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  • 1. Alexander, Jan
    et al.
    Benford, Diane
    Boobis, Alan
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Scientific Opinion on Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDDs) in Food2011Inngår i: EFSA Journal, ISSN 1831-4732, Vol. 9, nr 7, s. 2296-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    EFSA was asked by the European Commission to deliver a scientific opinion on hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDDs) in food. HBCDDs are additive flame retardants primarily used in expanded and extruded polystyrene applied as construction and packing materials, and in textiles. Technical HBCDD predominantly consists of three stereoisomers (α-, β- and γ-HBCDD). Also δ- and ε-HBCDD may be present but at very low concentrations. HBCDDs are present in the environment and likewise in biota and in food and feed. Data from the analysis of HBCDDs in 1,914 food samples were provided to EFSA by seven European countries, covering the period from 2000 to 2010. The Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM Panel) selected α-, β- and γ-HBCDD to be of primary interest. Since all toxicity studies were carried out with technical HBCDD, a risk assessment of individual stereoisomers was not possible. Main targets were the liver, thyroid hormone homeostasis and the reproductive, nervous and immune systems. HBCDDs are not genotoxic. The CONTAM Panel identified neurodevelopmental effects on behaviour as the critical endpoint, and derived a benchmark dose lower confidence limit for a benchmark response of 10 % (BMDL10) of 0.79 mg/kg body weight. Due to the limitations and uncertainties in the current data base, the CONTAM Panel concluded that it was inappropriate to use this BMDL to establish a health based guidance value, and instead used a margin of exposure (MOE) approach for the health risk assessment of HBCDDs. Since elimination characteristics of HBCDDs in animals and humans differ, the Panel used the body burden as starting point for the MOE approach. The CONTAM Panel concluded that current dietary exposure to HBCDDs in the European Union does not raise a health concern. Also additional exposure, particularly of young children, to HBCDDs from house dust is unlikely to raise a health concern

  • 2. Alexander, Jan
    et al.
    Benford, Diane
    Boobis, Alan
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Scientific Opinion on Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in Food2011Inngår i: EFSA Journal, ISSN 1831-4732, Vol. 9, nr 5, s. 2156-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 3. Alexander, Jan
    et al.
    Benford, Diane
    Boobis, Alan
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Scientific Opinion on Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and its derivatives in food: EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM)2011Inngår i: EFSA Journal, ISSN 1831-4732, Vol. 9, nr 12, s. 2477-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    EFSA was asked by the European Commission to deliver a scientific opinion on tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and its derivatives in food. TBBPA and its derivatives are widely used as flame retardants. TBBPA is primarily used as reactive flame retardant covalently bound to epoxy and polycarbonate resins. TBBPA derivatives are used as either reactive or additive intermediates in polymer manufacture. Data from the analysis of TBBPA in 344 food samples were submitted to EFSA by two European countries (Norway and Spain), covering the period from 2007 to 2010. All samples were in the food group “Fish and other seafood”, and all analytical results were reported as less than the limit of quantification (LOQ) (about 1 ng/g wet weight). Toxicological studies with TBBPA have been carried out using different experimental designs with single or repeated administration during gestation, postnatally or in adulthood. The main target is thyroid hormone homeostasis. TBBPA is not genotoxic. There are no indications that TBBPA might be carcinogenic. The Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM Panel) identified a lower confidence limit for a benchmark response of 10 % (BMDL10) of 16 mg/kg b.w. reported for changes in thyroid hormones as the critical reference point. Due to the limitations and uncertainties in the database, the CONTAM Panel concluded that it was inappropriate to use this BMDL to establish a health based guidance value, and therefore used a margin of exposure (MOE) approach for the health risk assessment of TBBPA. In view of the large MOEs, the CONTAM Panel concluded that current dietary exposure to TBBPA in the European Union does not raise a health concern. Also exposure of infants via human milk does not raise a health concern. Additional exposure, particularly of young children, to TBBPA from house dust is unlikely to raise a health concern.

  • 4.
    Asplund, L
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Löfstrand, K
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Malmvärn, A
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Nylund, K
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Eriksson, U
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs in swedish marine and fresh water environment- an overview2010Inngår i: Organohalogen Compounds, 2010Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 5.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Alla kemister behöver miljökemin2010Inngår i: Kemivärlden Biotech med Kemisk Tidskrift, Vol. 10, s. 59-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 6.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Foreword2012Inngår i: Hormone-Disruptive Chemical Contaminants in Food / [ed] I. Pongratz and L. Vikström Bergander, London: Royal Society of Chemistry, 2012Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 7.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Hur förgiftad är vår miljö?2010Inngår i: Miljöforskning; Formas tidning för ett hållbart samhälle, Vol. 4, s. 18-21Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 8.
    Bergman, Åke
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Lindgren, Torsten
    Smedje, Greta
    Jakobsson, Kristina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Athanassiadis, Ioannis
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Athanasiadou, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Meyer, Edgar
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    PBDEs and non-PBDEs in aircraft cabin and cockpit air and dust2010Inngår i: Organohalogen Compounds, 2010Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 9.
    Bergman, Åke
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Rydén, Andreas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Law, Robin J.
    de Boer, Jacob
    Covaci, Adrian
    Alaee, Mehran
    Birnbaum, Linda
    Petreas, Myrto
    Rose, Martin
    Sakai, Shinichi
    Van den Eede, Nele
    van der Veen, Ike
    A novel abbreviation standard for organobromine, organochlorine and organophosphorus flame retardants and some characteristics of the chemicals2012Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 49, s. 57-82Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ever since the interest in organic environmental contaminants first emerged 50 years ago, there has been a need to present discussion of such chemicals and their transformation products using simple abbreviations so as to avoid the repetitive use of long chemical names. As the number of chemicals of concern has increased, the number of abbreviations has also increased dramatically, sometimes resulting in the use of different abbreviations for the same chemical. In this article, we propose abbreviations for flame retardants (FRs) substituted with bromine or chlorine atoms or including a functional group containing phosphorus, i.e. BFRs, CFRs and PFRs, respectively. Due to the large number of halogenated and organophosphorus FRs, it has become increasingly important to develop a strategy for abbreviating the chemical names of FRs. In this paper, a two step procedure is proposed for deriving practical abbreviations (PRABs) for the chemicals discussed. In the first step, structural abbreviations (STABs) are developed using specific STAB criteria based on the FR structure. However, since several of the derived STABs are complicated and long, we propose instead the use of PRABs. These are, commonly, an extract of the most essential part of the STAB, while also considering abbreviations previously used in the literature. We indicate how these can be used to develop an abbreviation that can be generally accepted by scientists and other professionals involved in FR related work. Tables with PRABs and STABs for BFRs, CFRs and PERs are presented, including CAS (Chemical Abstract Service) numbers, notes of abbreviations that have been used previously, CA (Chemical Abstract) name, common names and trade names, as well as some fundamental physicochemical constants.

  • 10. Birnbaum, Linda S.
    et al.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Brominated and Chlorinated Flame Retardants: The San Antonio Statement2010Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 118, nr 12, s. A516-A518Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The San Antonio Statement on Brominated and Chlorinated Flame Retardants addresses the growing concern in the scientific community about the persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic properties of brominated and chlorinated organic flame retardants (BFRs and CFRs, respectively) and the exposure to humans and wildlife as a result of intensive use. Nearly 150 scientists from 22 countries have signed the statement since it was presented at the 30th International Symposium on Halogenated Persistent Organic Pollutants (Dioxin 2010), held 1217 September 2010 in San Antonio, Texas. The scientist signatories are experts on the health effects and environmental fate of BFRs and CFRs and environmental contaminants in general. The International Panel on Chemical Pollution (IPCP), an international network of scientists working on various aspects of chemical pollution, also has approved the statement.

  • 11. Björk, Christel
    et al.
    Nenonen, Hannah
    Giwercman, Aleksander
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Rylander, Lars
    Giwercman, Yvonne Lundberg
    Persistent organic pollutants have dose and CAG repeat length dependent effects on androgen receptor activity in vitro2011Inngår i: Reproductive Toxicology, ISSN 0890-6238, E-ISSN 1873-1708, Vol. 32, s. 293-297Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, the effect of exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPS) on sperm concentration was only seen in men with a short androgen receptor (AR) gene CAG repeat. In order to investigate whether these effects could be observed also in vitro, we tested the impact of 2,2’,4,4’,5,5’-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153) and 1,1-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethene (4,4’-DDE) on 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone activated ARs containing 16,22 and 28 CAG repeats, respectively. Single exposure to 4,4’-DDE had the most pronounced effect on the AR activity containing 16 CAG repeats, whereas 28 CAG was the most sensitive variant when a mixture of the two compounds was added. Thus, our in vitro results have confirmed the in vivo data indicating a CAG repeat length dependent effect of endocrine disrupters on the AR activity.

  • 12.
    Bogdanska, Jasna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Borg, Daniel
    Sundström, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Bergström, Ulrika
    Halldin, Krister
    Abedi-Valugerdi, Manuchehr
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Nelson, Buck
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    DePierre, Joseph
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Nobel, Stefan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Tissue distribution of (35)S-labelled perfluorooctane sulfonate in adult mice after oral exposure to a low environmentally relevant dose or a high experimental dose2011Inngår i: Toxicology, ISSN 0300-483X, E-ISSN 1879-3185, Vol. 284, nr 1-3, s. 54-62Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The widespread environmental pollutant perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), detected in most animal species including the general human population, exerts several effects on experimental animals, e.g., hepatotoxicity, immunotoxicity and developmental toxicity. However, detailed information on the tissue distribution of PFOS in mammals is scarce and, in particular, the lack of available information regarding environmentally relevant exposure levels limits our understanding of how mammals (including humans) may be affected. Accordingly, we characterized the tissue distribution of this compound in mice, an important experimental animal for studying PFOS toxicity. Following dietary exposure of adult male C57/BL6 mice for 1-5 days to an environmentally relevant (0.031 mg/kg/day) or a 750-fold higher experimentally relevant dose (23 mg/kg/day) of (35)S-PFOS, most of the radioactivity administered was recovered in liver, bone (bone marrow), blood, skin and muscle, with the highest levels detected in liver, lung, blood, kidney and bone (bone marrow). Following high daily dose exposure, PFOS exhibited a different distribution profile than with low daily dose exposure, which indicated a shift in distribution from the blood to the tissues with increasing dose. Both scintillation counting (with correction for the blood present in the tissues) and whole-body autoradiography revealed the presence of PFOS in all 19 tissues examined, with identification of thymus as a novel site for localization for PFOS and bone (bone marrow), skin and muscle as significant body compartments for PFOS. These findings demonstrate that PFOS leaves the bloodstream and enters most tissues in a dose-dependent manner.

  • 13. Borg, D.
    et al.
    Bogdanska, J.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Sundström, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Nobel, S.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Håkansson, H.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    DePierre, J. W.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Halldin, K.
    Bergstrom, U.
    Tissue distribution of S-35-labelled perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in C57Bl/6 mice following late gestational exposure2010Inngår i: Reproductive Toxicology, ISSN 0890-6238, E-ISSN 1873-1708, Vol. 30, nr 4, s. 558-565Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure of rodents in utero to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) impairs perinatal development and survival Following intravenous or gavage exposure of C57Bl/6 mouse dams on gestational day (GD) 16 to S-35-PFOS (12 5 mg/kg) we determined the distribution in dams fetuses (GD18 and GD20) and pups (postnatal day 1 PND1) employing whole-body autoradiography and liquid scintillation counting In dams levels were highest in liver and lungs After placental transfer S-35-PFOS was present on GD18 at 2-3 times higher levels in lungs liver and kidneys than in maternal blood In PND1 pups levels in lungs were significantly higher than in GD18 fetuses A heterogeneous distribution of S-35-PFOS was observed in brains of fetuses and pups with levels higher than in maternal brain This first demonstration of substantial localization of PFOS to both perinatal and adult lungs is consistent with evidence describing the lung as a target for the toxicity of PFOS at these ages.

  • 14.
    Cuadra, Steven N.
    et al.
    University of Nicaragua-Managua.
    Linderholm, Linda
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Athanasiadou, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Jakobsson, Kristina
    Lunds universitet.
    Persistent organochlorine pollutants in children working at a waste-disposal site and in young females with high fish consumption in Managua, Nicaragua2006Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 35, nr 3, s. 109-116Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to assess persistent organochlorine pollutant (POP) levels in serum collected from children (11-15 years old) working and sometimes also living at the municipal waste-disposal site in Managua, located at the shore of Lake Managua, and in nonworking children living both nearby and also far away from the waste-disposal site. The influence of fish consumption was further evaluated by assessing POPS levels in serum from young women (15-24 years old) with markedly different patterns of fish consumption from Lake Managua. 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloro-ethane (4,4’-DDT) and 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloro-ethene (4,4-DDE), T-hexachlorocyclohexane (gamma-HCH), polychlorinated biphenyls, pentachlorophenol, and polychlorobiphenylols were quantified in all samples. In general, the levels observed were higher than those reported in children from developed countries, such as Germany and United States. Toxaphene, aldrin, dieldrin, and beta-HCH could not be identified in any sample. The children working at the waste-disposal site had higher levels of POPS compared with the nonworking reference groups. In children not working, there were also gradients for several POPs, according to vicinity to the waste-disposal site. Moreover, in children, as well as in young women, there were gradients according to fish consumption. The most abundant component was 4,4-DDE, but at levels still lower than those reported in children from malarious areas with a history of recent or current application of 4,4-DDT for vector control.

  • 15.
    Cui, Daqing
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    A Review of Beneficial Effects of Reducing Environment at the Near-Field of KBS-3 Repository2011Inngår i: Huaxue jinzhan, ISSN 1005-281X, Vol. 23, nr 7, s. 1411-1428Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent research activities, i.e. relevant publications and the author's experiments on chemical behaviors of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and canister materials at near-field of KBS-3 deep geological repository were reviewed. The advantages of reductive substances at KBS-3 repository to the spent fuel disposal safety were discussed. Using data from literatures and experiments, the author demonstrated the blocking effect of hydrogen generated for iron canister corrosion on SNF dissolution, and discussed the reaction mechanism. It is also proved that the gamma radiation expected at the early stage of disposal and micro mole level oxidative species in water solution can only slightly enhance the corrosion rate of copper canister to mu m/y level, still 10(3) times slower than that at air saturated conditions. During a long period of time after copper canister leaks, under combined effects of iron canister material, hydrogen and fission product alloy particle catalysts, SNF dissolution can be depressed or blocked, and Most radiotoxic multivalent radionuclides U, Np, Tc and Se released from SNF can be reduced and precipitated. This paper supplies scientific bases for the sitting of a SNF repository at a stable reducing area, and designing of canisters with massive iron material.

  • 16.
    Cui, Daqing
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Puranen, A.
    Institutionen för fysikalisk kemi, oorganisk kemi och strukturkemi, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
    Devoy, J.
    Scheidegger, A.
    Leupin, O. X.
    Wersin, P.
    Gens, R.
    Spahiu, K.
    Reductive immobilization of Se-79 by iron canister under simulated repository environment2009Inngår i: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, ISSN 0236-5731, E-ISSN 1588-2780, Vol. 282, nr 2, s. 349-354Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To understand the fate of Se-79 in a repository-like environment, the interactions between iron canister surface with dissolved selenite (SeO3 (2-)) and selenate (SeO4 (2-)) in anaerobic solutions have been investigated. Se(IV) immobilization on iron surface was observed to be about 100 times faster than that of Se(VI) at same conditions. An iron surface coated with a FeCO3 layer corrosion product is more reactive than a polished iron to immobilize Se(IV) and Se(VI). The reacted iron surfaces were analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectrometry and micro-X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). The result show that Se(IV) and Se(VI) were reduced and precipitated. The dominating phase was found to be FeSe2..

  • 17.
    Cui, Daqing
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Rondinella, V. V.
    Fortner, J. A.
    Kropf, A. J.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Wronkiewicz, D. J.
    Spahiu, K.
    Characterization of alloy particles extracted from spent nuclear fuel2012Inngår i: Journal of Nuclear Materials, ISSN 0022-3115, E-ISSN 1873-4820, Vol. 420, nr 1-3, s. 328-333Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We characterized, for the first time, submicro- and nanosized fission product-alloy particles that were extracted nondestructively from spent nuclear fuel, in terms of noble metal (Mo-Ru-Tc-Rh-Pd-Te) composition, atomic level homogeneity and lattice parameters. The evidences obtained in this work contribute to an improved understanding of the redox chemistry of radionuclides in nuclear waste repository environments and, in particular, of the catalytic properties of these unique metal alloy particles.

  • 18. Dalmo, Johanna
    et al.
    Westberg, Emelie
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Barregård, Lars
    Svedbok, Lisa
    Johansson, Martin
    Törnqvist, Margareta
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Forssell-Aronsson, Eva
    Evaluation of retinol binding protein 4 and carbamoylated haemoglobin as potential renal toxicity biomarkers in adult mice treated with Lu-177-octreotate2014Inngår i: EJNMMI Research, ISSN 2191-219X, E-ISSN 2191-219X, Vol. 4, nr 59Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The kidneys are regarded as one of the main dose-limiting organs in the treatment of neuroendocrine tumours with Lu-177-[DOTA(0), Tyr(3)]-octreotate (Lu-177-octreotate), despite the successful use of kidney uptake blocking agents such as lysine and arginine. To avoid renal toxicity but still give each patient as high amount of Lu-177-octreotate as possible, there is a need for methods/biomarkers that indicate renal injury in an early stage of the treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of using urinary retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) and carbamoylated haemoglobin (Hb) in blood as biomarkers of nephrotoxic effects on adult mice after Lu-177-octreotate treatment. Methods: Adult BALB/c nude mice were injected with 60 MBq or 120 MBq of Lu-177-octreotate or with saline (control). Urine was collected before injection and concentrations of urinary RBP4 and creatinine were determined 14 to 90 days after injection Blood samples were collected after 90 days, and carbamoylated N-terminal valine in Hb, formed from urea, was measured as valine hydantoin (VH) after detachment from Hb. Results: The RBP4 values increased with administered activity and time. For the 60 and 120 MBq groups, statistically significantly higher RBP4 levels (p <0.05) were found at day 60 and 90 compared to baseline, also at day 30 for 120 MBq group. For VH, the mean values were similar for the 60 MBq and control groups, while a small increase was observed for the 120 MBq group; but there were no statistically significant differences between any of the groups (p >0.05). No morphological changes in the kidney tissue were found. Conclusions: Urinary RBP4 is a promising new biomarker for radiation-induced renal toxicity. For the conditions used in this experiment, carbamoylated Hb (from urea) measured as VH may not be a sufficiently sensitive biomarker to be used for renal toxicity.

  • 19. Dingemans, Milou M L
    et al.
    de Groot, Aart
    van Kleef, Regina G D M
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    van den Berg, Martin
    Vijverberg, Henk P M
    Westerink, Remco H S
    Hydroxylation increases the neurotoxic potential of BDE-47 to affect exocytosis and calcium homeostasis in PC12 cells.2008Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 116, nr 5, s. 637-43Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Oxidative metabolism, resulting in the formation of hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) metabolites, may enhance the neurotoxic potential of brominated flame retardants. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate the effects of a hydroxylated metabolite of 2,2',4,4'-tetra-bromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47; 6-OH-BDE-47) on changes in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and vesicular catecholamine release in PC12 cells. METHODS: We measured vesicular catecholamine release and [Ca2+]i using amperometry and imaging of the fluorescent Ca2+-sensitive dye Fura-2, respectively. RESULTS: Acute exposure of PC12 cells to 6-OH-BDE-47 (5 microM) induced vesicular catecholamine release. Catecholamine release coincided with a transient increase in [Ca2+]i, which was observed shortly after the onset of exposure to 6-OH-BDE-47 (120 microM). An additional late increase in [Ca2+]i was often observed at &gt; or =1 microM 6-OH-BDE-47. The initial transient increase was absent in cells exposed to the parent compound BDE-47, whereas the late increase was observed only at 20 microM. Using the mitochondrial uncoupler carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone (FCCP) and thapsigargin to empty intracellular Ca2+ stores, we found that the initial increase originates from emptying of the endoplasmic reticulum and consequent influx of extracellular Ca2+, whereas the late increase originates primarily from mitochondria. CONCLUSION: The hydroxylated metabolite 6-OH-BDE-47 is more potent in disturbing Ca2+ homeostasis and neurotransmitter release than the parent compound BDE-47. The present findings indicate that bioactivation by oxidative metabolism adds considerably to the neurotoxic potential of PBDEs. Additionally, based on the observed mechanism of action, a cumulative neurotoxic effect of PBDEs and ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls on [Ca2+]i cannot be ruled out.

  • 20. Dingemans, Milou M L
    et al.
    Heusinkveld, Harm J
    de Groot, Aart
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    van den Berg, Martin
    Westerink, Remco H S
    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) inhibits depolarization-induced increase in intracellular calcium levels and neurotransmitter release in PC12 cells.2009Inngår i: Toxicol Sci, ISSN 1096-0929, Vol. 107, nr 2, s. 490-498Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental levels of the brominated flame retardant (BFR) hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) have been increasing. HBCD has been shown to cause adverse effects on learning and behavior in mice, as well as on dopamine uptake in rat synaptosomes and synaptic vesicles. For other BFRs, alterations in the intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis have been observed. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the technical HBCD mixture and individual stereoisomers affect the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in a neuroendocrine in vitro model (PC12 cells). [Ca(2+)](i) and vesicular catecholamine release were measured using respectively single-cell Fura-2 imaging and amperometry. Exposure of PC12 cells to the technical HBCD mixture or individual stereoisomers did neither affect basal [Ca(2+)](i), nor the frequency of basal neurotransmitter release. However, exposure to HBCD (0 - 20 muM) did cause a dose-dependent reduction of a subsequent depolarization-evoked increase in [Ca(2+)](i). This effect was apparent only when HBCD was applied at least 5 min before depolarization (maximum effect after 20 min exposure). The effects of alpha- and beta-HBCD were comparable to that of the technical mixture, whereas the inhibitory effect of gamma-HBCD was larger. Using specific blockers of L-, N- or P/Q-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCCs) it was shown that the inhibitory effect of HBCD is not VGCC-specific. Additionally, the number of cells showing depolarization-evoked neurotransmitter release was markedly reduced following HBCD exposure. Summarizing, HBCD inhibits depolarization-evoked [Ca(2+)](i) and neurotransmitter release. As increasing HBCD levels should be anticipated, these findings justify additional efforts to establish an adequate exposure, hazard and risk assessment.

  • 21. Dingemans, Milou M. L.
    et al.
    Heusinkveld, Harm J.
    de Groot, Aart
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    van den Berg, Martin
    Westerink, Remco H. S.
    Hexabromocyclododecane Inhibits Depolarization-Induced Increase in Intracellular Calcium Levels and Neurotransmitter Release in PC12 Cells2009Inngår i: Toxicological Sciences, ISSN 1096-6080, E-ISSN 1096-0929, Vol. 107, nr 2, s. 490-497Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental levels of the brominated flame retardant (BFR) hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) have been increasing. HBCD has been shown to cause adverse effects on learning and behavior in mice, as well as on dopamine uptake in rat synaptosomes and synaptic vesicles. For other BFRs, alterations in the intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis have been observed. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the technical HBCD mixture and individual stereoisomers affect the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+](i)) in a neuroendocrine in vitro model (PC12 cells). [Ca2+](i) and vesicular catecholamine release were measured using respectively single-cell Fura-2 imaging and amperometry. Exposure of PC12 cells to the technical HBCD mixture or individual stereoisomers did neither affect basal [Ca2+](i), nor the frequency of basal neurotransmitter release. However, exposure to HBCD (0-20 mu M) did cause a dose-dependent reduction of a subsequent depolarization-evoked increase in [Ca2+](i). This effect was apparent only when HBCD was applied at least 5 min before depolarization (maximum effect after 20 min exposure). The effects of alpha- and beta-HBCD were comparable to that of the technical mixture, whereas the inhibitory effect of gamma-HBCD was larger. Using specific blockers of L-, N- or P/Q-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs) it was shown that the inhibitory effect of HBCD is not VGCC-specific. Additionally, the number of cells showing depolarization-evoked neurotransmitter release was markedly reduced following HBCD exposure. Summarizing, HBCD inhibits depolarization-evoked [Ca2+](i) and neurotransmitter release. As increasing HBCD levels should be anticipated, these findings justify additional efforts to establish an adequate exposure, hazard and risk assessment.

  • 22. Duarte-Salles, Talita
    et al.
    von Stedingk, Hans
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Granum, Berit
    Gutzkow, Kristine B.
    Rydberg, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Törnqvist, Margareta
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Mendez, Michelle A.
    Brunborg, Gunnar
    Brantsaeter, Anne Lise
    Meltzer, Helle Margrete
    Alexander, Jan
    Haugen, Margaretha
    Dietary Acrylamide Intake during Pregnancy and Fetal Growth-Results from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)2013Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 121, nr 3, s. 374-379Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Acrylamide has shown developmental and reproductive toxicity in animals, as well as neurotoxic effects in humans with occupational exposures. Because it is widespread in food and can pass through the human placenta, concerns have been raised about potential developmental effects of dietary exposures in humans. OBJECTIVES: We assessed associations of prenatal exposure to dietary acrylamide with small for gestational age (SGA) and birth weight. METHODS: This study included 50,651 women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Acrylamide exposure assessment was based on intake estimates obtained from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), which were compared with hemoglobin (Hb) adduct measurements reflecting acrylamide exposure in a subset of samples (n = 79). Data on infant birth weight and gestational age were obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Multivariable regression was used to estimate associations between prenatal acrylamide and birth outcomes. RESULTS: Acrylamide intake during pregnancy was negatively associated with fetal growth. When women in the highest quartile of acrylamide intake were compared with women in the lowest quartile, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR) for SGA was 1.11 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.21) and the coefficient for birth weight was -25.7 g (95% CI: -35.9, -15.4). Results were similar after excluding mothers who smoked during pregnancy. Maternal acrylamide-and glycidamide-Hb adduct levels were correlated with estimated dietary acrylamide intakes (Spearman correlations = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.44; and 0.48; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.63, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Lowering dietary acrylamide intake during pregnancy may improve fetal growth.

  • 23.
    Eriksson, Sune
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Karlsson, Patrik
    Törnqvist, Margareta
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Measurement of evaporated acrylamide during heat treatment of food and other biological materials2007Inngår i: LWT – Food Science and Technology, ISSN 0023-6438, Vol. 40, nr 7, s. 706-712Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is established that acrylamide could be formed during heating of food products. In the present work we have studied whether the formed acrylamide could evaporate from food at elevated temperatures used in cooking (>160 °C) or used in determination of dry matter in laboratory analysis (ca. 105 °C). It was demonstrated that acrylamide evaporates from food samples during both cooking and temperatures used for drying. Up to ca. 4 μg/m3 could be measured above the fry pan during frying of potato. In parallel we have also studied whether acrylamide could be formed and evaporate during the elevated temperatures of 65–130 °C used for dry matter determinations in other types of samples containing biological material, like agricultural and environmental samples. It was found that acrylamide is formed during conditions for drying of soil, sediment and silage samples, as well as cereals, animal feed, etc. After drying, levels of acrylamide up to about 100 μg/kg were found, e.g. in samples of sediment and sludge. The measurements showed in the food, agricultural and environmental samples tested a minor fraction, roughly estimated to be 0.15–7.2% of the formed acrylamide evaporates at the used elevated temperatures.

  • 24.
    Fred, Charlotta
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Cantillana, Tatiana
    Henderson, Alistair
    Golding, Bernard T.
    Törnqvist, Margareta
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Adducts to N-terminal valines in hemoglobin from isoprene di-epoxide, a metabolite of isoprene2004Inngår i: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, ISSN 0951-4198, E-ISSN 1097-0231, Vol. 18, nr 18, s. 2177-2184Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Isoprene (2-methylbuta-1,3-diene) is a multi-site carcinogen in rodents. To evaluate the role of the diepoxide metabolite (1,2:3,4-diepoxy-2-methylbutane) in carcinogenesis, measurements of in vivo doses of the diepoxide are needed. The in vivo dose may be inferred from levels of reaction products with hemoglobin (Hb adducts). This report presents in vitro studies of the adduct formation by the diepoxide of isoprene with valinamide and oligopeptides as model compounds of N-terminal valines in hemoglobin (Hb). In the reaction with valinamide it was shown that isoprene diepoxide forms as the main product a ring-closed adduct, which is a pyrrolidine derivative [N,N-(2,3-dihydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-butadiyl)valinamide, MPyr-Val]. The analysis was performed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) (EI and PICI) after acetylation. The ring-closed adduct was also identified by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) as the main product in the reaction between isoprene diepoxide and standard hepta- or (2H8)octapeptides, corresponding to the N-terminal peptides of the α-chains in mouse and rat Hb. These peptides, alkylated with isoprene diepoxide, to be used as internal standards and calibration standards for quantification of MPyr-adduct levels in vitro and in vivo, were analyzed with respect to the degree of MPyr-alkylation by two independent methods, amino acid analysis and HPLC-UV; similar results were obtained using these methods. A method for measurement of Hb adducts as modified peptides, used earlier to measure a similar adduct to N-terminal valines in Hb from the diepoxide of 1,3-butadiene, has in the present work been tested for application to isoprene diepoxide. The method is based on tryptic degradation of globin and LC/ESI-MS analysis of N-terminal Pyr-heptapeptides of the Hb α-chain enriched by HPLC. MPyr-adduct levels in isoprene diepoxide alkylated hemolysate from mouse erythrocytes incubated with different concentrations of isoprene diepoxide (2 and 10 mM) for 1 h were quantified. The adduct level was about 50 nmol/g α-chain Hb per mM × h. From the adduct levels the rate constant of isoprene diepoxide for reaction with N-terminal valine was calculated to be about 1.6 times faster than for diepoxybutane

  • 25.
    Fred, Charlotta
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Grawé, Jan
    Törnqvist, Margareta
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Hemoglobin adducts and micronuclei in rodents after treatment with isoprene monoxide or butadiene monoxide2005Inngår i: Mutation Research, ISSN 1383-5742, E-ISSN 1388-2139, Vol. 585, nr 1-2, s. 21-32Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    1,3-Butadiene and isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) are chemically related substances that are carcinogenic to rodents. The overall aim of this work is to elucidate the role of the genotoxic action of diepoxide metabolites in the carcinogenesis of the dialkenes. In vivo doses of the diepoxide metabolites were measured through reaction products with hemoglobin (Hb adducts) in studies of induced micronuclei (MN) in rodents. In the reaction with N-terminal valine in Hb, diepoxybutane and isoprenediepoxide form ring-closed adducts, pyrrolidines [N,N-(2,3-dihydroxy-1,4-butadiyl)valine and N,N-(2,3-dihydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-butadiyl)valine, respectively]. The method applied for Hb-adduct measurement is based on tryptic degradation of the protein and liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (LC–ESI-MS/MS) analysis. Mice were given single i.p. injections of the monoepoxides of butadiene and isoprene, 1,2-epoxy-3-butene or 1,2-epoxy-2-methyl-3-butene, respectively. Rats were treated in the same way with 1,2-epoxy-3-butene. In mice pyrrolidine adduct levels increased with increasing administered doses of the monoepoxides. The in vivo dose of diepoxybutane was on average twice as high (0.29 ± 0.059 mMh) as the in vivo dose of isoprenediepoxide (0.15 ± 0.053 mMh) per administered dose (mmol/kg body weight) of the monoepoxides. In mice the genotoxic effects of the two monoepoxides, measured as the increase in the frequencies of micronuclei (MN), were approximately linearly correlated to the in vivo doses of the diepoxides (except at the highest dose of diepoxybutane). In rats the pyrrolidine-adduct levels from diepoxybutane were below the limit of quantification at all administered doses of 1,2-epoxy-3-butene and no significant increase was observed in the frequency of MN. Measurement of the ring-closed adducts to N-termini in Hb by the applied method permits analysis of in vivo doses of diepoxybutane and isoprenediepoxide, which may be further used for the elucidation of the mechanisms of carcinogenesis of butadiene and isoprene.

  • 26.
    Fred, Charlotta
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Haglund, Johanna
    Alsberg, Thomas
    Rydberg, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Minten, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Törnqvist, Margareta
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Characterization of alkyl-cobalamins formed in trapping of epoxide metabolites of 1,3-butadiene2004Inngår i: Journal of Separation Science, ISSN 1615-9306, E-ISSN 1615-9314, Vol. 27, nr 7-8, s. 607-612Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Analytical methods facilitating studies of electrophilically reactive and genotoxic compounds in vitro and in vivo are needed. The strong nucleophile, cob(I)alamin, formed by reduction of Vitamin B12 [cob(III)alamin], may be used for trapping and analysis of 1,2-epoxides and other electrophiles. In the present study, cob(I)alamin is evaluated as an analytical tool for 1,2-epoxide metabolites (oxiranes) of 1,3-butadiene. Products of reaction of cob(I)alamin with 1,2-epoxy-3-butene (EB), 1,2:3,4-diepoxybutane (DEB), and 1,2-epoxy-3,4-butanediol (EBdiol) have been analyzed by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled on-line to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and ultraviolet diode array detection (UV-DAD). It was shown that a specific alkyl-Cbl complex is formed for each metabolite and that it was possible to discriminate between the products by HPLC-UV and by LC-MS. Quantification of DEB with the method by use of another 1,2-epoxide as an internal standard was successfully performed. The possibility of using cob(I)alamin for trapping and analysis of the three oxirane metabolites of 1,3-butadiene will facilitate quantitative comparisons of species in vitro with regard to metabolism of 1,3-butadiene.

  • 27.
    Fred, Charlotta
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Kautiainen, Antti
    Athanassiadis, Ioannis
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Törnqvist, Margareta
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Hemoglobin adduct levels in rat and mouse treated with 1,2:3,4-diepoxybutane2004Inngår i: Chemical Research in Toxicology, ISSN 0893-228X, E-ISSN 1520-5010, Vol. 17, nr 6, s. 785-794Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    For cancer risk assessment of 1,3-butadiene from rodent cancer test data, the in vivo doses of formed 1,2:3,4-diepoxybutane (DEB) should be known. In vivo doses of DEB were measured through a specific reaction product with hemoglobin (Hb), a ring-closed adduct, N,N-(2,3-dihydroxy-1,4-butadiyl)valine (Pyr-Val), to N-terminal valines. An analytical method based on tryptic digestion of Hb and quantification of Pyr-modified heptapeptides by LC-MS/MS has been further developed and applied in vivo to DEB-treated rats. Furthermore, N-(2,3,4-trihydroxybutyl)valine adducts (THB-Val) to the N-terminal valine in Hb were measured in rats and mice treated with DEB and in a complementary experiment with 1,2-epoxy-3,4-butanediol (EBdiol), using a modified Edman degradation method and GC-MS/MS. In vitro reactions of hemolysate with DEB and EBdiol were used to measure reaction rates for adduct formation needed for calculation of doses and rates elimination in vivo. The results showed that the level of the Pyr-Val adduct per administered dose of DEB was approximately the same in rats as had earlier been observed in mice [Kautiainen et al. (2000) Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 14, 1848−1853]. Levels of the THB-Val adduct after DEB treatment were 3−4 times higher in rat than in mouse, probably reflecting an enhanced hydrolysis of DEB to EBdiol catalyzed by epoxide hydrolase. After EBdiol treatment, the THB-Val adduct levels were about the same in rat and mouse. Calculations from in vitro data show that the Pyr-Val adduct is a relevant monitor for the in vivo dose of DEB and that THB-Val primarily reflects doses to EBdiol. The calculated rates of formation of adducts and rates of elimination agree with expectations. Procedures for quantification of Hb adducts as modified peptides as well as preparation and characterization of peptide standards have been evaluated.

  • 28.
    Fängström, Britta
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Athanasiadou, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Athanassiadis, Ioannis
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Bignert, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Grandjean, Philippe
    Weihe, P
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and traditional organochlorine pollutants in fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) from the Faroe Islands2005Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 60, nr 7, s. 836-843Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The observed high-level burdens of organohalogens among the residents of the Faroe Islands, needs to be explained. Long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas) blubber and meat are known sources of environmental exposure. The present study focus on the organohalogen contamination of the fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis). The compounds quantified in fulmar muscle, fat, and egg are PCBs, DDTs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The dominating pollutants are the 4,4′-DDT metabolite 4,4′-DDE and the two PCB congeners, CB-153 and CB-180, which are present in geometric mean concentrations of 7100, 4700 and 2500 ng/g lipid weight (l.w.), respectively, in adult fulmar muscle. 4,4′-DDT and HCB concentrations are approximately 250 ng/g l.w., each. Concentrations in the eggs are about 50% of the fulmar muscle levels, due to differences in lipid amounts, 4% in muscle and 10% in the eggs, the exposure contribution on a fresh weight basis is almost the same. As a result, both the egg and the adult fulmar muscle may lead to a significant exposure risk, if consumed by humans.

    BDE-153, the most abundant PBDE congener in fulmar muscle, with a geometric mean concentration of 6.5 ng/g l.w., is much lower than the individual PCB congeners and 4,4′-DDE concentrations. In the adult fulmar muscle, the relative PBDE congener pattern is different from that previously observed in biota, with BDE-153 and BDE-154 as the dominating congeners, rather than BDE-47. In contrast, BDE-47 is the most abundant congener in juvenile muscle and subcutaneous fat. The ∑PBDE concentrations are almost the same in egg, muscle (adult and juvenile) and subcutaneous fat (juvenile). For the polybrominated biphenyl (BB-153) the concentrations are considerably higher in the adult bird and egg than in the juvenile bird; this is also seen for the PCB and 4,4′-DDE concentrations.

    PCB concentrations found in fulmar egg and muscle are in the same range as seen in the pilot whale, i.e. 590–5700 ng/g l.w. for CB-153. Hence humans are also exposed to PCBs at a reasonable degree via intake of fulmar and/or fulmar egg and not only via pilot whale blubber.

  • 29.
    Fängström, Britta
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Athanassiadis, Ioannis
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Odsjö, Tjelvar
    Department of Contaminant Research, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Norén, Koidu
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Temporal trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane in milk from Stockholm mothers, 1980-2004.2008Inngår i: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, ISSN 1613-4125, E-ISSN 1613-4133, Vol. 52, s. 187-193Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental and human exposures to brominated flame retardants (BFR) have been of emerging concern since some BFR are persistent and bioaccumulative compounds. Among those, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) have frequently been reported in low to high ng/g concentrations in human blood around the world while hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) only occasionally has been reported and then in the low ppb concentrations in human blood. The present study concerns PBDE congener and HBCDD concentrations in human milk from Stockholm from 1980 to 2004. HBCDD concentrations has increased four to five times since 1980 until 2002 but seems to have stabilized at this concentration in the last years (2003/04). Similarly, BDE-153 has continued to increase at least to 2001, after which it has stabilized in the mother's milk. Other PBDE congeners with four to five bromine substituents peaked 5 years earlier (1995) and are all decreasing. DecaBDE (BDE-209) is not a suitable biomarker for time trend studies according to the present results, showing no changes over time. This is likely due to its short apparent half-life in humans and poor transfer from blood to milk.

  • 30.
    Fängström, Britta
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Strid, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Grandjean, Philippe
    Weihe, Pál
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    A retrospective study of PBDEs and PCBs in human milk from the Faroe Islands2005Inngår i: Environmental health, ISSN 1476-069X, E-ISSN 1476-069X, Vol. 4, nr 12Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in wildlife and humans remain a cause of global concern, both in regard to traditional POPs, such as the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and emerging POPs, such as the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). To determine the time related concentrations, we analyzed human milk for these substances at three time points between 1987 and 1999. Polychlorobiphenylols (OH-PCBs), the dominating class of PCB metabolites, some of which are known to be strongly retained in human blood, were also included in the assessment.

    Methods

    We obtained milk from the Faroe Islands, where the population is exposed to POPs from their traditional diet (which may include pilot whale blubber). In addition to three pools, nine individual samples from the last time point were also analyzed. After cleanup, partitioning of neutral and acidic compounds, and separation of chemical classes, the analyses were carried out by gas chromatography and/or gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Results

    Compared to other European populations, the human milk had high PCB concentrations, with pool concentrations of 2300 ng/g fat 1987, 1600 ng/g fat in 1994, and 1800 ng/g fat in 1999 (based on the sum of eleven major PCB congeners). The nine individual samples showed great variation in PCB concentrations. The OH-PCBs were present in trace amounts only, at levels of approximately 1% of the PCB concentrations. The PBDE concentrations showed a clear increase over time, and their concentrations in human milk from 1999 are among the highest reported so far from Europe, with results of individual samples ranging from 4.7 to 13 ng/g fat.

    Conclusion

    Although remote from pollution sources, the Faroe Islands show high concentrations of POPs in human milk, particularly PCBs, but also PBDEs. The PBDEs show increasing concentrations over time. The OH-PCB metabolites are poorly transferred to human milk, which likely is related to their acidic character.

  • 31.
    Fång, J
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Jakobsson, K
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Sweden.
    Athanasiadou, M
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Rignell-Hydbom, A
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Sweden.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Transfer of polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) from mother to child2010Inngår i: Organohalogen Compounds, 2010Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 32.
    Fång, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Non-destructive method for screening for novel persistent organic contaminants in mothers´ milkManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 33. Gassmann, Kathrin
    et al.
    Schreiber, Timm
    Dingemans, Milou M. L.
    Krause, Guido
    Roderigo, Claudia
    Giersiefer, Susanne
    Schuwald, Janette
    Moors, Michaela
    Unfried, Klaus
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Westerink, Remco H. S.
    Rose, Christine R.
    Fritsche, Ellen
    BDE-47 and 6-OH-BDE-47 modulate calcium homeostasis in primary fetal human neural progenitor cells via ryanodine receptor-independent mechanisms2014Inngår i: Archives of Toxicology, ISSN 0340-5761, E-ISSN 1432-0738, Vol. 88, nr 8, s. 1537-1548Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are bioaccumulating flame retardants found in rising concentrations in human tissue. Epidemiological and animal studies have raised concern for their potential to induce developmental neurotoxicity (DNT). Considering the essential role of calcium homeostasis in neurodevelopment, PBDE-induced disturbance of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+](i)) may underlie PBDE-induced DNT. To test this hypothesis, we investigated acute effects of BDE-47 and 6-OH-BDE-47 on [Ca2+](i) in human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) and unraveled involved signaling pathways. Short-time differentiated hNPCs were exposed to BDE-47, 6-OH-BDE-47, and multiple inhibitors/stimulators of presumably involved signaling pathways to determine possible effects on [Ca2+](i) by single-cell microscopy with the fluorescent dye Fura-2. Initial characterization of calcium signaling pathways confirmed the early developmental stage of hNPCs. In these cells, BDE-47 (2 mu M) and 6-OH-BDE-47 (0.2 mu M) induce [Ca2+](i) transients. This increase in [Ca2+](i) is due to extracellular Ca2+ influx and intracellular release of Ca2+, mainly from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). While extracellular Ca2+ seems to enter the cytoplasm upon 6-OH-BDE-47 by interfering with the cell membrane and independent of Ca2+ ion channels, ER-derived Ca2+ is released following activation of protein lipase C and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, but independently of ryanodine receptors. These findings illustrate that immature developing hNPCs respond to low concentrations of 6-OH-BDE-47 by an increase in [Ca2+](i) and provide new mechanistic explanations for such BDE-induced calcium disruption. Thus, these data support the possibility of a critical window of PBDE exposure, i.e., early human brain development, which has to be acknowledged in risk assessment.

  • 34. Grandjean, Philippe
    et al.
    Bellinger, David
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Cordier, Sylvaine
    Davey-Smith, George
    Eskenazi, Brenda
    Gee, David
    Gray, Kimberly
    Hanson, Mark
    van den Hazel, Peter
    Heindel, Jerrold J
    Heinzow, Birger
    Hertz-Picciotto, Irva
    Hu, Howard
    Huang, Terry T-K
    Jensen, Tina Kold
    Landrigan, Philip J
    McMillen, I Caroline
    Murata, Katsuyuki
    Ritz, Beate
    Schoeters, Greet
    Skakkebaek, Niels Erik
    Skerfving, Staffan
    Weihe, Pal
    The faroes statement: human health effects of developmental exposure to chemicals in our environment.2008Inngår i: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology, ISSN 1742-7835, E-ISSN 1742-7843, Vol. 102, nr 2, s. 73-5Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The periods of embryonic, foetal and infant developmentare remarkably susceptible to environmental hazards. Toxicexposures to chemical pollutants during these windows ofincreased susceptibility can cause disease and disability ininfants, children and across the entire span of human life.Among the effects of toxic exposures recognized in the pasthave been spontaneous abortion, congenital malformations,lowered birthweight and other adverse effects. These outcomesmay be readily apparent. However, even subtle changes causedby chemical exposures during early development may leadto important functional deficits and increased risks ofdisease later in life. The timing of exposure during early lifehas therefore become a crucial factor to be considered intoxicological assessments.During 20–24 May 2007, researchers in the fields of environmentalhealth, environmental chemistry, developmentalbiology, toxicology, epidemiology, nutrition and paediatricsgathered at the International Conference on Fetal Programmingand Developmental Toxicity, in Tórshavn, FaroeIslands. The conference goal was to highlight new insightsinto the effects of prenatal and early postnatal exposure tochemical agents, and their sustained effects on the individualthroughout the lifespan. The conference brought togetherresearchers to focus on human data and the translationof laboratory results to elucidate the environmental risks tohuman health.

  • 35.
    Granelli, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Athanasiadou, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Reductive debromination of nonabrominated diphenyl ethers2010Inngår i: BFR 2010 Extended abstract series, 2010Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 36.
    Granelli, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Athanasiadou, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Reductive debromination of nonabrominated diphenyl ethers by sodium borohydride and identification of octabrominated diphenyl ether products2011Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 82, nr 6, s. 839-846Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A method was developed to study reductive transformation of highly brominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs). The method development is a part of a broader project where it will be used to determine the susceptibility of environmental pollutants to reductive conditions, in an attempt to create a scheme for determination of chemical’s persistence. This paper focuses on identification of octabrominated diphenyl ether transformation products from reductive debromination of the three nonabrominated diphenyl congeners (nonaBDE), BDE-206, -207 and -208. Sodium borohydride was used to explore the reductive debromination of the nonaBDEs. The transformation products were collected at two time-points and identified products were quantified by GC–MS. The reduction of the nonaBDEs lead primarily to debrominated products, mainly octaBDEs. The three nonabrominated DEs gave isomer-related transformation product patterns. BDE-207 and BDE-208 showed a propensity for ortho-debromination in the initial reaction step, while no discrimination between initial debromination positions was seen for BDE-206. All three nonabrominated DEs displayed a preferred initial debromination on the fully brominated DE ring.

  • 37.
    Granelli, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Photolysis of four novel brominated flame retardantsManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 38.
    Granelli, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Sodium borohydride reduction of individual polybrominated diphenyl ethersManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 39. Gutleb, Arno C.
    et al.
    Cenijn, Peter
    van Velzen, Martin
    Lie, Elisabeth
    Ropstad, Erik
    Skaare, Janneche Utne
    Malmberg, Tina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Gabrielsen, Geir W.
    Legler, Juliette
    In Vitro Assay Shows That PCB Metabolites Completely Saturate Thyroid Hormone Transport Capacity in Blood of Wild Polar Bears (Ursus maritimus)2010Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 44, nr 8, s. 3149-3154Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Persistent chemicals accumulate in the arctic environment due to their chemical reactivity and physicochemical properties and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are the most concentrated pollutant class in polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Metabolism of PCB and polybrominated biphenyl ether (PBDE) flame-retardants alter their toxicological properties and these metabolites are known to interfere with the binding of thyroid hormone (TH) to transthyretin (TTR) in rodents and humans. In polar bear plasma samples no binding of [I-125]-T-4 to TTR was observed after incubation and PAGE separation. Incubation of the plasma samples with (C-14)-4-OH-CB107, a compound with a higher binding affinity to TTR than the endogenous ligand T-4 resulted in competitive binding as proven by the appearance of a radio labeled TTR peak in the gel. Plasma incubation with T-4 up to 1 mM, a concentration that is not physiologically relevant anymore did not result in any visible competition. These results give evidence that the binding sites on TTR for T-4 in wild living polar bears are completely saturated. Such saturation of binding sites can explain observed lowered levels of THs and could lead to contaminant transport into the developing fetus.

  • 40.
    Haglund, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Kemiska institutionen.
    Löfstrand, Karin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Malmvärn, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Bignert, Anders
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Miljögiftsforskning.
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Temporal Variations of Polybrominated Dibenzo-p-Dioxin and Methoxylated Diphenyl Ether Concentrations in Fish Revealing Large Differences in Exposure and Metabolic Stability2010Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 44, nr 7, s. 2466-73Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The concentrations of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs) and polybrominated methoxylated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) were investigated in perch (Perca fluviatilis) collected from a Baltic Sea background contaminated area between 1990 and 2005. No temporal trend was found, but large variations were observed - up to 5-fold and 160-fold differences in MeO-PBDE and PBDD concentrations, respectively - between consecutive years, suggesting that retention of these compounds, particularly the PBDDs, is limited. Examination of the congener profiles using principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation analysis indicated that MeO-PBDEs without adjacent substituents (6-MeO-BDE47) or with two adjacent substituents (2'-MeO-BDE68 and 6-MeO-BDE90) are retained more than MeO-PBDEs with three adjacent substituents (6-MeO-BDE85 and 6-MeO-BDE99) and that 1,3,6,8-tetraBDD and 1,3,7,9-tetraBDD are retained more than the other PBDDs which have vicinal hydrogen. Debromination could explain the limited retention of 6-MeO-PBDE85 and 6-MeO-BDE99 and the absence of 2-MeO-BDE123 and 6-MeO-BDE137, and cytochrome P-450 mediated oxidation could explain the limited retention of PBDDs containing vicinal hydrogen. The levels of organobromines, especially MeO-PBDEs, were found to covary with water conditions related to primary production, for example temperature, depth visibility, and inorganic nutrient concentrations, which also favor fish productivity. The results suggest natural production of MeO-PBDEs and PBDDs and imply that they fluctuate considerably over time, as do common marine toxins in fish. Thus, assessments of human and environmental risk should consider both the average and peak concentrations of these contaminants in marine biota.

  • 41.
    Haglund, Peter S.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Löfstrand, Karin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Siek, Kevin
    Leco Corporation.
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Powerful GC-TOF-MS Techniques for Screening, Identification and Quantification of Halogenated Natural Products2013Inngår i: Mass Spectrometry, ISSN 2186-5116, Vol. 2, nr Special Issue, s. S0018-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC TOFMS) and gaschromatography/high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-HRT) were used to detect and identify halogenatednatural products (HNPs) in tissue homogenate, in this case brominated analytes present in a marine snail. Two classes of brominatedanthropogenic compounds, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and brominated dibenzofurans, were analyzedfor comparison. Following conventional preparation, the sample was analyzed using GC×GC-TOF-MS. Isotope ratio scriptswere used to compile a list of putatively brominated analytes from amongst the thousands of features resolved in the twodimensionalchromatogram. The structured nature of the chromatogram was exploited to propose identifications for severalclasses of brominated compounds, and include additional candidates that fell marginally outside the script tolerances. Thesample was subsequently analyzed by GC-HRT. The high-resolution mass spectral data confirmed many formula assignments,facilitated confident assignment of an alternate formula when an original proposal did not hold, and enabled unknown identification.Identified HNPs include hydroxylated and methoxylated PBDE analogs, polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs)and hydroxyl-PBDDs, permitting the environmental occurrence and fate of such compounds to be studied.

  • 42. Hertz-Picciotto, I.
    et al.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Fängström, Britta
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Rose, M. B.
    Krakowiak, P.
    Pessah, I. N.
    Hansen, R. L.
    Bennett, D. H.
    Polybrominated dipheny ehters in relation to autism and developmental delay: A case-control study2011Inngår i: Environmental health, ISSN 1476-069X, E-ISSN 1476-069X, Vol. 10, s. 1-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants used widely and in increasing amounts in the U.S. over the last few decades. PBDEs and their metabolites cross the placenta and studies in rodents demonstrate neurodevelopmental toxicity from prenatal exposures. PBDE exposures occur both via breastfeeding and hand-to-mouth activities in small children. Methods: Participants were 100 children from the CHARGE (CHildhood Autism Risk from Genetics and the Environment) Study, a case-control epidemiologic investigation of children with autism/autism spectrum disorder, with developmental delay and from the general population. Diagnoses of autism were confirmed by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and Autism Diagnostic Inventory-Revised, and of developmental delay using the Mullen's Scales of Early Learning and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Typically developing controls were those with no evidence of delay, autism, or autism spectrum disorder. Eleven PBDE congeners were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry from serum specimens collected after children were assessed. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between plasma PBDEs and autism. Results: Children with autism/autism spectrum disorder and developmental delay were similar to typically developing controls for all PBDE congeners, but levels were high for all three groups. Conclusions: Plasma samples collected post-diagnosis in this study may not represent early life exposures due to changes in diet and introduction of new household products containing PBDEs. Studies with direct measurements of prenatal or infant exposures are needed to assess the possible causal role for these compounds in autism spectrum disorders.

     

     

  • 43. Hochstenbach, Kevin
    et al.
    van Leeuwen, Danitsja M.
    Gmuender, Hans
    Gottschalk, Ralf W.
    Lovik, Martinus
    Granum, Berit
    Nygaard, Unni
    Namork, Ellen
    Kirsch-Volders, Micheline
    Decordier, Ilse
    Loock, Kim Vande
    Besselink, Harrie
    Törnqvist, Margareta
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    von Stedingk, Hans
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Rydberg, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Kleinjans, Jos C. S.
    van Loveren, Henk
    van Delft, Joost H. M.
    Global gene expression analysis in cord blood reveals gender specific differences in response to carcinogenic exposure in utero2012Inngår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, ISSN 1055-9965, E-ISSN 1538-7755, Vol. 21, nr 10, s. 1756-1767Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It has been suggested that fetal carcinogenic exposure might lead to predisposition to develop cancer during childhood or in later life possibly through modulation of the fetal transcriptome. Because gender effects in the incidence of childhood cancers have been described, we hypothesized differences at the transcriptomic level in cord blood between male and female newborns as a consequence of fetal carcinogenic exposure. The objective was to investigate whether transcriptomic responses to dietary genotoxic and nongenotoxic carcinogens show gender-specific mechanisms-of-action relevant for chemical carcinogenesis. Methods: Global gene expression was applied in umbilical cord blood samples, the CALUX-assay was used for measuring dioxin(-like), androgen(-like), and estrogen(-like) internal exposure, and acrylamide-hemoglobin adduct levels were determined by mass spectrometry adduct-FIRE-procedure (TM). To link gene expression to an established phenotypic biomarker of cancer risk, micronuclei frequencies were investigated. Results: While exposure levels did not differ between sexes at birth, important gender-specific differences were observed in gene expressions associated with these exposures linked with cell cycle, the immune system and more general cellular processes such as posttranslation. Moreover, oppositely correlating leukemia/lymphoma genes between male and female newborns were identified in relation to the different biomarkers of exposure that might be relevant to male-specific predisposition to develop these cancers in childhood. Conclusions/Impact: This study reveals different transcriptomic responses to environmental carcinogens between the sexes. In particular, male-specific TNF-alpha-NF-kB signaling upon dioxin exposure and activation of the Wnt-pathway in boys upon acrylamide exposure might represent possible mechanistic explanations for gender specificity in the incidence of childhood leukemia.

  • 44.
    Jakobsson, K
    et al.
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Sweden.
    Fång, J
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Athanasiadou, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Rignell-Hydbom, A
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Sweden.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in maternal serum, umbilicalcord blood, colostrum and mature breast milk2010Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 45.
    Johansson, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Sellström, Ulla
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Lindberg, Peter
    Bignert, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    De Wit, Cynthia A
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Polybrominated diphenyl ether congener patterns, hexabromocyclododecane, and brominated biphenyl 153 in eggs of peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) breeding in Sweden.2009Inngår i: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 28, nr 1, s. 9-17Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous analyses of 52 peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) eggs collected from two wild and one captive population in Sweden 1987 through 1999 were complemented by including additional polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners (BDE-35, -183, -184, -185, -196, -197, -203, and -207). In addition, 31 eggs not previously analyzed for hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and BDE-209 were analyzed for these. Geometric mean concentrations of BPBDEs, HBCD, and the hexabrominated biphenyl (BB-153) were 3,100, 140, and 81 ng/g of lipid weight for the southern population; 2,500, 110, and 84 ng/g of lipid weight for the northern population; and 47, not detected, and 8 ng/g of lipid weight for the captive population. The BDE congener pattern was dominated by BDE-153, -99, and -100. The results were used to investigate whether a difference in PBDE congener pattern could be distinguished between the two wild populations of peregrine falcons due to different diets, as the southern population preys mainly on birds belonging to the terrestrial food chain while the northern population preys more on aquatic birds. A multivariate t-test showed a subtle but significant (p < 0.001) difference in PBDE congener pattern between the two populations. However, our hypothesis that higher-brominated congeners of PBDEs would be present to a greater extent in the terrestrial food chain was not supported by principal component analysis. The average brood size for individual females from the southern population decreased with increasing concentrations of IPBDE in the eggs (log-linear regression p < 0.01).

  • 46.
    Jörundsdóttir, Hrönn
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Bignert, Anders
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet.
    Svavarsson, Jörundur
    Nygård, Torgeir
    Weihe, Pál
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Assessment of emerging and traditional halogenated contaminants in guillemot (Uria aalge) egg from Nort-Western Europe and the Baltic Sea2009Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 407, nr 13, s. 4174-4183Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are readily detected in biological samples at remote sites in the Arctic and sub-Arctic due to long-range transport from source areas. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of POPs, polybrominated contaminants and their metabolites in guillemot (Uria aalge) eggs from Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Norway and Sweden to assess spatial trends of these compounds in the Arctic and sub-Arctic areas of Europe. Egg samples were extracted, and cleaned for chemical analysis. Concentrations of PCBs, 4,4′-DDE and β-HCH were an order of magnitude higher in eggs from the Baltic Proper compared to eggs from the North Atlantic. Concentrations of HCB were of the same magnitude at all sites, ranging from 160 to 520 ng/g fat. Concentration of BCPS was 100 times higher in eggs from the Baltic compared to eggs from the North Atlantic and seems therefore to be special regional problem. Concentrations of PBDEs were lower in eggs from the North Atlantic compared to eggs from the Baltic Proper but the difference was not as large as for PCBs and 4,4′-DDE. HBCDD showed the same spatial trend as PCBs, where the concentrations in eggs from the Baltic Proper were an order of magnitude higher than in eggs from the North Atlantic. OH-PCB and MeSO2-PCB metabolites of PCBs, showed the same trend as the parent compounds while spatial trends of MeSO2-DDE and OH-PBDEs, metabolites of 4,4′-DDE and PBDEs, respectively, differed from the trend of the parent compounds. This may be due to two factors; firstly, the limited ability of birds to metabolise DDT, and secondly, to natural production of OH-PBDE, respectively. Guillemot is suggested as a monitoring species for circumpolar monitoring.

  • 47.
    Kotova, Natalia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Juren, Tina
    Myohanen, Kirsi
    Cornelius, Michael
    Abramsson-Zetterberg, Lilianne
    Backman, Josefin
    Menzel, Ulrike
    Rydberg, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Kronberg, Leif
    Vahakangas, Kirsi
    Segerback, Dan
    (32)P-HPLC analysis of N1-(2-carboxy-2-hydroxyethyl)deoxyadenosine: A DNA adduct of the acrylamide-derived epoxide glycidamide2011Inngår i: Toxicology Letters, ISSN 0378-4274, E-ISSN 1879-3169, Vol. 207, nr 1, s. 18-24Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Acrylamide (AA) is produced in many types of food products cooked or processed at high temperature. AA is metabolized to the epoxide glycidamide (GA), which can bind to deoxyguanosine and deoxyadenosine in DNA. The GA-derived N7-guanine and N3-adenine adducts are the only products which so far have been analysed in vivo. Because of previous excellent experience from analysis of adducts to N1-adenine, the aim of our study was to investigate if the N1-adenine adduct of GA could be used as a biomarker of AA exposure. A (32)P-postlabelling method was developed and tested (a) on DNA modified in vitro with GA, (b) on cells treated with GA and (c) on liver DNA from mice treated with M. The N1-adenine adduct of GA (analysed after conversion to N(6)-GA-deoxyadenosine-5'-monophosphate) was easily detected in DNA reacted with GA and in DNA from cells exposed to GA, but not in DNA from mice treated with AA. The reason for this is currently not clearly understood, but some of the possible contributing factors are discussed. The application of the method in other experimental conditions should be further pursued in order to solve this matter.

  • 48.
    Linderholm, Linda
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Athanasiadou, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Jakobsson, Kristina
    Lunds universitet.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Persistent organic pollutants in children working and living at urban waste disposal sites in Nicaragua and Bangladesh2010Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 49.
    Linderholm, Linda
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Biague, Antonio
    National Public Health Laboratory, Bissau, Guinea-Bissau.
    Månsson, Fredrik
    Infectious Diseases Research Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University.
    Norrgren, Hans
    Infectious Diseases Research Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Jakobsson, Kristina
    Lunds universitet.
    Human exposure to persistent organic pollutants in West Africa - A temporal trend study from Guinea-Bissau2010Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 36, nr 7, s. 675-682Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Humans, independent on where they live, are exposed to complex and various mixtures of chemicals, including persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The variability of the exposure depends on sources of the chemicals and is influenced by e.g. geography, social and cultural heritage. While exposures to POPs are frequently studied in populations from developed industrial countries, very little is known on levels and trends of POPs in developing countries, especially in Africa.

    Objectives

    The aim of the present study was to investigate levels and temporal trends of POPs in adults from Guinea-Bissau.

    Methods

    Serum samples were obtained from an open cohort of police officers in Guinea-Bissau. Repeated samples from 33 individuals were obtained at five time points between 1990 and 2007, in all 147 samples. Pooled serum samples were extracted and cleaned-up prior to analysis by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The concentration of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (4,4′-DDT) and its metabolites, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were determined.

    Results

    The major POP found in all samples was 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethene (4,4′-DDE) followed by 4,4′-DDT. 4,4′-DDE, 4,4′-DDT, PCBs and β- and γ-HCH were significantly decreasing over time. The PBDEs were found at low concentrations, with an increasing temporal trend for BDE-153.

    Conclusion

    National and international management may be behind the observed decreased organohalogen compound concentrations in humans from Guinea-Bissau from the early 1990's and onwards, similarly to the development of these compounds in humans from industrial countries. In contrast, PBDEs follow a trend of increasing concentrations even though at low levels

  • 50.
    Linderholm, Linda
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Cuadra, Steven
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Jakobsson, Kristina
    Lunds universitet.
    Brominated and chlorinated persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in children working and living at two waste disposal sites in Nicaragua - a revisitManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
12 1 - 50 of 89
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