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  • 1. Gavrus-Ion, Alina
    et al.
    Sjøvold, Torstein
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Osteologiska enheten.
    Hernandez, Miguel
    Gonzalez-Jose, Rolando
    Esteban Torne, Maria Esther
    Martinez-Abadias, Neus
    Esparza, Mireia
    Measuring fitness heritability: Life history traits versus morphological traits in humans2017Inngår i: American Journal of Physical Anthropology, ISSN 0002-9483, E-ISSN 1096-8644, Vol. 164, nr 2, 321-330 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    Traditional interpretation of Fisher's Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection is that life history traits (LHT), which are closely related with fitness, show lower heritabilities, whereas morphological traits (MT) are less related with fitness and they are expected to show higher heritabilities. In humans, although few studies have examined the heritability of LHT and MT, none of them have analyzed the same sample for comparative purposes. Here we assessed, for the first time, the heritability, additive genetic variance (VA), residual variance (VR) and coefficient of genetic additive variation (CVA) values of LHT and MT in a singular collection of identified skulls with associated demographic records from Hallstatt (Austria).

    Materials and Methods

    LHT, such as lifespan, number of offspring, age at birth of first and last child, reproductive span, and lifetime reproductive success, were estimated from 18,134 individuals from the Hallstatt Catholic parish records, which represent seven generations and correspond to a time span of 400 years. MT were assessed through 17 craniofacial indices and 7 angles obtained from 355 adult crania from the same population. Heritability, VA, VR, and CVA values of LHT and MT were calculated using restricted maximum likelihood methods.

    Results

    LHT heritabilities ranged from 2.3 to 34% for the whole sample, with men showing higher heritabilities (4–45%) than women (0-23.7%). Overall, MT presented higher heritability values than most of LHT, ranging from 0 to 40.5% in craniofacial indices, and from 13.8 to 32.4% in craniofacial angles. LHT showed considerable additive genetic variance values, similar to MT, but also high environmental variance values, and most of them presenting a higher evolutionary potential than MT.

    Discussion

    Our results demonstrate that, with the exception of lifespan, LHT show lower heritability values, than MT. The lower heritability of LHT is explained by a higher influence of environmental and cultural factors.

  • 2. Martinez-Abadias, Neus
    et al.
    Esparza, Mireia
    Sjövold, Torstein
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Osteologiska enheten.
    Gonzalez-Jose, Rolando
    Santos, Mauro
    Hernandez, Miquel
    Heritability of human cranial dimensions: comparing the evolvability of different cranial regions2009Inngår i: Journal of Anatomy, ISSN 0021-8782, E-ISSN 1469-7580, Vol. 214, nr 1, 19-35 s.Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantitative craniometrical traits have been successfully incorporated into population genetic methods to provide insight into human population structure. However, little is known about the degree of genetic and non-genetic influences on the phenotypic expression of functionally based traits. Many studies have assessed the heritability of craniofacial traits, but complex patterns of correlation among traits have been disregarded. This is a pitfall as the human skull is strongly integrated. Here we reconsider the evolutionary potential of craniometric traits by assessing their heritability values as well as their patterns of genetic and phenotypic correlation using a large pedigree-structured skull series from Hallstatt (Austria). The sample includes 355 complete adult skulls that have been analysed using 3D geometric morphometric techniques. Heritability estimates for 58 cranial linear distances were computed using maximum likelihood methods. These distances were assigned to the main functional and developmental regions of the skull. Results showed that the human skull has substantial amounts of genetic variation, and a t-test showed that there are no statistically significant differences among the heritabilities of facial, neurocranial and basal dimensions. However, skull evolvability is limited by complex patterns of genetic correlation. Phenotypic and genetic patterns of correlation are consistent but do not support traditional hypotheses of integration of the human shape, showing that the classification between brachy- and dolicephalic skulls is not grounded on the genetic level. Here we support previous findings in the mouse cranium and provide empirical evidence that covariation between the maximum widths of the main developmental regions of the skull is the dominant factor of integration in the human skull.

  • 3. Martínez-Abadias, Neus
    et al.
    Esparza, Mireia
    Sjövold, Torstein
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Osteologiska enheten.
    Heritability of human cranial dimensions: comparing the evolvability of different skull regions2007Inngår i: Evolutionary patterns of the human skull: A quantitative genetic analysis of craniofacial phenotypic variation, Universitetet i Barcelona , 2007, 97-123 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 4. Martínez-Abadias, Neus;
    et al.
    Esparza, Mireia
    Sjövold, Torstein
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Osteologiska enheten.
    González-José, Rolando
    Santos, Mauro
    Klingenberg Hernández, Miguel
    Klingenberg, Christian Peter
    Detecting natural selection in the modern human skull2007Inngår i: A quantitative genetic analysis of craniofacial phenotypic variation.: Evolutionary patterns of the human skull, Universitetet i Barcelona , 2007, 167-183 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 5. Martínez-Abadias, Neus
    et al.
    Esparza, Mireia
    Sjövold, Torstein
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Osteologiska enheten.
    González-José, Rolando
    Santos, Mauro
    Klingenberg Hernández, Miguel
    Klingenberg, Christian Peter
    Pervasive genetic integration directs the evolution of human skull shape2007Inngår i: Evolutionary patterns of the human skull: A quantitative genetic analysis of craniofacial phenotypic variation, Universitetet i Barcelona , 2007, 151-164 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 6. Neus, Martínez-Abadias
    et al.
    Esparza, Mireia
    Sjövold, Torstein
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Osteologiska enheten.
    González-José, Rolando
    Santos, Mauro
    Klingenberg, Christian Peter
    Hernández, Miguel
    Genetic and phenotypic patterns of variation in the human skull2007Inngår i: Evolutionary patterns of the human skull: A quantitative genetic analysis of craniofacial phenotypic variation, Universtitetet i Barcelona , 2007, 127-147 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 7.
    Sjövold, Torstein
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Osteologiska enheten.
    Gustaf Retzius as physical anthropologist2007Inngår i: Gustaf Retzius: A biography, Hagelin Rare Books. The Hagströmer Medico-Historical library , 2007, 173-192 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 8.
    Sjövold, Torstein
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Osteologiska enheten.
    Ismannen från alperna2007Inngår i: Populär arkeologi, nr 2, 20-23 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Nya undersökningar visar att Ötzi blev förföljd och skjuten med ett pilskott. Kopior av hans utrustning visas på Öland i sommar.

    Det är nu mer än femton år sedan Ötzi, eller Ismannen, som han också kallas, upptäcktes i Alperna. Aldrig tidigare hade en mumie av en cirka 5300 år gammal, välbevarad stenåldersmänniska, påträffats med full utrustning. Kläder och organiska delar av utrustningen hade bevarats; trä, näver, skinn och botaniska rester, gräs från en gräskappa och från en knivslida och olika tvinnade rep, snören och nät, hö från isolering av skorna, och även enstaka lönnblad som använts för bevaring av glöd i en transportbehållare av näver. Till och med befjädringen av två pilar hade bevarats, lindade till pilskaften med nässeltråd. Med ens hade arkeologerna fått facit till många frågor vars svar man tidigare enbart kunnat spekulera i.

    Idag vilar Ötzi i ett tidigare bankpalats i italienska Bolzano, provinshuvudstad i Sydtyrolen, byggt under den österrikisk-ungerska monarkins tid. I dess nya arkeologiska museum kan Ötzi beskådas genom ett glasfönster, och hans unika utrustning är utställd.

    Det började tidigt gå rykten om att fyndet skulle vara en förfalskning. Det gick så långt att det till och med publicerades en bok om ”förfalskningen”, skriven...

  • 9.
    Sjövold, Torstein
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Osteologiska enheten.
    Hufthammer, Anne Karin
    Costal cartilage fractures among artiodactyles and perissodactyles2008Inngår i: Veterinarija ir Zootechnika, Vol. 43(65), 84-89 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In artiodactyles and perissodactyles the interior of the costal cartilages ossify, forming a spongy, osseous tissue. Recently, it has been discovered that such ossifications frequently display visible lines perpendicular to the cur-vature of the ossification. Such lines are not rare, and often several lines along the same costal cartilage are observed. Macerated ossified costal cartilages frequently, but not always, split into short, bony stabs with straight, cutoff ends, sometimes retaining organic matter encircled within a bony periphery. In archaeological materials such bony stabs areoccasionally observed, and are just denoted “costal cartilages” if recognized. The cause of these structures is not clear. Some may be regarded as transverse splits of the ossifications along a weakness zone, but in other cases the cause isobviously a fracture with more or less extensive callus formation. The smooth surfaces are typical and cannot be con-fused with a secondary fracture, which occur after deposition or maceration. The smooth ends of a healed fracture al-ways display a thin layer of compact tissue, while a secondary fracture is irregular and displays the spongy tissue. Thus, they may be considered as healed micro or macro fractures, where fusion of the fractured ends had occurred along theperiphery of the ossification. In other cases, however, healing may involve dislocation prior to the healing process, ex-tensive callus formation, lipping or formation of pseudoarthroses. How such an injury affected the animal is not gener-ally known. However, in the cases of dislocation and extensive bony reaction to the fracture, it is highly probable that the wellbeing of the animal was influenced by the injury.

  • 10. Svensson, Emma M.
    et al.
    Telldahl, Ylva
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Osteoarkeologiska forskningslaboratoriet.
    Sjöling, Emma
    Sundkvist, Anneli
    Hulth, Helena
    Sjøvold, Torstein
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Osteologiska enheten.
    Götherstrom, Anders
    Coat colour and sex identification in horses from Iron Age Sweden2012Inngår i: Annals of Anatomy, ISSN 0940-9602, E-ISSN 1618-0402, Vol. 194, nr 1, 82-87 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Domestication of animals and plants marked a turning point in human prehistory. To date archaeology, archaeozoology and genetics have shed light on when and where all of our major livestock species were domesticated. Phenotypic changes associated with domestication have occurred in all farm animals. Coat colour is one of the traits that have been subjected to the strongest human selection throughout history. Here we use genotyping of coat colour SNPs in horses to investigate whether there were any regional differences or preferences for specific colours associated with specific cultural traditions in Iron Age Sweden. We do this by identifying the sex and coat colour of horses sacrificed at Skedemosse, Oland (Sweden) during the Iron Age, as well as in horses from two sites in Uppland, Ultuna and Valsgarde (dated to late Iron Age). We show that bay, black and chestnut colours were all common and two horses with tobiano spotting were found. We also show how the combination of sex identification with genotyping of just a few SNPs underlying the basic coat colours can be used to identify the minimum number of individuals at a site on a higher level than morphological methods alone. Although separated by 500 km and from significantly different archaeological contexts the horses at Skedemosse and Ultuna are quite homogenous when it comes to coat colour phenotypes, indicating that there were no clear geographical variation in coat colouration in Sweden during the late Iron Age and early Viking Age.

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