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  • 1.
    Mansoory, Shahram
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Trost, Kari
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Youth Well-Being Contextualized: Perceptions of Swedish Fathers2019Ingår i: Child and Youth Care Forum, ISSN 1053-1890, E-ISSN 1573-3319Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Fathers can have a critical role to play in supporting the well-being of youth. However, little is known about how fathers perceive youth well-being. The Five Cs model of positive youth development was the theoretical starting point of this study, in part due to this framework’s focus on the importance of bi-directional, person–context relations (Geldhof et al., in: Molenaar, Lerner, Newell (eds) Handbook of developmental systems theory and methodology, Guilford Press, New York, 2014). Questions posed in the present study were derived from the 4-H study of positive youth development (Lerner et al. in J Early Adolesc 25(1):17–71, 2005), which is rooted in the Five Cs model.

    Objective: The present study explored themes and patterns of meaning in descriptive information from fathers about youth well-being.

    Method: An inductive–deductive approach to thematic analysis was used to examine responses to open-ended survey questions from 201 Swedish fathers regarding youth well-being.

    Results: Based on the fathers’ reports four themes were identified: cognitive well-being, emotional and psychological well-being, physical well-being, and social well-being. While some sub-components of these themes have been identified in earlier literature, new sub-components were also found in each domain of youth well-being (i.e., cognitive, emotional/psychological, physical, social).

    Conclusions: These findings suggest that the understanding of youth well-being is contextual and multi-faceted, and that fathers’ perceptions can be important to consider in future research as they may further our insight into the rich and nuanced characteristics of positive youth development in diverse contexts.

  • 2. Van Zalk, Nejra
    et al.
    Tillfors, Maria
    Trost, Kari
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Mothers' and Fathers' Worry and Over-Control: One Step Closer to Understanding Early Adolescent Social Anxiety2018Ingår i: Child Psychiatry and Human Development, ISSN 0009-398X, E-ISSN 1573-3327, Vol. 49, nr 6, s. 917-927Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the links between parental worry, parental over-control and adolescent social anxiety in parent-adolescent dyads. Using a longitudinal sample of adolescents (M-age=14.28) and their parents (224 mother-daughter, 234 mother-son, 51 father-daughter, and 47 father-son dyads), comparisons were conducted using cross-lagged path models across two time points. We used adolescent reports of social anxiety and feelings of being overly controlled by parents, and mother and father self-reports of worries. Our results show that boys' social anxiety predicted higher perceived parental overcontrol, whereas girls' social anxiety predicted higher paternal worry over time. In addition, girls' reports of feeling overly controlled by parents predicted higher maternal worry but lower paternal worry over time. For boys, feeling overly controlled predicted less social anxiety instead. The study illustrates how mothers and fathers might differ in their behaviors and concerns regarding their children's social anxiety and feelings of overcontrol.

  • 3.
    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Eichas, Kyle
    Trost, Kari
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Galanti, Maria Rosaria
    Ways to Measure Family-Related Factors in Swedish Families using Child and Parent Reports2018Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Many Swedish parents report that they tend to employ moderate control as well as frequent use of democratic parenting practices (Trost, 2012). This approach to parenting combined with policy and institutional supports for child and family welfare make the Swedish parenting context in some ways unique and in need of further investigation (e.g., Trost, El-Khouri, & Sundell, 2015). From a measurement perspective, when parents and children in the same family report on the same construct, one is faced with several questions such as are the child and parent reports reflective of the same construct? If yes, then child and parent reports can be modelled or conceptualized as indicators of the same construct. Another possibility is that adolescents’ and parents’ perceptions of a given construct are fundamentally different from one another. A number of options exist in terms of how to conceptualize measurement when parents and children report on the same construct (Bank, Dishion, Skinner, & Patterson, 1990).

    The results presented in this poster are from a longitudinal study of school climate and mental health (study name and citation blinded for peer review). The sample consists of a cohort of Swedish 7th graders (N=3,932, aged 13-14 years old, 51.8% =female, from 101 schools in eight Swedish regions). At grade 7, using structural equation modelling (SEM), different measurement models of family-related factors were tested, namely democratic parenting (Wray-Lake & Flanagan, 2012), parental warmth (Trost, et al, 2007; Tilton-Weaver et al., 2010), and child-parent communication (Kerr & Statin, 2000). Adolescents in the cohort and one of their parents reported on these constructs at grades 7, 8, and 9. The results presented here are for grade 7. Analyses were conducted with Mplus 7.4 (using Mplus’s robust maximum likelihood estimator, TYPE = COMPLEX in Mplus, to account for the nested nature of responses by school building, and FIML estimation for missing data). Three SEM models were tested, including (1) a three-factor model in which parallel child and parent reports were indicators of the same family factors, (2) a six-factor model in which parallel child and parent reports were indicators of separate family factors, and (3) a multi-trait multi-method model with three family factors and two method factors (parent and child report; Model 3). Two models showed good fit to the data: the six-factor model, χ2(89) = 164.873; CFI = .997; RMSEA = .015 [.011, .018], and the multi-trait multi-method model, χ2(84) = 533.735; CFI = .982. RMSEA = .037 [.034, .040]. While both models evidenced good fit, the six-factor model provided the more parsimonious solution. This result indicates that adolescents and parents in this sample may be viewing the family-related factors in different ways. In the poster, other analyses will be reported on the utility of the models identified in grade 7 at the other study time points, such as at grades 8 and 9. Study findings will also be discussed in terms of culture and parenting.

  • 4. Kormi-Nouri, Reza
    et al.
    MacDonald, Shane
    Farahani, Mohammad-Naghy
    Trost, Kari
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Shokri, Omid
    Academic Stress as A Health Measure and Its Relationship to Patterns of Emotion in Collectivist and Individualist Cultures: Similarities and Differences2015Ingår i: International Journal of Higher Education, ISSN 1927-6044, E-ISSN 1927-6052, Vol. 4, nr 2, s. 92-104Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates academic stress in two different cultures, the Iranian as a collectivist culture, and the Swedish as an individualist culture. A total of 616 university students (312 Iranian and 304 Swedish) participated in the study. The results show that Swedish students experience more academic stress than Iranian students. Academic stress was found to be related to difficulties in and outside class, and managing work, family and leisure activities. There was no cultural difference in terms of interacting with the university administration, teachers and friends. There was a gender difference, with females experiencing more academic stress than males, an effect that was more pronounced in Sweden than in Iran. Subset analyses (92 Swedes and 100 Iranians) revealed a tendency of Iranian students to balance positive and negative emotions in comparison to students from Sweden. Partial correlations showed that negative affect was the sole affect to significantly correlate with academic stress in Sweden. Negative and positive affect correlated in unison with academic stress in Iran. These results are discussed on an individualist-collectivist dimension. Cultural differences between the educational systems in the two countries may also explain the differing emotion/affect-health relationships.

  • 5.
    Trost, Kari
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    El-Khouri, Bassam
    Sundell, Knut
    An Explorative Study on Parenting in Sweden: Is There a Swedish Style?2015Ingår i: International Psychology Bulletin, Vol. 19, nr 3, s. 30-37Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the psychological literature pertaining to parenting, parents’ warmth, control, and communication are vital for positive adjustment of adolescents where high levels are considered to be the most prevalent and beneficial. Previous cross-cultural studies have however found the effects of other parenting patterns during adolescence to be equally prevalent as well as beneficial for adolescent adjustment which puts into question whether high on all three aspects of parenting could be more represented in some cultures than in others. In the present study, we question the representativeness of the pattern in the Swedish context. In the present study, we examined 888 adolescents’ reports on parenting. For boys, a neglecting, average but low communication, average but low control, average, average with warmth and authoritative patterns of parenting was found. For girls, a neglecting, average but low communication, average but high control, average, and authoritative patterns of parenting was found. The most prevalent parenting pattern found for both girls and boys was marked by moderate levels of parental control, warmth, and communication followed by authoritative (high levels of control, warmth, and communication). Of the 456 girls, the vast majority (41%) reported their parents as being average on parental warmth, control, and communication. Of the 432 boys, nearly half (46%) reported their parents as being average on parental warmth, control, and communication. Future directions on parenting research in Sweden are discussed.

  • 6.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Trost, Kari
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Intergenerational transmission of ethnic identity and life satisfaction of Roma minority adolescents and their parents2015Ingår i: Journal of Adolescence, ISSN 0140-1971, E-ISSN 1095-9254, Vol. 45, s. 296-306Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates intergeneration transmission of ethnic identity as a resource for life satisfaction of Roma adolescents and their parents. Historically, Roma represent the largest ethnic minority in Europe. They have been exposed to severe discrimination, social exclusion, and poverty. Therefore, identifying resources for their life satisfaction is theoretically and practically important. The present study included 1093 participants, of which there were 171 Roma adolescents (age: M = 14.96 years, SD = 1.85), 155 mothers (age: M = 36.16 years, SD = 5.77) and 123 fathers (age: M = 39.68 years, SD = 6.06). Further, a comparison group of 248 mainstream adolescents with their mothers (n = 221) and fathers (n = 175) was also included in the study. Adolescents and their parents provided data on ethnic identity (MEIM;  Phinney, 1992) and life satisfaction (SWLS; Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985). Results indicated that Roma youth were lower on endorsement of ethnic identity and average on life satisfaction compared to their mainstream peers. A structural equation model showed that ethnic identity was a positive predictor of life satisfaction for both adolescents and their Roma parents. Furthermore, parents' ethnic identity was a predictor of adolescent life satisfaction. We concluded that for Roma youth and their parents, ethnic identity represents a salient source for life satisfaction and an intergenerational continuity of identity and life satisfaction exists.

  • 7.
    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Sugimura, Kazumi
    Trost, Kari
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Poyrazli, Senel
    Klingstedt, Marie-Louise
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Thomas, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    The intersection of culture, health, and risk behaviors in emerging and young adults2015Ingår i: Oxford Handbook of Human Development and Culture: an Interdisciplinary Perspective / [ed] Lene Arnett Jensen, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015, s. 502-518Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter provides a cross-cultural exploration of antisocial behavior, substance use, and sexual behavior in relation to health among emerging and young adults. By summarizing what is known about these risk behaviors and health in Sweden, Japan, and Turkey, the authors discuss differences and commonalities between countries in terms of proximal causes and the relations between risk behaviors and disease. Finally, the authors discuss the importance of the development of theories that have the potential to bridge the not-so-distal connection between cultural resources, developmental processes, and health. The chapter ends with an examination of selected themes across the respective nations and recommendations for how to advance future research on risk and health in emerging and young adults.

  • 8.
    Trost, Kari
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Swedish adolescents.2012Ingår i: Adolescent psychology around the world / [ed] Jeffrey Arnett, New York: Psychology Press, 2012, s. 335-350Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 9.
    Trost, Kari
    et al.
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Demir, Robert
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomiska institutionen.
    The measure and psychometrics of the psychological immune system2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 10.
    Trost, Kari
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Psst, have you ever cheated?: A study of academic dishonesty in Sweden2009Ingår i: Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, ISSN 0260-2938, E-ISSN 1469-297X, Vol. 34, s. 367-376Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been reported that academic dishonesty is a prevalent problem that crosses all disciplines at the university level. But, how prevalent is it in Sweden? Little is published in the literature about lying, cheating, and plagiarism amongst Swedish university students. This paper focuses on the frequency of past specific academically dishonest behaviours amongst Swedish University students with consideration to social desirability. The results indicate that although there are variations in frequency of dishonest behaviours amongst university students, some dishonest behaviours are more common than others. Future perspectives are discussed.

  • 11. Tillfors, Maria
    et al.
    El-Khouri, Bassam
    Stein, Murray B.
    Trost, Kari
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Örebro University, Sweden.
    Relationships between social anxiety, depressive symptoms, and antisocial behaviors: Evidence from a prospective study of adolescent boys2009Ingår i: Journal of Anxiety Disorders, ISSN 0887-6185, E-ISSN 1873-7897, Vol. 23, nr 5, s. 718-724Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is understood about generalized and non-generalized social anxiety disorder (SAD) and their associations With co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescence. In the present study, we investigated adolescent boys with SAD symptoms and considered depressive symptoms as well as antisocial behaviors when looking for patterns during two developmental time periods: junior high and high school. Participants in the analyses were part of a longitudinal study. No patterns were found linking antisocial problems and non-generalized SAD in either junior high or high school. Furthermore, it was uncommon for youths in the non-generalized SAD Subgroup to develop comorbidity over time. The generalized SAD subgroup of boys, however, was likely to develop comorbidity either with depressive symptoms only or with depressive symptoms and antisocial tendencies. Our findings Suggest that developmental pathways for SAD subgroups may differ. 

  • 12.
    Trost, Kari
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Örebro University, Sweden.
    El-Khouri, Bassam Michel
    Mapping swedish females' educational pathways in terms of academic competence and adjustment problems2008Ingår i: Journal of Social Issues, ISSN 0022-4537, E-ISSN 1540-4560, Vol. 64, nr 1, s. 157-174Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Patterns of academic competence, externalizing problems, and internalizing problems were examined in females from the longitudinal Individual Development and Adaptation (IDA) program in order to understand unexpected patterns of educational attainment and problems in adulthood. Person-oriented methods were used to identify patterns of competence and problems at ages 10, 13, and 43. These patterns were linked across time to reveal expected and unexpected educational pathways from childhood to adulthood. Most later patterns were consistent with earlier patterns of competence and problems. This structural-level stability supported our hypothesis that competence and problems tend to be inversely related and function together over time as integrated systems. We focus on one unexpected educational pathway characterized by individuals whose problems remain low over time despite stable levels of low competence. This unexpected educational pathway was examined further in terms of optimal versus general adjustment consequences in adulthood. Some policy implications of studying individual patterns and pathways are discussed.

  • 13.
    Trost, Kari
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Örebro University, Sweden .
    Biesecker, Gretchen
    Stattin, Håkan
    Kerr, Margaret
    Not wanting parents' involvement: Sign of autonomy or sign of problems?2007Ingår i: European Journal of Developmental Psychology, ISSN 1740-5629, E-ISSN 1740-5610, Vol. 4, nr 3, s. 314-331Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigated whether adolescents' desires to manage their own free time, without parents' involvement, reflected problems or healthy independence. Participants were 1057 adolescents, their parents, and teachers. Initially, wanting parental involvement was related to disclosure, parental knowledge, and positive adjustment across contexts and wanting low parental involvement was related to negative adjustment. With closer examination of adolescents, two groups of adolescents who were similar on desires for low parental involvement but who differed on parental desires for involvement were uncovered. Those adolescents who wanted low parental involvement and whose parents desired involvement were consistently linked to poor adjustment in multicontexts. Those adolescents who wanted low parental involvement and whose parents wanted low parental involvement did not have more problems than their wanting parental involvement peers. Results indicate that not wanting parental involvement should be studied in terms of multiple developmental patterns.

  • 14.
    Trost, Kari
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Adolescents in Sweden2006Ingår i: International Encyclopedia of Adolescence, New York: Routledge, 2006, s. 947-965Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This book chapter is in the Routledge International encyclopedia of adolescence. The encyclopedia is a comprehensive socio-cultural survey of the lives of adolescents around the world. In four volumes, the work will explore all aspects of the lives of young people between childhood and adulthood, i.e., between (roughly) age 10 and 25. Coverage will not only stress psycho-pathological issues, but instead will cover a wide range of topics concerning the lives of young people in countries as varied as Iran, India, Sweden, the USA, or Japan. In the present chapter, the following issues are presented about youth in Sweden: period of adolescence, beliefs, gender, the self, family relationships, friends and peer/youth culture, love and sexuality, health risk behaviors, education, work, media, politics and military, as well as issues that may be particularly unique to Sweden.

  • 15.
    Magnusson, Chris
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Trost, Kari
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Girls experiencing sexual intercourse early: Could it play a part in reproductive health in middle adulthood?2006Ingår i: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, ISSN 0167-482X, E-ISSN 1743-8942, Vol. 27, nr 4, s. 237-244Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study is to examine the possible relationship between experiencing early intercourse and reproductive health characteristics in midlife for women. The participants belonged to the Swedish longitudinal research program Individual Development and Adaptation (IDA) project. By the age of 14, the cohort consisted of 590 girls, whereas 522 gave information about the timing of their first sexual intercourse experience. Approximately 29 years later, when the women were 43 years old, a sub-cohort of 369 women participated in the psychological-medical investigation. Those who experienced early intercourse were likely to be different on various demographics and have markers of poorer reproductive health characteristics than their counterparts. More specifically, those experiencing early intercourse were less formally educated, left home earlier, and earned on average less than their counterparts who experienced sexual intercourse later. Early intercourse likely plays a role in not only specific reproductive health but also reproductive health characteristics as a whole in midlife. Early intercourse was consistently a predictor of teenage pregnancy, terminated pregnancies, no use of contraception, and having menstrual symptoms.

  • 16.
    Bergman, Lars R.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Trost, Kari
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    The person-oriented versus the variable-oriented approach: Are they complementary, opposities, or exploring different worlds?2006Ingår i: Merrill-Palmer quarterly, ISSN 0272-930X, E-ISSN 1535-0266, Vol. 52, nr 3, artikel-id 10Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present commentary gives a brief overview of the person-oriented and variable-oriented approaches, how they are commonly used in longitudinal research, and what one should take into consideration before using either approach. In addition to presenting an empirical example on girls' adjustment problems using both approaches, this commentary uses the contributions in the present issue of the Merrill Palmer Quarterly illustrate some of the main issues surrounding these two perspectives. Special attention is also given to the contrast between the person-oriented and variable oriented approaches in terms of aggregation and disaggregation, model appropriateness and usefulness, and prediction as a goal. Future directions with regard to implementing a person-oriented approach are discussed, including the importance of conceptual clarity, practical and theoretical training, and method development.

  • 17.
    Kerr, Margaret
    et al.
    Örebro University.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University.
    Trost, Kari
    Stockholms universitet.
    To know you is to trust you: parents' trust is rooted in child disclosure of information1999Ingår i: Journal of Adolescence, ISSN 0140-1971, E-ISSN 1095-9254, Vol. 22, s. 737-752Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
1 - 17 av 17
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