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  • 1.
    Acerbi, Alberto
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Bentley, R. Alexander
    Biases in cultural transmission shape the turnover of popular traits2014Inngår i: Evolution and human behavior, ISSN 1090-5138, E-ISSN 1879-0607, Vol. 35, 228-236 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The neutral model of cultural evolution, which assumes that copying is unbiased, provides precise predictions regarding frequency distributions of traits and the turnover within a popularity-ranked list. Here we study turnover in ranked lists and identify where the turnover departs from neutral model predictions to detect transmission biases in three different domains: color terms usage in English language 20th century books, popularity of early (1880–1930) and recent (1960–2010) USA baby names, and musical preferences of users of the Web site Last.fm. To help characterize the type of transmission bias, we modify the neutral model to include a content-based bias and two context-based biases (conformity and anti-conformity). How these modified models match real data helps us to infer, from population scale observations, when cultural transmission is biased, and, to some extent, what kind of biases are operating at individual level.

  • 2.
    Acerbi, Alberto
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Bologna.
    Enquist, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för etologi.
    Ghirlanda, Stefano
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Cultural evolution and individual development of openness and conservatism2009Inngår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 106, nr 45, 18931-18935 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a model of cultural evolution in which an individual's propensity to engage in social learning is affected by social learning itself. We assume that individuals observe cultural traits displayed by others and decide whether to copy them based on their overall preference for the displayed traits. Preferences, too, can be transmitted between individuals. Our results show that such cultural dynamics tends to produce conservative individuals, i.e., individuals who are reluctant to copy new traits. Openness to new information, however, can be maintained when individuals need significant time to acquire the cultural traits that make them effective cultural models. We show that a gradual enculturation of young individuals by many models and a larger cultural repertoire to be acquired are favorable circumstances for the long-term maintenance of openness in individuals and groups. Our results agree with data about lifetime personality change, showing that openness to new information decreases with age. Our results show that cultural remodeling of cultural transmission is a powerful force in cultural evolution, i.e., that cultural evolution can change its own dynamics

  • 3.
    Acerbi, Alberto
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Ghirlanda, Stefano
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning. City University of New York, USA.
    Enquist, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Old and Young Individuals' Role in Cultural Change2012Inngår i: JASSS: Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, ISSN 1460-7425, E-ISSN 1460-7425, Vol. 15, nr 4, 1- s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We explore the impact of age on cultural change through simulations of cultural evolution. Our simulations show that common observations about the relationship between old and young naturally emerge from repeated cultural learning. In particular, young individuals are more open to learn than older individuals, they are less effective as cultural models, and they possess less cultural traits. We also show that, being more open to learning, young individuals are an important source of cultural change. Cultural change, however, is faster in populations with both young and old. A relatively large share of older individuals, in fact, allows a population to retain more culture, and a large culture can change in more directions than a small culture. For the same reason, considering age-biased cultural transmission in an overlapping generations model, cultural evolution is slower when individuals interact preferentially with models of similar age than when they mainly interact with older models.

  • 4.
    Acerbi, Alberto
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Ghirlanda, Stefano
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning. Brooklyn College, USA.
    Enquist, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Regulatory traits: Cultural influences on cultural evolution2014Inngår i: Evolution, Complexity and Artificial Life / [ed] Stefano Cagnoni, Marco Mirolli, Marco Villani, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2014, 135-147 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We use the term regulatory traits to indicate traits that both regulate cultural transmission (e.g., from whom to learn) and are themselves culturally transmitted. In the first part of this contribution we study the dynamics of some of these traits through simple mathematical models. In particular, we consider the cultural evolution of traits that determine the propensity to copy others, the ability to influence others, the number of individuals from whom one may copy, and the number of individuals one tries to influence. We then show how to extend these simple models to address more complex human cultural phenomena, such as ingroup biases, the emergence of open or conservative societies, and of cyclical, fashion-like, increases and decreases of popularity of cultural traits. We finally discuss how the ubiquity of regulatory traits in cultural evolution impacts on the analogy between genetic and cultural evolution and therefore on the possibility of using models inspired by evolutionary biology to study human cultural dynamics.

  • 5.
    Acerbi, Alberto
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Ghirlanda, Stefano
    Honors Academy and Department of Psychology, Brooklyn College, New York, US.
    Enquist, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för etologi.
    Regulatory Traits in Cultural Evolution2012Inngår i: Proceedings of WiVACE 2012, Università degli Studi di Parma , 2012, 1-9 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We call \regulatory traits" those cultural traits that aretransmitted through cultural interactions and, at the same time, changeindividual behaviors directly inuencing the outcome of future culturalinteractions. The cultural dynamics of some of those traits are studiedthrough simple simulations. In particular, we consider the cultural evolu-tion of traits determining the propensity to copy, the number of potentialdemonstrators from whom one individual may copy, and conformist ver-sus anti{conformist attitudes. Our results show that regulatory traitsgenerate peculiar dynamics that may explain complex human culturalphenomena. We discuss how the existence and importance of regulatorytraits in cultural evolution impact on the analogy between genetic andcultural evolution and therefore on the possibility of using evolutionarybiology{inspired models to study human cultural dynamics.

  • 6.
    Acerbi, Alberto
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Ghirlanda, Stefano
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Enquist, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    The logic of fashion cycles2012Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, nr 3, e32541- s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many cultural traits exhibit volatile dynamics, commonly dubbed fashions or fads. Here we show that realistic fashion-like dynamics emerge spontaneously if individuals can copy others' preferences for cultural traits as well as traits themselves. We demonstrate this dynamics in simple mathematical models of the diffusion, and subsequent abandonment, of a single cultural trait which individuals may or may not prefer. We then simulate the coevolution between many cultural traits and the associated preferences, reproducing power-law frequency distributions of cultural traits (most traits are adopted by few individuals for a short time, and very few by many for a long time), as well as correlations between the rate of increase and the rate of decrease of traits (traits that increase rapidly in popularity are also abandoned quickly and vice versa). We also establish that alternative theories, that fashions result from individuals signaling their social status, or from individuals randomly copying each other, do not satisfactorily reproduce these empirical observations.

  • 7.
    Acerbi, Alberto
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning. University of Bristol, United Kingdom.
    Lampos, Vasileios
    Garnett, Philip
    Bentley, R. Alexander
    The Expression of Emotions in 20th Century Books2013Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 3, e59030Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We report here trends in the usage of mood words, that is, words carrying emotional content, in 20th century English language books, using the data set provided by Google that includes word frequencies in roughly 4% of all books published up to the year 2008. We find evidence for distinct historical periods of positive and negative moods, underlain by a general decrease in the use of emotion-related words through time. Finally, we show that, in books, American English has become decidedly more emotional than British English in the last half-century, as a part of a more general increase of the stylistic divergence between the two variants of English language.

  • 8.
    Acerbi, Alberto
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Nunn, Charles
    Harvard University, Department of Human Evolutionary Biology.
    Predation and the phasing of sleep: an evolutionary individual-based model2011Inngår i: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 81, nr 4, 801-811 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    All mammals thus far studied sleep, yet important questions remain concerning the ecological factors that influence sleep patterns. Here, we developed an evolutionary individual-based model to investigate the effect of predation pressure on prey sleep. We investigated three ecological conditions, including one that assumed a dynamic interaction between predator and prey behaviour. In condition 1, we found that monophasic predators (i.e. with one sleep bout per 24 h) select for monophasic prey that sleep perfectly out of phase with predators. In condition 2, predators were monophasic but the safety of prey varied as a function of their activity (sleeping versus awake). In this condition, the prey adjusted their sleeping behaviour to lower the risk of predation. Finally, in condition 3, we modelled a more dynamic interaction between predator and prey, with predator activity dependent on prey activity in the previous hour. In this scenario, the prey adjusted their behaviour relative to one another, resulting in either greater or lesser synchrony in prey as a function of predator searching behaviour. Collectively, our model demonstrates that predator behaviour can have a strong influence on prey sleep patterns, including whether prey are monophasic or polyphasic (i.e. with many sleep bouts per 24 h). The model further suggests that the timing of sleep relative to predator behaviour may depend strongly on how other potential prey partition the activity period.

  • 9.
    Acerbi, Alberto
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    O. Jacquet, Pierre
    Department of Psychology, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Tennie, Claudio
    Department of Developmental and Comparative Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology ,Leipzig, Germany.
    Behavioral constraints and the evolution of faithful social learning2012Inngår i: Current Zoology, ISSN 1674-5507, Vol. 58, nr 2, 307-318 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Behavioral “traditions”, i.e. behavioral patterns that are acquired with the aid of social learning and that are relativelystable in a group, have been observed in several species. Recently, however, it has been questioned whether non-human sociallearning is faithful enough to stabilize those patterns. The observed stability could be interpreted as a result of various constraintsthat limit the number of possible alternative behaviors, rather than of the fidelity of transmission mechanisms. Those constraints canbe roughly described as “internal”, such as mechanical (bodily) properties or cognitive limitations and predispositions, and “external”,such as ecological availability or pressures. Here we present an evolutionary individual-based model that explores the relationshipsbetween the evolution of faithful social learning and behavioral constraints, represented both by the size of the behavioralrepertoire and by the “shape” of the search space of a given task. We show that the evolution of high-fidelity transmissionmechanisms, when associated with costs (e.g. cognitive, biomechanical, energetic, etc.), is only likely if the potential behavioralrepertoire of a species is large and if the search space does not provide information that can be exploited by individual learning.Moreover we show how stable behavioral patterns (“traditions”) can be achieved at the population level as an outcome of bothhigh-fidelity and low-fidelity transmission mechanisms, given that the latter are coupled with a small behavioral repertoire or with asearch space that provide substantial feedback. Finally, by introducing the possibility of environmental change, we show that intermediaterates of change favor the evolution of faithful social learning

  • 10.
    Acerbi, Alberto
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Tennie, Claudio
    Nunn, Charles
    Modeling imitation and emulation in constrained search spaces2011Inngår i: Animal Learning and Behavior, ISSN 0090-4996, E-ISSN 1532-5830, Vol. 39, nr 2, 104-114 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Social transmission of behavior can be realized through distinct mechanisms. Research on primate social learning typically distinguishes two forms of information that a learner can extract from a demonstrator: copying actions (defined as imitation) or copying only the consequential results (defined as emulation). We propose a decomposition of these learning mechanisms (plus pure individual learning) that incorporates the core idea that social learning can be represented as a search for an optimal behavior that is constrained by different kinds of information. We illustrate our approach with an individual-based model in which individuals solve tasks in abstract “spaces” that represent behavioral actions, results, and benefits of those results. Depending on the learning mechanisms at their disposal, individuals have differential access to the information conveyed in these spaces. We show how different classes of tasks may provide distinct advantages to individuals with different learning mechanisms and discuss how our approach contributes to current empirical and theoretical research on social learning and culture.

  • 11.
    Aguilar, Elliot
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning. City University of New York, United States.
    Ghirlanda, Stefano
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning. City University of New York, United States; Brooklyn College, United States.
    Modeling the genealogy of a cultural trait2015Inngår i: Theoretical Population Biology, ISSN 0040-5809, E-ISSN 1096-0325, Vol. 101, 1-8 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The mathematical study of genealogies has yielded important insights in population biology, such as the ability to estimate the time to the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of a sample of genetic sequences or of a group of individuals. Here we introduce a model of cultural genealogies that is a step toward answering similar questions for cultural traits. In our model individuals can inherit from a variable, potentially large number of ancestors, rather than from a fixed, small number of ancestors (one or two) as is typical of genetic evolution. We first show that, given a sample of individuals, a cultural common ancestor does not necessarily exist. We then introduce a related concept: the most recent unique ancestor (MRUA), i.e., the most recent single individual who is the earliest cultural ancestor of the sample. We show that, under neutral evolution, the time to the MRUA can be staggeringly larger than the time to MRCA in a single ancestor model, except when the average number of learning opportunities per individuals is small. Our results point out that the properties of cultural genealogies may be very different from those of genetic genealogies, with potential implications for reconstructing the histories of cultural traits.

  • 12.
    Altizer, Sonia
    et al.
    Institute of Ecology, University of Georgia.
    Nunn, Charles L
    Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Do threatened hosts have fewer parasites?: A comparative study in primates2007Inngår i: Journal of Ecology, ISSN 0022-0477, E-ISSN 1365-2745, Vol. 76, 304-314 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Parasites and infectious diseases have become a major concern in conservation biology, in part because they can trigger or accelerate species or population declines. Focusing on primates as a well-studied host clade, we tested whether the species richness and prevalence of parasites differed between threatened and non-threatened host species.

    2. We collated data on 386 species of parasites (including viruses, bacteria, protozoa, helminths and arthropods) reported to infect wild populations of 36 threatened and 81 non-threatened primate species. Analyses controlled for uneven sampling effort and host phylogeny.

    3. Results showed that total parasite species richness was lower among threatened primates, supporting the prediction that small, isolated host populations harbour fewer parasite species. This trend was consistent across three major parasite groups found in primates (helminths, protozoa and viruses). Counter to our predictions, patterns of parasite species richness were independent of parasite transmission mode and the degree of host specificity.

    4. We also examined the prevalence of selected parasite genera among primate sister-taxa that differed in their ranked threat categories, but found no significant differences in prevalence between threatened and non-threatened hosts.

    5. This study is the first to demonstrate differences in parasite richness relative to host threat status. Results indicate that human activities and host characteristics that increase the extinction risk of wild animal species may lead simultaneously to the loss of parasites. Lower average parasite richness in threatened host taxa also points to the need for a better understanding of the cascading effects of host biodiversity loss for affiliated parasite species.

  • 13.
    Angerbjörn, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Hersteinsson, P.
    Liden, Kerstin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Arkeologiska forskningslaboratoriet. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Nelson, E.
    Dietary Variation in Arctic Foxes (Alopex-Lagopus) - an Analysis of Stable Carbon Isotopes1994Inngår i: Oecologia, Vol. 99, nr 3-4, 226-232 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We used stable carbon isotopes to analyse individual variation in arctic fox diet. We extracted collagen from bones (the lower jaw), and measured stable carbon isotopes. The foxes came from three different localities: Iceland, where both microtines and reindeer are rare; west Greenland, where microtines are absent; and Sweden, where seat analyses showed the primary food to be microtine rodents and reindeer. The Icelandic samples included foxes from both coastal and inland habitats, the Swedish sample came from an inland area, and the Greenland sample from coastal sites. The spatial variation in the isotopic pattern followed a basic division between marine and terrestrial sources of protein. Arctic foxes from inland sites had delta(13)C values of -21.4 (Ice land) and -20.4 parts per thousand (Sweden), showing typical terrestrial values. Coastal foxes from Greenland had typical marine Values of -14.9 parts per thousand, whereas coastal foxes from Iceland had intermediate values of -17.7 parts per thousand. However, there was individual variation within each sample, probably caused by habitat heterogeneity and territoriality among foxes. The variation on a larger scale was related to the availability of different food items. These results were in accordance with other dietary analyses based on seat analyses. This is the first time that stable isotopes have been used to reveal individual dietary patterns. Our study also indicated that isotopic values can be used on a global scale.

  • 14.
    Aronsson, Hanna
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Sexual imprinting and fetishism: an evolutionary hypothesis2011Inngår i: Maladapting Minds: Philosophy, psychiatry, and evolutionary theory / [ed] PR Adriaens, A De Block, New York: Oxford University Press , 2011, 65-90 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, evolutionary psychology has conceptualized sexual preferences as genetically determined adaptations, enabling organisms to single out high quality partners. In this chapter, I argue that the existence of paraphilias, such as fetishism, poses a serious problem for such traditional evolutionary accounts. My own proposal revives the ethological notion of sexual imprinting – a process observed in animals where sexual preferences are acquired through experience with parents and siblings during a sensitive period in early life. Although this process usually generates biologically functional preferences for conspecifics, in certain situations another species or even artefacts can be imprinted on. Acknowledging that it is difficult to provide evidence for the existence of sexual imprinting in humans(and to design studies that would generate such evidence), I suggest that sexual imprinting may provide an explanation for both common and uncommon human sexual preferences.

  • 15.
    Aronsson, Hanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Lind, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Ghirlanda, Stefano
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Enquist, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Parental effects on sexual preferences in humans: A web study of attraction to glassesManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 16.
    Aronsson, Hanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Lind, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Ghirlanda, Stefano
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Enquist, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Parental influences on sexual preferences: The case of attraction to smoking2011Inngår i: Journal of Evolutionary Psychology, ISSN 0737-4828, Vol. 9, nr 1, 21-41 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated whether a sexual preference for smoking can be related to past experiences of parental smoking during childhood, as predicted by the theory of sexual imprinting, but also by sexual conditioning theory. In a sample of over 4000 respondents to five Internet surveys on sexual preferences, we found that parental smoking correlates with increased attraction to smoking in self-reported hetero- and homosexual males. Maternal smoking was associated with an increase in attraction to smoking both in hetero- and homosexual males, while paternal smoking was associated with an increase in attraction to smoking only in males who prefer male partners. We could not explain these findings by considering other factors than parental smoking habits, such as possibly biased reporting, indicators of a sexually liberal lifestyle or phenotype matching. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that sexual preferences are acquired early in life by exposure to stimuli provided by individuals in the child’s environment, such as caregivers. The sex specificity of the parental effect is consistent with sexual imprinting theory but not with conditioning theory.

  • 17.
    Bergström, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Janz, Niklas
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Nylin, Sören
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Putting more eggs in the best basket: clutch size regulation in the comma butterfly2006Inngår i: Ecological Entomology, ISSN 0307-6946, E-ISSN 1365-2311, Vol. 31, nr 3, 255-260 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Many studies have identified different factors influencing clutchsize regulation, primarily within various groups of insects. One prediction is that ovipositing females should increase clutch size with host quality. However, in many studies it is not clear whether ovipositing females are responding to host quality or quantity.

    2. Females of the polyphagous comma butterfly, allowed to oviposit on two hosts differing greatly in quality: the preferred host, stinging nettle (Polygonia c-album (L.), wereUrtica dioica L.), and the low-ranked host, birch (Betula pubescens  Ehrh). Ovipositing females were observed visually and clutch sizes were recorded. The experiment was repeated in three different years; in total, 938 observations of oviposition events were made.

    3. In all three years, females ovipositing on (median 1.6–1.85) compared with females ovipositing on 1.0–1.3) three years were pooled.

    4. Thus, on better hosts. It is suggested that the proximate mechanism is likely to be a response to the same stimuli used for female ranking of host plants in the preference hierarchy. U. dioica laid larger clutchesB. pubescens (median. The difference was significant in two out of three years and when allP. c-album females exhibit clutch-size regulation, with larger clutches

  • 18. Bergström, Anna
    et al.
    Ljungros, Kristina
    Forsberg Nilsson, Karin
    Ericson, Emilia
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för zoologisk ekologi. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Larhammar, Dan
    Nu hotas kvinnors rätt till sina kroppar2014Inngår i: AftonbladetArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 19. Bernard, Mark
    et al.
    Dreber, Anna
    Strimling, Pontus
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    The subgroup problem: When can binding voting on extractions from a common pool resource overcome the tragedy of the commons?2013Inngår i: Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, ISSN 0167-2681, E-ISSN 1879-1751, Vol. 91, 122-130 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a common pool resource game protocol with voting we examine experimentally how cooperation varies with the level at which (binding) votes are aggregated. Our results are broadly in line with theoretical predictions. When players can vote on the behavior of the whole group or when leaders from each group can vote for the group as a whole, extraction levels from the common resource pool are close to the social optimum. When players extract resources individually, there is substantial overextraction. When players vote in subgroups, there is initially less overextraction but it increases over time. This suggests that in order for binding voting to overcome the tragedy of the commons in social dilemmas, it should ideally affect the group as a whole.

  • 20.
    Bruzzo, Angela
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Bologna.
    Borghi, Anna M.
    Department of Psychology, University of Bologna.
    Ghirlanda, Stefano
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Hand–object interaction in perspective2008Inngår i: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 441, 61-65 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 21.
    Contucci, Pierluigi
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Ghirlanda, Stefano
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Modeling society with statistical mechanics: an application to cultural contact and immigration2007Inngår i: Quality & Quantity, Vol. 41, 569-578 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 22.
    Cordes, Christian
    et al.
    Universität Bremen, Institut für Institutionelle Ökonomik und Innovationsökonomik, Universität Bremen.
    Richerson, Peter
    University of California Davis, Department of Environmental Science and Policy.
    McElreath, Richard
    University of California, Department of Anthropology.
    Strimling, Pontus
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    A Naturalistic Approach to the Theory of the Firm: The Role of Cooperation2008Inngår i: Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, ISSN 0167-2681, E-ISSN 1879-1751, Vol. 68, nr 1, 125-139 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    One reason why firms exist, this paper argues, is because they are suitable organizations within which cooperative production systems based on human social predispositions can evolve. In addition, we show how an entrepreneur, given these predispositions, can shape human behavior within a firm. To illustrate these processes, we will present a model that depicts how the biased transmission of cultural contents via social learning processes within the firm influence employees’ behavior and the performance of the firm. These biases can be traced back to evolved social predispositions. Humans lived in tribal scale social systems based on significant amounts of intra- and even intergroup cooperation for tens if not a few hundred thousand years before the first complex societies arose. Firms rest upon the social psychology originally evolved for tribal life. We also relate our conclusions to empirical evidenceon the performance and size of different kinds of organizations. Modern organizations have functions rather different from ancient tribes, leading to friction between our social predispositions and organization goals. Firms that manage to reduce this friction will tend to function better. 

  • 23.
    Cordes, Christian
    et al.
    Institut für Institutionelle Ökonomik und Innovationsökonomik, Universität Bremen.
    Richerson, Peter
    Department of Environmental Science and Policy, University of California Davis.
    McElreath, Richard
    Department of Anthropology, University of California.
    Strimling, Pontus
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    How does opportunistic behavior influence firm size?: An evolutionary approach to organizational behavior2011Inngår i: Journal of Institutional Economics, ISSN 1744-1374, E-ISSN 1744-1382, nr 7, 1-21 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper relates firm size and opportunism by showing that, given certain behavioural dispositions of humans, the size of a profit-maximizing firm can be determined by cognitive aspects underlying firm-internal cultural transmission processes. We argue that what firms do better than markets – besides economizing on transaction costs – is to establish a cooperative regime among its employees that keeps in check opportunism. A model depicts the outstanding role of the entrepreneur or business leader in firm-internal socialization processes and the evolution of corporate cultures. We show that high opportunism-related costs are a reason for keeping firms’ size small.

  • 24.
    Coultas, Julie C.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning. University of Sussex, UK .
    van Leeuwen, Edwin J. C.
    Conformity: Definitions, Types, and Evolutionary Grounding2015Inngår i: Evolutionary Perspectives on Social Psychology / [ed] Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Lisa L. M. Welling, Todd K. Shackelford, New York: Springer, 2015, 189-202 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Conformity research in social psychology spans a century, but researchers have only adopted an evolutionary perspective in the past 25 years. This change has been driven by gene-culture coevolutionary models and research on nonhuman animals. In this chapter, we outline why there is a credible basis for an evolutionary explanation for widespread behavioral conformity in humans. However, we caution that not all conformity in humans is the same because conforming in a perceptual judgment task in the laboratory (as per the Asch paradigm) is not equivalent to being an unwitting participant in a behavioral field study. Moreover, conformity has not been consistently defined across research disciplines, which hampers a valid assessment of its evolutionary origins. Theoretical models within social psychology and the study of gene-culture coevolution are valuable tools in the quest for evolutionary explanations of conformist behavior; they have utilized gained insights while inspiring simulations and empirical tests. We propose the idea of incorporating individuals’ habit adherence into the models to advance the study of conformity. Conformity is a powerful force in human decision making and is best understood from an evolutionary perspective.

  • 25. Cownden, Daniel
    et al.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning. School of Education, Culture and Communication, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Strimling, Pontus
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning. Stockholm Institute for Future Studies, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The implications of learning across perceptually and strategically distinct situations2015Inngår i: Synthese, ISSN 0039-7857, E-ISSN 1573-0964, 1-18 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Game theory is a formal approach to behavior that focuses on the strategic aspect of situations. The game theoretic approach originates in economics but has been embraced by scholars across disciplines, including many philosophers and biologists. This approach has an important weakness: the strategic aspect of a situation, which is its defining quality in game theory, is often not its most salient quality in human (or animal) cognition. Evidence from a wide range of experiments highlights this shortcoming. Previous theoretical and empirical work has sought to address this weakness by considering learning across an ensemble of multiple games simultaneously. Here we extend this framework, incorporating artificial neural networks, to allow for an investigation of the interaction between the perceptual and functional similarity of the games composing the larger ensemble. Using this framework, we conduct a theoretical investigation of a population that encounters both stag hunts and prisoner’s dilemmas, two situations that are strategically different but which may or may not be perceptually similar.

  • 26. Craig, O. E.
    et al.
    Saul, H.
    Lucquin, A.
    Nishida, Y.
    Tache, K.
    Clarke, L.
    Thompson, A.
    Altoft, D. T.
    Uchiyama, J.
    Ajimoto, M.
    Gibbs, K.
    Isaksson, Sven
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Arkeologiska forskningslaboratoriet. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Heron, C. P.
    Jordan, P.
    Earliest evidence for the use of pottery2013Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 496, nr 7445, 351-354 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Pottery was a hunter-gatherer innovation that first emerged in East Asia between 20,000 and 12,000 calibrated years before present(1,2) (cal BP), towards the end of the Late Pleistocene epoch, a period of time when humans were adjusting to changing climates and new environments. Ceramic container technologies were one of a range of late glacial adaptations that were pivotal to structuring subsequent cultural trajectories in different regions of the world, but the reasons for their emergence and widespread uptake are poorly understood. The first ceramic containers must have provided prehistoric hunter-gatherers with attractive new strategies for processing and consuming foodstuffs, but virtually nothing is known of how early pots were used. Here we report the chemical analysis of food residues associated with Late Pleistocene pottery, focusing on one of the best-studied prehistoric ceramic sequences in the world, the Japanese Jomon. We demonstrate that lipids can be recovered reliably from charred surface deposits adhering to pottery dating from about 15,000 to 11,800 cal BP (the Incipient Jomon period), the oldest pottery so far investigated, and that in most cases these organic compounds are unequivocally derived from processing freshwater and marine organisms. Stable isotope data support the lipid evidence and suggest that most of the 101 charred deposits analysed, from across the major islands of Japan, were derived from high-trophic-level aquatic food. Productive aquatic ecotones were heavily exploited by late glacial foragers(3), perhaps providing an initial impetus for investment in ceramic container technology, and paving the way for further intensification of pottery use by hunter-gatherers in the early Holocene epoch. Now that we have shown that it is possible to analyse organic residues from some of the world's earliest ceramic vessels, the subsequent development of this critical technology can be clarified through further widespread testing of hunter-gatherer pottery from later periods.

  • 27.
    Cresswell, Will
    et al.
    University of St. Andrews, School of Biology.
    Lind, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Quinn, John L.
    University of Oxford, Department of Zoology.
    Predator-hunting success and prey vulnerability: quantifying the spatial scale over which lethal and non-lethal effects of predation occur2010Inngår i: Journal of Animal Ecology, ISSN 0021-8790, E-ISSN 1365-2656, ISSN 0021-8790, Vol. 79, nr 3, 556-562 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    1. The shape of the function linking predator-attack success rate with distance to predator-concealing cover, or prey refuge, will affect population dynamics, distribution patterns and community trophic structure. Theory predicts that predator-attack success should decline exponentially with distance from predator-concealing cover, resulting in a threshold distance value above which there is little change in risk. Animals should then completely avoid areas of otherwise suitable habitat below this threshold, except when starvation risk exceeds predation risk.

    2. We measured the shape of the function linking attack success with distance from cover in a system of Eurasian Sparrowhawks Accipiter nisus attacking (n = 445) and killing (n = 71) Redshanks Tringa totanus. We then determined if there was a threshold value and whether redshanks avoided areas below this threshold.

    3. Sparrowhawk success rate with distance to predator-concealing cover declined exponentially with a threshold value of approximately 30 m. Redshanks used habitat above the threshold according to profitability and only fed below it, on average, in cold weather when starvation risk can be imminently high. Above about 5°C, 26% of available habitat was avoided.

    4. Our data support the hypothesis that predators create discrete areas with respect to cover that are avoided by prey. Large areas of suitable habitat may be unused, except in times of high starvation risk, when such areas may provide a foraging reserve, with large implications for population distribution and dynamics.

    5. Our results are generated from a system in which predators attack their prey from concealing cover. But in the theoretically identical reverse scenario where the prey animal’s distance from protective cover determines predation risk, such non-lethal effects will be equally important, especially in heavily fragmented landscapes.

  • 28.
    Cresswell, Will
    et al.
    School of Biology, University of St. Andrews.
    Lind, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen. Etologi. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Quinn, John
    Dept. of Zoology, University of Oxford.
    Minderman, Jeroen
    School of Biology and Psychology, University of Newcastle.
    Whitfield, D. P.
    Natural Research, Banchory Business Centre.
    Ringing or colour-banding does not increase predation mortality2007Inngår i: Journal of Avian Biology, ISSN 0908-8857, E-ISSN 1600-048X, Vol. 38, nr 3, 309-316 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of metal and colour-rings or bands as a means of measuring survival, movements and behaviour in birds is universal and fundamental to testing ecological and evolutionary theories. The practice rests on the largely untested assumption that the rings do not affect survival. However this assumption may not hold for several reasons, for example because the ‘oddity effect’ predicts predators select prey that appear different to their neighbours in order to avoid the ‘confusion effect’. We compared the foraging behaviour and the death rates of redshanks Tringa totanus conspicuously marked with six colour rings and one metal ring each to unmarked birds in a study system, where routinely up to 50% of the total population are killed by avian predators during a winter. If avian predators selectively target and/or have a higher capture success of ringed birds then we would predict the proportion of colour-ringed birds in the population to decline through a winter. The proportion of colour-ringed birds in the population did not change over the course of three separate winters, and in one winter the ratio of marked:unmarked birds found killed by sparrowhawks Accipiter nisus was the same as the ratio of marked birds alive in the population. In the year with largest sample size, power was sufficient to detect a greater than 2.2% difference in predation rate between ringed and unringed groups. The average kill rate difference between ringed and unringed birds across the three winters was less than 1% (0.73±2.2%) suggesting that even if there were differences in predation rate that were not detected because of low statistical power they were extremely small. There were no differences in any foraging measures comparing ringed and unringed birds, suggesting that the rings did not affect the ability of birds to meet their daily energy budgets. The results showed that colour-ringed birds were not preferentially targeted or killed by avian predators, and suggest that the presence of a metal and even several large colour-rings is unlikely to affect behaviour and predation mortality even under extreme selection.

  • 29.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    From questionnaires to parallel corpora in typology2007Inngår i: Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung, ISSN 0942-2919, Vol. 60, nr 2, 172-181 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This rather programmatic paper discusses the use of parallel corpora in the typological study of grammatical categories. In the author’s earlier work, tense-aspect categories were studied by means of a translational questionnaire, and “cross-linguistic gram-types” were identified through their distribution in the questionnaire. It is proposed that a similar methodology could be applied to multilingual parallel corpora. The possibility of identifying grammatical markers by word-alignment methods is demonstrated with examples from Bible texts.

  • 30. Daruvala, Dinky
    et al.
    Dannefjord, Per
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för zoologisk ekologi. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Sturmark, Christer
    Slopa statligt stöd till homofoba trossamfund2015Inngår i: Aftonbladet, ISSN 1103-9000Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 31.
    de Barra, Mícheál
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning. University of London, England.
    DeBruine, Lisa M.
    Jones, Benedict C.
    Mahmud, Zahid Hayat
    Curtis, Valerie A.
    Illness in childhood predicts face preferences in adulthood2013Inngår i: Evolution and human behavior, ISSN 1090-5138, E-ISSN 1879-0607, Vol. 34, nr 6, 384-389 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The value of different mate choices may depend on the local pathogen ecology and on personal infection susceptibility: when there is a high risk of infection, choosing a healthy or immunocompetent mate may be particularly important. Frequency of childhood illness may act as a cue of the ecological and immunological factors relevant to mate preferences. Consistent with this proposal, we found that childhood illness - and frequency of diarrhea in particular - was positively correlated with preferences for exaggerated sex-typical characteristics in opposite-sex, but not same-sex, faces. Moreover, this relationship was stronger among individuals with poorer current health. These data suggest that childhood illness may play a role in calibrating adult mate preferences and have implications for theories of disease-avoidance psychology, life-history strategy and cross-cultural differences in mate preferences.

  • 32. Edman, Per
    et al.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för zoologisk ekologi.
    Martinsson, Anders
    Svensson, Erik
    Westerstrand, Magnus
    Kolkraften en svart fläck på Sveriges klimatsamvete2009Inngår i: Newsmill, nr 21 marsArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 33.
    Ehn, Micael
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Temporal discounting leads to social stratification2012Inngår i: The Journal of mathematical sociology, ISSN 0022-250X, E-ISSN 1545-5874, Vol. 36, nr 4, 245-255 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Social stratification is present in all modern societies. Do income differences simply reflect inherited differences in individual abilities and resources? If not, why does not everyone choose strategies that lead to high income? This article shows that the psychological phenomenon known as temporal discounting will lead to differences in educational attainment and social stratification in any society where the demand for workers with a higher level of education is higher than for those with a lower level. The model is used to predict income differences between people with and without college education in seven developed countries, based only on official statistics of the cost and length of college education. The model explains 93% of the variance, strongly suggesting that temporal discounting is a major factor behind income differences.

  • 34.
    Ehn, Micael
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Laland, Kevin
    Adaptive strategies for cumulative cultural learning2012Inngår i: Journal of Theoretical Biology, ISSN 0022-5193, E-ISSN 1095-8541, Vol. 301, 103-111 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The demographic and ecological success of our species is frequently attributed to our capacity for cumulative culture. However, it is not yet known how humans combine social and asocial learning to generate effective strategies for learning in a cumulative cultural context. Here we explore how cumulative culture influences the relative merits of various pure and conditional learning strategies, including pure asocial and social learning, critical social learning, conditional social learning and individual refiner strategies. We replicate the Rogers' paradox in the cumulative setting. However, our analysis suggests that strategies that resolved Rogers' paradox in a non-cumulative setting may not necessarily evolve in a cumulative setting, thus different strategies will optimize cumulative and non-cumulative cultural learning.

  • 35.
    Enquist, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Aronsson, Hanna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Ghirlanda, Stefano
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Jansson, Liselott
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Jannini, Emmanuele A.
    Exposure to Mother's Pregnancy and Lactation in Infancy is Associated with Sexual Attraction to Pregnancy and Lactation in Adulthood2011Inngår i: Journal of Sexual Medicine, ISSN 1743-6095, E-ISSN 1743-6109, Vol. 8, nr 1, 140-147 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction.  Several theories, including psychodynamic theories, sexual imprinting and early conditioning have been formulated to explain sexual development. Empirical data, however, remain insufficient for a thorough evaluation of these theories.

    Aim.  In this study, we test the hypothesis that a critical period exists for the acquisition of sexual preferences, as suggested by empirical findings in birds and mammals (sexual imprinting).

    Methods.  An Internet questionnaire was used.

    Main Outcome Measures.  We gather data from individuals with a sexual preference for pregnant and/or lactating women, under the hypothesis that pregnancy or lactation may become sexually attractive in adulthood following an exposure to pregnant or lactating women in infancy.

    Results.  We find that these preferences are more common in older siblings, i.e., in individuals who have been exposed to more maternal pregnancy and lactation. This result is independent of respondent and sibling sex. In addition, only maternal pregnancies and lactations experienced between 1.5 and 5 years of age are associated with the preferences.

    Conclusions.  We discuss our findings in relation to theories of sexual development and to earlier reports of birth order effects on sexual behavior. We suggest that this age range may constitute a sensitive period for the acquisition of sexual preferences.

  • 36.
    Enquist, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen. Etologi.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Ghirlanda, Stefano
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Critical social learning: a solution to Rogers paradox of non-adaptive culture2007Inngår i: American Anthropologist, Vol. 109, 727-734 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 37.
    Enquist, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Ghirlanda, S
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Jarrick, Arne
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Historiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Wachtmeister, C-A
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Why does human culture increase exponentially?2008Inngår i: Theoretical Population Biology, ISSN 0040-5809, E-ISSN 1096-0325, Vol. 74, nr 1, 46-55 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Historical records show that culture can increase exponentially in time, e.g., in number of poems, musical works, scientific discoveries. We model how human capacities for creativity and cultural transmission may make such an increase possible, suggesting that: (1) creativity played a major role at the origin of human culture and for its accumulation throughout history, because cultural transmission cannot, on its own, generate exponentially increasing amounts of culture; (2) exponential increase in amount of culture can only occur if creativity is positively influenced by culture. The evolution of cultural transmission is often considered the main genetic bottleneck for the origin of culture, because natural selection cannot favor cultural transmission without any culture to transmit. Our models suggest that an increase in individual creativity may have been the first step toward human culture, because in a population of creative individuals there may be enough non-genetic information to favor the evolution of cultural transmission.

  • 38.
    Enquist, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen. Etologi.
    Ghirlanda, Stefano
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Evolution of social learning does not explain the origin of human cumulative culture2007Inngår i: Journal of Theoretical Biology, Vol. 246, nr 1, 129-135 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 39.
    Enquist, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Ghirlanda, Stefano
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Modelling the evolution and diversity of cumulative culture2011Inngår i: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8436, E-ISSN 1471-2970, Vol. 366, nr 1563, 412-423 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous work on mathematical models of cultural evolution has mainly focused on the diffusion of simple cultural elements. However, a characteristic feature of human cultural evolution is the seemingly limitless appearance of new and increasingly complex cultural elements. Here, we develop a general modelling framework to study such cumulative processes, in which we assume that the appearance and disappearance of cultural elements are stochastic events that depend on the current state of culture. Five scenarios are explored: evolution of independent cultural elements, stepwise modification of elements, differentiation or combination of elements and systems of cultural elements. As one application of our framework, we study the evolution of cultural diversity (in time as well as between groups).

  • 40.
    Enquist, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Ghirlanda, Stefano
    Brooklyn College of the City University New York, Department of Psychology and Honors Academy.
    Hurd, Peter
    Department of Psychology, University of Alberta.
    Signaling2010Inngår i: Evolutionary behavioral ecology / [ed] David F. Westneat, Charles W. Fox, New York: Oxford University Press , 2010, 266-284 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 41.
    Enquist, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Hurd, Peter
    Department of Psychology, University of Alberta.
    Ghirlanda, Stefano
    Brooklyn College of the City University New York, Department of Psychology and Honors Academy.
    Signaling2010Inngår i: Evolutionary behavioral ecology / [ed] David F. Westneat, Charles W. Fox, New York: Oxford University Press , 2010, 266-284 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 42.
    Enquist, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Hurd, Peter
    Department of Psychology, University of Alberta.
    Ghirlands, Stefano
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Signalling2010Inngår i: Evolutionary Behavioral Ecology / [ed] Westneat DF & Fox CW, Oxford: Oxford University Press , 2010, 1, 266-284 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 43.
    Enquist, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Lind, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Världshistoria och kulturell evolution2010Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 44.
    Enquist, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för etologi.
    Strimling, Pontus
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Laland, Kevin
    School of Biology, University of St Andrews.
    Sjöstrand, Jonas
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    One cultural parent makes no culture2010Inngår i: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 79, nr 6, 1135-1162 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to acquire knowledge and skills from others is widespread in animals and is commonly thought to be responsible for the behavioural traditions observed in many species. However, in spite of the extensive literature on theoretical analyses and empirical studies of social learning, little attention has been given to whether individuals acquire knowledge from a single individual or multiple models. Researchers commonly refer to instances of sons learning from fathers, or daughters from mothers, while theoreticians have constructed models of uniparental transmission, with little consideration of whether such restricted modes of transmission are actually feasible. We used mathematical models to demonstrate that the conditions under which learning from a single cultural parent can lead to stable culture are surprisingly restricted (the same reasoning applies to a single social-learning event). Conversely, we demonstrate how learning from more than one cultural parent can establish culture, and find that cultural traits will reach a nonzero equilibrium in the population provided the product of the fidelity of social learning and the number of cultural parents exceeds 1. We discuss the implications of the analysis for interpreting various findings in the animal social-learning literature, as well as the unique features of human culture.

  • 45.
    Envall, Ida
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Gustavsson, Lena M.
    Erseus, Christer
    Genetic and chaetal variation in Nais worms (Annelida, Clitellata, Naididae)2012Inngår i: Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4082, E-ISSN 1096-3642, Vol. 165, nr 3, 495-520 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The genus Nais is a group of oligochaetous clitellates, common in eutrophic freshwater habitats. About 30 species are described. Species identification is based primarily on chaetal characters, which are often subtle, inconsistent, and even overlapping between nominal species. We investigated the correlation between genetic variation and chaetal morphology in this genus. Eighty-one individuals from Europe, North America, and China were included in the study. Seventy-five of these were preserved as vouchers. They were scrutinized with regard to chaetal morphology, and ten different morphotypes were identified. Three molecular markers, two mitochondrial (the COI gene and 16S rDNA) and one nuclear (the ITS region), were used to establish the genetic lineages in the material. Genetic variation was found to be largely congruent with chaetal character patterns. However, at least nine separately evolving lineages (all supported by mitochondrial as well as nuclear data) correspond to at most six nominal species. Four morphotypes/lineages are recognized as Nais barbata, Nais christinae, Nais elinguis, and Nais stolci, respectively, whereas five, or possibly more, lineages represent a morphological continuum covering the variation of the Nais communis/variabilis complex. Thus, cryptic speciation is revealed. Our results indicate that a taxonomic revision of the genus will be needed in the future.

  • 46. Ericson, Emilia
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Ulf
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för zoologisk ekologi. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Sturmark, Crister
    Humanisterna tar barns religionsfrihet på allvar2015Inngår i: Svenska dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, nr 28 aprilArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 47.
    Eriksson, Gunilla
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Arkeologiska forskningslaboratoriet. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Immigrant, returnee or commuter?2007Inngår i: On the Road: Studies in honour of Lars Larsson / [ed] Hårdh, B, Jennbert, K. & Olausson, D., Almqvist & Wiksell International, Stockholm , 2007, 188-192 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 48.
    Eriksson, Gunilla
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Arkeologiska forskningslaboratoriet.
    Stable isotope analysis of human and faunal remains from Zvejnieki2006Inngår i: Back to the origin: New research in the mesolithic-neolithic Zvejniek cemetery and environment, Northern Latvia / [ed] Larsson, Lars & Zagorska, Ilga, Almqvist & Wiksell , 2006, 183-215 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope nalysis of human faunal remains from Zvejnieki Stone Age complex revealed a considerable input of freswater fish in the diet of people buried at Zvejnieki. This emphasison freshwater fish diminished in the Late Neoltithic and Bronze Age periods.

  • 49.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Kungliga Teknikiska Högskolan.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Conjugacy of Coxeter elements2009Inngår i: The Electronic Journal of Combinatorics, ISSN 1097-1440, E-ISSN 1077-8926, Vol. 16, nr 2, -R4 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    For a Coxeter group (W, S), a permutation of the set S is called a Coxeter word and the group element represented by the product is called a Coxeter element. Moving the first letter to the end of the word is called a rotation and two Coxeter elements are rotation equivalent if their words can be transformed into each other through a sequence of rotations and legal commutations. We prove that Coxeter elements are conjugate if and only if they are rotation equivalent. This was known for some special cases but not for Coxeter groups in general.

  • 50.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Autism-spectrum traits predict humor styles in the general population2013Inngår i: Humor: An International Journal of Humor Research, ISSN 0933-1719, E-ISSN 1613-3722, Vol. 26, nr 3, 461-475 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research shows that individuals with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism tend to have impaired processing of humor and laugh at things that are not commonly found funny. Here the relationship between humor styles and the broader autism phenotype was investigated in a sample of the general population. The autism-spectrum quotient (AQ) and the humor styles questionnaire (HSQ) were administered to six hundred US participants recruited through an Internet-based service. On the whole, high scores on AQ were negatively related to positive humor styles and unrelated to negative humor styles. However, AQ subscales representing different autism-spectrum traits exhibited different patterns. In particular, the factor poor mind-reading was associated with higher scores on negative humor styles and the factor attention to detail was associated with higher scores on all humor styles, suggesting a more nuanced picture of the relationship between autism-spectrum traits and humor.

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