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  • 1.
    Vogiazides, Louisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Mondani, Hernan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    A geographical path to integration? Exploring the interplay between regional context and labour market integration among refugees in Sweden2020In: Journal of ethnic and migration studies, ISSN 1369-183X, E-ISSN 1469-9451, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 23-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Migrant integration is an issue at the forefront of political debates in many immigrant-receiving countries. Within academia, a rich body of neighbourhood effects literature examines the significance of the residential environment for the socioeconomic integration of international migrants. Another strand of research explores the associations between immigrants’ initial region of residence and their subsequent socioeconomic integration. Existing research focuses on a single dimension of geographical context and on the neighbourhood scale. Using Swedish longitudinal register data, we estimate discrete-time event history models to assess how regional and neighbourhood contexts influence refugees’ entry into employment. Our study includes all refugees who arrived in Sweden between 2000 and 2009, distinguishing between three categories of refugees: refugees with assigned housing, refugees with self-arranged housing and quota refugees. Our results reveal a clear pattern where the most advantageous regions for finding a first employment are those at the extremes of the population density distribution: the Stockholm region and small city/rural regions. Refugees residing in Malmö have the lowest probability of entering the labour market. Our study also reiterates existing concerns regarding the negative effects of ethnic segregation at the neighbourhood level on labour market participation.

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  • 2.
    Vogiazides, Louisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Chihaya, Guilherme Kenji
    Migrants’ long-term residential trajectories in Sweden: persistent neighbourhood deprivation or spatial assimilation?2020In: Housing Studies, ISSN 0267-3037, E-ISSN 1466-1810, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 875-902Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite time being a key element in the theories on international migrants’ socio-spatial mobility, it has not been sufficiently addressed in empirical research. Most studies focus on discrete transitions between different types of neighbourhoods, potentially missing theoretically important temporal aspects. This article uses sequence analysis to study the residential trajectories of international migrants in Sweden emphasising the timing, order, and duration of residence in neighbourhoods with different poverty levels. It follows individuals of the 2003 arrival cohort during their first 9 years in the country. Results show that 81% of migrants consistently reside in the same type of neighbourhood; 60% consistently live in a deprived area and mere 12% follow a trajectories starting at deprived and ending at middle-income or affluent neighbourhoods. Thus, spatial assimilation is neither the only nor the most frequent trajectory followed by migrants in Sweden. Lastly, there are persistent differences in neighbourhood attainment between immigrant groups, suggesting either place stratification or ethnic preference.

  • 3.
    Vogiazides, Louisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Pathways and destinations: Spatial mobility and socioeconomic integration of international migrants in Sweden2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last three decades, Sweden has received large inflows of international migrants and particularly refugees. The issues of migrants’ residential patterns and socioeconomic integration are therefore of great interest. A long-lasting concern is that residential segregation hampers migrants’ social and economic outcomes. This thesis examines the spatial and socioeconomic pathways of international migrants in Sweden, based on quantitative analyses using Swedish longitudinal individual-level register data. It aims to describe, explain and interpret migrants’ patterns of spatial mobility, as well as the complex interactions between spatial pathways and socioeconomic integration. Consisting of an overarching introduction and four scientific articles, the dissertation makes two main contributions to the literature. First, by applying statistical methods for longitudinal data analysis, it draws attention to the timing, duration and order of different residential states. Second, it departs from the traditional focus on neighbourhoods in the academic debate to emphasise the regional scale in the nexus between migrants’ spatial pathways and integration. 

    Paper I investigates the extent to which migrants move away from distressed immigrant-dense neighbourhoods in the Swedish cities of Stockholm and Malmö, as well as the timing of that mobility. Applying discrete-time event history analysis, it reveals considerable differences in the residential mobility patterns between migrant groups and between the two cities. It also finds that newly-arrived migrants are more likely to move away from distressed areas compared to long-established migrants.

    Paper II uses sequence analysis to provide a comprehensive description of the residential trajectories of international migrants in Sweden across neighbourhoods with different poverty levels. The results show that the vast majority of migrants consistently reside in the same type of neighbourhood, and over half remain in a deprived area over a long period of time. In contrast, trajectories of upward neighbourhood upgrading are relatively rare. 

    Paper III explores the regional distribution and inter-regional mobility among two cohorts of refugees in Sweden, using both sequence analysis and event history analysis techniques. The study finds that most refugees consistently reside in the same type of region. A significant proportion of refugees who were assigned housing by the authorities in large city or small city/rural regions remain in the same type of region over a long period, suggesting that refugee settlement policies have long-lasting consequences.

    Paper IV examines the significance of the regional and neighbourhood contexts for refugees’ entry into employment. It reveals a clear pattern where the most advantageous regions for finding a first employment are those at the extremes of the population density distribution: the Stockholm region and small city/rural regions. The paper also suggests possible mechanisms behind these trends.

    A central finding of the thesis is that stability is a key feature of migrants’ trajectories across neighbourhoods and regions with different demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. The results cast doubt on the validity of the theory of spatial assimilation in the case of Sweden and show that the relationship between spatial mobility and socioeconomic integration is neither automatic nor unidirectional.

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    Pathways and destinations: Spatial mobility and socioeconomic integration of international migrants in Sweden
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  • 4.
    Vogiazides, Louisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Exiting distressed neighbourhoods: The timing of spatial assimilation among international migrants in Sweden2018In: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 24, no 8, article id e2169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different theoretical frameworks offer competing explanations for the settlement patterns and residential mobility of international migrants. Some highlight migrants' neighbourhood preferences, whereas others emphasise structural constraints in the housing market. This paper aims to test three theories on migrants' socio‐spatial mobility—the theories of spatial assimilation, place stratification, and ethnic preference—by investigating the extent to which migrants move away from distressed immigrant‐dense neighbourhoods in the Swedish cities of Stockholm and Malmö, as well as the timing of that mobility. Applying discrete‐time event history analysis to unique Swedish longitudinal register data, the paper reveals considerable differences in the residential mobility patterns between migrant groups and between the two cities. It also finds that newly arrived migrants are more likely to move away from distressed areas compared with long‐established ones. These results cast doubt on the spatial assimilation theory, indicating evidence for the place stratification theory. The paper contributes to an enhanced understanding of the determinants of residential segregation in Swedish metropolitan areas.

  • 5.
    Vogiazides, Louisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Hedberg, Charlotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Trafficking for forced labour and labour exploitation in Sweden: examples from the restaurant and the berry industries2013In: Exploitation of migrant workers in Finland, Sweden, Estonia and Lithuania: uncovering the links between recruitment, irregular employment practices and labour trafficking / [ed] Natalia Ollus, Anniina Jokinen, Matti Joutsen, Helsinki: European Institute for Crime Prevention and Control, affiliated with the United Nations , 2013, p. 171-237Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the introduction of a new liberal labour immigration policy in 2008, several cases of abuse of migrant workers have tarnished the good international image of the Swedish Model of industrial relations. Using the examples of the restaurant and berry-picking industries, this report investigates practices of trafficking for forced labour and labour exploitation in Sweden. The report examines the migrants’ working conditions as well as exploitative practices occurring in the context of the workers’ recruitment, including the role of recruitment agencies, middlemen and employers. The data was collected through interviews, fieldwork, and media material and court judgments. Trafficking for forced labour is considered from a broad perspective, not only focusing on the legal definition of trafficking for forced labour but also on milder practices of labour exploitation that constitute the context in which trafficking can occur. The report identifies a number of challenges to the prevention of migrant labour exploitation and proposes recommendations to policymakers, employers and other societal actors. It argues that acknowledging the shortcomings of Sweden’s new liberal labour immigration policy does not imply that it should be entirely rejected but rather that there is scope for its improvement.

  • 6.
    Vogiazides, Louisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Return migration, transnationalism and development: Social remittances of returnees from Sweden to Bosnia and Herzegovina2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores the effects of return migration on development through the case of returnees from Sweden to Bosnia and Herzegovina. Based on thirteen in-depth interviews and observation, it examines returnees’ ‘social remittances’, which consist of ideas, practices, and social capital (or social connections) that migrants bring to their countries of origin. The thesis adopts a transnational perspective highlighting returnees’ simultaneous connections in their host and home countries. It identifies various types of social remittance transfers such as ideas and practices in the areas of health, the environment and work, as well as social connections with investors, business partners, and political and academic actors in Sweden. One major finding is that returnees’ knowledge of the Swedish language, the market, work and business culture contribute to building trust with actors in Sweden, which facilitates trade and investment between the countries. The thesis also highlights a number of economic, political and personal constraints faced by returnees in their return process which, in turn, affect their capacity to transfer social remittances. It concludes that returnees can potentially contribute to development, but their contributions are largely conditioned by the existing social, economic, legal and political environment.

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    fulltext
  • 7.
    Vogiazides, Louisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Mondani, Hernan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Geographical trajectories of refugees in Sweden: Uncovering patterns and drivers of inter-regional (im)mobilityManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many countries actively seek to disperse refugees to counteract residential segregation or/and take measures to attract and retain international migrants in smaller communities to mitigate or reverse population decline. This study explores the regional distribution and inter-regional mobility among refugees in Sweden. It uses individual-level register data to follow two cohorts for eight years after their arrival in Sweden, distinguishing between refugees subject to a placement policy in the 1990s and recent cohorts that had either arranged their own housing or had been assigned housing. It uses sequence analysis and multinomial logit regression to analyse regional trajectories, and event history analysis to examine determinants of mobility. The results indicate that most refugees remained in the same type of region throughout the follow-up period. A significant proportion of refugees with assigned housing in large city or small city/rural regions stayed there over a long period, suggesting that refugee settlement policies have long-lasting consequences.

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