotation and analysis depart from Crasborn et al.’s (2008) categories of mouth actions that have been applied to several sign languages. Distribution, frequency and spreading patterns of use of mouth actions are observed and described. The results reveal some similarities as well as differences in use of mouth actions between the groups. Furthermore, the analysis reveals qualitative differences related to the interaction and synchronization of mouth actions and hand movements among L2 learners of SSL. Challenges of annotating mouth actions will also be discussed. 

  • 44.
    Andersson, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik. University of Trento, Italy.
    Ragni, Flavio
    Lingnau, Angelika
    Visual imagery during real-time fMRI neurofeedback from occipital and superior parietal cortex2019Ingår i: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 200, s. 332-343Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Visual imagery has been suggested to recruit occipital cortex via feedback projections from fronto-parietal regions, suggesting that these feedback projections might be exploited to boost recruitment of occipital cortex by means of real-time neurofeedback. To WA this prediction, we instructed a group of healthy participants to perform peripheral visual imagery while they received real-time auditory feedback based on the BOLD signal from either early visual cortex or the medial superior parietal lobe. We examined the amplitude and temporal aspects of the BOLD response in the two regions. Moreover, we compared the impact of self-rated mental focus and vividness of visual imagery on the BOLD responses in these two areas. We found that both early visual cortex and the medial superior parietal cortex are susceptible to auditory neurofeedback within a single feedback session per region. However, the signal in parietal cortex was sustained for a longer time compared to the signal in occipital cortex. Moreover, the BOLD signal in the medial superior parietal lobe was more affected by focus and vividness of the visual imagery than early visual cortex. Our results thus demonstrate that (a) participants can learn to self-regulate the BOLD signal in early visual and parietal cortex within a single session, (b) that different nodes in the visual imagery network respond differently to neurofeedback, and that (c) responses in parietal, but not in occipital cortex are susceptible to self-rated vividness of mental imagery. Together, these results suggest that medial superior parietal cortex might be a suitable candidate to provide real-time feedback to patients suffering from visual field defects.

  • 45.
    Gabarró-López, Sílvia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    What can discourse markers tell us about genres and vice versa? A corpus-driven study of French Belgian Sign Language (LSFB)2019Ingår i: Lidil, ISSN 1146-6480, E-ISSN 1960-6052, Vol. 60Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the use of three discourse markers – namely list buoys, PALM-UP and SAME – across genres in French Belgian Sign Language. Our sample contains argumentative, explanatory, metalinguistic and narrative dialogues produced by six signers. We present a functional description of the three discourse markers and their distribution across genres. PALM-UP and SAME are highly polyfunctional, whereas list buoys express fewer functions in the dataset. In our sample, there are few differences in frequency of use of the three discourse markers and their functions across genres.

  • 46. Bjerva, Johannes
    et al.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för datorlingvistik.
    Han Veiga, Maria
    Tiedemann, Jörg
    Augenstein, Isabelle
    What Do Language Representations Really Represent?2019Ingår i: Computational linguistics - Association for Computational Linguistics (Print), ISSN 0891-2017, E-ISSN 1530-9312, Vol. 45, nr 2, s. 381-389Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A neural language model trained on a text corpus can be used to induce distributed representations of words, such that similar words end up with similar representations. If the corpus is multilingual, the same model can be used to learn distributed representations of languages, such that similar languages end up with similar representations. We show that this holds even when the multilingual corpus has been translated into English, by picking up the faint signal left by the source languages. However, just as it is a thorny problem to separate semantic from syntactic similarity in word representations, it is not obvious what type of similarity is captured by language representations. We investigate correlations and causal relationships between language representations learned from translations on one hand, and genetic, geographical, and several levels of structural similarity between languages on the other. Of these, structural similarity is found to correlate most strongly with language representation similarity, whereas genetic relationships—a convenient benchmark used for evaluation in previous work—appears to be a confounding factor. Apart from implications about translation effects, we see this more generally as a case where NLP and linguistic typology can interact and benefit one another.

  • 47. Haualand, Hilde
    et al.
    Holmström, Ingela
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    When language recognition and language shaming go hand in hand – sign language ideologies in Sweden and Norway2019Ingår i: Deafness and Education International, ISSN 1464-3154, E-ISSN 1557-069X, Vol. 21, nr 2-3, s. 99-115Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on the similar approaches to, yet different contexts of legal recognition of sign languages in Sweden and Norway. We use examples from sign language documentation (both scientific and popular), legislation that mentions sign language, organization of implementation of sign language acquisition, and public discourse (as expressed by deaf associations’ periodicals from the 1970s until today), to discuss the status and ideologies of sign language, and how these have affected deaf education. The legal documents indicate that Norway has a stronger and more wide-reaching legislation, especially sign language acquisition rights, but the formal legal recognition of a sign language is not necessarily reflected in how people discuss the status of the sign language. Our analysis reveals that the countries’ sign languages have been subject to language shaming, defined as the enactment of linguistic subordination. The language shaming has not only been enacted by external actors, but has also come from within deaf communities. Our material indicates that language shaming has been more evident in the Norwegian Deaf community, while the Swedish Deaf community has been more active in using a “story of legislation” in the imagination and rhetoric about the Swedish deaf community and bilingual education. The similarities in legislation, but differences in deaf education, popular discourse and representation of the sign languages, reveal that looking at the level and scope of legal recognition of sign language in a country, only partially reflects the acceptance and status of sign language in general.

  • 48.
    Gabarró-López, Sílvia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    When the meaning of SAME is not restricted to likeness: A preliminary study from the perspective of discourse relational devices in two sign languages2019Ingår i: Discours - Revue de linguistique, psycholinguistique et informatique, ISSN 1963-1723, E-ISSN 1963-1723, Vol. 24Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study of a discourse relational device, namely same, in French Belgian Sign Language and Catalan Sign Language. Three aspects of same are examined including its distribution across genres, its functional description and its position in discourse. Two comparable samples were extracted from the reference corpora of these two sign languages. An annotation protocol and a segmentation model designed for the study of discourse relational devices in the spoken modality were used with the necessary adaptations to the signed modality. The results show a different distribution of same across genres in each sign language and several possible positions. Although same is polyfunctional in the two datasets, the most frequent function in the French Belgian Sign Language dataset (i.e., addition) is not found in the Catalan Sign Language dataset. This finding indicates that equivalent discourse relational devices in the signed modality also have language-specific functions as their counterparts in the spoken modality do.

  • 49. Bono, Mayumi
    et al.
    Efthimiou, EleniFotinea, Stavroula-EvitaHanke, ThomasHochgesang, JulieKristoffersen, JetteMesch, JohannaStockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.Osugi, Yutaka
    8th Workshop on the Representation and Processing of Sign Languages: Involving the Language Community: Proceedings2018Proceedings (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
  • 50. Clark, Becky
    et al.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    A global perspective on disparity of gender anddisability for deaf female athletes2018Ingår i: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 21, nr 1, s. 64-75Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the significance of gender and disability issues has graduallyincreased in the global society during the past three decades,there are only few studies with regard to the deaf community andsport. This article examines the level of Deaf or Hard-of-Hearingwomen’s participation in sports and the factors for their continuedunderrepresentation. The WomenSport International’s Task Force onDeaf and Hard of Hearing Girls and Women in Sport conducted aworld-wide survey to determine and assess the needs of deaf andhard of hearing girls and women in sport. A snapshot of the resultsand issues and future aspirations are provided.

  • 51.
    Gerholm, Tove
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.