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  • 1. Agianian, Bogos
    et al.
    Lesch, Christine
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Loseva, Olga
    Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Dushay, Mitchell
    Preliminary characterization of hemolymph coagulation in Anopheles gambiae larvae2007Inngår i: Developmental & Comparative Immunology, ISSN 0145-305X, Vol. 31, s. 879-888Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2. Amiri, H
    et al.
    Nekhotiaeva, N
    Sun, J-S
    Nguyen, C-H
    Grierson, D S
    Good, L
    Zain, R
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Benzoquinoquinoxaline Derivatives Stabilize and Cleave H-DNA and Repress Transcription Downstream of a Triplex-forming Sequence2005Inngår i: Journal of Molecular Biology, Vol. 351, s. 776-783Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 3.
    Andersson, Jessica
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Activation, reaction mechanism and allosteric regulation of the anaerobic ribonucleotide reductase from bacteriophage T42000Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) catalyse the conversion of ribonucleotides to their corresponding deoxyribonucleotides in all organisms. The deoxyribonucleotides are the building blocks for DNA. Three different classes of RNR are found, class I, II and III. The class I RNRs operate under aerobic conditions, the class III RNRs operate under anaerobic conditions and the class II RNRs are indifferent to oxygen. All classes of RNR catalyse the reaction using a free radical mechanism. The free radical is generated to initiate the reaction mechanism but the generation differs between the classes.

    I have worked with the anaerobic class III RNR from bacteriophage T4 and the work presented in this thesis involves several different aspects of the enzyme. The class III RNR from phage T4 can be used as a model for other class III RNRs.

    From isotope labelling experiments, we show that a stable glycyl radical forms in the phage T4 class III RNR. I used site-directed mutagenesis to locate the glycyl radical to Gly580 in the NrdD protein of the T4 class III RNR. The glycyl radical is absolutely required for enzymatic activity.

    Also using protein engineering, I show for the first time, the importance of cysteines in radical generation and the reaction mechanism of the class III RNRs. Four cysteines in the C-terminal of T4 NrdD are responsible for the last step in the generation of the glycyl radical at Gly580. Two cysteines in the active site of T4 NrdD, Cys79 and Cys290 are required for the reaction mechanism of the enzyme. A third residue within the active site, Asn311 is most likely also important for catalytic activity. A reaction mechanism that is different from the class I and II RNRs has been proposed.

    The first crystal structure of a class III RNR, the class III RNR from phage T4 is presented. Structural relationships with the known class I RNR structure is discussed as well as similarities with another glycyl-radical enzyme.

    Finally, the allosteric regulation of the class III RNR from phage T4 was characterized. Almost all RNRs are allosterically regulated to keep the deoxynucleotide pools balanced in the cell. Similarities to other RNRs as well as a unique feature of the class III RNR from phage T4 is discussed.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Jessica
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Bodevin, Sabrina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Westman, Mariann
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Sahlin, Margareta
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Sjöberg, Britt-Marie
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Two Active Site Asparagines Are Essential for the Reaction Mechanism of the Class III Anaerobic Ribonucleotide Reductase from Bacteriophage T42001Inngår i: The Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol. 44, s. 40457-40463Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 5.
    Andersson, Martin E
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Högbom, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Rinaldo-Matthis, Agnes
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Blodig, Wolfgang
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Liang, Yuhe
    Persson, Bert Ove
    Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Sjöberg, Britt-Marie
    Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Su, Xiao-Dong
    Nordlund, Pär
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Structural and mutational studies of the carboxylate cluster in iron-free ribonucleotide reductase R2.2004Inngår i: Biochemistry, ISSN 0006-2960, Vol. 43, nr 24, s. 7966-72Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The R2 protein of ribonucleotide reductase features a di-iron site deeply buried in the protein interior. The apo form of the R2 protein has an unusual clustering of carboxylate side chains at the empty metal-binding site. In a previous study, it was found that the loss of the four positive charge equivalents of the diferrous site in the apo protein appeared to be compensated for by the protonation of two histidine and two carboxylate side chains. We have studied the consequences of removing and introducing charged residues on the local hydrogen-bonding pattern in the region of the carboxylate cluster of Corynebacterium ammoniagenes and Escherichia coli protein R2 using site-directed mutagenesis and X-ray crystallography. The structures of the metal-free forms of wild-type C. ammoniagenes R2 and the mutant E. coli proteins D84N, S114D, E115A, H118A, and E238A have been determined and their hydrogen bonding and protonation states have been structurally assigned as far as possible. Significant alterations to the hydrogen-bonding patterns, protonation states, and hydration is observed for all mutant E. coli apo proteins as compared to wild-type apo R2. Further structural variations are revealed by the wild-type apo C. ammoniagenes R2 structure. The protonation and hydration effects seen in the carboxylate cluster appear to be due to two major factors: conservation of the overall charge of the site and the requirement of electrostatic shielding of clustered carboxylate residues. Very short hydrogen-bonding distances between some protonated carboxylate pairs are indicative of low-barrier hydrogen bonding.

  • 6. Beck, Markus
    et al.
    Reineke, Annette
    Lorenz, Heidrun
    Theopold, Ulrich
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Schmidt, Otto
    Two distinct reproductive strategies are correlated with an ovarian phenotype in co-existing parthenogenetic strains of a parasitic wasp.2001Inngår i: Journal of Insect Physiology, Vol. 47, s. 1189-1195Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 7.
    Bergquist, Helen
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Development of benzoquinoquinoxaline derivatives as triplex-specific probes: Recognition of DNA structures at repeats sequences2011Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Repeat sequences are associated with several human diseases, such as Friedreich’s ataxia, polycystic kidney disease and cancer. These sequences can form non-B-DNA structures, including triplex (H-DNA) DNA, and are associated with genomic instability and altered gene expression. The occurrence of triplex structures in vivo and identification of their links to biological processes have been challenging. The lack of effective probes has restrained the study of triplex structures in living cells. Here, the triplex binding small molecule benzoquinoquinoxaline (BQQ) and its derivatives were developed as tools to study triplex formation at genomic repeat sequences. The triplex binding efficiency towards both purine and pyrimidine triplex motifs was determined for BQQ, the DNA cleaving BQQ-1,10-(ortho)-phenanthroline (BQQ-OP) and the fluorescent BQQ-Bodipy compounds. BQQ was shown to have the most stabilising effect on both triplex motifs. Moreover, H-DNA structure formation at a pkd1 derived sequence was demonstrated for the first time by BQQ-OP at physiologically relevant conditions. H-DNA formation was also shown at (GAA)n repeats associated with Friedreich’s ataxia and the structure was further analysed on one nucleotide resolution, confirming that (GAA)n repeats form a pyrimidine H-DNA. However, a mixture of different isomers formed at longer (GAA)n repeats. To this end, the interaction between the peptide nucleic acids (PNA) and BQQ was investigated. PNA is a DNA mimic that binds sequence-specifically to dsDNA and can form several PNA-DNA complexes. The results of PNA binding to frataxin (GAA)n expansion in plasmid were evaluated, and in the presence of GAA-PNA no triplex structure could be detected by BQQ-OP cleavage. When the structure formed in the presence of either GAA-PNA or CTT-PNA was further analysed, it was found that GAA-PNA formed a duplex invasion complex preventing H-DNA formation, whereas CTT-PNA formed a triplex invasion complex.

  • 8.
    Bergquist, Helen
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Jonsson, Niklas
    Nguyen, Chi-Hung
    Nielsen, Peter
    Good, Liam
    Zain, Rula
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    PNA sequence-specific binding of H-DNA forming Friedreich's ataxia (GAA)n repeatsManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 9.
    Bergquist, Helen
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Nikravesh, Abbas
    Fernández, Raquel Domingo
    Larsson, Veronica
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Nguyen, Chi-Hung
    Good, Liam
    Zain, Rula
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Structure-Specific Recognition of Friedreich’s Ataxia (GAA)n Repeats by Benzoquinoquinoxaline Derivatives2009Inngår i: ChemBioChem (Print), ISSN 1439-4227, E-ISSN 1439-7633, Vol. 10, nr 16, s. 2629-2637Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Expansion of GAA triplet repeats in intron 1 of the FXN gene reduces frataxin expression and causes Friedreich's ataxia. (GAA)nrepeats form non-B-DNA structures, including triple helix H-DNA and higher-order structures (sticky DNA). In the proposed mechanisms of frataxin gene silencing, central unanswered questions involve the characterization of non-B-DNA structure(s) that are strongly suggested to play a role in frataxin expression. Here we examined (GAA)nbinding by triplex-stabilizing benzoquinoquinoxaline (BQQ) and the corresponding triplex-DNA-cleaving BQQ-1,10-phenanthroline (BQQ-OP) compounds. We also examined the ability of these compounds to act as structural probes for H-DNA formation within higher-order structures at pathological frataxin sequences in plasmids. DNA-complex-formation analyses with a gel-mobility-shift assay and sequence-specific probing of H-DNA-forming (GAA)nsequences by single-strand oligonucleotides and triplex-directed cleavage demonstrated that a parallel pyrimidine (rather than purine) triplex is the more stable motif formed at (GAA)nrepeats under physiologically relevant conditions.

  • 10.
    Bergquist, Helen
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Sigurdsson, Susannah
    Percipalle, Piergiorgio
    Nguyen, Chi-Hung
    Sahlin, Margareta
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Sjöberg, Britt-Marie
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Good, Liam
    Zain, Rula
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Pkd1 DNA triplex stabilization by benzoquinoquinoxaline derivativesArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 11.
    Beskow, Anne
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    The Path to Destruction: Understanding the mechanism and regulation of proteasomal degradation2011Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A majority of intracellular proteins are degraded by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). In this thesis, both the mechanism of the degradation and the regulation of UPS have been investigated. The importance of the p97 ATPase for proteasomal degradation of cytosolic substrates was examined. It was shown that tightly folded model substrates were dependent on p97 for their degradation. In addition to this, it was shown that an extended flexible peptide sequence on the substrate allowed degradation to occur directly by the proteasome. We propose that p97 works as an unfoldase on substrates that lack initiation regions. These results were originally achieved with experiments using Drosophila melanogaster S2 cell culture. Corresponding experiments were carried out in human cell lines. We observed that the human proteasome also needed assistance from the human p97 protein complex when model substrates lacked unfolded tagged regions. To identify the transcription factor(s) that regulate the expression of proteasomal genes, a large scale RNAi screen was performed. A library consisting of dsRNA to all known and predicted transcription factors in Drosophila was used. Drosophila S2 cells expressing the cytosolic UbG76V-GFP substrate were used in the screen. Since thisfusion protein isdependent on the UPS for its degradation,failure in UPS can easily be detected viafluorescent stabilization.When dsRNA targeted the bZIP transcription factor Cnc-C,it lead to a reduction of the proteasome subunit protein levels as well as decreased mRNA levels. Phylogenetic analysis together with sequence alignments were used to learn how Cnc-C is related to the bZIP CNC genes in other metazoans and in particular mammalian cells. In mammalian cells, NF-E2, Nrf1, Nrf2 and Nrf3 are present and we propose that Cnc-C is related to a common ancestor transcription factor for all these four genes. This contradicts earlier studies proposing that Cnc-C is a homolog of the mammalian Nrf2 protein.In the last study, theproteasome recovery pathway was examined tounderstand which bZIPtranscription factor in human cells is responsible for the expression of proteasome genes after proteasome inhibition.Different cancer cell lines were used to examine theexpression level of proteasome genes after treating the cells with proteasome inhibitors when either the bZIP protein Nrf1 or Nrf2 wereknocked down. It was shown that Nrf1-/- cellslacked the ability toupregulate proteasome genes after proteasomeinhibition. In contrast, Nrf2-/- cells still had the capacity to restore proteasome levels. This lead to the conclusion thatNrf1 is responsible for the proteasome recovery pathway in mammalian cells.

  • 12.
    Bhuiyan, Hasanuzzaman
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Chromosome synapsis and recombination in yeast meiosis2004Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Meiosis is a cell division process that produces haploid gametes from diploid cells. Several important meiotic events take place during prophase of meiosis I, most important being homologous chromosome pairing, meiotic recombination and formation of the synaptonemal complex (SC). These processes assure proper segregation of the homologous chromosomes into the haploid germ cells. Improper segregation of the homologos can cause chromosomal abnormality (aneuploidy), which causes various human disorders, notably mental retardation and pregnancy loss.

    This thesis focuses on the relationship between recombination and the formation of SCs, aggregates of SC-related materials (polycomplexes) and recombination enzymes during meiosis. We have investigated SC formation in the absence of recombination, nature of polycomplexes and recombination enzymes in relation to the SCs structures and recombination nodules (RNs) in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Studies on yeast mutants suggest that the formation of SCs can take place only in the presence of the initiation of meiotic recombination through the action of the Spo11 enzyme. We have investigated the spo11 mutant of yeast that lacks initiation of meiotic recombination and observed that a fraction of this mutant cells (1.0%) can form complete SCs with wild-type appearance. We have further analyzed a spo11 mutant strain that accumalates at pachytene (spo11∆ndt80∆), and found that the frequency of cells with mature SC formation was 10%. The SC structures were detected in both immuno-fluorescence and electron microscopy (EM). Other phenotypic criteria such as spore viability and homologous chromosome pairing measured by FISH with chromosome specific probes, agrees with several previous reports of the spo11 mutant. Our results suggest that although synapsis is strongly promoted by Spo11 induced DSBs in yeast, it can take place in the absence initiation of meiotic recombination by Spo11 enzyme.

    In different organisms, the SCs are found to aggregate as stacks to form polycomplexes (PCs) that commonly occur before or after SC formation. It has generally been believed that the PCs are not attached to the chromosomes. We have investigated the ndt80 mutant of yeast that arrest at pachytene and found that although the SCs in spread chromosome preparations appear as wild type SCs, they appear as PCs in the intact nuclei in EM. In fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with chromosome specific probes, we have shown that the homologous chromosomes in this mutant undergo high level of pairing and are attached to the SCs. In immuno-electron microscopy, two independent anti-DNA antibodies preferentially labeled the lateral element of the PCs. Our data suggests that the SCs in these polycomplexes can be involved in binding of chromosomes and are functional in pairing.

    The recombination enzymes, which are involved in the meiotic recombination process are believed to be components of recombination nodules. In some organisms, both early and late recombination enzymes have been shown to be located on RNs, but not in yeast before. We have studied immuno-localization and co-localization of Msh4, Msh5 and Sgs1 recombination enzymes on RNs in pachytene yeast nuclei with a newly developed EM method and found their co-localization on RNs along SCs. Msh4 and Msh5 are found to be located at the edges of RNs on the SCs. We have further analyzed the temporal appearance/disappearance and co-localization pattern of early and late meiotic recombination enzymes in relation to the SC development by immuno-fluorescence. We have been able to detect co-localization between the early meiosis specific enzyme Dmc1 and the late crossing-over related enzymes Msh5 as well as Sgs1. Our data suggest that Msh5 and Sgs1 are recruited to some sites of Dmc1, and thus erases the gap between early and late RNs.

  • 13.
    Bhuiyan, Hasanuzzaman
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Dahlfors, Gunilla
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Schmekel, Karin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Lateral elements inside synaptonemal complex-like polycomplexes in ndt80 mutants of yeast bind DNA2003Inngår i: Genetics, ISSN 0016-6731, Vol. 163, nr 2, s. 539-544Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The synaptonemal complex (SC) keeps the synapsed homologous chromosomes together during pachytene in meiotic prophase I. Structures that resemble stacks of SCs, polycomplexes, are sometimes found before or after pachytene. We have investigated ndt80 mutants of yeast, which arrest in pachytene. SCs appear normal in spread chromosome preparations, but are only occasionally found in intact nuclei examined in the electron microscope. Instead, large polycomplexes occur in almost every ndt80 mutant nucleus. Immunoelectron microscopy using DNA antibodies show strong preferential labeling to the lateral element parts of the polycomplexes. In situ hybridization using chromosome-specific probes confirms that the chromosomes in ndt80 mutants are paired and attached to the SCs. Our results suggest that polycomplexes can be involved in binding of chromosomes and possibly also in synapsis.

  • 14.
    Bhuiyan, Hasanuzzaman
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Schmekel, Karin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Meiotic chromosome synapsis in yeast can occur without spo11 induced DNA double strand breaks2004Inngår i: Genetics, ISSN 0016-6731, E-ISSN 1943-2631, ISSN 0016-6731, Vol. 168, nr 2, s. 775-783Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Proper chromosome segregation and formation of viable gametes depend on synapsis and recombination between homologous chromosomes during meiosis. Previous reports have shown that the synaptic structures, the synaptonemal complexes (SCs), do not occur in yeast cells with the SPO11 gene removed. The Spo11 enzyme makes double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the DNA and thereby initiates recombination. The view has thus developed that synapsis in yeast strictly depends on the initiation of recombination. Synapsis in some other species (Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans) is independent of recombination events, and SCs are found in spo11 mutants. This difference between species led us to reexamine spo11 deletion mutants of yeast. Using antibodies against Zip1, a SC component, we found that a small fraction (1%) of the spo11 null mutant cells can indeed form wild-type-like SCs. We further looked for synapsis in a spo11 mutant strain that accumulates pachytene cells (spo11Delta ndt80Delta), and found that the frequency of cells with apparently complete SC formation was 10%. Other phenotypic criteria, such as spore viability and homologous chromosome juxtaposition measured by FISH labeling of chromosomal markers, agree with several previous reports of the spo11 mutant. Our results demonstrate that although the Spo11-induced DSBs obviously promote synapsis in yeast, the presence of Spo11 is not an absolute requirement for synapsis.

  • 15.
    Bidla, Gawa
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Genetic and molecular dissection of hemolymph coagulation and melanization in Drosophila melanogaster2007Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Injury to epithelial barriers puts metazoans at risk of loss of body fluid and contamination of their body by foreign particles. This risk is even exacerbated in insects, which have an open circulatory system and as a result, quickly need to seal wounds in order to keep a fairly constant internal milieu. Due to paucity of information on biochemical and molecular basis of insects’ clot, we studied how hemolymph of Drosophila melanogaster forms a clot, leading to a better understanding of responses after injury or infection in flies.

    By comparing hemolymph of Drosophila after bleeding with that described for an earlier model Galleria mellonella, we showed that a bona fide clot forms in Drosophila. The Drosophila clot is a fibrous network of crosslinked hemolymph proteins, which incorporates blood cells (plasmatocytes) extending shorter cellular processes of filopodia compared to cells outside the clot. Also, some plasmatocytes in the clot show features of apoptotic death while other blood cells (crystal cells) quickly rupture.

    The clot sequesters bacteria, as bacteria tethered to clot did not move. Clotting factors isolated include, Hemolectin (Hml) previously implicated in clotting, the immune induced protein Fondue and hemolymph proteins such as apolipophorin 2, fat body protein 1 and larval serum protein 1 γ. Hml mutants were more susceptible to infections when tested in a genetically sensitized background, suggesting that the clot may contribute to innate immunity. Clot also formed in hemolymph without phenoloxidase, an enzyme required for melanization and previously thought to be important for clot formation. However, we found that PO activity strengthens the clot to form a more solid plug.

    We found PO activity in clot to be induced in a transcription independent manner by inner membrane phospholipids: phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylinositol (PI) exposed on dead plasmatocytes and ruptured crystal cells. This is in contrast to induction of the enzyme during infection, which requires microbial components and transcriptional induction. However, both activation of PO in the clot and activation after infection appear to depend on proteases. Surprisingly, neither PS nor PI induced PO activity in the lepidopteran Galleria mellonella, in which the enzyme activity was instead induced by the microbial components peptidoglycan. This result may caution against generalizations of findings from using only one particular insect species. Finally, we found that the rupture of crystal cell during clot formation requires the Drosophila TNF homologue Eiger, JNK homologue Basket and small GTPases. This work therefore adds hemolymph clotting to the responses after injury or infection in flies and largely establishes Drosophila as a model to study coagulation of insect hemolymph. This will lead to a more comprehensive picture of Drosophila immunity with implications for other innate immune systems including our own.

  • 16.
    Bidla, Gawa
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Dushay, Mitchell S.
    Theopold, Ulrich
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Crystal cell rupture after injury in Drosophila requires the JNK pathway, small GTPases and the TNF homolog Eiger2007Inngår i: Journal of Cell Science, ISSN 0021-9533, E-ISSN 1477-9137, Vol. 120, nr 7, s. 1209-15Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The prophenoloxidase-activating cascade is a key component of arthropod immunity. Drosophila prophenoloxidase is stored in crystal cells, a specialized class of blood cells from which it is released through cell rupture. Within minutes after bleeding, prophenoloxidase is activated leading to visible melanization of the clot matrix. Using crystal cell rupture and melanization as readouts to screen mutants in signal transduction pathways, we show that prophenoloxidase release requires Jun N-terminal kinase, small Rho GTPases and Eiger, the Drosophila homolog of tumor necrosis factor. We also provide evidence that in addition to microbial products, endogenous signals from dying hemocytes contribute to triggering and/or assembly of the prophenoloxidase-activating cascade, and that this process can be inhibited in vitro and in vivo using the viral apoptotic inhibitor p35. Our results provide a more comprehensive view of immune signal transduction pathways, with implications for immune reactions where cell death is used as a terminal mode of cell activation.

  • 17.
    Bidla, Gawa
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Hauling, Thomas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Dushay, Mitchell S.
    Theopold, Ulrich
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Activation of Insect Phenoloxidase after Injury: Endogenous versus Foreign Elicitors2009Inngår i: Journal of Innate Immunity, ISSN 1662-811X, Vol. 1, nr 4, s. 301-308Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The enzyme phenoloxidase (PO) is one of the first immune molecules that was identified in invertebrates. Recently, the immune function of PO has been challenged. We tested how PO is activated following injury in 2 insects, i.e. the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the wax moth Galleria mellonella. Rapid PO activation in Drosophila was limited to discrete areas of the hemolymph clot which forms after injury. Surprisingly, unlike systemic PO activation during bacterial sepsis, clot melanization was not sensitive to microbial elicitors in our assay. Instead, Drosophila clot melanization was activated by endogenous signals such as apoptotic cells and was superinduced by phosphatidylserine, a negatively charged phospholipid normally found on the inner surface of the plasma membrane and exposed during apoptosis. In contrast, melanization in G. mellonella hemolymph was stronger and more uniform and was sensitive to peptidoglycan. This shows that both exogenous and endogenous signals can trigger the same immune mechanism in species and context-dependent ways. Our findings have implications for the evolutionary dynamics of immune mechanisms and are in agreement with recent comparisons of insect immune transcriptomes.

  • 18.
    Bidla, Gawa
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Lindgren, Malin
    Theopold, Ulrich
    Dushay, Mitchell S.
    Hemolymph coagulation and phenoloxidase in Drosophila larvae2005Inngår i: Developmental & Comparative Immunology, ISSN 0145-305X, Vol. 29, nr 8, s. 669-79Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 19.
    Björk Grimberg, Kristian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    The p97 ATPase and the Drosophila Proteasome: Protein Unfolding and Regulation2010Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    For all living systems, there is a requirement to recycle and regulate proteins. In eukaryotic organisms this is accomplished by the proteasome. The p97 ATPase is another highly conserved and essential complex present throughout the eukaryotic cell. In Paper I we utilized UFD fluorescent substrates to address the role of p97 and cofactors in soluble proteasome degradation. Results using RNAi and Drosophila p97 mutants propose p97 to function upstream of the proteasome on cytosolic proteasome targets as an important unfoldase together with its Ufd1/Npl4 cofactors. The results implicate p97 to be important for degradation of proteasome substrates lacking natural extended peptide regions. In Paper II we focused on identifying transcription factors essential for production of proteasomal subunits and associated proteins in Drosophila S2 cells. We utilized an RNA library targeting 993 known or candidate transcription factors and monitored RNAi depleted Drosophila S2 cells expressing the UFD reporter UbG76VGFP. We identified a range of potential candidates and focused on the bZIP transcription factor Cnc-C. RNAi and qrt-PCR experiments implicated Cnc-C to be involved in transcription of proteasomal subunits. In Paper III we applied our knowledge gained from Paper I about p97 dependent substrates and set up a high-throughput microscopy screening method to potentially find inhibitors specifically targeting the p97 proteasomal sub-pathway. Utilizing UFD substrates with and without C-terminal peptide tails we determined if compounds inhibited the core proteasomal machinery or the p97 pathway specifically. Through a primary and secondary round of screening we identified several new compounds inhibiting the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway though none from our initial screening had specificity for p97.

  • 20.
    Björk Grimberg, Kristian
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Beskow, Anne
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Lundbäck, Thomas
    Karolinska Institutet, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och biofysik.
    Jenmalm Jensen, Annika
    Karolinska Institutet, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och biofysik.
    Young, Patrick
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Dantuma, Nico
    Karolinska Institutet, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi.
    Salomons, Florian
    Karolinska Institutet, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi.
    A high-throughput microscopy method to find novel p97 inhibitorsManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 21.
    Björk Grimberg, Kristian
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Beskow, Anne
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Davis, Monica M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Young, Patrick
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Basic Leucine Zipper Protein Cnc-C is a Substrate and Transcriptional Regulator of the Drosophila 26S Proteasome2011Inngår i: Molecular and Cellular Biology, ISSN 0270-7306, E-ISSN 1098-5549, Vol. 31, nr 4, s. 897-909Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    While the 26S proteasome is a key proteolytic complex, little is known about how proteasome levels are maintained in higher eukaryotic cells. Here we describe an RNA interference (RNAi) screen of Drosophila melanogaster that was used to identify transcription factors that may play a role in maintaining levels of the 26S proteasome. We used an RNAi library against 993 Drosophila transcription factor genes to identify genes whose suppression in Schneider 2 cells stabilized a ubiquitin-green fluorescent protein reporter protein. This screen identified Cnc (cap 'n' collar [CNC]; basic region leucine zipper) as a candidate transcriptional regulator of proteasome component expression. In fact, 20S proteasome activity was reduced in cells depleted of cnc. Immunoblot assays against proteasome components revealed a general decline in both 19S regulatory complex and 20S proteasome subunits after RNAi depletion of this transcription factor. Transcript-specific silencing revealed that the longest of the seven transcripts for the cnc gene, cnc-C, was needed for proteasome and p97 ATPase production. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR confirmed the role of Cnc-C in activation of transcription of genes encoding proteasome components. Expression of a V5-His-tagged form of Cnc-C revealed that the transcription factor is itself a proteasome substrate that is stabilized when the proteasome is inhibited. We propose that this single cnc gene in Drosophila resembles the ancestral gene family of mammalian nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related transcription factors, which are essential in regulating oxidative stress and proteolysis.

  • 22.
    Björk, P
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Baurén, G
    Gelius, B
    Wrange, Ö
    Wieslander, L
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    The Chironomus tentans tranlation initiation factor elF4H is present in the nucleus but does not bind to mRNA until the mRNA reaches the cytoplasmic perinuclear region2003Inngår i: Journal of Cell Science, Vol. 116, s. 4521-4532Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 23.
    Björk, P
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Wetterberg-Strandh, I
    Baurén, G
    Wieslander, L
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Chironomus tentans-Repressor Splicing Factor Represses SR Protein Function Locally on Pre-mRNA Exons and Is Displaced at Correct Slice Sites2006Inngår i: Molecular Biology of the Cell, Vol. 17, s. 32-42Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 24.
    Björk, Petra
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Biogenesis of messenger and ribosomal RNPs in the eukaryotic cell2003Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In eukaryotic cells, gene expression involves multi-step processes in the nucleus and the cytoplasm. The different processes engage specific RNA-protein complexes, RNPs. Upon activation of most, if not all genes, a precursor RNA molecule is synthesized that has to be extensively processed and modified. In addition, the RNA has to associate with a distinct set of proteins. The composition of the RNP is often dynamic and changes over time. Several RNPs are exported to the cytoplasm, where they are involved in late steps of gene expression, including the synthesis of proteins.

    The aim of this thesis has been to increase our knowledge about specific steps in messenger RNP (mRNP) and ribosomal RNP (rRNP) biogenesis in the eukaryotic cell.

    We have characterized a novel protein, RBD-1, that is essential for ribosome biogenesis. RBD-1 contains six RNA-binding domains and is conserved in eukaryotes. In the dipteran Chironomus tentans, RBD-1 (Ct-RBD-1) is mainly located in the nucleolus, in an RNA polymerase I transcription-dependent manner. In cytoplasmic extracts, Ct-RBD-1 is preferentially associated with 40S ribosomal subunits. Ct-RBD-1 binds pre-rRNA in vitro and anti-Ct-RBD-1 antibodies repress prerRNA processing in vivo. RBD-1 is essential in Caenorhabditis elegans. Our data suggest that RBD-1 plays a role in structurally coordinating pre-rRNA during ribosome biogenesis.

    We have also studied the putative homologue to RBD-1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Mrd1p. Mrd1p is essential for viability in yeast. Depletion of Mrd1p leads to a decrease in the synthesis of 18S rRNA and a decrease in the steady-state level of 40S ribosomal subunits. Mrd1p associates with prerRNA and U3 snoRNA and is required for the initial cleavages of the pre-rRNA. It is likely that Mrd1p is involved in the structural coordination of the pre-rRNA during early processing steps.

    We have identified and characterized the translation initiation factor eIF4H in the dipteran Chironomus tentans. We have studied its location and its relation to the transcription and translation processes. In the cytoplasm, Ct-eIF4H is associated with mRNA in polysomes. A minor fraction of CteIF4H is present in the nucleus, but it could not be detected in pre-mRNPs or mRNPs. The nuclear amount of Ct-eIF4H is independent of the level of transcription. We have addressed the question of where the translation machinery associates with mRNAs. Using immunoelectron microscopy, we can show that Ct-eIF4H associates with mRNPs in the cytoplasmic perinuclear region, immediately as the mRNP exits from the nuclear pore complex.

    Ct-RSF was isolated in a screen for RNA-binding proteins in Chironomus tentans. Ct-RSF has several properties in common with SR proteins, a family of conserved splicing factors. We have shown that Ct-RSF interacts with SR proteins, but in contrast to the splicing factors, Ct-RSF represses splicing in vitro. Our data suggest that Ct-RSF binds to exon sequences co-transcriptionally in vivo and that it represses the activation of splicing by SR proteins. It is conceivable that Ct-RSF is a protein that balances the action of SR proteins and avoids the formation of spliceosomes at aberrant splice sites in exons.

    Finally, we have initiated a study of Ct-Y14 and Ct-Mago. Pre-mRNA splicing deposits a multi-protein complex 20-24 nucleotides upstream of exon-exon junctions. This complex, the EJC, is believed to couple the splicing process to nuclear export, nonsense-mediated decay and cytoplasmic localization of mRNAs. The EJC contains a number of proteins, including Y14 and Mago. To contribute knowledge about the in vivo dynamics of Y14 and Mago, we decided to analyze the association of Y14 and Mago with the BR mRNAs in Chironomus tentans.

  • 25.
    Björk, Petra
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Baurén, Göran
    Jin, ShaoBo
    Tong, Yong-Guang
    Bürglin, Thomas R.
    Hellman, Ulf
    Wieslander, Lars
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    A Novel Conserved RNA-binding Domain Protein, RBD-1, Is Essential For Ribosome Biogenesis2002Inngår i: Molecular Biology of the Cell, ISSN 1059-1524, E-ISSN 1939-4586, Vol. 13, s. 3683-3695Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Synthesis of the ribosomal subunits from pre-rRNA requires a large number of trans-acting proteins and small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein particles to execute base modifications, RNA cleavages, and structural rearrangements. We have characterized a novel protein, RNA-binding domain-1 (RBD-1), that is involved in ribosome biogenesis. This protein contains six consensus RNA-binding domains and is conserved as to sequence, domain organization, and cellular location from yeast to human. RBD-1 is essential in Caenorhabditis elegans. In the dipteran Chironomus tentans, RBD-1 (Ct-RBD-1) binds pre-rRNA in vitro and anti-Ct-RBD-1 antibodies repress pre-rRNA processing in vivo. Ct-RBD-1 is mainly located in the nucleolus in an RNA polymerase I transcription-dependent manner, but it is also present in discrete foci in the interchromatin and in the cytoplasm. In cytoplasmic extracts, 20-30% of Ct-RBD-1 is associated with ribosomes and, preferentially, with the 40S ribosomal subunit. Our data suggest that RBD-1 plays a role in structurally coordinating pre-rRNA during ribosome biogenesis and that this function is conserved in all eukaryotes.

  • 26.
    Björk, Petra
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Jin, ShaoBo
    Zhao, Jian
    Singh, Om Prakash
    Persson, Jan-Olov
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Matematiska institutionen.
    Hellman, Ulf
    Wieslander, Lars
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Specific combinations of SR proteins associate with single pre-messenger RNAs in vivo and contribute different functions2009Inngår i: Journal of Cell Biology, ISSN 0021-9525, E-ISSN 1540-8140, Vol. 184, nr 4, s. 555-568Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins are required for messenger RNA (mRNA) processing, export, surveillance, and translation. We show that in Chironomus tentans, nascent transcripts associate with multiple types of SR proteins in specific combinations. Alternative splicing factor (ASF)/SF2, SC35, 9G8, and hrp45/SRp55 are all present in Balbiani ring (BR) pre-messenger ribonucleoproteins (mRNPs) preferentially when introns appear in the pre-mRNA and when cotranscriptional splicing takes place. However, hrp45/SRp55 is distributed differently in the pre-mRNPs along the gene compared with ASF/SF2, SC35, and 9G8, suggesting functional differences. All four SR proteins are associated with the BR mRNPs during export to the cytoplasm. Interference with SC35 indicates that SC35 is important for the coordination of splicing, transcription, and 3′ end processing and also for nucleocytoplasmic export. ASF/SF2 is associated with polyribosomes, whereas SC35, 9G8, and hrp45/SRp55 cosediment with monoribosomes. Thus, individual endogenous pre-mRNPs/mRNPs bind multiple types of SR proteins during transcription, and these SR proteins accompany the mRNA and play different roles during the gene expression pathway in vivo.

  • 27.
    Björk, Petra
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Wieslander, Lars
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Gene Expression in Polytene Nuclei2009Inngår i: Methods in Molecular Biology: The Nucleus / [ed] Ronald Hancock, Humana Press , 2009, 2, s. 29-53Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Gene expression in eukaryotic cells is a multi-step process. Many of the steps are both co-ordinated and quality controlled. For example, transcription is closely coupled to pre-messenger RNA (mRNA)-protein assembly, pre-mRNA processing, surveillance of the correct synthesis of messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP), and export. The coordination appears to be exerted through dynamic interactions between components of the transcription, processing, surveillance, and export machineries. Our knowledge is so far incomplete about these molecular interactions and where in the nucleus they take place. It is therefore essential to analyze the intranuclear steps of gene expression in vivo. Polytene nuclei are exceptionally large and contain chromosomes and individual genes that can be structurally analyzed in situ during ongoing transcription. Furthermore, they contain gene-specific pre-mRNPs/mRNPs that can be visualised and analyzed as they are synthesised on the gene and then followed on their path to the cytoplasm. We describe methods for investigating the structure and composition of active chromatin and gene-specific pre-mRNPs/mRNPs in the context of analyses of gene expression processes in the nuclei of polytene cells.

  • 28. Borisovsky, Gilad
    et al.
    Silberberg, Gilad
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Wygnanski-Jaffe, Tamara
    Spierer, Abraham
    Results of congenital cataract surgery with and without intraocular lens implantation in infants and children2013Inngår i: Graefe's Archives for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, ISSN 0721-832X, E-ISSN 1435-702X, Vol. 251, nr 9, s. 2205-2211Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Operations for congenital cataract in children in the past had resulted in aphakia. Improvement in surgical tools and techniques as well as in intraocular lens (IOL) implantation has led to correction of the aphakia by IOL implantation. We report the outcome of cataract surgery with and without IOL on these children in our institution between 1991-2008. In this retrospective cohort study, the medical records of all children who underwent surgery for congenital cataract were reviewed. The final study group included 144 children (218 eyes). Postoperative visual acuity (VA) was tested either by Teller Acuity Cards (in preverbal children) or by the Snellen chart. Data on VA status and postoperative complications were retrieved. Patients with bilateral cataract had better postoperative VA than patients with unilateral cataract (logMAR 0.559 +/- 0.455 vs. 0.919 +/- 0.685, respectively, P < 0.001). Children who underwent IOL implantation had better postoperative VA than those who did not, but the type of surgery had no significant effect after correction for the child's age at surgery (P = 0.346). Secondary cataract occurred more frequently in the extra-capsular cataract extraction (ECCE) + IOL implantation group than in the ECCE only group (20.6 % vs. 8.3 %, respectively, P = 0.018). Patients with bilateral cataract had better postoperative VA compared with those with unilateral cataract. The type of surgery had no effect on final VA, but there was a higher rate of secondary cataract in the ECCE + IOL patients compared to the ECCE only patients.

  • 29.
    Botelho, Salome Calado
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Tyagi, A
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Hessle, Viktoria
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Farrants, Ann-Kristin Östlund
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Visa, Neus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    The association of Brahma with the Balbiani ring 1 gene of Chironomus tentans studied by immunoelectron microscopy and chromatin immunoprecipitation.2008Inngår i: Insect molecular biology (Print), ISSN 0962-1075, E-ISSN 1365-2583, Vol. 17, nr 5, s. 505-13Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many steps of gene expression take place during transcription, and important functional information can thus be obtained by determining the distribution of specific factors along a transcribed gene. The Balbiani ring (BR) genes of the dipteran Chironomus tentans constitute a unique system for mapping the association of specific factors along a eukaryotic gene using immuno-electron microscopy (immuno-EM). The chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) technique has provided an alternative, more general method for studying the association of proteins with specific genomic sequences. The immuno-EM and the ChIP methods suffer from different limitations, and thus a combination of both is advantageous. We have established optimal conditions for ChIP on chromatin extracted from the salivary glands of C. tentans, and we have analyzed the association of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodelling factor Brahma (Brm) with the BR1 gene by combined immuno-EM and ChIP. We show that Brm is not restricted to the promoter of the BR1 gene but is also associated with sequences in the middle and distal portions of the gene, which suggests that Brm has additional roles apart from regulating transcription initiation.

  • 30. Bratt, E
    et al.
    Öhman, M
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Coordination of editing and splicing of glutamate receptor pre-mRNA2003Inngår i: RNA, Vol. 9, s. 309-318Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 31.
    Cardoso-Palacios, Carlos
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Sylwan, Lina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Mandali, Sridhar
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Frumerie, Clara
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Haggård-Ljungquist, Elisabeth
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    A structure-function analysis of P2 integraseManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacteriophage P2 integrase catalyzes site-specific recombination between the phage DNA and the host chromosome thereby promoting integration or excision of the phage genome. P2 integrase belongs to the large tyrosine family of integrases that shows little sequence identity besides some conserved boxes and patches in the catalytic domain. However, the overall structure of the tyrosine family of integrases seems to be similar. Phage integrases have the potential as tools for site-specific gene insertions into eukaryotic genomes provided that target sequences are available. To elucidate the possibility of evolving the P2 integrase to accept new targets, we have in this work initiated a structure-function analysis of the P2 integrase using two approaches based on a comparison of the predicted secondary structure of P2 integrase with that determined for the lambda integrase. First, we have made hybrids between P2 integrase and the related WΦ integrase that has a different host DNA target, to locate the region promoting specificity between the integrases. This, however, has not been possible, the N-terminal domains can be exchanged without losing biological activity and this will not affect the specificity. All other hybrids made were biological inactive. Next we have made an alanine scanning of the alpha helices believed to be involved in specific interactions with the target, and four amino acids have been identified as candidates for sequence-specific interactions with the core.

  • 32.
    Chammiran, Daniel
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Veno, Morten T.
    Ekdahl, Ylva
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Kjems, Jörgen
    Öhman, Marie
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    A distant cis acting intronic element induces site-selective RNA editing2012Inngår i: Nucleic Acids Research, ISSN 0305-1048, E-ISSN 1362-4962, Vol. 40, nr 19, s. 9876-9886Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Transcripts have been found to be site selectively edited from adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) in the mammalian brain, mostly in genes involved in neurotransmission. While A-to-I editing occurs at double-stranded structures, other structural requirements are largely unknown. We have investigated the requirements for editing at the I/M site in the Gabra-3 transcript of the GABA(A) receptor. We identify an evolutionarily conserved intronic duplex, 150 nt downstream of the exonic hairpin where the I/M site resides, which is required for its editing. This is the first time a distant RNA structure has been shown to be important for A-to-I editing. We demonstrate that the element also can induce editing in related but normally not edited RNA sequences. In human, thousands of genes are edited in duplexes formed by inverted repeats in non-coding regions. It is likely that numerous such duplexes can induce editing of coding regions throughout the transcriptome.

  • 33. Collins, L J
    et al.
    Poole, A
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Penny, D
    Using ancestral sequences to uncover potential gene homologues2003Inngår i: Applied Bioinformatics, Vol. 2, s. 85-95Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 34.
    Crona, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Quaternary structure and interaction approaches to allosteric regulation of class I ribonucleotide reductases2010Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) chains in which our genetic blueprint is stored are built from four DNA precursors by DNA polymerases. The enzyme ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) provides the only de novo synthesis pathway of deoxyribonucleotides from ribonucleotides and is essential for nearly all organisms. All four ribonucleotides are substrates for RNR and key to this flexibility is a sophisticated allosteric regulation. Nucleotide effectors (ATP, dATP, dTTP or dGTP) binding to the allosteric specificity site determines substrate specificity for the active site. When present at high concentrations, dATP binds to the allosteric overall activity site and inhibits activity by an unknown mechanism. Three approaches, RNR activity measurements, subunit interaction studies and quaternary structure studies were applied to four different class I RNRs to address the allosteric overall regulation. We found that allosteric overall inhibition was closely linked to formation of tight and large RNR protein complexes; α4β4 complex for the Escherichia coli class Ia RNR and α6β2 for the Dictyostelium discoideum class Ia RNR with functional allosteric inhibitions. The Aeh1 phage class Ia RNR with a non-functional dATP inhibition showed weak remnant inhibition features, while the Bacillus anthracis class Ib RNR without the allosteric overall regulation domain lacked these features. In addition, we presented the first biochemical characterization of a mechanism to restore protein function after gene fragmentation, we showed that the B. anthracis class Ib RNR was most active when reconstituted with manganese and in the presence of a physiological redoxin protein and we found that the class Ia RNR is the principal RNR in D. discoideum, although the coexisting class II RNR could partly compensate class I RNR inhibition during axenic growth. Finally, our improved method for studying RNR interactions has potential for RNR inhibitor screening.

  • 35.
    Crona, Mikael
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Avesson, Lotta
    Department of Molecular Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala .
    Sahlin, Margareta
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Hinas, Andrea
    Department of Molecular Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala .
    Klose, Ralph
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Söderbom, Fredrik
    Department of Molecular Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala .
    Sjöberg, Britt-Marie
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    The two classes of ribonucleotide reductase in the social amoeba Dictystelium discoideumManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 36.
    Crona, Mikael
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Avesson, Lotta
    Sahlin, Margareta
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Hinas, Andrea
    Klose, Ralph
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Söderbom, Fredrik
    Sjöberg, Britt-Marie
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    A Rare Combination of Ribonucleotide Reductases in the Social Amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum2013Inngår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 288, nr 12, s. 8198-8208Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) catalyze the only pathway for de novo synthesis of deoxyribonucleotides needed for DNA replication and repair. The vast majority of eukaryotes encodes only a class I RNR, but interestingly some eukaryotes, including the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, encode both a class I and a class II RNR. The amino acid sequence of the D. discoideum class I RNR is similar to other eukaryotic RNRs, whereas that of its class IIRNRis most similar to the monomeric class II RNRs found in Lactobacillus spp. and a few other bacteria. Here we report the first study of RNRs in a eukaryotic organism that encodes class I and class II RNRs. Both classes of RNR genes were expressed in D. discoideum cells, although the class I transcripts were more abundant and strongly enriched during mid-development compared with the class II transcript. The quaternary structure, allosteric regulation, and properties of the diiron-oxo/radical cofactor of D. discoideum class I RNR are similar to those of the mammalian RNRs. Inhibition of D. discoideum class I RNR by hydroxyurea resulted in a 90% reduction in spore formation and decreased the germination viability of the surviving spores by 75%. Class II RNR could not compensate for class I inhibition during development, and an excess of vitamin B-12 coenzyme, which is essential for class II activity, did not improve spore formation. We suggest that class I is the principal RNR during D. discoideum development and growth and is important for spore formation, possibly by providing dNTPs for mitochondrial replication.

  • 37.
    Crona, Mikael
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Furrer, Ernst
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Torrents, Eduard
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Edgell, David R.
    Department of Biochemistry, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, The University of Western Ontario,.
    Sjöberg, Britt-Marie
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Subunit and small-molecule interaction of ribonucleotide reductases via surface plasmon resonance biosensor analyses2010Inngår i: Protein Engineering Design & Selection, ISSN 1741-0126, E-ISSN 1741-0134, Vol. 23, nr 8, s. 633-641Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) synthesizes deoxyribonucleotides for DNA replication and repair and is controlled by sophisticated allosteric regulation involving differential affinity of nucleotides for regulatory sites. We have developed a robust and sensitive method for coupling biotinylated RNRs to surface plasmon resonance streptavidin biosensor chips via a 30.5 Å linker. In comprehensive studies on three RNRs effector nucleotides strengthened holoenzyme interactions, whereas substrate had no effect on subunit interactions. The RNRs differed in their response to the negative allosteric effector dATP that binds to an ATP-cone domain. A tight RNR complex was formed in Escherichia coli class Ia RNR with a functional ATP cone. No strengthening of subunit interactions was observed in the class Ib RNR from the human pathogen Bacillus anthracis that lacks the ATP cone. A moderate strengthening was seen in the atypical Aeromonas hydrophila phage 1 class Ia RNR that has a split catalytic subunit and a non-functional ATP cone with remnant dATP-mediated regulatory features. We also successfully immobilized a functional catalytic NrdA subunit of the E.coli enzyme, facilitating study of nucleotide interactions. Our surface plasmon resonance methodology has the potential to provide biological insight into nucleotide-mediated regulation of any RNR, and can be used for high-throughput screening of potential RNR inhibitors

  • 38.
    Crona, Mikael
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Sjöberg, Britt-Marie
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Moffatt, Connor
    Department of Biochemistry, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western Ontario.
    Edgell, David R.
    Department of Biochemistry, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western Ontario.
    Friedrich, Nancy C.
    Department of Biochemistry, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western Ontario.
    Hofer, Anders
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Umeå University.
    Assembly of a fragmented ribonucleotide reductase by protein interaction domains derived from a mobile genetic element2011Inngår i: Nucleic Acids Research, ISSN 0305-1048, E-ISSN 1362-4962, Vol. 39, nr 4, s. 1381-1389Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) is a critical enzyme of nucleotide metabolism, synthesizing precursors for DNA replication and repair. In prokaryotic genomes, RNR genes are commonly targeted by mobile genetic elements, including free standing and intron-encoded homing endonucleases and inteins. Here, we describe a unique molecular solution to assemble a functional product from the RNR large subunit gene, nrdA that has been fragmented into two smaller genes by the insertion of mobE, a mobile endonuclease. We show that unique sequences that originated during the mobE insertion and that are present as C- and N-terminal tails on the split NrdA-a and NrdA-b polypeptides, are absolutely essential for enzymatic activity. Our data are consistent with the tails functioning as protein interaction domains to assemble the tetrameric (NrdA-a/NrdA-b)2 large subunit necessary for a functional RNR holoenzyme. The tails represent a solution distinct from RNA and protein splicing or programmed DNA rearrangements to restore function from a fragmented coding region and may represent a general mechanism to neutralize fragmentation of essential genes by mobile genetic elements.

  • 39.
    Crona, Mikael
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Torrents, Eduard
    Cellular Biotechnology, Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia, Barcelona, Spain.
    Hofer, Anders
    Department of Medical Biochemistry & Biophysics, Umeå University.
    Furrer, Ernst
    Tomter, Ane
    Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Oslo, Norway.
    Rohr, Åsmund
    Andersson, Kristoffer
    Sahlin, Margareta
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Sjöberg, Britt-Marie
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    NrdH-redoxin mediates high enzyme activity in manganese-reconstituted ribonucleotide reductase from Bacillus anthracisManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 40.
    Crona, Mikael
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Torrents, Eduard
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Rohr, Asmund K.
    Hofer, Anders
    Furrer, Ernst
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Tomter, Ane B.
    Andersson, K. Kristoffer
    Sahlin, Margareta
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Sjöberg, Britt-Marie
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    NrdH-Redoxin Protein Mediates High Enzyme Activity in Manganese-reconstituted Ribonucleotide Reductase from Bacillus anthracis2011Inngår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 286, nr 38, s. 33053-33060Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacillus anthracis is a severe mammalian pathogen encoding a class Ib ribonucleotide reductase (RNR). RNR is a universal enzyme that provides the four essential deoxyribonucleotides needed for DNA replication and repair. Almost all Bacillus spp. encode both class Ib and class III RNR operons, but the B. anthracis class III operon was reported to encode a pseudogene, and conceivably class Ib RNR is necessary for spore germination and proliferation of B. anthracis upon infection. The class Ib RNR operon in B. anthracis encodes genes for the catalytic NrdE protein, the tyrosyl radical metalloprotein NrdF, and the flavodoxin protein NrdI. The tyrosyl radical in NrdF is stabilized by an adjacent Mn(2)(III) site (Mn-NrdF) formed by the action of the NrdI protein or by a Fe(2)(III) site (Fe-NrdF) formed spontaneously from Fe(2+) and O(2). In this study, we show that the properties of B. anthracis Mn-NrdF and Fe-NrdF are in general similar for interaction with NrdE and NrdI. Intriguingly, the enzyme activity of Mn-NrdF was approximately an order of magnitude higher than that of Fe-NrdF in the presence of the class Ib-specific physiological reductant NrdH, strongly suggesting that the Mn-NrdF form is important in the life cycle of B. anthracis. Whether the Fe-NrdF form only exists in vitro or whether the NrdF protein in B. anthracis is a true cambialistic enzyme that can work with either manganese or iron remains to be established.

  • 41. Dahlfors, Gunilla
    et al.
    Bhuiyan, Hasanuzzaman
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Schmekel, Karin
    Temporal linkage between early and late meiotic recombination enzymes in yeast and electron microscope localization of late enzymes in recombination nodulesManuskript (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 42.
    Daniel, Chammiran
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Regulation and Function of RNA Editing in the Mammalian Brain2011Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Adenosine (A) to inosine (I) RNA editing is a widespread post-transcriptional mechanism in eukaryotes that increases the protein diversity. Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) are the enzymes that catalyze this conversion. The diversity generated by ADAR enzymes occurs mainly in the brain where they target transcripts coding for proteins in the central nervous system (CNS).

    We have determined the editing frequency of known ADAR substrates during development of the mouse brain using the large-scale 454-sequencing method. We show in paper I that editing is regulated during development of the brain, where it increases along with the maturation of the brain. We propose that the unedited isoform of proteins are required for the undeveloped brain while the edited isoforms are more suitable for the mature brain.

    In paper II we show that substrates with multiple editing sites, one specific principle adenosine is favored for initial editing. We demonstrate that within these substrates, editing is coupled when adenosines are located in multiples of twelve nucleotides. These edited adenosines reside on the same side in the tertiary RNA helical structure. A model is suggested where kinetically favored structures at principle editing sites attract ADAR to the substrate, followed by editing at sites that are structurally adjacent to the initiation site.

    Editing of the mammalian Gabra-3 transcripts coding for the GABAA receptor α3 subunits recodes an isoleucine (I) to a methionine (M) referred as the I/M site. In paper III we demonstrate that receptors containing edited α3 subunits have altered trafficking properties compared to receptors containing unedited α3 subunits. We suggest that the amino acid residue change, affects protein interactions required for stability and trafficking of GABAA receptors. We propose that the biological function of editing is to reduce the number of α3 subunits in favor of other α subunits.

    The dsRNA structure at the I/M site in the Gabra-3 transcript is formed within the exon 9 sequence. We show in paper IV that a conserved intronic dsRNA structure in the downstream intron is required for editing to occur at the I/M site. We demonstrate that in the context of this intronic duplex also non-ADAR substrates can be edited. We propose that the intronic dsRNA stabilize the short I/M stem structure, thereby increasing the ability of ADAR to bind and edit the I/M site. These discoveries have expanded the knowledge in how ADAR editing is employed to supply the development of the brain as well as the RNA structure requirement for editing to occur.

  • 43.
    Daniel, Chammiran
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Wahlstedt, Helene
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Ohlson, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Björk, Petra
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Öhman, Marie
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Adenosine-to-Inosine RNA Editing Affects Trafficking of the γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type A (GABAA) Receptor2011Inngår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 286, nr 3, s. 2031-2040Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recoding by adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing plays an important role in diversifying proteins involved in neurotransmission. We have previously shown that the Gabra-3 transcript, coding for the α3 subunit of the GABAA receptor is edited in mouse, causing an isoleucine to methionine (I/M) change. Here we show that this editing event is evolutionarily conserved from human to chicken. Analyzing recombinant GABAA receptor subunits expressed in HEK293 cells, our results suggest that editing at the I/M site in α3 has functional consequences on receptor expression. We demonstrate that I/M editing reduces the cell surface and the total number of α3 subunits. The reduction in cell surface levels is independent of the subunit combination as it is observed for α3 in combination with either the β2 or the β3 subunit. Further, an amino acid substitution at the corresponding I/M site in the α1 subunit has a similar effect on cell surface presentation, indicating the importance of this site for receptor trafficking. We show that the I/M editing during brain development is inversely related to the α3 protein abundance. Our results suggest that editing controls trafficking of α3-containing receptors and may therefore facilitate the switch of subunit compositions during development as well as the subcellular distribution of α subunits in the adult brain.

  • 44.
    Daniel, Chammiran
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Öhman, Marie
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    RNA editing and its impact on GABAa receptor function2009Inngår i: Biochemical Society Transactions, ISSN 0300-5127, E-ISSN 1470-8752, Vol. 37, s. 1399-1403Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A-to-I (adenosine-to-inosine) RNA editing catalysed by the ADARs (adenosine deaminases that act on RNA) is a post-transcriptional event that contributes to protein diversity in metazoans. In mammalian neuronal ion channels, editing alters functionally important amino acids and creates receptor subtypes important for the development of the nervous system. The excitatory AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid) and kainate glutamate receptors, as well as the inhibitory GABAA [GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) type A] receptor, are subject to A-to-I RNA editing. Editing affects several features of the receptors, including kinetics, subunit assembly and cell-surface expression. Here, we discuss the regulation of editing during brain maturation and the impact of RNA editing on the expression of different receptor subtypes.

  • 45.
    Davis, Monica M
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Alvarez, Francisco J
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Ryman, Kicki
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Holm, Åsa A
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Ljungdahl, Per O
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut, Avdelningen för cellbiologi.
    Engström, Ylva
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Wild-Type Drosophila melanogaster as a Model Host to Analyze Nitrogen Source Dependent Virulence of Candida albicans2011Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, nr 11, s. e27434-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The fungal pathogen Candida albicans is a common cause of opportunistic infections in humans. We report that wild-type Drosophila melanogaster (OrR) flies are susceptible to virulent C. albicans infections and have established experimental conditions that enable OrR flies to serve as model hosts for studying C. albicans virulence. After injection into the thorax, wild-type C. albicans cells disseminate and invade tissues throughout the fly, leading to lethality. Similar to results obtained monitoring systemic infections in mice, well-characterized cph1Δ efg1Δ and csh3Δ fungal mutants exhibit attenuated virulence in flies. Using the OrR fly host model, we assessed the virulence of C. albicans strains individually lacking functional components of the SPS sensing pathway. In response to extracellular amino acids, the plasma membrane localized SPS-sensor (Ssy1, Ptr3, and Ssy5) activates two transcription factors (Stp1 and Stp2) to differentially control two distinct modes of nitrogen acquisition (host protein catabolism and amino acid uptake, respectively). Our results indicate that a functional SPS-sensor and Stp1 controlled genes required for host protein catabolism and utilization, including the major secreted aspartyl protease SAP2, are required to establish virulent infections. By contrast, Stp2, which activates genes required for amino acid uptake, is dispensable for virulence. These results indicate that nutrient availability within infected hosts directly influences C. albicans virulence.

  • 46.
    Davis, Monica M.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Engström, Ylva
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Immune Response in the Barrier Epithelia: Lessons from the Fruit Fly Drosophila melanogaster2012Inngår i: Journal of innate immunity, ISSN 1662-811X, Vol. 4, nr 3, s. 273-283Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The barrier epithelia of multicellular organisms frequently come into direct contact with microorganisms and thus need to fulfill the important task of preventing the penetration of pathogens that could cause systemic infections. A functional immune defence in the epithelial linings of the digestive, respiratory and reproductive organs as well as the epidermis/skin of animals is therefore of crucial importance for survival. Epithelial defence reactions are likely to be evolutionarily ancient, and the use of invertebrate animal models, such as insects and nematodes, has been crucial in unravelling the mechanisms underlying epithelial immunity. This review addresses basic questions of epithelial immunity in animals and humans. It focuses on recent developments in the understanding of the immune responses in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and how the innate immune system acts locally in the epidermis and cuticle, tracheae, gut and genital organs. Both basal immune activities in epithelia that are constantly exposed to microbes as well as positive and negative regulation in response to pathogenic organisms are covered. Important immuno-physiological aspects of epithelial defence mechanisms are also discussed, such as wound healing, re-epithelialization and intestinal homeostasis. 

  • 47. Delaney, J R
    et al.
    Stöven, S
    Uvell, H
    Anderson, K V
    Engström, Y
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Mlodzik, M
    Cooperative control of Drosophila immune responses by the JNK and NF-kB signaling pathways2006Inngår i: The EMBO Journal, Vol. 25, s. 3068-3077Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 48. Delaney, Joseph
    et al.
    Stöven, Svenja
    Uvell, Hanna
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Anderson, Kathryn
    Engström, Ylva
    Mlodzik, Marek
    Cooperative Control of Drosophila Immune Responses by the JNK and NF-κB Signaling PathwaysManuskript (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 49. Dobes, Pavel
    et al.
    Wang, Zhi
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Markus, Robert
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Theopold, Ulrich
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Hyrsl, Pavel
    An improved method for nematode infection assays in Drosophila larvae2012Inngår i: Fly, ISSN 1933-6934, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. 75-79Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The infective juveniles (IJs) of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) seek out host insects and release their symbiotic bacteria into their body cavity causing septicaemia, which eventually leads to host death. The interaction between EPNs and their hosts are only partially understood, in particular the host immune responses appears to involve pathways other than phagocytosis and the canonical transcriptional induction pathways. These pathways are genetically tractable and include for example clotting factors and lipid mediators. The aim of this study was to optimize the nematode infections in

    Drosophila melanogaster larvae, a well-studied and genetically tractable model organism. Here we show that two nematode species namely Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora display different infectivity towards Drosophila larvae with the latter being less pathogenic. The effects of supporting media and IJ dosage on the mortality of the hosts were assessed and optimized. Using optimum conditions, a faster and efficient setup for nematode infections was developed. This newly established infection model in Drosophila larvae will be applicable in large scale screens aimed at identifying novel genes/pathways involved in innate immune responses.

  • 50.
    Eberle, Andrea B.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Böhm, Stefanie
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Farrants, Ann-Kristin Östlund
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Visa, Neus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    The use of a synthetic DNA-antibody complex as external reference for chromatin immunoprecipitation2012Inngår i: Analytical Biochemistry, ISSN 0003-2697, E-ISSN 1096-0309, Vol. 426, nr 2, s. 147-152Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is an analytical method used to investigate the interactions between proteins and DNA in vivo. ChIP is often used as a quantitative tool, and proper quantification relies on the use of adequate references for data normalization. However, many ChIP experiments involve analyses of samples that have been submitted to experimental treatments with unknown effects, and this precludes the choice of suitable internal references. We have developed a normalization method based on the use of a synthetic DNA-antibody complex that can be used as an external reference instead. A fixed amount of this synthetic DNA-antibody complex is spiked into the chromatin extract at the beginning of the ChIP experiment. The DNA-antibody complex is isolated together with the sample of interest, and the amounts of synthetic DNA recovered in each tube are measured at the end of the process. The yield of synthetic DNA recovery in each sample is then used to normalize the results obtained with the antibodies of interest. Using this approach, we could compensate for losses of material, reduce the variability between ChIP replicates, and increase the accuracy and statistical resolution of the data.

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