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  • 1.
    Gabarró-López, Sílvia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Are discourse markers related to age and educational background? A comparative account between two sign languages2020Ingår i: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 156, s. 68-82Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a pilot investigation of two discourse markers, namely PALM-UP and SAME, in French Belgian Sign Language and Catalan Sign Language. The two discourse markers are studied from a cross-linguistic and a cross-generational perspective using two comparable samples of argumentative productions. The analysis shows that the two discourse markers are highly polyfunctional. Although they have language-specific functions, most of these functions are shared between the two languages. Furthermore, the use of the two discourse markers is idiosyncratic in both sign language datasets. In the small-scale pilot study described in this article, factors such as age or level of education do not seem to influence the usage of the two discourse markers in question.

  • 2.
    Gabarró-López, Sílvia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Discourse Markers, Where Are You? Investigating the Relationship Between Their Functions and Their Position in French Belgian Sign Language Conversations2020Ingår i: Sign Language Studies, ISSN 0302-1475, E-ISSN 1533-6263, Vol. 20, nr 2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the position of two discourse markers, namely PALM-UP and SAME, and the existence of a possible functional paradigm in French Belgian Sign Language. The position is investigated at three different levels: the clause, the basic discourse unit and the turn. The positions in which PALM-UP can appear in the basic discourse unit and the turn are more varied than the positions in which SAME can be found. Most functions of the two discourse markers predominantly appear in a particular position, whereas other functions have a great deal of variation. Most subjective meanings (i.e., related to the signer) expressed by the two discourse markers appear in left peripheral positions, but intersubjective meanings (i.e., related to the addressee) are not restricted to right peripheral positions. The two discourse markers in this position will predominantly occur with a directed gaze towards the addressee, but those in the left periphery occur with either an addressed or a non-addressed eye gaze.

  • 3.
    Holmström, Ingela
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för svenska som andraspråk för döva.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för svenska som andraspråk för döva.
    Sign languages2020Ingår i: The Routledge Handbook of Translation and Education / [ed] Sara Laviosa, Maria González-Davies, London: Routledge, 2020, s. 341-352Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, focus lie in translation as a language teaching practice in sign bilingual settings in deaf education. Due to limited or no access to sounds, many deaf pupils learn and use spoken languages primarily in their written form. Thus, in this translation practice, deaf pupils are translating between a written language and a sign language. The chapter focuses on translation practices in language teaching contexts and consider both experiences of using sign language translation as an approach in deaf education, sign language studies and translation studies, as well as (second) language teaching. Some concrete pedagogical examples of the application of translation as a pedagogical approach in sign language-based education at different levels, e.g. syllabus, classroom practice and assessment are provided. The chapter begins with an historical account of research on sign languages, sign language translation, and gives a brief account on the history of deaf education. A summary of key research approaches related to sign bilingual teaching with particular focus on translation as a method are also provided. Furthermore, some practical approaches and methods are presented with concrete examples from a sign bilingual classroom. The chapter ends with a conclusion and discussion about future directions.

  • 4. Rzymski, Christoph
    et al.
    Tresoldi, Tiago
    Greenhill, Simon J
    Wu, Mei-Shin
    Schweikhard, Nathanael E
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Gast, Volker
    Bodt, Timotheus A
    Hantgan, Abbie
    Kaiping, Gereon A
    Chang, Sophie
    Lai, Yunfan
    Morozova, Natalia
    Arjava, Heini
    Hübler, Nataliia
    Koile, Ezequiel
    Pepper, Steve
    Proos, Mariann
    Van Epps, Briana
    Blanco, Ingrid
    Hundt, Carolin
    Monakhov, Sergei
    Pianykh, Kristina
    Ramesh, Sallona
    Gray, Russell D
    Forkel, Robert
    List, Johann-Mattis
    The Database of Cross-Linguistic Colexifications, reproducible analysis of cross-linguistic polysemies2020Ingår i: Scientific Data, E-ISSN 2052-4463, Vol. 7, nr 1, artikel-id 13Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Advances in computer-assisted linguistic research have been greatly influential in reshaping linguistic research. With the increasing availability of interconnected datasets created and curated by researchers, more and more interwoven questions can now be investigated. Such advances, however, are bringing high requirements in terms of rigorousness for preparing and curating datasets. Here we present CLICS, a Database of Cross-Linguistic Colexifications (CLICS). CLICS tackles interconnected interdisciplinary research questions about the colexification of words across semantic categories in the world's languages, and show-cases best practices for preparing data for cross-linguistic research. This is done by addressing shortcomings of an earlier version of the database, CLICS2, and by supplying an updated version with CLICS3, which massively increases the size and scope of the project. We provide tools and guidelines for this purpose and discuss insights resulting from organizing student tasks for database updates.

  • 5.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    The elusive topic: Towards a typology of topic markers (with special reference to cumulation with number in Bolinao and gender in Nalca)2020Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    At least since the 1970s, topic has been widely recognized to reflect an important category in most different approaches to linguistics. However, researchers have never agreed about what exactly a topic is (researchers disagree, for instance, about whether topics express backgrounding or foregrounding) and to what extent topics are elements of syntax or discourse or both. Topics are notoriously difficult to distinguish from a range of related phenomena. Some definitions of topic are suspiciously similar to definitions of definiteness, subject, noun and contrast, so the question arises as to what extent topic is a phenomenon of its own. However, topics are also internally diverse. There is disagreement, for instance, as to whether contrastive and non-contrastive topics should be subsumed under the same notion.

    This talk tries to approach the category type topic bottom-up by considering cross-linguistic functional diversity in marked topics, semasiologically defined as instances of topics with explicit segmental topic markers. The first part of the talk considers the question as to whether topic markers can be defined as a gram type with one or several prototypical functions that can be studied on the basis of material from parallel texts and from descriptive sources. A tentative set of promising candidates for topic markers from 80 languages from all linguistic continents is compiled. It turns out that topic markers are a challenge for the gram approach, because the candidates do not easily cluster to obligatory use in prototypical contexts, but can at the same time exhibit very high text frequency even though they tend to be astonishingly unstable genealogically (one reason why stratified sampling is not particularly useful). In some languages, topic markers are difficult to distinguish from determiners or demonstratives (which, not unexpectedly, are also possible diachronic sources of topic markers).

    In an influential paper, Haiman (1978) has argued that conditionals are topics, but it has never been verified in a large-scale typological study how common topic markers really are in conditional clauses cross-linguistically. It has also been argued that the initial clause in correlative constructions often has topical properties. In the second part of this talk I will consider to what extent the candidates for topic markers identified in the first part of the talk occur in conditional clauses and in initial free relative clauses and what we can conclude from the results about the relationship between topics and complex sentences. One result is that topic markers are usually different from conditional markers even if they occur in conditional constructions (with the notable exception of grammaticalization of topic markers from conditional converbs). While topic markers are usually postposed irrespective of other word order typologies, conditional markers differ from them in that they co-vary with other word order typologies to a much larger extent.

    If topic is a grammatical category type like any other, it can be expected to cumulate with other grammatical categories. The third part of this talk focuses on a few instances of cumulation of topic withgender, number and case. Two languages will be discussed in particular detail. Bolinao (Sambalic, Austronesian; Philippines) has developed a number opposition in topic markers. Nalca (Mek, Trans New Guinea) distinguishes both gender, case and number in topic markers. The two cumulative systems are analyzed both from synchronic and diachronic perspectives in order to explore the language specific ways in which topic markers can be integrated into systems together with other grammatical categories.

  • 6. Schoffelen, Jan-Mathijs
    et al.
    Oostenveld, Robert
    Lam, Nietzsche H. L.
    Uddén, Julia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Radboud University, The Netherlands; Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, The Netherlands; Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study, Sweden.
    Hultén, Annika
    Hagoort, Peter
    A 204-subject multimodal neuroimaging dataset to study language processing2019Ingår i: Scientific Data, E-ISSN 2052-4463, Vol. 6, artikel-id 17Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This dataset, colloquially known as the Mother Of Unification Studies (MOUS) dataset, contains multimodal neuroimaging data that has been acquired from 204 healthy human subjects. The neuroimaging protocol consisted of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to derive information at high spatial resolution about brain anatomy and structural connections, and functional data during task, and at rest. In addition, magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to obtain high temporal resolution electrophysiological measurements during task, and at rest. All subjects performed a language task, during which they processed linguistic utterances that either consisted of normal or scrambled sentences. Half of the subjects were reading the stimuli, the other half listened to the stimuli. The resting state measurements consisted of 5 minutes eyes-open for the MEG and 7 minutes eyes-closed for fMRI. The neuroimaging data, as well as the information about the experimental events are shared according to the Brain Imaging Data Structure (BIDS) format. This unprecedented neuroimaging language data collection allows for the investigation of various aspects of the neurobiological correlates of language.

  • 7.
    Holmström, Ingela
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Ryttervik, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för svenska som andraspråk för döva.
    A note on phonological acquisition of novice/L2 signers through a sign repetition task2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper has two aims. First, it presents the development of a sign repetition test for novice/L2 signers. The test was originally developed and used within the project Teaching Swedish Sign Language (SSL) as a second language to interpreter students (UTL2) at Stockholm University, Sweden (Holmström 2018). Second, it provides a description of the signers’ phonological acquisition from a longitudinal perspective through a qualitative examination of the test outcomes.

    Studies on phonological acquisition of L2 signers confirm that phonology is a challenge to acquire among L2 signers (Bochner et al. 2011; Rosen 2004;). With this as a point of departure, in the project UTL2 we developed a sign repetition test, SignRepL2, targeted at L2 signers, with a focus on sign structure, i.e., phonological features of signs. Several recent studies have shown that repetition tests are an efficient and reliable tool for measuring language proficiency for both L1 users and L2 learners (Gaillard & Tremblay 2016; Klem et al. 2015). And sign languages seem to provide no exception, as in recent years there has been a growing number of sign language repetition tests, e.g. American Sign Language, ASL-SRT (Hauser et al. 2008), and Swedish Sign Language, SSL-SRT (Schönström 2014).

    The procedure in the SignRepL2 test is that the test-taker is instructed to repeat the sign or the short sentences provided in the stimuli as exactly as possible during video recording. In version one, 50 test items were used: 30 single-sign sentences, 10 two-sign sentences and 10 three-sign sentences. However, while the test worked well for the novice signers, a ceiling effect could be observed after one semester. As a consequence, version two of the SignRepL2 was developed by reducing the single-sign sentences from 30 to 10 and by adding 10 new four-sign sentences, now totaling 40 test items.

    The scoring of results follows a five-point rating scale as inspired by Ortega (Ortega cited in Gaillard & Trembly 2016). Here, scores from 0 to 4 are used, depending on the degree of correctness of the test responses. If the whole sign or sentence is correctly produced, 4 points are given. If the manual signing is correct but with missing or wrong mouth action, 3 points are given. If at least half of the sign or sentence is correct, 2 points are given, and a correct rate less than half results in 1 point. If the whole sentence is missing or totally wrong, 0 points are given.

    To date, the SignRepL2 has been tested on 37 SSL L2 students using a longitudinal approach. The students are tested five times under a period of two years during their SSL interpreting education. The first time was before their first ever SSL instruction, the second session took place after approximately 100 hours of instruction, the third after 200 hours, the fourth after 400 hours, and the fifth after 600 hours. The first three times, the primary version of SignRepL2 was used, and in the last two instances, the second version was used. The whole test procedure takes 10-12 minutes to administer and 30 minutes to score.

    In this paper, we will present the test development including the item selection process, scoring and the test results, as well as provide a qualitative examination of the phonological features. In the first test session, it appears that the students primarily try to imitate the actor’s manual signs without understanding the meaning of them, and thereby also exclude the mouth movements. In the later test sessions, there is a gradual change from solely an imitation of form to an imitation of the signs connected to their meaning, revealed, e.g., through the increased use of mouth movements and through the errors made when they replace signs that the actor uses with synonyms that they themselves have mastered. The tests also provide opportunities for a deep analysis of phonological features in the students’ imitation of the signs, and different phonological errors can be revealed at the group level. For example, the primary results indicate that it is the type of movement that the students most often fail to produce correctly. The results from the five test sessions will be compared to each other and detected differences between them will be discussed.

    References

    Bochner, J. H., Christie, K., Hauser, P. C., & Searls, J. M. (2011). When is a difference really different? Learners’ discrimination of linguistic contrasts in American Sign Language. Language Learning, 61(4), 1302–1327. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2011.00671.x

    Gaillard, S., & Tremblay, A. (2016). Linguistic Proficiency Assessment in Second Language Acquisition Research: The Elicited Imitation Task. Language Learning, 1-29. http://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12157

    Hauser, P. C., Paludnevičiene, R., Supalla, T., & Bavelier, D. (2008). American Sign LanguageSentence Reproduction Test: Development and implications. In R. M. de Quadros (ed.), Sign Language: Spinning and unraveling the past, present and future (pp. 160-172). Petropolis, Brazil: Editora Arara Azul.

    Holmström, I. (2018). Teaching Swedish Sign Language as second language to interpreter students. Proceedings from the Nordic Seminar, Umeå, Sweden, 23-25 February 2018.

    Klem, M., Melby-Lervåg, M., G, M., Hagtvet, B., Lyster, S. A. H., Gustafsson, J. E., & Hulme, C. (2015). Sentence repetition is a measure of children’s language skills rather than working memory limitations. Developmental Science, 18(1), 146–154. http://doi.org/10.1111/desc.12202

    Rosen, R. S. (2004). Beginning L2 production errors in ASL lexical phonology: A cognitive phonology model. Sign Language & Linguistics, 7(1), 31–61. http://doi.org/10.1075/sll.7.1.04beg

    Schönström, K. (2014). Swedish Sign Language Sentence Reproduction Test (SSL-SRT). Unpublished test, Stockholm: Stockholm University, Department of Linguistics.

  • 8.
    Gerholm, Tove
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Kallioinen, Petter
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Tonér, Signe
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Frankenberg, Sofia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Kjällander, Susanne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Palmer, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Lenz-Taguchi, Hillevi
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    A randomized controlled trial to examine the effect of two teaching methods on preschool children’s language and communication, executive functions, socioemotional comprehension, and early math skills2019Ingår i: BMC Psychology, E-ISSN 2050-7283, Vol. 7, artikel-id 59Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    During the preschool years, children’s development of skills like language and communication, executive functions, and socioemotional comprehension undergo dramatic development. Still, our knowledge of how these skills are enhanced is limited. The preschool contexts constitute a well-suited arena for investigating these skills and hold the potential for giving children an equal opportunity preparing for the school years to come. The present study compared two pedagogical methods in the Swedish preschool context as to their effect on language and communication, executive functions, socioemotional comprehension, and early math. The study targeted children in the age span four-to-six-year-old, with an additional focus on these children’s backgrounds in terms of socioeconomic status, age, gender, number of languages, time spent at preschool, and preschool start. An additional goal of the study was to add to prior research by aiming at disentangling the relationship between the investigated variables.

    Method

    The study constitutes a randomized controlled trial including 18 preschools and 29 preschool units, with a total of 431 children, and 98 teachers. The interventions lasted for 6 weeks, preceded by pre-testing and followed by post-testing of the children. Randomization was conducted on the level of preschool unit, to either of the two interventions or to control. The interventions consisted of a socioemotional and material learning paradigm (SEMLA) and a digitally implemented attention and math training paradigm (DIL). The preschools were further evaluated with ECERS-3. The main analysis was a series of univariate mixed regression models, where the nested structure of individuals, preschool units and preschools were modeled using random variables.

    Results

    The result of the intervention shows that neither of the two intervention paradigms had measurable effects on the targeted skills. However, there were results as to the follow-up questions, such as executive functions predicting all other variables (language and communication, socioemotional comprehension, and math). Background variables were related to each other in patterns congruent with earlier findings, such as socioeconomic status predicting outcome measures across the board. The results are discussed in relation to intervention fidelity, length of intervention, preschool quality, and the impact of background variables on children’s developmental trajectories and life prospects.

  • 9.
    Laskowski, Kornel
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för fonetik. Voci Technologies, Inc., USA.
    Wlodarczak, Marcin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för fonetik.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för fonetik.
    A Scalable Method for Quantifying the Role of Pitch in Conversational Turn-Taking2019Ingår i: 20th Annual Meeting of the Special Interest Group on Discourse and Dialogue: Proceedings of the Conference, Association for Computational Linguistics, 2019, s. 284-292Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Pitch has long been held as an important signalling channel when planning and deploying speech in conversation, and myriad studies have been undertaken to determine the extent to which it actually plays this role. Unfortunately, these studies have required considerable human investment in data preparation and analysis, and have therefore often been limited to a handful of specific conversational contexts. The current article proposes a framework which addresses these limitations, by enabling a scalable, quantitative characterization of the role of pitch throughout an entire conversation, requiring only the raw signal and speech activity references. The framework is evaluated on the Switchboard dialogue corpus. Experiments indicate that pitch trajectories of both parties are predictive of their incipient speech activity; that pitch should be expressed on a logarithmic scale and Z-normalized, as well as accompanied by a binary voicing variable; and that only the most recent 400 ms of the pitch trajectory are useful in incipient speech activity prediction.

  • 10.
    Marklund, Ellen
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Amount of speech exposure predicts vowel perception in four- to eight-month-olds2019Ingår i: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, ISSN 1878-9293, E-ISSN 1878-9307, Vol. 36, artikel-id 100622Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During the first year of life, infants shift their focus in speech perception from acoustic to linguistic information. This perceptual reorganization is related to exposure, and a direct relation has previously been demonstrated between amount of daily language exposure and mismatch response (MMR) amplitude to a native consonant contrast at around one year of age. The present study investigates the same relation between amount of speech exposure and MMR amplitude to a native vowel contrast at four to eight months of age. Importantly, the present study uses spectrally rotated speech in an effort to take general neural maturation into account. The amplitude of the part of the MMR that is tied specifically to speech processing correlates with amount of daily speech exposure, as estimated using the LENA system.

  • 11. Sundberg, Johan
    et al.
    Salomão, Gláucia Laís
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för fonetik.
    Scherer, Klaus R.
    Analyzing Emotion Expression in Singing via Flow Glottograms, Long-Term-Average Spectra, and Expert Listener Evaluation2019Ingår i: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Acoustic aspects of emotional expressivity in speech have been analyzed extensively during recent decades. Emotional coloring is an important if not the most important property of sung performance, and therefore strictly controlled. Hence, emotional expressivity in singing may promote a deeper insight into vocal signaling of emotions. Furthermore, physiological voice source parameters can be assumed to facilitate the understanding of acoustical characteristics.

    Method

    Three highly experienced professional male singers sang scales on the vowel /ae/ or /a/ in 10 emotional colors (Neutral, Sadness, Tender, Calm, Joy, Contempt, Fear, Pride, Love, Arousal, and Anger). Sixteen voice experts classified the scales in a forced-choice listening test, and the result was compared with long-term-average spectrum (LTAS) parameters and with voice source parameters, derived from flow glottograms (FLOGG) that were obtained from inverse filtering the audio signal.

    Results

    On the basis of component analysis, the emotions could be grouped into four “families”, Anger-Contempt, Joy-Love-Pride, Calm-Tender-Neutral and Sad-Fear. Recognition of the intended emotion families by listeners reached accuracy levels far beyond chance level. For the LTAS and FLOGG parameters, vocal loudness had a paramount influence on all. Also after partialing out this factor, some significant correlations were found between FLOGG and LTAS parameters. These parameters could be sorted into groups that were associated with the emotion families.

    Conclusions

    (i) Both LTAS and FLOGG parameters varied significantly with the enactment intentions of the singers. (ii) Some aspects of the voice source are reflected in LTAS parameters. (iii) LTAS parameters affect listener judgment of the enacted emotions and the accuracy of the intended emotional coloring.

  • 12.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    'As long as’, 'until' and 'before' clauses: Zooming in on linguistic diversity2019Ingår i: Baltic Linguistics, ISSN 2081-7533, Vol. 9, s. 141-236Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates 'before', 'until' and 'as long as' clauses in the Baltic languages in their wider areal and genealogical context in a sample of 72 modern and ancient doculects of European and Indo-European languages. In a bottom-up construction of the semantic map of 'before', 'until' and 'as long as' connectors from parallel text data, a fourth cluster intermediate between 'before' and 'until' with negative main clauses is identified. The typology resulting from the different overlaps of clusters locates Baltic languages in an intermediate zone between Western, Eastern, and Northern European languages. This goes hand-in-hand with a high diversity of Baltic languages in their typology of 'before', 'until' and 'as long as' clauses. The temporal connectors found in Baltic varieties can be classified according to whether they originate from strategies expressing temporal identity (simultaneity) or non-identity (non-simultaneity). Many connectors in Baltic derive from correlative constructions and originally express identity, but can then shift from simultaneity towards posteriority as they gradually lose their association with correlative constructions. Since temporal clauses are never atemporal and are hence incompatible with permanent states and since negation often expresses permanent states, negation—a marker of non-identity—is prone to develop non-polarity functions in 'before' and 'until' clauses. The Baltic and Slavic languages are rich in various kinds of expanded negation (translation equivalents in other languages lack negation) and expletive negation (negation does not have the function of expressing negative polarity) in 'before' and 'until' clauses. However, indefinite negative pronouns often retain their negative semantic value when standard negation in temporal clauses is expanded and semantically bleached.

  • 13.
    Frankenberg, Sofia J.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Lenz Taguchi, Hillevi
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Gerholm, Tove
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Bodén, Linnea
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Kallioinen, Petter
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Kjällander, Susanne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Palmer, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Tonér, Signe
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Bidirectional collaborations in an intervention randomized controlled trial performed in the Swedish early childhood education context2019Ingår i: Journal of Cognition and Development, ISSN 1524-8372, E-ISSN 1532-7647, Vol. 20, nr 2, s. 182-202Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the field of developmental science, there is a general agreement of the need to work together across academic disciplinary boundaries in order to advance the understandings of how to optimize child development and learning. However, experience also shows that such collaborations may be challenging. This paper reports on the experiences of bidirectional collaboration between researchers in a multidisciplinary research team and between researchers and stakeholders, in the first randomized controlled trial in Swedish preschool. The objective of the trial was to investigate the effects of two pedagogical learning strategies evaluating language, communication, attention, executive functions and early math. The interdisciplinary team includes researchers from early childhood education, linguistics, developmental psychology and cognitive neuro science. Educational researchers and theorists within the field of early childhood education in Sweden have during the last two decades mainly undertaken small-scale qualitative praxis-oriented and participative research. There is a widespread skepticism with regards to some of the core principles in controlled intervention methodologies, including a strong resistance towards individual testing of children. Consequently unanticipated disagreements and conflicts arose within the research team, as RCT methodology requires the measurement of effects pre and post the intervention. The aim of this article is to discuss the conditions for bidirectional collaboration both between researchers and stakeholders and between researchers in the research team. The findings illustrate strategies and negotiations that emerged in order to address ontological and epistemological controversies and disagreements. These include (a) the negotiation of research ethics, (b) making divergences visible and learning from each other, (c) using a multi-epistemological and methodological approach as a complement to the RCT design and (d) the negotiation of research problems that are shared between educators and researchers.

  • 14.
    Aare, Kätlin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik. University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Wlodarczak, Marcin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Breath holds in spontaneous speech2019Ingår i: Eesti ja soome-ugri keeleteaduse ajakiri, ISSN 1736-8987, E-ISSN 2228-1339, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 13-34Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article provides a first quantitative overview of the timing and volume-related properties of breath holds in spontaneous conversations. Firstly, we investigate breath holds based on their position within the coinciding respiratory interval amplitude. Secondly, we investigate breath holds based on their timing within the respiratory intervals and in relation to communicative activity following breath holds. We hypothesise that breath holds occur in different regions of the lung capacity range and at different times during the respiratory phase, depending on the conversational and physiological activity following breath holds. The results suggest there is not only considerable variation in both the time and lung capacity scales, but detectable differences are also present in breath holding characteristics involving laughter and speech preparation, while breath holds coinciding with swallowing are difficult to separate from the rest of the data based on temporal and volume information alone.

  • 15. Suni, Antti
    et al.
    Wlodarczak, Marcin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för fonetik.
    Vainio, Martti
    Šimko, Juraj
    Comparative Analysis of Prosodic Characteristics Using WaveNet Embeddings2019Ingår i: Proceedings of Interspeech 2019 / [ed] Gernot Kubin, Zdravko Kačič, The International Speech Communication Association (ISCA), 2019, s. 2538-2542Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a methodology for assessing similarities and differences between language varieties and dialects in terms of prosodic characteristics. A multi-speaker, multi-dialect WaveNet network is trained on low sample-rate signal retaining only prosodic characteristics of the original speech. The network is conditioned on labels related to speakers’ region or dialect. The resulting conditioning embeddings are subsequently used as a multi-dimensional characteristics of different language varieties, with results consistent with dialectological studies. The method and results are illustrated on a Swedia 2000 corpus of Swedish dialectal variation.

  • 16. Engström, Elisabet
    et al.
    Kallioinen, Petter
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    von Mentzer, Cecilia Nakeva
    Lindgren, Magnus
    Ors, Marianne
    Sahlén, Birgitta
    Lyxell, Björn
    Uhlén, Inger
    Computer-assisted reading intervention for children with sensorineural hearing loss using hearing aids: Effects on auditory event-related potentials for and mismatch negativity2019Ingår i: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, ISSN 0165-5876, E-ISSN 1872-8464, Vol. 117, s. 17-25Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The primary aim was to investigate whether computer-assisted reading intervention somehow can affect event-related potentials (ERP) and mismatch negativity (MMN) in hearing impaired (HI) children with hearing aids (HAs) and normal hearing (NH) children.

    Methods: The study included 15 HI children with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) using bilateral HAs and 14 NH children as a reference group; all children between the ages of 5 and 8. A multi-feature MMN-paradigm, Optimum-1, with a standard stimulus alternating with 5 different deviants was used. ERPs were recorded pre and post intervention, i.e. one month of repeatedly computer-assisted training (GraphoGame). MMN was calculated from the average ERP of each deviant minus standard. Data were based on samples within a specific time interval, 80-224 ms, and repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyze possible interactions.

    Results: There was a significant difference between groups before training, though, the mean obligatory responses or MMN was not statistically significantly different before versus after training, neither among the NH nor the HI children. Further, the HI children did generally achieve lower levels in GraphoGame compared to the NH children. Altogether, our findings indicate differences between the groups and that training may affect the neurophysiological processing in the brain, gaining the HI children. Both MMN and positive mismatch response (pMMR) were seen among both the HA and NH children, irrespective to deviant type. Individually, changes of the MMN and pMMR after training seem unpredictable.

    Conclusion: There are statistically significant differences in both the obligatory responses in ERP and the MMNs between the NH and HI groups before the computer-assisted training. Though, these differences disappear after the intervention. This suggests possible training effects regarding the central auditory processing among the HI children.

  • 17.
    Schönström, Krister
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för svenska som andraspråk för döva.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Corpus in Swedish Sign Language as a Second Language (SSLC-L2) – A Report2019Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2013 we have been building up a learner corpusin Swedish Sign Language (SSL) as a second language (L2). From 2017 this work has been funded by Riksbanken Jubileumsfond (RJ) for three years. In our presentation we will report on the work with the SSLC-L2. A short overview and some examples of the corpus design will be provided. The main scope of the talk, however, will be description of the annotation work of the L2 structures, i.e. the learners’ interlanguage. Here we discuss some challenges in annotating the L2 interlanguage. This include analysis ofspecific L2 structures and how to annotate them as well as examples on some preliminary results.

  • 18.
    Gabarró-López, Sílvia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Describing buoys from the perspective of discourse markers: a cross-genre study in French Belgian Sign Language (LSFB)2019Ingår i: Sign Language and Linguistics, ISSN 1387-9316, E-ISSN 1569-996X, Vol. 22, nr 2, s. 210-240Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides a description of the distribution of buoys across genres and of their possible functions as discourse markers in French Belgian Sign Language (LSFB). We selected a sample of dialogic genres—argumentative, explanatory, narrative and metalinguistic—produced by different signers from the LSFB Corpus. In our dataset, buoys are unequally distributed across genres, and list and fragment buoys are the most frequent. Apart from a pointer and a point buoy, only some list buoys have discourse-marking functions, including enumeration, alternative and addition. On the basis of the distribution of all types of buoys, the narrative dialogic genre is the most different as compared to the other three genres. It is characterised by a lower frequency of list buoys and a higher frequency of fragment buoys. When focusing on discourse-marking buoys, the explanatory genre attracts the higher number of tokens, which we relate to the higher degree of preparation as compared to the other genres.

  • 19.
    Ek, Adam
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för datorlingvistik.
    Wirén, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för datorlingvistik.
    Distinguishing Narration and Speech in Prose Fiction Dialogues2019Ingår i: Proceedings of the Digital Humanities in the Nordic Countries 4th Conference / [ed] Costanza Navarretta, Manex Agirrezabal, Bente Maegaard, CEUR-WS.org , 2019, s. 124-132Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a supervised method for a novel task, namely, detecting elements of narration in passages of dialogue in prose fiction. The method achieves an F1-score of 80.8%, exceeding the best baseline by almost 33 percentage points. The purpose of the method is to enable a more fine-grained analysis of fictional dialogue than has previously been possible, and to provide a component for the further analysis of narrative structure in general.

  • 20.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Diversity, stablity and diffusion in the Hindu Kush region of Inner Asia2019Ingår i: SLE 2019: Book of Abstracts / [ed] Olga Spevak, 2019, s. 568-570Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The mountainous Hindu Kush, on the northwestern edge of the Indian subcontinent, offers a promising “test site” for questions relating to language contact, diffusion and stability, considering its high linguistic density and diversity, with languages from six genera: Indo-Aryan, Iranian, Nuristani, Tibetan, Turkic and Burushaski (Masica 2001: 225; Liljegren 2017: 107–108). While traces of several substrata suggest that the region in a distant past served as an important accretion zone (Tikkanen 1988: 304), akin to Caucasus (Nichols 2003: 306), the region as of today bears witness of several waves of small- or larger scale diffusion (Bashir 2003: 823; Liljegren 2014: 162–167), mainly related to Indo-Aryan northward expansion within the last few millennia (Morgenstierne 1932: 51; 1961: 138; Strand 2001: 200), and in more recent times by superstratal influences (Bashir 2007) from a few languages of wider scope (e.g. Pashto, Urdu and Dari).  

    The main question asked in the present study is to what extent properties of some linguistic subsystems are more prone to diffuse than others, and whether they cluster similarly (geographically or genealogically) or significantly differently. We also ask to what extent individual properties show a higher or lower degree of intra-genealogical stability. A set of comparable first-hand data was collected from 59 varieties (representing all six genera) in a handful of collaborative workshops held in the region. The data was coded and analysed for approximately 50, mainly binary, linguistic features belonging to five different subsystems: phonology, word order syntax, grammatical categories, simple clause properties, and lexical structure, with an even distribution of features belonging to each of these five. In addition, a basic word list was cognacy-coded and used as the basis for measuring genealogical relatedness. It was primarily Indo-Aryan, due to its high representation (33 of the 59 varieties) that was analysed for feature stability.

    The preliminary results, visualized with NeighborNet representations (Huson & Bryant 2006), indicate differential clustering depending on subsystem. The clearest examples of diffusion affecting substantial parts of the region were found within phonology, word order and lexical structure, while simple clause features (alignment in particular) display more limited (subareal) clustering, and grammatical categories (especially gender) a relatively high degree of intra-genealogical stability.     

  • 21.
    Grzech, Karolina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Schwarz, Anne
    Ennis, Georgia
    Divided we stand, unified we fall? The impact of standardisation onoral language varieties: a case study of Amazonian Kichwa2019Ingår i: Revista de Llengua i Dret, ISSN 0212-5056, nr 71, s. 123-145Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article adds to the discussion on standardisation of minority languages spoken in primarily oral cultures. Focusingon Amazonian Kichwa (Quechuan, lowland Ecuador), we show how the introduction of a written standard can undermine language transmission, prompt contradictory ideologies, and instil conflicting aims within speech communities. Our approach combines descriptive linguistics and ethnography. First, we examine the extent of variation within Amazonian Kichwa and compare the local varieties with the standard. We juxtapose this with the speakers’ perceptions of and attitudes towards variation, evidenced in their linguistic practices and discourse. We show that these perceptions have little to do with the features being standardised, but this does not preclude the speakers’ having clear attitudes towards what the perceived standard. To explain this, we propose that Amazonian Kichwa speakers value authenticity above mutual intelligibility, contrary to ideologies assigning value to languages as potential tools of wider communication. To conclude, we provide policy recommendations grounded in this study, but applicable to minoritised oral varieties in other contexts.

  • 22.
    Heldner, Mattias
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för fonetik.
    Carlsson, Denise
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för fonetik.
    Wlodarczak, Marcin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för fonetik.
    Does lung volume size affect respiratory rate and utterance duration?2019Ingår i: Proceedings from Fonetik 2019, 2019, s. 97-102Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explored whether lung volume size affects respiratory rate and utterance duration. The lung capacity of four women and four men was estimated with a digital spirometer. These subjects subsequently read a nonsense text aloud while their respiratory movements were registered with a Respiratory Inductance Plethysmography (RIP) system. Utterance durations were measured from the speech recordings, and respiratory cycle durations and respiratory rates were measured from the RIP recordings. This experiment did not show any relationship between lung volume size and respiratory rate or utterance duration.

  • 23.
    Holmström, Ingela
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Döva nyanländas språkliga situation – en förstudie2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Förstudiens övergripande syfte var att undersöka hur den språkliga situationen ser ut för döva nyanlända över 18 år i Sverige. Mer specifikt undersöktes hur döva nyanlända identifieras och emottas, hur de placeras inom olika utbildningsinstanser och vad syftet är med olika placeringar. Dessutom undersöktes vilken tidigare forskning som genomförts med fokus på målgruppen och vilka kunskaper det finns om deras språkliga situation.

    - Vilka särskilda svårigheter/problemområden kan identifieras för framtida forskning?

  • 24. Holmström, Linda
    et al.
    Eliasson, Ann-Christin
    Almeida, Rita
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Furmark, Catarina
    Weiland, Ann-Louise
    Tedroff, Kristina
    Löwing, Kristina
    Efficacy of the Small Step Program in a Randomized Controlled Trial for Infants under 12 Months Old at Risk of Cerebral Palsy (CP) and Other Neurological Disorders2019Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Medicine, ISSN 2077-0383, Vol. 8, nr 7, artikel-id 1016Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective was to evaluate the effects of the Small Step Program on general development in children at risk of cerebral palsy (CP) or other neurodevelopmental disorders. A randomized controlled trial compared Small Step with Standard Care in infants recruited at 4-9 months of corrected age (CA). The 35-week intervention targeted mobility, hand use, and communication during distinct periods. The Peabody Developmental Motor Scales(2ed) (PDMS-2) was the primary outcome measure. For statistical analysis, a general linear model used PDMS-2 as the main outcome variable, together with a set of independent variables. Thirty-nine infants were randomized to Small Step (n = 19, age 6.3 months CA (1.62 SD)) or Standard Care (n = 20, age 6.7 months CA (1.96 SD)). Administering PDMS-2 at end of treatment identified no group effect, but an interaction between group and PDMS-2 at baseline was found (p < 0.02). Development was associated with baseline assessments in the Standard Care group, while infants in the Small Step group developed independent of the baseline level, implying that Small Step helped the most affected children to catch up by the end of treatment. This result was sustained at 2 years of age for PDMS-2 and the PEDI mobility scale.

  • 25.
    Grzech, Karolina Zofia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Elizabeth Couper-Kuhlen and Margret Selting, Interactional Linguistics: Studying Language in Social Interaction, Cambridge University Press, 20172019Ingår i: Linguist List, E-ISSN 1068-4875, nr 30, artikel-id 338Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 26. Sarolidou, Georgia
    et al.
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Sundelin, Tina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; New York University, USA.
    Lasselin, Julie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Regenbogen, Christina
    Sorjonen, Kimmo
    Lundström, Johan N.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Monell Chemical Senses Center, USA; University of Pennsylvania, USA.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Olsson, Mats J.
    Emotional expressions of the sick face2019Ingår i: Brain, behavior, and immunity, ISSN 0889-1591, E-ISSN 1090-2139, Vol. 80, s. 286-291Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To handle the substantial threat posed by infectious diseases, behaviors that promote avoidance of contagion are crucial. Based on the fact that sickness depresses mood and that emotional expressions reveal inner states of individuals to others, which in turn affect approach/avoidance behaviors, we hypothesized that facial expressions of emotion may play a role in sickness detection. Using an experimental model of sickness, 22 volunteers were intravenously injected with either endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; 2 ng/kg body weight) and placebo using a randomized cross-over design. The volunteers were two hours later asked to keep a relaxed expression on their face while their facial photograph was taken. To assess the emotional expression of the sick face, 49 participants were recruited and were asked to rate the emotional expression of the facial photographs of the volunteers when sick and when healthy. Our results indicate that the emotional expression of faces changed two hours after being made temporarily sick by an endotoxin injection. Sick faces were perceived as more sick/less healthy, but also as expressing more negative emotions, such as sadness and disgust, and less happiness and surprise. The emotional expressions mediated 59.1% of the treatment-dependent change in rated health. The inclusion of physical features associated with emotional expressions to the mediation analysis supported these results. We conclude that emotional expressions may contribute to detection and avoidance of infectious individuals and thereby be part of a behavioral defense against disease.

  • 27.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Expectation-based processing of grammatical functions in Swedish2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Much research indicate that language processing is expectation-based, drawing on statistical patterns in the input (MacDonald 2013). In this talk, I present evidence for this idea from experimental and corpus-based studies on the comprehension and production of grammatical functions (GFs) in Swedish transitive sentences. The preferred word order in such sentences is SVO. However, Swedish also allows for OVS word ordering, with the object placed sentence-initially and the subject post-verbally. Since the NP argument GFs of such sentences may not be correctly determined from the sentence constituent order (i.e., NPs and verb), they are potentially ambiguous. They can therefore be costly to comprehend when the initial NP lacks case marking. In such cases, comprehenders need to revise their initial sentence interpretation as subject-initial upon encountering the disambiguating post-verbal subject NP (Hörberg et al. 2013).

    However, corpus-based and typological research shows that GFs correlate with prominence-based (e.g., animacy and definiteness) and verb-semantic (e.g., volitionality) information, both in the frequency distributions in language use within individual languages (e.g., Bouma 2008), and the grammatical encoding of GFs across languages (e.g., Aissen 2003), creating complex statistical regularities in the distribution of  prominence-based, morphosyntactic and verb-semantic properties. These properties and their interplay may be utilized during encoding and decoding of GFs in production and comprehension in order to overcome potential ambiguity problems.

    I will present results from a corpus study of written Swedish investigating the distribution of these properties in subject-initial, object-initial and passive sentences. I will argue that writers tend to balance their use of these properties in order to avoid GF ambiguities. In particular, writers less frequently use OVS sentences when other morphosyntactic or animacy-based information about GFs are unavailible (Hörberg 2018). In such cases, writers more frequently use the unambiguous passive construction.

    I will then present an expectation-based model of processing difficulty during incremental GF assignment in Swedish transitive sentences, based upon the statistical regularities observed in the corpus data (Hörberg 2016). Processing difficulty is quantified as the on-line change in the expectation of a particular GF assignment (subject- or object-initial) upon encountering the properties of a constituent (e.g., NP2) with respect to the previously encountered properties (e.g., NP1 and verb(s)) in terms of Bayesian surprise.

    I will finally provide empirical evidence for this expectation-based model on the basis of a self-paced reading experiment, testing some of the most prominent model predictions. Here, by-region reading times converged with the region-specific Bayesian surprise predicted by the model. For example, NP2 reading times in ambiguous OVS sentences were mitigated when NP1 animacy and its interaction with verb class bias towards an object-initial word order.

    These findings provide evidence for the expectation-based account in that they indicate that language users are sensitive to statistical regularities in their language during both production and comprehension of GFs. During production, writers seem to balance their use of morphosyntactic and prominence-based cues to GFs in a manner that accommodates comprehension. During comprehension, incremental GF assignment draws upon statistical regularities in the distribution of morphosyntactic, prominence-based and verb-semantic properties.

  • 28.
    Schönström, Krister
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för svenska som andraspråk för döva.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Frequency and distribution of signs and sign proficiency in second language (L2) signers – a longitudinal and comparative study2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Production of vocabulary is one of the essential components of language competence. However, no study has yet investigated the L2 acquisition of signs of any sign language in a broader sense. Such a study is motivated by the fact that vocabulary is a particularly interesting area in sign languages considering the categories of signs, i.e., sign types (see e.g. Johnston 2010). This paper examines the frequency and distribution of signs produced by L2 learners of Swedish Sign Language. In addition, we make an attempt to describe the sign proficiency and to track the development of L2 signs.

    Earlier research on L2 sign acquisition has mostly focused upon phonological structures of signs (e.g. Bochner et al. 2011; Ortega & Morgan 2015; Rosen 2004), with some studies on other structures e.g. classifier constructions (Marshall & Morgan 2015). Due to our corpus-based data we are able to attempt a description of the frequency and distribution of signs, as well as L2 analysis of signs used by the learners. Our L2 analysis has included phonological, morphological and lexical analysis according to the complexity, accuracy and fluency (CAF) framework (Housen & Kuiken 2009), i.e., L2 signers’ proficiency is accounted through three components: degree of complexity, degree of accuracy and degree of fluency.

    Sampled longitudinal corpus data from 16 adult L2 signers from the Swedish Sign Language as an L2 Corpus (SSLC-L2) (Schönström & Mesch 2017) was analyzed. Two kinds of data were included: dialogue data based on interviews, and retellings of a movie clip. This was compared with data from 9 L1 signers.

    We provide results outlining the distribution and frequency of signs in L2 signers at two different time points in their development as well a comparison with L1 signers with regard to distribution and frequency of (1) signs, (2) sign types and (3) parts of speech. For example, with regard to the verbs, it was revealed that the proportion of lexical verb signs increases with time while the proportion of depicting signs remains the same. We discuss this in light of the contributing role of gesture in L2 sign production, as the line between some depicting signs (e.g. handling handshapes) and gestures is not always crystal clear. With regard to sign proficiency according to the CAF framework, the results revealed, among other things, that phonological errors are common, and in line with results provided by earlier research which suggest a learning order in which location parameter is acquired before handshape and movement parameters.

  • 29.
    Svärd, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Gender in New Guinea2019Ingår i: Grammatical gender and linguistic complexity: Volume I: General issues and specific studies / [ed] Francesca Di Garbo, Bruno Olsson, Bernhard Wälchli, Berlin: Language Science Press, 2019, s. 225-276Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study classifies gender systems of 20 languages in the New Guinearegion, an often neglected area in typological research, according to five criteriaused by Di Garbo (2014) for African languages. The results show that gender in NewGuinea is diverse, although around half of the languages have two-gendered sex-based systems with semantic assignment, more than four gender-indexing targets,and no gender marking on nouns. The gender systems of New Guinea are remark-ably representative of the world, although formal assignment is underrepresented.However, the gender systems of New Guinea and Africa are very different. Themost significant difference is the prevalence of non-sex-based gender systems andgender marking on nouns in Africa, whereas the opposite is true in New Guinea.Finally, four typologically rare characteristics are singled out: (1) size and shapeas important criteria of gender assignment, with large/long being masculine andsmall/short feminine, (2) the co-existence of two separate nominal classificationsystems, (3) no gender distinctions in pronouns, and (4) verbs as the most commonindexing target.

  • 30.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Gender typology and gender (in)stability in Hindu Kush Indo-Aryan languages2019Ingår i: Grammatical gender and linguistic complexity: Volume I: General issues and specific studies / [ed] Francesca di Garbo, Bruno Olson, Bernhard Wälchli, Berlin: Language Science Press, 2019, s. 279-328Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the phenomenon of gender as it appears in 25 Indo-Aryan languages (sometimes referred to as “Dardic”) spoken in the Hindu Kush-Karakorum region – the mountainous areas of northeastern Afghanistan, northern Pakistan and the disputed territory of Kashmir. Looking at each language in terms of the number of genders present, to what extent these are sex-based or non-sex-based, how gender relates to declensional differences, and what systems of assign-ment are applied, we arrive at a micro-typology of gender in Hindu Kush Indo-Aryan, including a characterization of these systems in terms of their general com-plexity. Considering the relatively close genealogical ties, the languages display a number of unexpected and significant differences. While the inherited sex-based gender system is clearly preserved in most of the languages, and perhaps even strengthened in some, it is curiously missing altogether in others (such as in Kalasha and Khowar) or seems to be subject to considerable erosion (e.g. in Dameli). That the languages of the latter kind are all found at the northwestern outskirts of the Indo-Aryan world suggests non-trivial interaction with neighbouring languages without gender or with markedly different assignment systems. In terms of com-plexity, the southwestern-most corner of the region stands out; here we find a few languages (primarily belonging to the Pashai group) that combine inherited sex-based gender differentiation with animacy-related distinctions resulting in highly complex agreement patterns. The findings are discussed in the light of earlier obser-vations of linguistic areality or substratal influence in the region, involving Indo-Aryan, Iranian, Nuristani, Tibeto-Burman, Turkic languages and Burushaski. The present study draws from the analysis of earlier publications as well as from en-tirely novel field data.

  • 31.
    Di Garbo, Francesca
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Olsson, BrunoWälchli, BernhardStockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Grammatical gender and linguistic complexity: Volume I: General issues and specific studies2019Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The many facets of grammatical gender remain one of the most fruitful areas of linguistic research, and pose fascinating questions about the origins and development of complexity in language. The present work is a two-volume collection of 13 chapters on the topic of grammatical gender seen through the prism of linguistic complexity. The contributions discuss what counts as complex and/or simple in grammatical gender systems, whether the distribution of gender systems across the world’s languages relates to the language ecology and social history of speech communities. Contributors demonstrate how the complexity of gender systems can be studied synchronically, both in individual languages and over large cross-linguistic samples, and diachronically, by exploring how gender systems change over time. In addition to three chapters on the theoretical foundations of gender complexity, volume one contains six chapters on grammatical gender and complexity in individual languages and language families of Africa, New Guinea, and South Asia.

    This volume is complemented by volume two, which consists of three chapters providing diachronic and typological case studies, followed by a final chapter discussing old and new theoretical and empirical challenges in the study of the dynamics of gender complexity.

  • 32.
    Di Garbo, Francesca
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Olsson, BrunoWälchli, BernhardStockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Grammatical gender and linguistic complexity: Volume II: World-wide comparative studies2019Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The many facets of grammatical gender remain one of the most fruitful areas of linguistic research, and pose fascinating questions about the origins and development of complexity in language. The present work is a two-volume collection of 13 chapters on the topic of grammatical gender seen through the prism of linguistic complexity. The contributions discuss what counts as complex and/or simple in grammatical gender systems, whether the distribution of gender systems across the world’s languages relates to the language ecology and social history of speech communities. Contributors demonstrate how the complexity of gender systems can be studied synchronically, both in individual languages and over large cross-linguistic samples, and diachronically, by exploring how gender systems change over time. Volume two consists of three chapters providing diachronic and typological case studies, followed by a final chapter discussing old and new theoretical and empirical challenges in the study of the dynamics of gender complexity.

    This volume is preceded by volume one, which, in addition to three chapters on the theoretical foundations of gender complexity, contains six chapters on grammatical gender and complexity in individual languages and language families of Africa, New Guinea, and South Asia.

  • 33.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Sandöy, Camilla
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Ekström, Ingrid
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Incongruent odors suppress perceptual categorization of visual objects2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During multisensory experiences, visual stimuli typically suppress non-visual stimuli. Such ”visual dominance” effects might stem from inhibition across sensory systems. Does visual dominance generalize to odor-visual pairings? We developed a categorization task (fruits vs flowers) with congruent and incongruent odor-picture pairings and a delayed auditory response target that informed about categorization modality (olfactory vs visual). We investigated behavioral and cortical (ERP) responses. For congruent pairings, we found better accuracy for visual decisions. However, for incongruent pairings, we insteadobserved faster RTs for olfactory decisions. Incongruent olfactory stimuli thus interfere more with visualdecisions than vice versa. Our ERP results from auditory targets on incongruent trials gave supporting evidence of olfactory suppression over visual perception; higher P300 amplitudes were more strongly correlated with faster RTs during visual categorization. A late “slow wave” ERP effect had later onset andlonger latency during visual vs olfactory decisions. This indicates that in order to rapidly and successfully categorize visual stimuli (and ignore incongruent odors), participants need to allocate additional attentional and working memory resources. In sum, both behavioral and ERP effects suggest a higher level of interference from incongruent olfactory, compared to visual, input. These findings suggest that asymmetric inhibition across sensory systems is a fruitful way of studying sensory dominance, and that olfactory stimuli can dominate visual stimuli, refuting the general notion of ”visual dominance”.

  • 34.
    Di Garbo, Francesca
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Olsson, Bruno
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Introduction2019Ingår i: Grammatical gender and linguistic complexity: Volume I: General issues and specific studies / [ed] Francesca Di Garbo, Bruno Olsson, Bernhard Wälchli, Berlin: Language Science Press, 2019, s. 1-13Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter introduces the two volumes Grammatical gender and linguistic complexity I: General issues and specific studies and Grammatical gender and linguistic complexity II: World-wide comparative studies.

  • 35.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Investigating and measuring linguistic areality in the Hindu Kush-Karakoram region2019Ingår i: South Asian Languages Analysis, SALA-35 / [ed] Ghanshyam Sharma, 2019, s. 187-188Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    More than 50 distinct ethnolinguistic communities inhabit the mountainous northwestern outskirts of the subcontinent. This region, here referred to as Hindu Kush-Karakoram, is spread over the territories of several countries -- primarily Afghanistan, Pakistan and India -- and comprises languages belonging to six genera: Indo-Aryan (in majority), Nuristani, Iranian, Tibeto-Burman, Turkic and the isolate Burushaski. The linguistic profile of this region and its significance as a contact zone or linguistic area has been the topic of a discussion going on for several decades (Toporov 1970; Èdel’man 1980; 1983: 16; Bashir 1996a; 1996b; 2003: 823; 2016; Baart 2014; Tikkanen 1999; 2008; Koptjevskaja-Tamm & Liljegren 2017: 215–223), but the tendency has been to focus on individual features and phenomena, sometimes based on relatively sparse data, and more seldom have there been attempts at applying a higher degree of feature aggregation with tight sampling.

    In the present study, comparable first-hand data from as many as 59 Hindu Kush-Karakoram language varieties, was collected and analyzed. The data allowed for setting up a basic word list of 95 comparable meanings (representing close kinship, lower numerals, basic actions, substances and objects) as well as for classifying each variety according to approximately 50 binary structural features (reflecting phonological, morphological, syntactic and lexico-semantic properties). While a comparison of the basic lexicon across the varieties lines up very closely with established phylogenetic classification, structural similarity clustering (visualized by means of NeighborNet) is clearly related to geographical proximity within the region and often cuts across phylogenetic boundaries. The strongest evidence of areality tied to the region itself (vis-à-vis South Asia in general on the one hand and Central/West Asia on the other) relates to phonology and lexical structure, whereas word order and alignment features mostly place the region’s languages within a larger areal or macro-areal distribution, and many morphological features or properties related to grammatical categorization (e.g. gender) display a high degree of genetic stability.

    The distinctly sub-areal clustering of the many Indo-Aryan varieties (33 out of 59), each along with a set of non-Indo-Aryan languages, suggests multiple centres of diffusion or parallel development, some of them very old and mostly likely of substratal nature, others reflecting contact patterns of a more recent date. Two putative sub-areas of particular interest are: a) a central west-to-east-stretching belt, including many Indo-Aryan languages, the isolate Burushaski as well as most of the Nuristani languages, and b) a northern belt, partly coinciding with the Wakhan corridor, including Indo-Aryan, Iranian and possibly one of the Nuristani varieties. The remaining Indo-Aryan languages, mostly at the southeastern and southwestern peripheries, group structurally either with more typically South Asian languages, such as Indo-Aryan Urdu-Hindi and Iranian Pashto, or with typically Central/West Asian languages, such as Iranian Dari and Turkic. These tentative results lend support to the scenario painted by Morgenstierne (1961: 138; 1974: 2–3), echoed by Strand (1973: 207–208; 2001: 251), according to which the Indo-Aryan languages of the region can be traced back to a cluster of northwestern Indo-Aryan varieties that developed and differentiated in the plains south of the Hindu Kush before gradually penetrating the mountainous area from the south, after which these varieties gradually evolved into the present-day languages and dialects, strongly influenced by adjacent non-Indo-Aryan languages already present in their new environments. These results further refute, once again, the relevance of a “Dardic” level below that of Indo-Aryan (or possibly northwestern Indo-Aryan), whether intended as a phylogenetic label or an areally defined term.

  • 36.
    Di Garbo, Francesca
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Matthew Baerman, Dunstan Brown & Greville G. Corbett. Morphological Complexity (Cambridge Studies in Linguistics 153). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 20172019Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Linguistics, ISSN 0332-5865, E-ISSN 1502-4717, Vol. 42, nr 1, s. 129-134Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 37.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Motivation in pidgin and creole genesis2019Ingår i: Language Dynamics and Change, ISSN 2210-5824, E-ISSN 2210-5832, Vol. 9, nr 2, s. 238-264Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Almost all creolists see creole formation as a case of (failed) second language acquisition. I argue that there are good reasons to distinguish between second language acquisition and pidginisation/creolisation, and that little is gained by equating the two. While learners have an extant language as their target, pidginisers typically aim to communicate (in any which way) rather than to acquire a specific language. In this sense, pidginisation represents, if not conscious language change, at least conscious language creation.

  • 38. Porada, Danja K.
    et al.
    Regenbogen, Christina
    Seubert, Janina
    Freiherr, Jessica
    Lundström, Johan N.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Monell Chemical Senses Center, USA; University of Pennsylvania, USA.
    Multisensory Enhancement of Odor Object Processing in Primary Olfactory Cortex2019Ingår i: Neuroscience, ISSN 0306-4522, E-ISSN 1873-7544, Vol. 418, s. 254-265Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Identification of an object based on its odor alone is inherently difficult, but becomes easier when other senses provide supporting cues. This suggests that crossmodal sensory input facilitates neural processing of olfactory object information; however, direct evidence is still lacking. Here, we tested the effect of multisensory stimulation on information processing in the human posterior piriform cortex (PPC), a region linked to olfactory object encoding. Participants were exposed to familiar objects in the form of uni-, bi-, and trimodal combinations of odors, videos, and sounds. We hypothesized that the PPC would respond to non-olfactory object information, and that activity would increase linearly with the number of senses providing relevant object information. As predicted, visual object information activated the PPC and activity increased linearly with the number of relevant sensory channels. The crossmodal response pattern thus indicates that the PPC does not exclusively respond to olfactory information, but also to crossmodal object information important for olfactory processing. The continuous activity increase suggests that the PPC further acts as a multisensory binding site where pertinent input from multiple senses results in an increased neural response to the odor object. This potentially represents a neural mechanism for the well-known behavioral improvement present in odor object recognition during concurrent crossmodal sensory stimulation.

  • 39. Opendak, Maya
    et al.
    Robinson-Drummer, Patrese
    Blomkvist, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi. New York University School of Medicine, USA; Nathan Kline Institute, USA.
    Zanca, Roseanna M.
    Wood, Kira
    Jacobs, Lily
    Chan, Stephanie
    Tan, Stephen
    Woo, Joyce
    Venkataraman, Gayatri
    Kirschner, Emma
    Lundström, Johan N.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Wilson, Donald A.
    Serrano, Peter A.
    Sullivan, Regina M.
    Neurobiology of maternal regulation of infant fear: the role of mesolimbic dopamine and its disruption by maltreatment2019Ingår i: Neuropsychopharmacology, ISSN 0893-133X, E-ISSN 1740-634X, Vol. 44, nr 7, s. 1247-1257Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Child development research highlights caregiver regulation of infant physiology and behavior as a key feature of early life attachment, although mechanisms for maternal control of infant neural circuits remain elusive. Here we explored the neurobiology of maternal regulation of infant fear using neural network and molecular levels of analysis in a rodent model. Previous research has shown maternal suppression of amygdala-dependent fear learning during a sensitive period. Here we characterize changes in neural networks engaged during maternal regulation and the transition to infant self-regulation. Metabolic mapping of 2deoxyglucose uptake during odor-shock conditioning in postnatal day (PN) 14 rat pups showed that maternal presence blocked fear learning, disengaged mesolimbic circuitry, basolateral amygdala (BLA), and plasticity-related AMPA receptor subunit trafficking. At PN18, when maternal presence only socially buffers threat learning (similar to social modulation in adults), maternal presence failed to disengage the mesolimbic dopaminergic system, and failed to disengage both the BLA and plasticity-related AMPA receptor subunit trafficking. Further, maternal presence failed to block threat learning at PN14 pups following abuse, and mesolimbic dopamine engagement and AMPA were not significantly altered by maternal presence-analogous to compromised maternal regulation of children in abusive relationships. Our results highlight three key features of maternal regulation: (1) maternal presence blocks fear learning and amygdala plasticity through age-dependent suppression of amygdala AMPA receptor subunit trafficking, (2) maternal presence suppresses engagement of brain regions within the mesolimbic dopamine circuit, and (3) early-life abuse compromises network and molecular biomarkers of maternal regulation, suggesting reduced social scaffolding of the brain.

  • 40.
    Kurfali, Murathan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för datorlingvistik.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för datorlingvistik.
    Noisy Parallel Corpus Filtering through Projected Word Embeddings2019Ingår i: Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Machine Translation (WMT), Association for Computational Linguistics, 2019, Vol. 3, s. 279-283Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a very simple method for parallel text cleaning of low-resource languages, based on projection of word embeddings trained on large monolingual corpora in high-resource languages. In spite of its simplicity, we approach the strong baseline system in the downstream machine translation evaluation.

  • 41.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Palula dictionary2019Ingår i: Dictionaria, artikel-id 3Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 42. Lieberman, Marion
    et al.
    Lohmander, Anette
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för fonetik.
    Parents’ contingent responses in communication with 10-month-old children in a clinical group with typical or late babbling2019Ingår i: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, ISSN 0269-9206, E-ISSN 1464-5076, Vol. 33, nr 10-11, s. 1050-1062Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Parental responsive behaviour in communication has a positive effect on child speech and language development. Absence of canonical babbling (CB) in 10–month–old infants is considered a risk factor for developmental difficulties, yet little is known about parental responsiveness in this group of children. The purpose of the current study was to examine proportion and type of parental responsive utterances after CB and vocalization utterances respectively in a clinical group of children with otitis media with effusion, with or without cleft palate. Audio-video recordings of interactions in free play situations with 22 parents and their 10-month-old infants were used, where 15 infants had reached the CB stage and 7 infants had not. Fifty consecutive child utterances were annotated and categorized as vocalization utterance or CB utterance. The parent’s following contingent response was annotated and labelled as acknowledgements, follow-in comments, imitations/expansions or directives. The Average intra-judge agreement was 90%, and the average inter-judger agreement was 84%. There was no significant difference in proportion contingent responses after vocalizations and CB, neither when considering all child utterances nor the child’s babbling stage. However, imitations/expansions tended to be more common after CB in the typical babbling group, whereas acknowledgements were more common after CB in the late babbling group. Our findings imply that responsiveness is a supportive strategy that is not fully used by parents of children with late babbling. Implications for further research as well as parent-directed intervention for children in clinical groups with late babbling are suggested.

  • 43.
    Holmström, Ingela
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Bagga-Gupta, Sangeeta
    Patient or customer? Interpretation, accessibility, and participation for deaf people in Sweden2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The key aim of the study presented in this poster is to illustrate the nature of accessibility and participation in the current provision of the Swedish county councils’ interpretation services for young deaf adults. Since interpretation services are affiliated to the health care system, deaf people in Sweden are often considered and treated as patients in need of assistance for accessing different contexts through Swedish Sign Language (STS) interpreters. The interpretation services are however multifaceted: at times facilitative, for example when deaf people listen to a public lecture thanks to the provision of interpreters, in other contexts obstructive, for example due to the administrative load surrounding it. The study focused upon in this paper highlights this complicated issue by presenting analysis of data from the Swedish Research Council supported project PAL, Participation for All (www.ju.se/ccd/pal), that focuses upon the trajectories of schooling and the post-school situation of young deaf people in Sweden. Taking both a sociocultural perspective and a decolonial framework on human communication, learning and identity, young deaf individuals’ life pathways are currently being mapped through an ethnographic approach in project PAL.

    A specific issue that has emerged in the on-going analysis is the importance of and the ways in which STS interpreters shape different forms of deaf people’s experiences and participation. One key preliminary finding is that although deaf people are often treated as patients, they are simultaneously tasked with the provision of information, preparation, and organization of the activities where the interpreters are needed. The latter results in that they get positioned as active customers of the interpretation services. This, thus, becomes a contradictory treatment of deaf people: on the one hand there is unequal power relations that positions deaf people in passive roles with limited, if any, possibilities to impact the interpreter services, and on the other hand they are given major responsibility for it, requiring them to be active and well-informed.

  • 44. Persson, Jonas
    et al.
    Szalisznyó, Krisztina
    Antoni, Gunnar
    Wall, Anders
    Fällmar, David
    Zora, Hatice
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Bodén, Robert
    Phosphodiesterase 10A levels are related to striatal function in schizophrenia: a combined positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging study2019Ingår i: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, ISSN 0940-1334, E-ISSN 1433-8491Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Pharmacological inhibition of phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) is being investigated as a treatment option in schizophrenia. PDE10A acts postsynaptically on striatal dopamine signaling by regulating neuronal excitability through its inhibition of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), and we recently found it to be reduced in schizophrenia compared to controls. Here, this finding of reduced PDE10A in schizophrenia was followed up in the same sample to investigate the effect of reduced striatal PDE10A on the neural and behavioral function of striatal and downstream basal ganglia regions. A positron emission tomography (PET) scan with the PDE10A ligand [11C]Lu AE92686 was performed, followed by a 6 min resting-state magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan in ten patients with schizophrenia. To assess the relationship between striatal function and neurophysiological and behavioral functioning, salience processing was assessed using a mismatch negativity paradigm, an auditory event-related electroencephalographic measure, episodic memory was assessed using the Rey auditory verbal learning test (RAVLT) and executive functioning using trail-making test B. Reduced striatal PDE10A was associated with increased amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) within the putamen and substantia nigra, respectively. Higher ALFF in the substantia nigra, in turn, was associated with lower episodic memory performance. The findings are in line with a role for PDE10A in striatal functioning, and suggest that reduced striatal PDE10A may contribute to cognitive symptoms in schizophrenia.

  • 45.
    Zora, Hatice
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för fonetik.
    Riad, Tomas
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Svenska/Nordiska språk.
    Ylinen, Sari
    Prosodically controlled derivations in the mental lexicon2019Ingår i: Journal of Neurolinguistics, ISSN 0911-6044, E-ISSN 1873-8052, Vol. 52, artikel-id 100856Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish morphemes are classified as prosodically specified or prosodically unspecified, depending on lexical or phonological stress, respectively. Here, we investigate the allomorphy of the suffix -(i)sk, which indicates the distinction between lexical and phonological stress; if attached to a lexically stressed morpheme, it takes a non-syllabic form (-sk), whereas if attached to a phonologically stressed morpheme, an epenthetic vowel is inserted (-isk). Using mismatch negativity (MMN), we explored the neural processing of this allomorphy across lexically stressed and phonologically stressed morphemes. In an oddball paradigm, participants were occasionally presented with congruent and incongruent derivations, created by the suffix -(i)sk, within the repetitive presentation of their monomorphemic stems. The results indicated that the congruent derivation of the lexically stressed stem elicited a larger MMN than the incongruent sequences of the same stem and the derivational suffix, whereas after the phonologically stressed stem a non-significant tendency towards an opposite pattern was observed. We argue that the significant MMN response to the congruent derivation in the lexical stress condition is in line with lexical MMN, indicating a holistic processing of the sequence of lexically stressed stem and derivational suffix. The enhanced MMN response to the incongruent derivation in the phonological stress condition, on the other hand, is suggested to reflect combinatorial processing of the sequence of phonologically stressed stem and derivational suffix. These findings bring a new aspect to the dual-system approach to neural processing of morphologically complex words, namely the specification of word stress.

  • 46.
    Mesch, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Raanes, Eli
    Questions and response in tactile sign language use2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we will focus on questions and responses of deafblind people in two sign languages in tactual modality: Swedish Sign Language and Norwegian Sign Language. Everyday conversation in sign language works by the combination of manual expressions made by the hands and body in combination with non-manual (visual) expressions. The visual non-manual expressions may include eye gaze, facial expressions and mouth movement. The usage of interrogative structures (how to express questions) is a typical part of signed languages where the visual and non-manual components have specific importance as signals of a question or a wish for response. Many studies have focused on various aspects of question and response in several sign languages, giving insight on the importance of precise usage of the non-manual parts of signing (e.g. Zeshan, 2006). Tactile sign languages are used in dialogical situations where those involved in the interaction not are able to see each other. Based on earlier studies of tactile sign languages (Mesch, 1998, 2013; Mesch, Raanes, & Ferrara, 2015; Raanes, 2006, 2011), we are investigating understanding practices and mistakes concerning questions and responses. Based on our empirical data from natural interaction between adult deafblind signers, we will focus on a selection on ways of getting attention towards request for response and how to question-constructions are formed in datasets from those two sign languages. The findings from this study show that there are different type of questions (content, polar, rhetorical) and type of social actions (e.g. request for confirmation or clarification, repair, etc.), where deafblind signers have their own strategies (e.g. fingerspelling, repetition etc.) to understand each other.

  • 47. Hedblom, Marcus
    et al.
    Gunnarsson, Bengt
    Iravani, Behzad
    Knez, Igor
    Schaefer, Martin
    Thorsson, Pontus
    Lundström, Johan N.
    Stockholms universitet