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  • 1. Abdallah, Qasem M. A.
    et al.
    Phillips, Roger M.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Helleday, Thomas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Cosentino, Laura
    Abdel-Rahman, Hamdy
    Etzad, Jasarat
    Wheelhouse, Richard T.
    Kiakos, Konstantinos
    Bingham, John P.
    Hartley, John A.
    Patterson, Laurence H.
    Pors, Klaus
    Minor structural modifications to alchemix influence mechanism of action and pharmacological activity2012Inngår i: Biochemical Pharmacology, ISSN 0006-2952, E-ISSN 1356-1839, Vol. 83, nr 11, s. 1514-1522Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Alchemix is an exemplar of a class of anthraquinone with efficacy against multidrug resistant tumours. We have explored further the mechanism of action of alchemix and investigated the effect of extending its side arm bearing the alkylating functionality with regard to DNA binding and activity against multidrug resistant cancer cells. Increasing the distance between the intercalating chromophore and the alkylating functionality of ICT2901 (propyl), ICT2902 (butyl) and ICT2903 (pentyl), led to a higher number of DNA alkylation sites, more potent topoisomerase II inhibition and generated more apoptotic and necrotic cells when analysed in p53-proficient HCT116 cells. Intriguingly, alchemix, the compound with the shortest distance between its intercalative chromophore and alkylating functionality (ethyl), did not conform to this SAR. A different toxicity pattern against DNA repair defective CHO cell lines as well as arrest of cells in Cl supports a somewhat distinct mode of action by alchemix compared with its analogues. Importantly, both alchemix and ICT2901 demonstrated greater cytotoxic activity against anthraquinone-resistant MCF-7/adr cells than wild-type MCF-7 cells. Subtle synthetic modification in this anthraquinone series has led to significant changes to the stability of DNA-compound complexes and cellular activity. Given that the failure of chemotherapy in the clinic is often associated with MDR, the results of both alchemix and ICT2901 represent important advances towards improved therapies.

  • 2. Agianian, Bogos
    et al.
    Lesch, Christine
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi och funktionsgenomik.
    Loseva, Olga
    Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Dushay, Mitchell
    Preliminary characterization of hemolymph coagulation in Anopheles gambiae larvae2007Inngår i: Developmental & Comparative Immunology, ISSN 0145-305X, Vol. 31, s. 879-888Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 3.
    Ahlgren Berg, Alexandra
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Developmental switches in a family of temperate phages2005Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    P2 is the prototype phage of the non-lambdoid P2 family of temperate phages. A developmental switch determines whether a temperate phage will grow lytically or form lysogeny after infection. P2 related phages have two face-to-face located promoters controlling the lysogenic and the lytic operon respectively, and two repressors. The immunity C repressor of P2 is the first gene of the lysogenic operon and it represses the lytic promoter. The Cox protein, the first gene of the lytic operon, is multifunctional. It represses the lysogenic promoter, acts as a directionality factor in site-specific recombination and activates the PLL promoter of satellite phage P4.

    This thesis focuses on comparisons between the developmental switches of P2 and the two heteroimmune family members, P2 Hy dis and WΦ. A characterization of the developmental switch region of P2 Hy dis identifies a directly repeated sequence which is important for C repression. P2 Hy dis Cox can substitute for P2 Cox in repression of the P2 lysogenic promoter, excision of a P2 prophage and activation of P4 PLL. The P4 ε protein can derepress the developmental switch of P2 Hy dis.

    Functional characterizations of the C repressors and Cox proteins of P2 and WΦ show that both C repressors induce bending of their respective DNA targets. WΦ C, like P2 C, has a strong dimerization activity in vivo, but there are no indications of higher oligomeric forms. Despite the high degree of identity in the C-terminus, required for dimerization in P2 C, they seem to be unable to form heterodimers. The two Cox proteins are predicted to have identical secondary structures containing a helix-turn-helix motif believed to be involved in DNA binding. It is, however, not possible to change the DNA specificity of P2 Cox to that of WΦ Cox by swapping the presumed recognition helix. P2 Cox recognizes a sequence repeated at least six times in the different targets, while WΦ Cox seems to recognize a single direct repeat. In contrast to P2 Cox, WΦ Cox binds with a stronger affinity to the switch region than to the attachment site (attP). The Cox proteins induce a strong bend in their DNA targets, strengthening the hypothesis that they have a structural role at site-specific recombination. Both proteins show a capacity to oligomerize, but P2 Cox has a higher tendency to form oligomers than WΦ Cox.

    The P2 integrase mediates site-specific recombination leading to integration or excision of the P2 genome in or out of the host chromosome. P2 Cox controls the direction by inhibiting integration and promoting excision. In this work it is shown that Cox and Int bind cooperatively to attP.

  • 4. Ahlgren-Berg, Alexandra
    et al.
    Cardoso-Palacios, Carlos
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Eriksson, Jesper M.
    Mandali, Sridhar
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Sehlén, Wilhelmina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Sylwan, Lina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Haggård-Ljungquist, Elisabeth
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    A comparative analysis of the bifunctional Cox proteins of two heteroimmune P2-like phages with different host integration sites2009Inngår i: Virology, ISSN 0042-6822, E-ISSN 1096-0341, Vol. 385, nr 2, s. 303-12Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Cox protein of the coliphage P2 is multifunctional; it acts as a transcriptional repressor of the Pc promoter, as a transcriptional activator of the P(LL) promoter of satellite phage P4, and as a directionality factor for site-specific recombination. The Cox proteins constitute a unique group of directionality factors since they couple the developmental switch with the integration or excision of the phage genome. In this work, the DNA binding characteristics of the Cox protein of WPhi, a P2-related phage, are compared with those of P2 Cox. P2 Cox has been shown to recognize a 9 bp sequence, repeated at least 6 times in different targets. In contrast to P2 Cox, WPhi Cox binds with a strong affinity to the early control region that contains an imperfect direct repeat of 12 nucleotides. The removal of one of the repeats has drastic effects on the capacity of WPhi to bind to the Pe-Pc region. Again in contrast to P2 Cox, WPhi Cox has a lower affinity to attP compared to the Pe-Pc region, and a repeat of 9 bp can be found that has 5 bp in common with the repeat in the Pe-Pc region. WPhi Cox, however, is essential for excisive recombination in vitro. WPhi Cox, like P2 Cox, binds cooperatively with integrase to attP. Both Cox proteins induce a strong bend in their DNA targets upon binding.

  • 5. Ahlgren-Berg, Alexandra
    et al.
    Eriksson, Jesper
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Haggård-Ljungquist, Elisabeth
    A comparative analysis of the multifunctional Cox proteins of the two heteroimmune phages P2 and WphiManuskript (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 6.
    Ahlgren-Berg, Alexandra
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Eriksson, Jesper
    Haggård-Ljungquist, Elisabeth
    A comparative analysis of the multifunctional Cox proteins of the two heteroimmune phages P2 and WΦManuskript (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 7.
    Ahlgren-Berg, Alexandra
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Henriksson-Peltola, Petri
    Haggård-Ljungquist, Elisabeth
    The oligomeric states of the two immunity repressor proteins of the heteroimmune coliphages P2 and WΦ, and their effects on DNA topologyManuskript (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 8.
    Ahlgren-Berg, Alexandra
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Henriksson-Peltola, Petri
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Sehlén, Wilhelmina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Haggård-Ljungquist, Elisabeth
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    A comparison of the DNA binding and bending capacities and the oligomeric states of the immunity repressors of heteroimmune coliphages P2 and W Phi2007Inngår i: Nucleic Acids Research, ISSN 0305-1048, E-ISSN 1362-4962, Vol. 35, nr 10, s. 3167-3180Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacteriophages P2 and W Phi are heteroimmune members of the P2-like family of temperate Escherichia coli phages. Temperate phages can grow lytically or form lysogeny after infection. A transcriptional switch that contains two convergent promoters, Pe and Pc, and two repressors regulate what life mode to enter. The immunity repressor C is the first gene of the lysogenic operon, and it blocks the early Pe promoter. In this work, some characteristics of the C proteins of P2 and W Phi are compared. An in vivo genetic analysis shows that W Phi C, like P2C, has a strong dimerization activity in the absence of its DNA target. Both C proteins recognize two directly repeated sequences, termed half-sites and a strong bending is induced in the respective DNA target upon binding. P2C is unable to bind to one half-site as opposed to W Phi, but both half-sites are required for repression of W Phi Pe. A reduction from three to two helical turns between the centers of the half-sites in W Phi has no significant effect on the capacity to repress Pe. However, the protein-DNA complexes formed differ, as determined by electrophoretic mobility shift experiments. A difference in spontaneous phage production is observed in isogenic lysogens.

  • 9. Ainsbury, E A
    et al.
    Bakhanova, E
    Barquinero, J F
    Brai, M
    Chumak, V
    Correcher, V
    Darroudi, F
    Fattibene, P
    Gruel, G
    Guclu, I
    Horn, S
    Jaworska, A
    Kulka, U
    Lindholm, C
    Lloyd, D
    Longo, A
    Marrale, M
    Monteiro Gil, O
    Oestreicher, U
    Pajic, J
    Rakic, B
    Romm, H
    Trompier, F
    Veronese, I
    Voisin, P
    Vral, A
    Whitehouse, C A
    Wieser, A
    Woda, C
    Wojcik, Andrzej
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Rothkamm, K
    REVIEW OF RETROSPECTIVE DOSIMETRY TECHNIQUES FOR EXTERNAL IONISING RADIATION EXPOSURES.2011Inngår i: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 147, nr 4, s. 573-592Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The current focus on networking and mutual assistance in the management of radiation accidents or incidents has demonstrated the importance of a joined-up approach in physical and biological dosimetry. To this end, the European Radiation Dosimetry Working Group 10 on 'Retrospective Dosimetry' has been set up by individuals from a wide range of disciplines across Europe. Here, established and emerging dosimetry methods are reviewed, which can be used immediately and retrospectively following external ionising radiation exposure. Endpoints and assays include dicentrics, translocations, premature chromosome condensation, micronuclei, somatic mutations, gene expression, electron paramagnetic resonance, thermoluminescence, optically stimulated luminescence, neutron activation, haematology, protein biomarkers and analytical dose reconstruction. Individual characteristics of these techniques, their limitations and potential for further development are reviewed, and their usefulness in specific exposure scenarios is discussed. Whilst no single technique fulfils the criteria of an ideal dosemeter, an integrated approach using multiple techniques tailored to the exposure scenario can cover most requirements.

  • 10. Alho, Jussi S.
    et al.
    Herczeg, Gabor
    Söderman, Fredrik
    Laurila, Anssi
    Jonsson, Ingemar K.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Merila, Juha
    Increasing melanism along a latitudinal gradient in a widespread amphibian: local adaptation, ontogenic or environmental plasticity?2010Inngår i: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 10, s. 317-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The thermal benefits of melanism in ectothermic animals are widely recognized, but relatively little is known about population differentiation in the degree of melanism along thermal gradients, and the relative contributions of genetic vs. environmental components into the level of melanism expressed. We investigated variation in the degree of melanism in the common frog (Rana temporaria; an active heliotherm thermoregulator) by comparing the degree of melanism (i) among twelve populations spanning over 1500 km long latitudinal gradient across the Scandinavian Peninsula and (ii) between two populations from latitudinal extremes subjected to larval temperature treatments in a common garden experiment. Results: We found that the degree of melanism increased steeply in the wild as a function of latitude. Comparison of the degree of population differentiation in melanism (P(ST)) and neutral marker loci (F(ST)) revealed that the P(ST) >F(ST), indicating that the differences cannot be explained by random genetic drift alone. However, the latitudinal trend observed in the wild was not present in the common garden data, suggesting that the cline in nature is not attributable to direct genetic differences. Conclusions: As straightforward local adaptation can be ruled out, the observed trend is likely to result from environment-driven phenotypic plasticity or ontogenetic plasticity coupled with population differences in age structure. In general, our results provide an example how phenotypic plasticity or even plain ontogeny can drive latitudinal clines and result in patterns perfectly matching the genetic differences expected under adaptive hypotheses.

  • 11. Al-Minawi, Ali Z.
    et al.
    Lee, Yin-Fai
    Håkansson, Daniel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Lundin, Cecilia
    Saleh-Gohari, Nasrollah
    Schultz, Niklas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Jenssen, Dag
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Bryant, Helen E.
    Meuth, Mark
    Hinz, John M.
    Helleday, Thomas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    The ERCC1/XPF endonuclease is required for completion of homologous recombination at DNA replication forks stalled by inter-strand cross-links2009Inngår i: Nucleic Acids Research, ISSN 0305-1048, E-ISSN 1362-4962, Vol. 37, nr 19, s. 6400-6413Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Both the ERCC1-XPF complex and the proteins involved in homoIogous recombination (HR) have critical roles in inter-strand cross-link (ICL) repair. Here, we report that mitomycin C-induced lesions inhibit replication fork elongation. Furthermore, mitomycin C-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are the result of the collapse of ICL-stalled replication forks. These are not formed through replication run off, as we show that mitomycin C or cisplatin-induced DNA lesions are not incised by global genome nucleotide excision repair (GGR). We also suggest that ICL-lesion repair is initiated either by replication or transcription, as the GGR does not incise ICL-lesions. Furthermore, we report that RAD51 foci are induced by cisplatin or mitomycin C independently of ERCC1, but that mitomycin C-induced HR measured in a reporter construct is impaired in ERCC1-defective cells. These data suggest that ERCC1-XPF plays a role in completion of HR in ICL repair. We also find no additional sensitivity to cisplatin by siRNA co-depletion of XRCC3 and ERCC1, showing that the two proteins act on the same pathway to promote survival.

  • 12. Al-Minawi, Ali Z
    et al.
    Saleh-Gohari, Nasrollah
    Helleday, Thomas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    The ERCC1/XPF endonuclease is required for efficient single-strand annealing and gene conversion in mammalian cells.2007Inngår i: Nucleic Acids Res, ISSN 1362-4962Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 13.
    Al-Minawi, Ali Z
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Saleh-Gohari, Nasrollah
    Helleday, Thomas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    The ERCC1/XPF endonuclease is required for efficient single-strand annealing and gene conversion in mammalian cells2008Inngår i: Nucleic Acids Research, ISSN 0305-1048, E-ISSN 1362-4962, Vol. 36, nr 1, s. 1-9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The mammalian ERCC1-XPF endonuclease has a suggested role in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) by single-strand annealing (SSA). Here, we investigated the role of ERCC1 in homologous recombination in mammalian cells, and confirm a role of ERCC1 in SSA. Interestingly, we also report an unexpected role for ERCC1 in gene conversion. This provides support that gene conversion in mammalian somatic cells is carried out through synthesis-dependent strand annealing, rather than through a double Holliday Junction mechanism. Moreover, we find low frequencies of SSA and gene conversion in G1-arrested cells, suggesting that SSA is not a frequent DSB repair pathway in G1-arrested mammalian cells, even in the presence of perfect repeats. Furthermore, we find that SSA is not influenced by inhibition of CDK2 (using Roscovitine), ATM (using Caffeine and KU55933), Chk1 (using CEP-3891) or DNA-PK (using NU7026).

  • 14.
    Al-Ubaidi, Firas L. T.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Schultz, Niklas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Egevad, Lars
    Granfors, Torvald
    Helleday, Thomas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    CASTRATION THERAPY OF PROSTATE CANCER RESULTS IN DOWNREGULATION OF HIF-1 alpha LEVELS2012Inngår i: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, ISSN 0360-3016, E-ISSN 1879-355X, Vol. 82, nr 3, s. 1243-1248Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Purpose: Neoadjuvant androgen deprivation in combination with radiotherapy of prostate cancer is used to improve radioresponsiveness and local tumor control. Currently, the underlying mechanism is not well understood. Because hypoxia causes resistance to radiotherapy, we wanted to test whether castration affects the degree of hypoxia in prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: In 14 patients with locally advanced prostate cancer, six to 12 prostatic needle core biopsy specimens were taken prior to castration therapy. Bilateral orchidectomy was performed in 7 patients, and 7 were treated with a GnRH-agonist (leuprorelin). After castrationm two to four prostatic core biopsy specimens were taken, and the level of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha) in cancer was determined by immunofluorescence. Results: Among biopsy specimens taken before castration, strong HIF-1 alpha expression (mean intensity above 30) was shown in 5 patients, weak expression (mean intensity 10-30) in 3 patients, and background levels of HIF-1 alpha (mean intensity 0-10) in 6 patients. Downregulation of HIF-1 alpha expression after castration was observed in all 5 patients with strong HIF-1 alpha precastration expression. HIF-1 alpha expression was also reduced in 2 of 3 patients with weak HIF-1 alpha precastration expression. Conclusions: Our data suggest that neoadjuvant castration decreases tumor cell hypoxia in prostate cancer, which may explain increased radiosensitivity after castration.

  • 15. Andersen, Liselotte
    et al.
    Olsen, Morten
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Distribution and population structure of North Atlantic harbour seals2010Inngår i: NAMMCO scientific publications, ISSN 1560-2206, E-ISSN 2309-2491, Vol. 8, s. 15-36Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 16.
    Arnaudeau, Catherine
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Lundin, Cecilia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad kommunikationsvetenskap - GI och IHR.
    Helleday, Thomas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    DNA Double-strand Breaks Associated with Replication Forks are Predominantly Repaired by Homologous Recombination Involving an Exchange Mechanism in Mammalian Cells2001Inngår i: Journal of Molecular Biology, ISSN 0022-2836, Vol. 307, nr 5, s. 1235-45Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) represent a major disruption in the integrity of the genome. DSB can be generated when a replication fork encounters a DNA lesion. Recombinational repair is known to resolve such replication fork-associated DSB, but the molecular mechanism of this repair process is poorly understood in mammalian cells. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanism by which recombination resolves camptothecin (CPT)-induced DSB at DNA replication forks. The frequency of homologous recombination (HR) was measured using V79/SPD8 cells which contain a duplication in the endogenous hprt gene that is resolved by HR. We demonstrate that DSB associated with replication forks induce HR at the hprt gene in early S phase. Further analysis revealed that these HR events involve an exchange mechanism. Both the irs1SF and V3-3 cell lines, which are deficient in HR and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), respectively, were found to be more sensitive than wild-type cells to DSB associated with replication forks. The irs1SF cell line was more sensitive in this respect than V3-3 cells, an observation consistent with the hypothesis that DSB associated with replication forks are repaired primarily by HR. The frequency of formation of DSB associated with replication forks was not affected in HR and NHEJ deficient cells, indicating that the loss of repair, rather than the formation of DSB associated with replication forks is responsible for the increased sensitivity of the mutant strains. We propose that the presence of DSB associated with replication forks rapidly induces HR via an exchange mechanism and that HR plays a more prominent role in the repair of such DSB than does NHEJ

  • 17. Arrighi, Romanico B G
    et al.
    Debierre-Grockiego, Françoise
    Schwarz, Ralph T
    Faye, Ingrid
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    The immunogenic properties of protozoan glycosylphosphatidylinositols in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae.2009Inngår i: Developmental and Comparative Immunology, ISSN 0145-305X, E-ISSN 1879-0089, Vol. 33, nr 2, s. 216-23Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In contrast to humans, mosquitoes do not have an adaptive immune response to deal with pathogens, and therefore must rely on their innate immune system to deal with invaders. This facilitates the recognition of different microbes on the basis of surface components or antigens. Such antigens have been identified in various types of microbe such as bacteria and fungi, yet none has been identified in the genus protozoa, which includes pathogens such as the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii. This study allowed us to test the antigenic properties of protozoan glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) on the mosquito immune system. We found that both P. falciparum GPI and T. gondii GPI induce the strong expression of several antimicrobial peptides following ingestion, and that as a result of the immune response against the GPIs, the number of eggs produced by the mosquito is reduced dramatically. Such effects have been associated with malaria infected mosquitoes, but never associated with a Plasmodium specific antigen. This study demonstrates that protozoan GPIs can be considered as protozoan specific immune elicitors in mosquitoes, and that P. falciparum GPI plays a critical role in the malaria parasite manipulation of the mosquito vector to facilitate its transmission.

  • 18.
    Arrighi, Romanico B. G.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Ebikeme, Charles
    Jiang, Yang
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för neurokemi.
    Ranford-Cartwright, Lisa
    Barrett, Michael P.
    Langel, Ülo
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för neurokemi.
    Faye, Ingrid
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Cell-penetrating peptide TP10 shows broad-spectrum activity against both Plasmodium falciparum and Trypanosoma brucei brucei2008Inngår i: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, ISSN 0066-4804, E-ISSN 1098-6596, Vol. 52, nr 9, s. 3414-3417Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Malaria and trypanosomiasis are diseases which afflict millions and for which novel therapies are urgently required. We have tested two well-characterized cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) for antiparasitic activity. One CPP, designated TP10, has broad-spectrum antiparasitic activity against Plasmodium falciparum, both blood and mosquito stages, and against blood-stage Trypanosoma brucei brucei.

  • 19. Arrighi, Romanico B. G.
    et al.
    Faye, Ingrid
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Plasmodium falciparum GPI toxin: A common foe for man and mosquito2010Inngår i: Acta Tropica, ISSN 0001-706X, E-ISSN 1873-6254, Vol. 114, nr 3, s. 162-165Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, which can be regarded as an endotoxin, plays a role in the induced pathology associated with severe malaria in humans. However, it is unclear whether the main mosquito vector, Anopheles gambiae, can specifically recognize, and respond to GPI from the malaria parasite. Recent data suggests that the malaria vector does mount a specific response against malaria GPI. In addition, following the strong immune response, mosquito fecundity is severely affected, resulting in a significant reduction in viable eggs produced. In this mini-review we look at the increased interest in understanding the way that malaria antigens are recognized in the mosquito, and how this relates to a better understanding of the interactions between the malaria parasite and both human and vector.

  • 20.
    Assefaw-Redda, Y
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Hollingdale, M
    Faye, I
    In vivo development of Plasmodium falciparum is inhibited by the moth immune protein hemolinManuskript (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 21.
    Assefaw-Redda, Yohannes
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Hemolin expression during Cecropia development and its effect on malaria parasites2005Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Hemolin is a lepidopteran member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, initially isolated from the giant silkmoth Hyalophora cecropia. Hemolin is also induced by stimulation with microbial cell wall components and was recently shown to be strongly upregulated by baculovirus and double stranded RNA. An interesting characteristic of the protein is that it is not only highly expressed during infection but also during development.

    The work presented in this thesis investigated the expression of hemolin during oogenesis and embryogenesis in H. cecropia. Vitellogenic follicles from ovaries were analysed for the presence of the protein by immunohistochemistry in whole-mount preparations and in cryosections. PCR was used to show the presence of Hemolin transcripts throughout vitellogenesis and choriogenesis and in fertilized and unfertilized mature eggs and Western blots showed the protein in unfertilized eggs, yolk cells and embryo.

    Injection of the moulting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) into hibernating diapausing pupae (low metabolic state), upregulates Hemolin. When diapausing pupae were treated with 20E and the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide, its expression stayed low. This shows that the hormone indirectly regulates Hemolin by some factor(s) induced by 20E. When both bacteria and 20E were injected into diapausing pupae, an enhanced induction of hemolin gene expression occurred. Despite the seemingly indirect 20E regulation, several putative hormone responsive elements were found in the upstream region of the Hemolin (HRE-IR, HRE-M and MRE). When these elements were analysed by gel electrophoresis mobility shift assays (EMSA) to investigate their binding to nuclear factors, all the sites resulted in specific retarded bands. The HRE-IR binding factor was clearly increased by ecdysone. Last but not least we have investigated the effect of Hemolin on development of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in the midgut of the Anopheles mosquitoes. Hemolin completely inhibits the development of the parasite into its final transmission stage, the sporozoite. A future goal is to generate para-transgenic mosquitoes, enforced by hemolin, to stop malaria transmission. Importantly, hemolin did not affect the mosquito fecundity when fed to the mosquito. We are currently constructing truncated forms of hemolin to gain insight into which parts are important for its effect on the parasite.

  • 22. Azimzadeh, Omid
    et al.
    Scherthan, Harry
    Yentrapalli, Ramesh
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Barjaktarovic, Zarko
    Ueffing, Marius
    Conrad, Marcus
    Neff, Frauke
    Calzada-Wack, Julia
    Aubele, Michaela
    Buske, Christian
    Atkinson, Michael J.
    Hauck, Stefanie M.
    Tapio, Soile
    Label-free protein profiling of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) heart tissue reveals immediatemitochondrial impairment after ionising radiation2012Inngår i: Journal of Proteomics, ISSN 1874-3919, E-ISSN 1876-7737, Vol. 75, nr 8, s. 2384-2395Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Qualitative proteome profiling of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue is advancing the field of clinical proteomics. However, quantitative proteome analysis of FFPE tissue is hampered by the lack of an efficient labelling method. The usage of conventional protein labelling on FFPE tissue has turned out to be inefficient. Classical labelling targets lysine residues that are blocked by the formalin treatment. The aim of this study was to establish a quantitative proteomics analysis of FFPE tissue by combining the label-free approach with optimised protein extraction and separation conditions. As a model system we used FFPE heart tissue of control and exposed C57BL/6 mice after total body irradiation using a gamma ray dose of 3 gray. We identified 32 deregulated proteins (p <= 0.05) in irradiated hearts 24 h after the exposure. The proteomics data were further evaluated and validated by bioinformatics and immunoblotting investigation. In good agreement with our previous results using fresh-frozen tissue, the analysis indicated radiation-induced alterations in three main biological pathways: respiratory chain, lipid metabolism and pyruvate metabolism. The label-free approach enables the quantitative measurement of radiation-induced alterations in FFPE tissue and facilitates retrospective biomarker identification using clinical archives.

  • 23. Azimzadeh, Omid
    et al.
    Sievert, Wolfgang
    Sarioglu, Hakan
    Yentrapalli, ramesh
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Barjaktarovic, Zarko
    Sriharshan, Arundhathi
    Ueffing, Marius
    Janik, Dirk
    Aichler, Michaela
    Atkinson, Michael J
    Multhoff, Gabriele
    Tapio, Soile
    PPAR Alpha: A Novel Radiation Target in Locally Exposed Mus musculus Heart Revealed by Quantitative Proteomics2013Inngår i: Journal of Proteome Research, ISSN 1535-3893, E-ISSN 1535-3907, Vol. 12, nr 6, s. 2700-2714Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Radiation exposure of the thorax is associated with a markedly increased risk of cardiac morbidity and mortality with a latency period of decades. Although many studies have confirmed the damaging effect of ionizing radiation on the myocardium and cardiac endothelial structure and function, the molecular mechanism behind this damage is not yet elucidated. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha), a transcriptional regulator of lipid metabolism in heart tissue, has recently received great attention in the development of cardiovascular disease. The goal of this study was to investigate radiation-induced cardiac damage in general and the role of PPAR alpha in this process in particular. C57BL/6 mice received local heart irradiation with X-ray doses of 8 and 16 gray (Gy) at the age of 8 weeks. The mice were sacrificed 16 weeks later. Radiation-induced changes in the cardiac proteome were quantified using the Isotope Coded Protein Label (ICPL) method followed by mass spectrometry and software analysis. Significant alterations were observed in proteins involved in lipid metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation. Ionizing radiation markedly changed the phosphorylation and ubiquitination status of PPAR alpha. This was reflected as decreased expression of its target genes involved in energy metabolism and mitochondrial respiratory chain confirming the proteomics data. This study suggests that persistent alteration of cardiac metabolism due to impaired PPAR alpha activity contributes to the heart pathology after radiation.

  • 24. Bai, Ming
    et al.
    Gad, Helge
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Turacchio, Gabriele
    Cocucci, Emanuele
    Yang, Jia-Shu
    Li, Jian
    Beznoussenko, Galina V.
    Nie, Zhongzhen
    Luo, Ruibai
    Fu, Lianwu
    Collawn, James F.
    Kirchhausen, Tomas
    Luini, Alberto
    Hsu, Victor W.
    ARFGAP1 promotes AP-2-dependent endocytosis2011Inngår i: Nature Cell Biology, ISSN 1465-7392, E-ISSN 1476-4679, Vol. 13, nr 5, s. 559-U144Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    COPI (coat protein I) and the clathrin-AP-2 (adaptor protein 2) complex are well-characterized coat proteins, but a component that is common to these two coats has not been identified. The GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1), ARFGAP1, is a known component of the COPI complex. Here, we show that distinct regions of ARFGAP1 interact with AP-2 and coatomer (components of the COPI complex). Selectively disrupting the interaction of ARFGAP1 with either of these two coat proteins leads to selective inhibition in the corresponding transport pathway. The role of ARFGAP1 in AP-2-regulated endocytosis has mechanistic parallels with its roles in COPI transport, as both its GAP activity and coat function contribute to promoting AP-2 transport.

  • 25.
    Bajinskis, Ainars
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Studies of DNA repair strategies in response to complex DNA damages2012Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of this thesis was to study the role of the indirect actions of γ-rays and α-particles on the complexity of primary DNA damages and the repair fidelity of major DNA repair pathways: non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), homologous recombination repair (HRR) and base excision repair (BER). The complexity of radiation-induced damages increases and the proximity between damages decreases with increasing LET due to formation of ionization clusters along the particle track. The complexity of damages formed can be modified by the free radical scavenger dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). In addition, the effects of low doses of low dose rate γ-radiation on cellular response in terms of differentiation were investigated.

    Paper I investigates the role of the indirect effect of radiation on repair fidelity of HRR, NHEJ and BER when damages of different complexity were induced by radiation or by potassium bromate. We found that potassium bromate induces complex DNA damages through processing of base modifications and that the indirect effect of radiation has a high impact on the NHEJ pathway. Results in paper II confirmed our conclusions in paper I that the indirect effect from both γ-rays and α-particles has an impact on all three repair pathways studied and NHEJ benefits the most when the indirect effect of radiation is removed.

    In paper III we investigated the effects of low dose/dose rate γ-radiation on the developmental process of neural cells by using cell models for neurons and astrocytes. Our results suggest that low dose/dose rate γ-radiation attenuates differentiation and down-regulates proteins involved in the differentiation process of neural cells by an epigenetic rather than cytotoxic mechanism.

  • 26.
    Bajinskis, Ainars
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Erixon, Klaus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Natarajan, Adayapalam T.
    Harms-ringdah, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    The response of HRR-deficient Chinese hamster ovary cell line reveals significant contribution of the indirect effect from both γ-rays and α-particles on NHEJ pathwayManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to investigate the relative involvement of the different DNA repair pathways NHEJ, HRR and BER in repair of DNA lesions of different complexity, we have compared clonogenic survival and induction of micronuclei in a panel of repair-deficient CHO cell lines after exposure to γ-rays and α-particle radiation. The complexity of the DNA lesions formed was also modified by exposures to2 MDMSO, a potent radical scavenger, which is known to interact with the lesions produced by direct hits on DNA.

    The NHEJ pathway gained the most from scavenging of the free radicals after irradiation to γ-rays or α-particles as evaluated by cell survival and the yields of MN. Results presented here also implicate that clustered base damages were induced by α-radiation and contributed to the yield of DNA double-strand breaks.

  • 27.
    Bajinskis, Ainars
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Erixon, Klaus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Natarajan, Adayapalam T.
    Harms-Ringdahl, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    The response of HRR-deficient Chinese hamster ovary cell line reveals significant contribution of the indirect effect from both γ-rays and α-particles on NHEJ pathwayManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to investigate the relative involvement of the different DNA repair pathways NHEJ, HRR and BER in repair of DNA lesions of different complexity, we have compared clonogenic survival and induction of micronuclei in a panel of repair-deficient CHO cell lines after exposure to γ-rays and α-particle radiation. The complexity of the DNA lesions formed was also modified by exposures to 2 M DMSO, a potent radical scavenger, which is known to interact with the lesions produced by direct hits on DNA.

    The NHEJ pathway gained the most from scavenging of the free radicals after irradiation to γ-rays or α-particles as evaluated by cell survival and the yields of MN. Results presented here also implicate that clustered base damages were induced by α-radiation and contributed to the yield of DNA double-strand breaks.

  • 28.
    Bajinskis, Ainars
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Lindegren, Helene
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för neurokemi.
    Johansson, Lotta
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för neurokemi.
    Harms-Ringdahl, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Forsby, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för neurokemi.
    Low-Dose/Dose-Rate gamma Radiation Depresses Neural Differentiation and Alters Protein Expression Profiles in Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells and C17.2 Neural Stem Cells2011Inngår i: Radiation Research, ISSN 0033-7587, E-ISSN 1938-5404, Vol. 175, nr 2, s. 185-192Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of low doses of ionizing radiation on cellular development in the nervous system are presently unclear. The focus of the present study was to examine low-dose gamma-radiation-induced effects on the differentiation of neuronal cells and on the development of neural stem cells to glial cells. Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were exposed to (137)Cs gamma rays at different stages of retinoic acid-induced neuronal differentiation, and neurite formation was determined 6 days after exposure. When SH-SY5Y cells were exposed to low-dose-rate gamma rays at the onset of differentiation, the number of neurites formed per cell was significantly less after exposure to either 10, 30 or 100 mGy compared to control cells. Exposure to 10 and 30 mGy attenuated differentiation of immature C17.2 mouse-derived neural stem cells to glial cells, as verified by the diminished expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein. Proteomic analysis of the neuroblastoma cells by 2D-PAGE after 30 mGy irradiation showed that proteins involved in neuronal development were downregulated. Proteins involved in cell cycle and proliferation were altered in both cell lines after exposure to 30 mGy; however, the rate of cell proliferation was not affected in the low-dose range. The radiation-induced attenuation of differentiation and the persistent changes in protein expression is indicative of an epigenetic rather than a cytotoxic mechanism. (C) 2011 by Radiation Research Society

  • 29.
    Bajinskis, Ainars
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Olsson, Gunilla
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Harms-Ringdahl, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    The indirect effect of radiation reduces the repair fidelity of NHEJ as verified in repair deficient CHO cell lines exposed to different radiation qualities and potassium bromate2012Inngår i: Mutation research, ISSN 0027-5107, E-ISSN 1873-135X, Vol. 731, s. 125-132Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The complexity of DNA lesions induced by ionizing radiation is mainly dependent on radiation quality, where the indirect action of radiation may contribute to different extent depending on the type of radiation under study. The effect of indirect action of radiation can be investigated by using agents that induce oxidative DNA damage or by applying free radical scavengers. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the indirect effect of radiation for the repair fidelity of non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), homologous recombination repair (HRR) and base excision repair (BER) when DNA damage of different complexity was induced by gamma radiation, alpha particles or from base damages (8-oxo-dG) induced by  potassium bromate (KBrO3).

    CHO cells lines deficient in XRCC3 (HRR) irs1SF, XRCC7 (NHEJ) V3-3 and XRCC1 (BER) EM9 were irradiated in the absence or presence of the free radical scavenger dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO). The endpoints investigated included rate of cell proliferation by the DRAG assay, clonogenic cell survival and the level of primary DNA damage by the comet assay.

    The results revealed that the indirect effect of low-LET radiation significantly reduced the repair fidelity of both NHEJ and HRR pathways. For high-LET radiation the indirect effect of radiation also significantly reduced the repair fidelity for the repair deficient cell lines. The results suggest further that the repair fidelity of the error prone NHEJ repair pathway is more impaired by the indirect effect of high-LET radiation relative to the other repair pathways studied. 

    The response to bromate observed for the two DSB repair deficient cell lines strongly support earlier studies that bromate induces complex DNA damages. The significantly reduced repair fidelity of irs1SF and V3-3 suggests that NHEJ as well as HRR are needed for the repair, and that complex DSBs are formed after bromate exposure.

  • 30.
    Basmarke-Wehelie, Rahma
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Sjölinder, Hong
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Jurkowski, Wiktor
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Elofsson, Arne
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Arnqvist, Anna
    Umea Univ, Dept Med Biochem & Biophys, Sweden.
    Engstrand, Lars
    Karolinska Inst, Swedish Inst Infect Dis Control, Sweden.
    Hagner, Matthias
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Wallin, Elin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Guan, Na
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Kuranasekera, Hasanthi
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Aro, Helena
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Jonsson, Ann-Beth
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    The complement regulator CD46 is bactericidal to Helicobacter pylori and blocks urease activity2011Inngår i: Gastroenterology, ISSN 0016-5085, E-ISSN 1528-0012, Vol. 141, nr 3, s. 918-928Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: CD46 is a C3b/C4b binding complement regulator and a receptor for several human pathogens. We examined the interaction between CD46 and Helicobacter pylori (a bacterium that colonizes the human gastric mucosa and causes gastritis), peptic ulcers, and cancer.

    METHODS: Using gastric epithelial cells, we analyzed a set of H pylori strains and mutants for their ability to interact with CD46 and/or influence CD46 expression. Bacterial interaction with full-length CD46 and small CD46 peptides was evaluated by flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and bacterial survival analyses.

    RESULTS: H pylori infection caused shedding of CD46 into the extracellular environment. A soluble form of CD46 bound to H pylori and inhibited growth, in a dose- and time-dependent manner, by interacting with urease and alkyl hydroperoxide reductase, which are essential bacterial pathogenicity-associated factors. Binding of CD46 or CD46-derived synthetic peptides blocked the urease activity and ability of bacteria to survive in acidic environments. Oral administration of one CD46 peptide eradicated H pylori from infected mice.

    CONCLUSIONS: CD46 is an antimicrobial agent that can eradicate H pylori. CD46 peptides might be developed to treat H pylori infection.

  • 31. Bauerschmidt, Christina
    et al.
    Woodcock, Michael
    Stevens, David L.
    Hill, Mark A.
    Rothkamm, Kai
    Helleday, Thomas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Cohesin phosphorylation and mobility of SMC1 at ionizing radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks in human cells2011Inngår i: Experimental Cell Research, ISSN 0014-4827, E-ISSN 1090-2422, Vol. 317, nr 3, s. 330-337Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cohesin, a hetero-tetrameric complex of SMC1, SMC3, Rad21 and Scc3, associates with chromatin after mitosis and holds sister chromatids together following DNA replication. Following DNA damage, cohesin accumulates at and promotes the repair of DNA double-strand breaks. In addition, phosphorylation of the SMC1/3 subunits contributes to DNA damage-induced cell cycle checkpoint regulation. The aim of this study was to determine the regulation and consequences of SMC1/3 phosphorylation as part of the cohesin complex. We show here that the ATM-dependent phosphorylation of SMC1 and SMC3 is mediated by H2AX, 53BP1 and MDC1. Depletion of RAD21 abolishes these phosphorylations, indicating that only the fully assembled complex is phosphorylated. Comparison of wild type SMC1 and SMC1S966A in fluorescence recovery after photo-bleaching experiments shows that phosphorylation of SMC1 is required for an increased mobility after DNA damage in G2-phase cells, suggesting that ATM-dependent phosphorylation facilitates mobilization of the cohesin complex after DNA damage.

  • 32. Beck, Halfdan
    et al.
    Nahse, Viola
    Larsen, Marie Sofie Yoo
    Groth, Petra
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Clancy, Trevor
    Lees, Michael
    Jörgensen, Mette
    Helleday, Thomas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Syljuasen, Randi G.
    Sörensen, Claus Storgaard
    Regulators of cyclin-dependent kinases are crucial for maintaining genome integrity in S phase2010Inngår i: Journal of Cell Biology, ISSN 0021-9525, E-ISSN 1540-8140, Vol. 188, nr 5, s. 629-638Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Maintenance of genome integrity is of critical importance to cells. To identify key regulators of genomic integrity, we screened a human cell line with a kinome small interfering RNA library. WEE1, a major regulator of mitotic entry, and CHK1 were among the genes identified. Both kinases are important negative regulators of CDK1 and -2. Strikingly, WEE1 depletion rapidly induced DNA damage in S phase in newly replicated DNA, which was accompanied by a marked increase in single-stranded DNA. This DNA damage is dependent on CDK1 and -2 as well as the replication proteins MCM2 and CDT1 but not CDC25A. Conversely, DNA damage after CHK1 inhibition is highly dependent on CDC25A. Furthermore, the inferior proliferation of CHK1-depleted cells is improved substantially by codepletion of CDC25A. We conclude that the mitotic kinase WEE1 and CHK1 jointly maintain balanced cellular control of Cdk activity during normal DNA replication, which is crucial to prevent the generation of harmful DNA lesions during replication.

  • 33.
    Belotserkovsky, Jaroslav
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Studies of Initiation Factors I and ITS Interaction with Ribosomal RNA in Escherichia coli2009Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 34.
    Belotserkovsky, Jaroslav
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Studies on the functional interaction of translation initiation factor IF1 with ribosomal RNA2012Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Translation initiation factor IF1 is a small, essential and ubiquitous protein factor encoded by a single infA gene in bacteria. Although several important functions have been attributed to IF1, the precise reason for its indispensability is yet to be defined. It is known that IF1 binds to the ribosomal A-site during initiation, where it primarily contacts ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and induces large scale conformational changes in the small ribosomal subunit. To shed more light on the function of IF1 and its interaction with the ribosome, we have employed a genetic approach to elucidate structure-function interactions between IF1 and rRNA. A selection has been used to isolate second site suppressor mutations in rRNA that restore the growth of a cold sensitive mutant IF1 with an arginine to leucine substitution in position 69 (R69L).  This yielded two classes of suppressors – one class that mapped to the processing stem of 23S rRNA – a transient structure important for proper maturation of 23S rRNA; and the other class to the functional sequence of 16S rRNA. Suppressor mutations in the processing stem of 23S rRNA were shown to disrupt efficient processing of 23S rRNA. In addition, we report that at least one of the manifestations of cold sensitivity associated with the mutant IF1 is at the level of ribosomal subunit association. These results led to a model whereby the cold sensitive R69L mutant IF1 results in aberrant ribosomal subunit association properties, while the 23S processing stem mutations indirectly suppress this effect by decreasing the pool of mature 50S subunits available for association.  Spontaneous suppressor mutations in 16S rRNA were diverse in position and phenotypic properties, but all mutations affected ribosomal subunit association, in most cases by directly decreasing the affinity of the 30S for 50S subunits. Site directed mutagenesis of select positions in 16S rRNA yielded additional suppressor mutations that were localized to the mRNA and streptomycin binding sites on the small ribosomal subunit. We suggest that the 16S rRNA suppressors occur in positions that affect the conformational dynamics brought about by IF1. Taken together, this work indicates that the major function of IF1 is the modulation of ribosomal subunit association brought about through conformational changes of the 30S subunit.

  • 35.
    Belotserkovsky, Jaroslav
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Isaksson, Leif
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Mutations in the streptomycin and mRNA binding sites on 16S rRNA suppress a cold sensitive initiation factor IF1Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 36.
    Belotserkovsky, Jaroslav M.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Dabbs, Eric R.
    Isaksson, Leif A.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Mutations in 16S rRNA that suppress cold-sensitive initiation factor 1 affect ribosomal subunit association2011Inngår i: The FEBS Journal, ISSN 1742-464X, E-ISSN 1742-4658, Vol. 278, nr 18, s. 3508-3517Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A mutation in the infA gene encoding initiation factor 1 (IF1) gives rise to a cold-sensitive phenotype. An Escherichia coli strain with this mutation was used as a tool to select for second-site suppressors that compensate for the cold sensitivity and map specifically to rRNA. Several suppressor mutants with altered 16S rRNA that partially restore growth of an IF1 mutant strain in the cold were isolated and characterized. Suppressor mutations were found in helix (h) 18, h32, h34 and h41 in 16S rRNA. These mutations are not clustered to any particular region in 16S rRNA and none overlap previously reported sites of interaction with IF1. While the isolated suppressors are structurally diverse, they are functionally related because all affect ribosomal subunit association in vivo. Furthermore, in vitro subunit-association experiments indicate that most of the suppressor mutations directly influence ribosomal subunit association even though none of these are confined to any of the known intersubunit bridges. These results are consistent with the model that IF1 is an rRNA chaperone that induces large-scale conformational changes in the small ribosomal subunit, and as a consequence modulates initiation of translation by affecting subunit association.

  • 37.
    Belotserkovsky, Jaroslav M.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Isak, Georgina I.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Isaksson, Leif A.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Suppression of a cold-sensitive mutant initiation factor 1 by alterations in the 23S rRNA maturation region2011Inngår i: The FEBS Journal, ISSN 1742-464X, E-ISSN 1742-4658, Vol. 278, nr 10, s. 1745-1756Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Genetic selection has been used to isolate second-site suppressors of a defective cold-sensitive initiation factor I (IF1) R69L mutant of Escherichia coli. The suppressor mutants specifically map to a single rRNA operon on a plasmid in a strain with all chromosomal rRNA operons deleted. Here, we describe a set of suppressor mutations that are located in the processing stem of precursor 23S rRNA. These mutations interfere with processing of the 23S rRNA termini. A lesion of RNase III also suppresses the cold sensitivity. Our results suggest that the mutant IF1 strain is perturbed at the level of ribosomal subunit association, and the suppressor mutations partially compensate for this defect by disrupting rRNA maturation. These results support the notion that IF1 is an RNA chaperone and that translation initiation is coupled to ribosomal maturation.

  • 38. Beltran-Pardo, Eliana A.
    et al.
    Jönsson, Ingemar
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi. Kristianstad University, Sweden.
    Wojcik, Andrzej
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Haghdoost, Siamak
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Harms-Ringdahl, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Bermudez Cruz, Rosa Maria
    Bernal Villegas, Jaime E.
    Sequence analysis of the DNA-repair gene rad51 in the tardigrades Milnesium cf. tardigradum, Hypsibius dujardini and Macrobiotus cf. harmsworthi2013Inngår i: Journal of limnology, ISSN 1129-5767, E-ISSN 1723-8633, Vol. 72, s. 80-91Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Tardigrades are known for being resistant to extreme conditions, including tolerance to ionising and UV radiation in both the hydrated and the dehydrated state. It is known that these factors may cause damage to DNA. It has recently been shown that single and double DNA strand breaks occur when tardigrades are maintained for a long time in the anhydrobiotic state. This may suggest that perhaps tardigrades rely on efficient DNA repair mechanisms. Among all proteins that comprise the DNA repair system, recombinases such as RecA or Rad51 have a very important function: DNA exchange activity. This enzyme is used in the homologous recombination and allows repair of the damaged strand using homologous non-damaged strands as a template. In this study, Rad51 induction was evaluated by western blot in Milnesium cf. tardigradum, after exposure to gamma radiation. The Rad51 protein was highly induced by radiation, when compared to the control. The rad51 genes were searched in three tardigrades: Milnesium cf. tardigradum, Hypsibius dujardini and Macrobiotus cf. harmsworthi. The gene sequences were obtained by preparing and sequencing transcriptome libraries for H. dujardini and M. cf. harmsworthi and designing rad51 degenerate primers specific for M. cf. tardigradum. Comparison of Rad51 putative proteins from tardigrades with other organisms showed that they are highly similar to the corresponding sequence from the nematode Trichinella spiralis. A structure-based sequence alignment from tardigrades and other organisms revealed that putative Rad51 predicted proteins from tardigrades contain the expected motifs for these important recombinases. In a cladogram tree based on this alignment, tardigrades tend to cluster together suggesting that they have selective differences in these genes that make them diverge between species. Predicted Rad51 structures from tardigrades were also compared with crystalline structure of Rad51 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These results reveal that S. cerevisiae Rad51 structure is very similar to that of the three analysed tardigrades. On the other hand the predicted structure of Rad51 from M. cf. harmsworthi and H. dujardini are closer related to each other, than each of them to that of M. cf. tardigradum.

  • 39.
    Belyaev, I. Y.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Radiation-induced DNA repair foci: Spatio-temporal aspects of formation, application for assessment of radiosensitivity and biological dosimetry2010Inngår i: Mutation Research, ISSN 1383-5742, E-ISSN 1388-2139, Vol. 704, nr 03-jan, s. 132-141Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Several proteins involved in DNA repair and DNA damage signaling have been shown to produce discrete foci in response to ionizing radiation. These foci are believed to co-localize to DSB and referred to as ionizing radiation-induced foci (IRIF) or DNA repair foci. Recent studies have revealed that some residual IRIF remain in cells for a relatively long time after irradiation, and have indicated a possible correlation between radiosensitivity of cells and residual IRIF. Remarkably, residual foci are significantly larger in size than the initial foci. Increase in the size of IRIF with time upon irradiation has been found in various cell types and has partially been correlated with dynamics and fusion of initial foci. Although it is admitted that the number of IRIF reflect that of DSB, several studies report a lack of correlation between kinetics for IRIF and DSB and a lack of co-localization between DSB repair proteins. These studies suggest that some proportion of residual IRIF that depend on cell type, dose, and postirradiation time may represent alternations in chromatin structure after DSB have been repaired or misrepaired. While precise functions of residual foci are presently unknown, their possible link to remaining chromatin alternations, nuclear matrix, apoptosis, delayed repair and misrejoining of DSB, activity of several kinases, phosphatases, and checkpoint signaling has been suggested. Another intriguing possibility is that some of DNA repair foci may mark break-points at chromosomal aberrations (CA). While this possibility has not been confirmed substantially, the residual foci seem to be useful for biological dosimetry and estimation of individual radiosensitivity in radiotherapy of cancer.

  • 40. Belyaev, I. Y.
    et al.
    Eriksson, S
    Nygren, J
    Torudd, J
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Harms-Ringdahl, M
    Effects of ethidium bromide on DNA loop organisation in human lymphocytes measured by anomalous viscosity time dependence and single cell gel electrophoresis1999Inngår i: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. General subjects, ISSN 0304-4165, Vol. 1428, nr 2-3, s. 348-356Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 41.
    Belyaev, Igor
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Toxicity and SOS response to ELF magnetic field and nalidixic acid in E. coli cells2011Inngår i: Mutation research. Genetic toxicology and environmental mutagenesis, ISSN 1383-5718, E-ISSN 1879-3592, Vol. 722, nr 1, s. 84-88Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields have previously been shown to affect conformation of chromatin and cell proliferation. Possible genotoxic and carcinogenic effects of ELF have also been discussed and tested. In this study, we analyzed the effect of ELF on chromatin conformation in E. coil GE499 cells by the anomalous viscosity time dependence (AVTD) technique. Possible genotoxic ELF effects at the specific combination of static and ELF magnetic fields, that has been proven to have effects on chromatin conformation, were investigated by clonogenic assay, cell growth kinetics, and analysis of SOS-response using inducible recA-lacZ fusion and the beta-galactosidase assay. Genotoxic agent nalidixic acid (NAL) was used as positive control and in combination with ELF. Nalidixic acid at 3-30 mu g/ml decreased the AVTD peaks and induced cytotoxic effect. In contrast to NAL, ELF increased AVTD, stimulated cell growth, and increased cloning efficiency. These effects depended on frequency within the frequency range of 7-11 Hz. While NAL induced SOS response, ELF exposure did not induce the recA-lacZ fusion. Exposure to ELF did not modify the genotoxic effects of NAL either. All together, the data show that ELF, under specific conditions of exposure, acted as nontoxic but cell growth stimulating agent.

  • 42.
    Belyaev, Igor
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Toxicity and SOS-response to ELF magnetic fields and nalidixic acid in E. coli cells2011Inngår i: Mutation research. Genetic toxicology and environmental mutagenesis, ISSN 1383-5718, E-ISSN 1879-3592, Vol. 722, nr 1, s. 56-61Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) have previously been shown to affect conformation of chromatin and cell proliferation. Possible genotoxic and carcinogenic effects of ELF-MF have also been discussed and tested. In this study, we analysed the effect of ELF-MF on chromatin conformation in E. call GE499 cells by the anomalous viscosity time-dependence (AVTD) technique. Possible genotoxic effects of the specific combination of static and ELF-MF, which has been proven to affect chromatin conformation, were investigated by a clonogenic assay, by assessing cell-growth kinetics, and by analysis of the SOS-response by means of inducible recA-lacZ fusion-gene products and the beta-galactosidase assay. The genotoxic agent nalidixic acid (NAL) was used as a positive control and in combination with ELF-MF. Nalidixic acid at 3-30 mu g/ml decreased the AVTD peaks and induced a cytotoxic effect. In contrast to NAL, ELF-MF fields increased AVTD, stimulated cell growth, and increased cloning efficiency. These effects depended on the frequency within the range of 7-11 Hz. While NAL induced an SOS-response, exposure to ELF-MF did not induce the recA-lacZ fusion-gene product. Exposure to ELF-MF did not modify the genotoxic effects of NAL either. All together, the data show that ELF-MF, under specific conditions of exposure, acted as a non-toxic but cell-growth stimulating agent.

  • 43.
    Belyaev, Igor Y
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Markovà, Eva
    Hillert, Lena
    Malmgren, Lars O G
    Persson, Bertil R R
    Microwaves from UMTS/GSM mobile phones induce long-lasting inhibition of 53BP1/gamma-H2AX DNA repair foci in human lymphocytes.2009Inngår i: Bioelectromagnetics, ISSN 1521-186X, Vol. 30, nr 2, s. 129-41Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We have recently described frequency-dependent effects of mobile phone microwaves (MWs) of global system for mobile communication (GSM) on human lymphocytes from persons reporting hypersensitivity to electromagnetic fields and healthy persons. Contrary to GSM, universal global telecommunications system (UMTS) mobile phones emit wide-band MW signals. Hypothetically, UMTS MWs may result in higher biological effects compared to GSM signal because of eventual "effective" frequencies within the wideband. Here, we report for the first time that UMTS MWs affect chromatin and inhibit formation of DNA double-strand breaks co-localizing 53BP1/gamma-H2AX DNA repair foci in human lymphocytes from hypersensitive and healthy persons and confirm that effects of GSM MWs depend on carrier frequency. Remarkably, the effects of MWs on 53BP1/gamma-H2AX foci persisted up to 72 h following exposure of cells, even longer than the stress response following heat shock. The data are in line with the hypothesis that the type of signal, UMTS MWs, may have higher biological efficiency and possibly larger health risk effects compared to GSM radiation emissions. No significant differences in effects between groups of healthy and hypersensitive subjects were observed, except for the effects of UMTS MWs and GSM-915 MHz MWs on the formation of the DNA repair foci, which were different for hypersensitive (P < 0.02[53BP1]//0.01[gamma-H2AX]) but not for control subjects (P > 0.05). The non-parametric statistics used here did not indicate specificity of the differences revealed between the effects of GSM and UMTS MWs on cells from hypersensitive subjects and more data are needed to study the nature of these differences.

  • 44. Berg, Ingrid
    et al.
    Neumann, Rita
    Cederberg, Håkan
    Rannug, Ulf
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Jeffreys, Alec J
    Two modes of germline instability at human minisatellite MS1 (locus D1S7): complex rearrangements and paradoxical hyperdeletion.2003Inngår i: Am J Hum Genet, ISSN 0002-9297, Vol. 72, nr 6, s. 1436-47Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Minisatellite MS1 (locus D1S7) is one of the most unstable minisatellites identified in humans. It is unusual in having a short repeat unit of 9 bp and in showing somatic instability in colorectal carcinomas, suggesting that mitotic replication or repair errors may contribute to repeat-DNA mutation. We have therefore used single-molecule polymerase chain reaction to characterize mutation events in sperm and somatic DNA. As with other minisatellites, high levels of instability are seen only in the germline and generate two distinct classes of structural change. The first involves large and frequently complex rearrangements that most likely arise by recombinational processes, as is seen at other minisatellites. The second pathway generates primarily, if not exclusively, single-repeat changes restricted to sequence-homogeneous regions of alleles. Their frequency is dependent on the length of uninterrupted repeats, with evidence of a hyperinstability threshold similar in length to that observed at triplet-repeat loci showing expansions driven by dynamic mutation. In contrast to triplet loci, however, the single-repeat changes at MS1 exclusively involve repeat deletion, and can be so frequent--as many as 0.7-1.3 mutation events per sperm cell for the longest homogeneous arrays--that alleles harboring these long arrays must be extremely ephemeral in human populations. The apparently impossible existence of alleles with deletion-prone uninterrupted repeats therefore presents a paradox with no obvious explanation.

  • 45.
    Bergander, Linda
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Formation and metabolism of the tryptophan-derived 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole - a light-induced Ah-receptor ligand2005Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand dependent transcription factor ubiquitously expressed in mammalian cells. It is a genetically ancient protein mostly known for binding the extremely toxic contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Binding to the AhR explains the variety of toxic responses of TCDD as well as the induction of several drug metabolizing enzymes. Induction of cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) is the most well characterized of the AhR regulated responses. The physiological functions of AhR and the endogenous ligand(s) for the receptor are under investigation but are not yet unraveled.

    Several tryptophan (TRP) derived indol-containing compounds have been reported to possess AhR affinity/CYP1A1 inducing capacity and TRP mediates CYP1A1 induction by UV light. The TRP photoproduct, 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ) has the highest AhR affinity described so far and it causes a rapid and transient induction of the CYP1A1 gene in human cells. A number of reports on constitutive CYP1A1 activity in cultured cells is therefore most likely explained by the presence of TRP-derived AhR ligands in cell culture media.

    The aims of the studies were to investigate the impact of FICZ and FICZ metabolism on CYP1A1 gene regulation, to explore the metabolic fate of FICZ and to identify whether normal laboratory light could lead to formation of FICZ and thereby contribute to earlier observed CYP1A1 inducing effects by cell culture media.

    Metabolic studies using fractions of Aroclor-induced and non-induced rat liver and human liver as well as heterologously expressed enzymes revealed that FICZ can be efficiently metabolized by the CYP enzymes 1A1 and 1A2 and by an unknown cytosolic enzyme, to a number of hydroxylated and other oxidized metabolites. All of the hitherto identified 11 hydroxylated metabolites of FICZ are prone to conjugation reactions by glucuronosyltranferases and sulfotransferases. The metabolites formed by human enzymes are primarily sulfated. Thus, the sulfated metabolites of FICZ will be crucial in the future analyzes of FICZ formation in vivo. FICZ was identified to be formed, not only by UV illumination, but also by normal laboratory light. The constitutive CYP1A1 activity was significantly induced through the formation of several TRP related photoproducts in light-exposed medium. One of these photoproducts was identified as FICZ. Thus, the TRP photoproduct, FICZ, fits into a model in which FICZ auto-regulates the expression of induced enzymes. It is hypothesized that FICZ might function as a chemical messenger that activates AhR in response to light and might be one of several possible endogenous AhR ligands.

  • 46.
    Bergander, Linda
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Formation of formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazoles from tryptamine2007Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 47.
    Bergander, Linda
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Wahlström, Niklas
    Alsberg, Tomas
    Bergman, Jan
    Rannug, Agneta
    Rannug, Ulf
    Characterization of in vitro metabolites of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and NMR2003Inngår i: Drug Metabolism and Dispositions, ISSN 0090-9556, Vol. 31, nr 2, s. 233-241Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 48. Bergander, Linda
    et al.
    Wincent, Emma
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Rannug, Agneta
    Foroozesh, Maryam
    Alworth, William
    Rannug, Ulf
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Metabolic fate of the Ah receptor ligand 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole2004Inngår i: Chemico-Biological Interactions, ISSN 0009-2797, Vol. 149, nr 2-3, s. 151-164Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The physiological role of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a member of the basic helix-loop-helix PER-ARNT-SIM (PAS) transcription factor family is not known. We have suggested that the AhR is involved in light signaling through binding of photoproducts with high AhR affinity. This suggestion is based on (i) the high AhR affinity of the tryptophan photoproduct formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ), (ii) the induction of rapid and transient expression of AhR-regulated genes by FICZ and by extracts of UV-irradiated tryptophan as well as (iii) the fact that light induces the AhR-regulated cytochrome P450s CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and CYP2S1. The transient mRNA expression caused by light and tryptophan photoproducts suggests that the biotransformation enzymes induced by AhR activation take part in a metabolic degradation of the natural AhR ligand. This study aimed at identifying the involvement of phase I and phase II enzymes in the metabolic degradation of FICZ. A cytochrome P450-dependent metabolism of FICZ giving rise to preferentially mono- and di-hydroxylated derivatives has earlier been reported. In the present study, rat and human hepatic S9 mixes were employed together with specific enzyme inhibitors and cofactors. Compared to the Aroclor-induced rat liver S9, the non-induced rat liver S9 and the human liver S9 caused a more complex metabolite profile of FICZ. The CYP1A1 enzyme was confirmed to be the most important enzyme for the first step in the metabolism. CYP1A2 was found to have overlapping specificity with CYP1A1 being able to form the same major metabolites although with different kinetics. CYP1B1 turned out to be preferentially involved in the further metabolism of dihydroxylated metabolites. Microsomal epoxide hydrolase, and as yet not identified forms of sulphotransferases and glucuronosyltransferases were also found to take part in the metabolic degradation of FICZ. Thus, tryptophan photoproducts fit into a model in which the ligand-activated AhR signaling is autoregulated by the induced metabolic enzymes.

  • 49.
    Bergander, Linda
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Öberg, Mattias
    Rannug, Ulf
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Håkansson, Helene
    Rannug, Agneta
    Identification of the tryptophan photoproduct 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole in cell culture medium, as a factor that controls the constitutive aryl hydrocarbon receptor activity2005Inngår i: Toxicological Sciences, ISSN 1096-6080, E-ISSN 1096-0929, Vol. 85, nr 2, s. 935-943Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of high affinity ligands for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in cell culture medium has generally been overlooked. Such compounds may confound mechanistic studies of the important AhR regulatory network. Numerous reports have described that light exposed cell culture medium induces AhR-dependent activity. In this study, we aimed at identifying the causative substance(s). A three-dimensional factorial design was used to study how the background activity of CYP1A1 in a rat hepatoma cell line (MH1C1) was controlled by photoproducts formed in the medium exposed to normal laboratory light. The light induced activity was found to be tryptophan dependent, but independent of riboflavin and other components in the medium. The light exposed medium showed the same transient enzyme inducing activity in vitro as the AhR ligand 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ). This substance, which we have previously identified as being formed in UV-exposed tryptophan solutions, is a substrate for CYP1A1 and it has a higher AhR binding affinity than TCDD. Several tryptophan related photoproducts were detected in the light-exposed medium. For the first time one of the formed photoproducts was identified as FICZ with bioassay driven fractionation coupled with HPLC/MS. These results clearly show that tryptophan derived AhR ligands, which have been suggested to be endogenous AhR ligands, influence the background levels of CYP1A1 activity in cells in culture.

  • 50. Bergknut, Magnus
    et al.
    Kucera, Adam
    Frech, Kristina
    Andersson, Erika
    Engwall, Magnus
    Rannug, Ulf
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Koci, Vladimir
    Andersson, Patrik L
    Haglund, Peter
    Tysklind, Mats
    Identification of potentially toxic compounds in complex extracts of environmental samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and multivariate data analysis.2007Inngår i: Environ Toxicol Chem, ISSN 0730-7268, Vol. 26, nr 2, s. 208-17Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
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