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  • 1.
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Kopplingen mellan personlighet, biologi och social anpassning2013Inngår i: Att studera människors utveckling: Resultat från forskningsprogrammet IDA 1965-2013 / [ed] Anna-Karin Andershed, Henrik Andershed, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2013, 171-185 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2.
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Johansson, Sven-Erik
    Levander, Maria
    Alm, Per Olof
    Oreland, Lars
    Smoking habits – Associations with personality/behavior, platelet monoamine oxidase activity and plasma thyroid hormone levels2017Inngår i: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 118, 71-76 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective was to outline results from our scientific studies on the associations among childhood behavior, adult personality, and biochemical factors in smoking habits. The studies consisted of: (1) follow-up of young criminals and controls, subdivided into risk for antisocial behavior groups, based on childhood rating levels of a projective test; and adult smoking habit groups; and (2) a large group of young adults examined on the same inventories. Personality in terms of KSP and EPQ-I scale scores, controlled for intelligence, indicated that the high and very high risk groups displayed significantly higher self-rated impulsiveness, anxiety, and nonconformity, as compared to the low risk group. Further, the very high risk group subjects, found to be overrepresented among subjects with heavy smoking habits, displayed lower mean platelet MAO-B activity and higher thyroid hormone levels than the low risk group. Thus, the higher the childhood risk for antisocial behavior, the clearer the adult personality pattern making subjects more disposed for smoking appeared; and the higher smoking habits, the stronger the relationships with biochemical measures. Results are discussed in terms of possible underlying mechanisms influencing personality and smoking habits.

  • 3.
    Almkvist, Ove
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Bosnes, Ole
    Bosnes, Ingunn
    Stordal, Eystein
    Selective impact of disease on short-term and long-term components of self-reported memory: a population-based HUNT study2017Inngår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, nr 5, e013586Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Subjective memory is commonly considered to be a unidimensional measure. However, theories of performance-based memory suggest that subjective memory could be divided into more than one dimension. Objective: To divide subjective memory into theoretically related components of memory and explore the relationship to disease. Methods: In this study, various aspects of self-reported memory were studied with respect to demographics and diseases in the third wave of the HUNT epidemiological study in middle Norway. The study included all individuals 55 years of age or older, who responded to a nine-item questionnaire on subjective memory and questionnaires on health (n=18 633). Results: A principle component analysis of the memory items resulted in two memory components; the criterion used was an eigenvalue above 1, which accounted for 54% of the total variance. The components were interpreted as long-term memory (LTM; the first component; 43% of the total variance) and short-term memory (STM; the second component; 11% of the total variance). Memory impairment was significantly related to all diseases (except Bechterew's disease), most strongly to brain infarction, heart failure, diabetes, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and whiplash. For most diseases, the STM component was more affected than the LTM component; however, in cancer, the opposite pattern was seen. Conclusions: Subjective memory impairment as measured in HUNT contained two components, which were differentially associated with diseases.

  • 4.
    Almkvist, Ove
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital at Huddinge, Sweden.
    Rodriguez-Vieitez, Elena
    Thordardottir, Steinunn
    Amberla, Kaarina
    Axelman, Karin
    Basun, Hans
    Kinhult-Ståhlbom, Anne
    Lilius, Lena
    Remes, Anne
    Wahlund, Lars-Olof
    Viitanen, Matti
    Lannfelt, Lars
    Graff, Caroline
    Predicting Cognitive Decline across Four Decades in Mutation Carriers and Non-carriers in Autosomal-Dominant Alzheimer's Disease2017Inngår i: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, ISSN 1355-6177, E-ISSN 1469-7661, Vol. 23, nr 3, 195-203 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate cognitive performance including preclinical and clinical disease course in carriers and non-carriers of autosomal-dominant Alzheimer's disease (adAD) in relation to multiple predictors, that is, linear and non-linear estimates of years to expected clinical onset of disease, years of education and age. Methods: Participants from five families with early-onset autosomal-dominant mutations (Swedish and Arctic APP, PSEN1 M146V, H163Y, and I143T) included 35 carriers (28 without dementia and 7 with) and 44 non-carriers. All participants underwent a comprehensive clinical evaluation, including neuropsychological assessment at the Memory Clinic, Karolinska University Hospital at Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden. The time span of disease course covered four decades of the preclinical and clinical stages of dementia. Neuropsychological tests were used to assess premorbid and current global cognition, verbal and visuospatial functions, short-term and episodic memory, attention, and executive function. Results: In carriers, the time-related curvilinear trajectory of cognitive function across disease stages was best fitted to a formulae with three predictors: years to expected clinical onset (linear and curvilinear components), and years of education. In non-carriers, the change was minimal and best predicted by two predictors: education and age. The trajectories for carriers and non-carriers began to diverge approximately 10 years before the expected clinical onset in episodic memory, executive function, and visuospatial function. Conclusions: The curvilinear trajectory of cognitive functions across disease stages was mimicked by three predictors in carriers. In episodic memory, executive and visuospatial functions, the point of diverging trajectories occurred approximately 10 years ahead of the clinical onset compared to non-carriers.

  • 5.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Lundberg, Ulf
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Rehabilitering och samordning: Slutrapport: Utvärdering av Rehsams forskningsprogram 2009–20112017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rehabilitering och samordning, Rehsam, var ett forskningsprogram som initierades av regeringen år 2009. Målet var att öka den evidensbaserade kunskapsmassan kring rehabilitering av personer som är sjukskrivna, eller riskerar att bli sjukskrivna, på grund av psykiska eller muskuloskeletala problem. Denna rapport är en sammanfattande utvärdering av Rehsamprogrammet.

    Som en uppföljning av Rehsam-satsningen fick Forte 2014 bland annat i uppdrag att göra en vetenskaplig kvalitetsbedömning av den forskning som genomförts inom Rehsam-satsningen. Detta uppdrag har genomförts i olika etapper, med två delrapporter under 2015. Den här utvärderingen omfattar 21 projekt och är en slutrapport av uppdraget.

    Sammanfattningsvis visar Rehsam-projektens resultat att projekt som omfattar insatser på arbetsplatsen är mer effektiva än de projekt som inte genomfört arbetsplats-interventioner. Tendensen är även att projekt med högre vetenskaplig kvalitet oftare har signifikanta utfall.

  • 6. Beijer, Ulla
    et al.
    Birath Scheffel, Christina
    DeMarinis, Valerie
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Male violence against women with substance abuse problems: some health aspects2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective was to investigate to which extent two groups of women with substance abuse problems were exposed to male violence; women with a residence (WR, n= 35) and homeless women (HW, n= 44). The sample thus included 79 women (mean age: 47.8 years), of which 91% had experienced different kinds of male violence: from former partners, male friends or acquaintances, and 71% reported “Countless occasions of violent events”.  Almost half of the women (46%) met criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and HW displayed the higher risk (RR 3.78) as compared to WR. Furthermore, one-third of the abused women (26 out of 72) had been forced to commit criminal acts. Compared to the abused women without this experience, they were more likely: to be homeless, to be illicit drug addicts, to have reported parental alcohol and/or drug problems, to have witnessed domestic violence in childhood, and to have been victims of sexual abuse. Finally, the two groups significantly differed concerning ever having received treatment for mental problems, in that more WR women had received such treatment (74 % as compared to 46 %). In conclusion, it is suggested that experiences of male violence are to be considered in all different forms of treatment facilities for women with substance abuse problems.

  • 7. Beijer, Ulla
    et al.
    Scheffel Birath, Christina
    DeMartinis, Valerie
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Facets of male violence against women with Substance Abuse Problems: Women with residence and homeless women2016Inngår i: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this study were to investigate the type and extent to which women with substance abuse problems have been exposed to male violence during their lifetime, and to examine possible differences between women with a residence (WR) and homeless women (HW). The total sample included 79 women (WR, n = 35; HW, n = 44; M age = 47.8 years). Of the total sample, 72 women (91%) had experienced different kinds of male violence, 88% from former partners, and 26% from male friends or acquaintances. Of the 72 women, 71% further reported “Countless occasions of violent events,” and 36% had been forced to commit criminal acts. Abused women who had been forced to commit criminal acts were significantly more frequently found to be homeless, have reported parental alcohol and/or drug problems, have witnessed domestic violence in childhood, have been victims of sexual violence, have used illicit drugs as a dominant preparation, and have injected illicit drugs. Almost half of the abused women (46%) met criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), where HW showed an almost 4-time higher risk (RR 3.78) than WR. In conclusion there is a particular vulnerability in women with substance abuse to male violence, which has an important impact on their health status. Thus, from a public health perspective, it is suggested that for those women who have experienced male violence, treatment protocols need to include both assessing and addressing the impact of such experience in relation to substance abuse as well as concomitant health concerns.

  • 8. Bergman, Ingvar
    et al.
    Johansson, Kurt
    Almkvist, Ove
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Catarina
    Health-adjusted neuropsychological test norms based on 463 older Swedish car drivers2016Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 57, nr 2, 93-107 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for improved normative information in particular for older persons. The present study provides neuropsychological test norms on seven cognitive tests used in a sample representing the general older driving population, when uncontrolled and controlled for physical health. A group of 463 healthy Swedish car drivers, aged 65 to 84 years, participated in a medical and neuropsychological examination. The latter included tests of visual scanning, mental shifting, visual spatial function, memory, reaction time, selective attention, and simultaneous capacity. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that, when uncontrolled for health, old age was associated with significant impairment on all seven tests. Education was associated with a significant advantage for all tests except most reaction time subtests. Women outperformed men on selective attention. Controlling for health did not consistently change the associations with education, but generally weakened those with age, indicating rises in normative scores of up to 0.36 SD (residual). In terms of variance explained, impaired health predicted on average 2.5%, age 2.9%, education 2.1% and gender 0.1%. It was concluded (1)that individual regression-based predictions of expected values have the advantage of allowing control for the impact of health on normative scores in addition to the adjustment for various demographic and performance-related variables and (2) that health-adjusted norms have the potential to classify functional status more accurately, to the extent that these norms diverge from norms uncontrolled for physical health.

  • 9. Birath Scheffel, Christina
    et al.
    Beijer, Ulla
    DeMarinis, Valerie
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Institutionen för Kvinnors och Barns Hälsa, Karolinska Institutet.
    Barn till våldsutsatta kvinnor med missbruksproblem2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande rapport är att utifrån insamlade och bearbetade data från ursprungsprojektet 'Studie om mäns våld mot kvinnor med missbruksproblem' sammanställa resultat som speglar barns psykosociala familjesituation där modern har missbruksproblem och i många fall blivit utsatt för manligt våld av partner och/eller släkting, bekant, eller myndighetsperson. Sammanfattningsvis lyfter resultaten, avseende barnens egen ogynnsamma utveckling och den generationsöverskridande problematiken i föreliggande studie, frågan om betydelsen av tidiga interventioner riktade till barn i riskmiljöer. Detta förefaller vara av särskild vikt för att ge underbyggt stöd för aktivt handlande avseende Barns rätt i samhället enligt Barnkonventionen.

  • 10. Bosnes, Ingunn
    et al.
    Almkvist, Ove
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Bosnes, Ole
    Stordal, Eystein
    Romild, Ulla
    Nordahl, Hans M.
    Prevalence and correlates of successful aging in a population-based sample of older adults: the HUNT study2017Inngår i: International psychogeriatrics, ISSN 1041-6102, E-ISSN 1741-203X, Vol. 29, nr 3, 431-440 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The factors influencing successful aging (SA) are of great interest in an aging society. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of SA, the relative importance across age of the three components used to define it (absence of disease and disability, high cognitive and physical function, and active engagement with life), and its correlates. Data were extracted from the population-based cross-sectional Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT3 2006–2008). Individuals aged 70–89 years with complete datasets for the three components were included (N = 5773 of 8,040, 71.8%). Of the respondents, 54.6% were women. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to analyze possible correlates of SA. Overall, 35.6% of the sample met one of the three criteria, 34.1% met combinations, and 14.5% met all of the three criteria. The most demanding criterion was high function, closely followed by absence of disease, while approximately two-thirds were actively engaged in life. The relative change with age was largest for the high cognitive and physical function component and smallest for active engagement with life. The significant correlates of SA were younger age, female gender, higher education, weekly exercise, more satisfaction with life, non-smoking, and alcohol consumption, whereas marital status was not related to SA. The prevalence of SA in this study (14.5%) is comparable to previous studies. It may be possible to increase the prevalence by intervention directed toward more exercise, non-smoking, and better satisfaction with life.

  • 11. Chiotis, Konstantinos
    et al.
    Saint-Aubert, Laure
    Savitcheva, Irina
    Jelic, Vesna
    Andersen, Pia
    Jonasson, My
    Eriksson, Jonas
    Lubberink, Mark
    Almkvist, Ove
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Wall, Anders
    Antoni, Gunnar
    Nordberg, Agneta
    Imaging in-vivo tau pathology in Alzheimer's disease with THK5317 PET in a multimodal paradigm2016Inngår i: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, ISSN 1619-7070, E-ISSN 1619-7089, Vol. 43, nr 9, 1686-1699 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The aim of this study was to explore the cerebral distribution of the tau-specific PET tracer [F-18]THK5317 (also known as (S)-[F-18]THK5117) retention in different stages of Alzheimer's disease; and study any associations with markers of hypometabolism and amyloid-beta deposition. Methods Thirty-three individuals were enrolled, including nine patients with Alzheimer's disease dementia, thirteen with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), two with non-Alzheimer's disease dementia, and nine healthy controls (five young and four elderly). In a multi-tracer PET design [F-18]THK5317, [C-11] Pittsburgh compound B ([C-11]PIB), and [F-18]FDG were used to assess tau pathology, amyloid-beta deposition and cerebral glucose metabolism, respectively. The MCI patients were further divided into MCI [C-11]PIB-positive (n=11) and MCI [C-11]PIB-negative (n=2) groups. Results Test-retest variability for [F-18]THK5317-PET was very low (1.17-3.81 %), as shown by retesting five patients. The patients with prodromal (MCI [C-11]PIB-positive) and dementia-stage Alzheimer's disease had significantly higher [F-18]THK5317 retention than healthy controls (p=0.002 and p=0.001, respectively) in areas exceeding limbic regions, and their discrimination from this control group (using the area under the curve) was >98 %. Focal negative correlations between [F-18]THK5317 retention and [F-18]FDG uptake were observed mainly in the frontal cortex, and focal positive correlations were found between [F-18]THK5317 and [C-11] PIB retentions isocortically. One patient with corticobasal degeneration syndrome and one with progressive supranuclear palsy showed no [C-11]PIB but high [F-18]THK5317 retentions with a different regional distribution from that in Alzheimer's disease patients. Conclusions The tau-specific PET tracer [F-18]THK5317 images in vivo the expected regional distribution of tau pathology. This distribution contrasts with the different patterns of hypometabolism and amyloid-beta deposition.

  • 12.
    Cortes, Diana
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Kognitiv psykologi.
    Asperholm, Martin
    Fredborg, William
    Döllinger, Lillian
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Xiao, Shanshan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Högman, Lennart
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Dang, Junhua
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Intranasal Oxytocin and Response Inhibition in Young and Older Adults2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In normal aging, people are confronted with impairment in both socioemotional and cognitive abilities. Specifically, there are age-related declines in inhibitory processes that regulate attention towards irrelevant material. In last years, the intranasal administration of the neuropeptide oxytocin has mainly been related to improvements in several domains such as emotion recognition and memory, but to date the effects of oxytocin in aging remain largely unknown. In a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled, within-subjects study design, we investigated whether oxytocin facilitates inhibitory processing in older adults compared to younger adults. In total, 41 older adults (51% women; age range 65-75 years) and 37 younger adults (49% women; age range 20-30 years) participated in this study two times, receiving a single intranasal dose of 40 IU of placebo and oxytocin in randomized order 45 minutes before engaging in the task. Participants were tested approximately a month apart and mostly at the same hour during both occasions. Inhibition was measured with a Go/NoGo task which included happy and neutral faces as targets (Go stimuli) and distractors (NoGo stimuli) shown on a computer screen. Participants were instructed to press a button any time they saw a target and remain passive when encountering a distractor. Preliminary results indicate effects for happy and neutral faces, but only in the distractor condition. For happy distractors, women rejected correctly happy faces more accurately than men did, both in the placebo and oxytocin conditions. A main effect of age was observed for the neutral distractors, where older adults were more successful in inhibiting responses than younger adults during oxytocin and placebo treatments. We did not observe effects of oxytocin in the different tasks. The role of oxytocin was not clear distinguished in the tasks. In sum, our findings showed that age and gender can influence inhibition but their effects depend on the displayed emotions. This suggests that the ability to inhibit interfering distractors may remain intact despite of age and that deficits in inhibition may be selective. The role of oxytocin in inhibition needs to be further investigated since it is possible that it is context dependent.

  • 13.
    Cortes, Diana S.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Kognitiv psykologi.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Age differences in judgments of attractiveness, likeability, and trustworthiness of faces2016Inngår i: Program of SANS 2016, 2016, 58-58 s., B-23Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    People constantly evaluate faces to obtain social information. However, the link between aging and social evaluation of faces is not well understood. Todorov and colleagues introduced a data-driven model defined by valence and dominance as the two main components underlying social judgments of faces. They also created a stimulus set consisting of computer-generated faces which systematically vary along various social dimensions (e.g., Todorov et al., 2013, Emotion, 13, 724-38). We utilized a selection of these facial stimuli to investigate age-related differences in judgments of the following dimensions: attractiveness, competence, dominance, extraversion, likeability, threat, and trustworthiness. Participants rated how well the faces represented the intended social dimensions on 9-point scales ranging from not at all to extremely well. Results from 71 younger (YA; mean age = 23.42 years) and 60 older adults (OA; mean age = 69.19 years) showed that OA evaluated untrustworthy faces as more trustworthy, dislikeable faces as more likeable, and unattractive faces as more attractive compared to YA. OA also evaluated attractive faces as more attractive compared to YA, whereas YA did rate likeable and trustworthy faces as more likeable and trustworthy than did OA. In summary, our findings showed that OA evaluated negative social features less negatively compared to YA. This suggests that older and younger persons may use different cues for social evaluation of faces, and is in line with prior research suggesting age-related decline in the ability to recognize negative emotion expressions.

  • 14.
    Cortes, Diana S.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Kognitiv psykologi.
    Lindahl, Christina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Kognitiv psykologi.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Memory for faces and voices varies as a function of sex and expressed emotion2017Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 6, e0178423Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated how memory for faces and voices (presented separately and in combination) varies as a function of sex and emotional expression (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and neutral). At encoding, participants judged the expressed emotion of items in forced-choice tasks, followed by incidental Remember/Know recognition tasks. Results from 600 participants showed that accuracy (hits minus false alarms) was consistently higher for neutral compared to emotional items, whereas accuracy for specific emotions varied across the presentation modalities (i.e., faces, voices, and face-voice combinations). For the subjective sense of recollection (“remember” hits), neutral items received the highest hit rates only for faces, whereas for voices and face-voice combinations anger and fear expressions instead received the highest recollection rates. We also observed better accuracy for items by female expressers, and own-sex bias where female participants displayed memory advantage for female faces and face-voice combinations. Results further suggest that own-sex bias can be explained by recollection, rather than familiarity, rates. Overall, results show that memory for faces and voices may be influenced by the expressions that they carry, as well as by the sex of both items and participants. Emotion expressions may also enhance the subjective sense of recollection without enhancing memory accuracy.

  • 15. Dang, Junhua
    et al.
    Xiao, Shanshan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Liu, Ying
    Jiang, Yumeng
    Mao, Lihua
    Individual differences in dopamine level modulate the ego depletion effect2016Inngår i: International Journal of Psychophysiology, ISSN 0167-8760, E-ISSN 1872-7697, Vol. 99, 121-124 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Initial exertion of self-control impairs subsequent self-regulatory performance, which is referred to as the ego depletion effect. The current study examined how individual differences in dopamine level, as indexed by eye blink rate (EBR), would moderate ego depletion. An inverted-U-shaped relationship between EBR and subsequent self regulatory performance was found when participants initially engaged in self-control but such relationship was absent in the control condition where there was no initial exertion, suggesting individuals with a medium dopamine level may be protected from the typical ego depletion effect. These findings are consistent with a cognitive explanation which considers ego depletion as a phenomenon similar to switch costs that would be neutralized by factors promoting flexible switching.

  • 16. Dang, Junhua
    et al.
    Xiao, Shanshan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Zhang, Ting
    Liu, Ying
    Jiang, Bin
    Mao, Lihua
    When the poor excel: Poverty facilitates procedural learning2016Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 57, nr 4, 288-291 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research has shown that poverty directly impeded cognitive functions because the poor could be easily distracted by monetary concerns. We argue that this effect may be limited to functions relying on working memory. For functions that rely on proceduralized processes however, monetary concerns elicited by reminding of financial demands would be conducive rather than harmful. Our results supported this hypothesis by showing that participants with lower income reached the learning criterion of the information-integration categorization task faster than their more affluent counterparts after reminding of financial demands.

  • 17. Ebner, Natalie C.
    et al.
    Chen, Huaihou
    Porges, Eric
    Lin, Tian
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Feifel, David
    Cohen, Ronald A.
    Oxytocin’s effect on resting-state functional connectivity varies by age and sex2016Inngår i: Psychoneuroendocrinology, ISSN 0306-4530, E-ISSN 1873-3360, Vol. 69, 50-59 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The neuropeptide oxytocin plays a role in social cognition and affective processing. The neural processes underlying these effects are not well understood. Modulation of connectivity strength between subcortical and cortical regions has been suggested as one possible mechanism. The current study investigated effects of intranasal oxytocin administration on resting-state functional connectivity between amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), as two regions involved in social-cognitive and affective processing. Going beyond previous work that largely examined young male participants, our study comprised young and older men and women to identify age and sex variations in oxytocin’s central processes. This approach was based on known hormonal differences among these groups and emerging evidence of sex differences in oxytocin’s effects on amygdala reactivity and age-by-sex-modulated effects of oxytocin in affective processing. In a double-blind design, 79 participants were randomly assigned to self-administer either intranasal oxytocin or placebo before undergoing resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Using a targeted region-to-region approach, resting-state functional connectivity strength between bilateral amygdala and mPFC was examined. Participants in the oxytocin compared to the placebo group and men compared to women had overall greater amygdala–mPFC connectivity strength at rest. These main effects were qualified by a significant three-way interaction: while oxytocin compared to placebo administration increased resting-state amygdala–mPFC connectivity for young women, oxytocin did not significantly influence connectivity in the other age-by-sex subgroups. This study provides novel evidence of age-by-sex differences in how oxytocin modulates resting-state brain connectivity, furthering our understanding of how oxytocin affects brain networks at rest.

  • 18. Frazier, I.
    et al.
    Lin, T.
    Sondre, S.
    Feifel, D.
    Cohen, R.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Ebner, N.C.
    Older Adults Show More Trust Than Younger Adults Post-Betrayal in Trust/Lottery Game2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Older adults comprise both the fastest growing population segment in industrialized nations and the majority of political and industry leaders. Regardless of social status, older adults face a constant flow of highly consequential decisions. These decisions are often social in nature, even when they primarily concern health, finance, or politics; in particular, they often require putting trust in others. However, older adults’ social decision making processes relating to trust have not been well researched yet. Trust is an important aspect of maintaining social supports and maintenance of social supports is health protective. This is of particular concern in older adults as aging is linked to increased social loss, isolation, and loneliness. Evidence has indicated that the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) is linked to several aspects of socioemotional functioning including trust. There is emerging evidence of a possible deficit in OT in older, specifically male, adults. Intranasally administered OT before a trust game has resulted in young adults acting in a more trusting, but not gullible manner. However, the potential effects of OT administration on trust game performance in older adults is unknown. We compared older (N = 54, 56% female) and younger adults’ (N = 48, 48% female) performance on a Trust/Lottery game after intranasal administration of either OT or placebo (P). Participants played the role of investors with ostensible same age social partners (trust) or a computer (lottery). At the beginning of each game investors received monetary units to invest in increments. They were instructed that if money was sent it would be tripled and then the investee (ostensible social partner) would be able to send an amount, or none, back or the lottery would be played (in the lottery condition). The probabilities of the trustee returning behavior in both the trust and lottery conditions were drawn from the same probability distributions, thus the participants faced the same objective risk but only interacted socially in the trust condition. Twelve trust and 12 lottery games were played in a pseudo-randomly, counterbalanced fashion. After half of the trust and lottery trials were played, a feedback screen was presented informing participants that in both the trust and lottery conditions only 50% of their investments bore returns, signifying 50% chance of trust breach or lottery success. While no effects of OT were detected, trust trials older adults increased their investments post betrayal while younger adults decreased their investments (F = 5.53, p = .021). No such differences were found in the lottery game. These results may indicate that older adults are more forgiving of breaching trust than younger adults. However, these results may also indicate vulnerability to being taken advantage of in a social context. To address these interpretations, research examining older adults’ goals in social decision making contexts is warranted.

  • 19. Furmark, Tomas
    et al.
    Marteinsdottir, Ina
    Frick, Andreas
    Heurling, Kerstin
    Tillfors, Maria
    Appel, Lieuwe
    Antoni, Gunnar
    Hartvig, Per
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Långström, Bengt
    Eriksson, Elias
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Serotonin synthesis rate and the tryptophan hydroxylase-2: G-703T polymorphism in social anxiety disorder2016Inngår i: Journal of Psychopharmacology, ISSN 0269-8811, E-ISSN 1461-7285, Vol. 30, nr 10, 1028-1035 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is disputed whether anxiety disorders, like social anxiety disorder, are characterized by serotonin over- or underactivity. Here, we evaluated whether our recent finding of elevated neural serotonin synthesis rate in patients with social anxiety disorder could be reproduced in a separate cohort, and whether allelic variation in the tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2) G-703T polymorphism relates to differences in serotonin synthesis assessed with positron emission tomography. Eighteen social anxiety disorder patients and six healthy controls were scanned during 60 minutes in a resting state using positron emission tomography and 5-hydroxy-L-[β -11C]tryptophan, [11C]5-HTP, a substrate of the second enzymatic step in serotonin synthesis. Parametric images were generated, using the reference Patlak method, and analysed using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM8). Blood samples for genotyping of the TPH2 G-703T polymorphism were obtained from 16 social anxiety disorder patients (T carriers: n=5, GG carriers: n=11). A significantly elevated [11C]5-HTP accumulation rate, indicative of enhanced decarboxylase activity and thereby serotonin synthesis capacity, was detected in social anxiety disorder patients compared with controls in the hippocampus and basal ganglia nuclei and, at a more lenient (uncorrected) statistical threshold, in the amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex. In patients, the serotonin synthesis rate in the amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex was significantly elevated in TPH2 T carriers in comparison with GG homozygotes. Our results support that social anxiety disorder entails an overactive presynaptic serotonergic system that, in turn, seems functionally influenced by the TPH2 G-703T polymorphism in emotionally relevant brain regions.

  • 20.
    Gerhardsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Emotional working memory in older adults after total sleep deprivation2017Inngår i: Sleep Medicine, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 40, e110-e110 s.Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Even though the occurrence of sleep problems increases with age, few studies have focused on the cognitive effects of acute sleep deprivation in elderly. Most previous research indicate that, compared to young, older adults show less impairment in e.g. attention after sleep deprivation. However, little is known of whether the same pattern holds for higher cognitive functions. In addition, while old age is usually related to a general decrease in working memory abilities, performance on working memory tasks may differ depending on the emotional valence of the stimuli, where positive stimuli seem to be beneficial for working memory performance in older adults. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of sleep deprivation on emotional working memory in older adults using two levels of working memory load.

    Materials and methods: A healthy sample of 48 old adults (MAge=66.69 years, SDAge=3.44 years) was randomized into a total sleep deprivation group (TSD; n=24) or a sleep control group (SC; n=24). They performed a working memory task (n-back) containing positive, negative and neutral pictures in a low (1-back) and a high (3-back) working memory load condition. Performance was measured as Accuracy (d'), Omissions and Reaction Time (RT).

    Results: For the d' and Omissions we performed two separate 2x2x3 (sleep, working memory load, valence) repeated measures analyses of variance (rmANOVA). For the RTs, we applied a mixed-effects model. For both d' and RT we found no effect of sleep deprivation (Ps > .05). For valence, we found main effects on both d' (F1,46 = 5.56, P=.005) and RT (F1,95.7 = 4.84, P=.01). d' did not differ for positive and neutral pictures, but was in both cases significantly better than for negative pictures. RTs were significantly faster for positive pictures. However, a working memory loadvalence interaction (F1,95.7 = 4.50, P=.01) further revealed an effect of valence in the low, but not in the high load condition. In the low load condition, RTs were faster for positive than for neutral pictures and faster for neutral than for negative pictures. There was no significant effect of Omissions.

    Conclusions: Our results showed that emotional working memory performance was not significantly affected by one night of sleep deprivation in older adults, which contrast what we found in a sample of young adults from the same project. In line with previous research, our results indicate a beneficial effect of positive stimuli on working memory in older adults. This effect was present in both groups and most pronounced for reaction times in the condition with a lower cognitive demand. We can conclude that, among older adults, the working memory performance is not impaired by sleep deprivation and that the benefits of positive stimuli on working memory seem intact. These findings contribute to a better understanding of older adults' cognitive functioning after sleep deprivation.

  • 21.
    Gerhardsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet.
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet.
    The effect of sleep loss on emotional working memory2016Inngår i: Abstracts of the 23rd Congress of the European Sleep Research Society, 13–16 September 2016, Bologna, Italy. Journal of Sleep Research, 25(S1), 17-18., 2016, Vol. 25(S1), 17-18 s.Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Emotional stimuli differently affect working memory (WM) performance. As sleep deprivation has a known impact on both emotion and WM our aim was to investigate how one night without sleep affects emotional WM performance. Methods: Healthy subjects (n = 56; age 18–30 years) were randomized to a total sleep deprivation (TSD) or a rested control (RC) condition. Subjects rated their affective state and performed a 1 and a 3-back WM task consisting of neutral, positive and negative pictures at 3 pm or 6 pm (balanced) the day after sleep manipulation. Accuracy (d’) and target response time (RT) were used as outcomes. Results: In the TSD condition, subjects rated themselves as less positive (P = 0.006) but not more negative than in the RC condition. In the WM task, TSD had a detrimental effect on accuracy (P = 0.03) regardless of difficulty. Moreover, accuracy was higher in the 1-back than in the 3-back (P < 0.001) and higher for neutral compared to both negative and positive stimuli (Ps < 0.05). RT was faster for positive compared to negative and neutral stimuli (Ps < 0.05). The latter effect was particularly pronounced in the TSD condition as shown by a condition*valence interaction (P < 0.03). Conclusions: One night of total sleep loss impaired emotional WM accuracy. Noticeable, RT was faster for positive stimuli compared to negative and neutral stimuli. This effect was particularly pronounced after sleep loss. This suggests that sleep loss strengthens the opposing effects of positive and negative stimuli on WM performance, possibly due to increased emotion reactivity.

  • 22. Gulliford, Desiree
    et al.
    Chen, Huaihou
    Porges, Eric
    Lin, Tian
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Feifel, David
    Cohen, Ronald
    Ebner, Natalie
    Gender-differential effects of intranasal oxytocin on resting-state anterior cingulate activity2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: As individuals age, there is an increased focus on social relationships (Carstensen, 2006). However, age-related changes in the brain can interfere with social functioning (Ebner, et al, 2012; Mather, et al, 2005; Ruffman, et al, 2008). While age-related changes in cognition are well studied, social-cognitive changes in aging are still underinvestigated, especially the brain mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. The administration of intranasal oxytocin (OT) has the potential to modulate social cognition (De Dreu, 2014) by altering BOLD signal in regions of the social brain (eg. amygdala and vmPFC) (Ebner, et al, 2016). Currently, there is very little known about the role of OT in human development in aging (Campbell, et al, 2014; Huffmeijer, et al, 2012). Methods: 40 young (18–31 years, 50% female) and 39 older (63–81 years, 59% female) were randomly assigned (in a double-blind design) to self-administer either 24 UIs of intranasal OT or placebo (P) 70-90 minutes prior to resting-state fMRI. T1-weighted anatomical reference images, using an MP-RAGE sequence (sagittal plane, FOV = 240 mm × 240 mm × 170; 1 × 1 × 1 mm isotropic voxels), and functional gradient-echo-planar imaging (EPI) data, during an open-eye, white cross-hair on black background, 8 minute resting-state scan (38 interleaved slices, TR 2 sec, TE 30 msec, FOV 252 × 252 × 133 mm, 80 × 80 × 38 mm matrix, flip angle 90°, in plane resolution of 3.15 × 3.15 mm, slice thickness 3.5 mm, 0 mm skip), were acquired with a 3T Philips Achieva MR Scanner using a 32-channel head coil. Preprocessing, including slice time correction, motion correction with artifact rejection, spatial normalization, and smoothing with an 8 mm Gaussian kernel, were implemented with Functional Connectivity Toolbox (Whitfield-Gabrieli, et al, 2012; http://www.nitrc.org/projects/conn/). Results: Younger individuals showed significantly greater overall anterior cingulate (AC) activity in P condition (p=.044). Intranasal OT administration significantly increased activity in the AC in both younger and older women (p=.024), but not men, when compared to P. The effect was slightly greater in older women than younger, but this effect was not significant potentially due to sample size.There were no significant gender effects in AC activity during rest between males and females in either younger or older P control groups. Conclusions: Intranasal OT has differential gender effects on AC activity during resting-state, increasing activity in women but not men. Additionally, there is evidence for age differences in overall AC activity at rest.

  • 23. Hedman, Annicka
    et al.
    Nygård, Louise
    Malinowsky, Camilla
    Almkvist, Ove
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Kottorp, Anders
    Changing everyday activities and technology use in mild cognitive impairment2016Inngår i: British Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 0308-0226, E-ISSN 1477-6006, Vol. 79, nr 2, 111-119 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Knowledge of the conditions under which older adults facing cognitive decline engage in everyday activities is of major importance for occupational therapists in designing supportive interventions. This study aimed to investigate perceived activity involvement over time and its longitudinal relationship to perceived ability to use everyday technology in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

    Method: Thirty-seven older adults with mild cognitive impairment at inclusion were assessed over 4 years. Overall and item-specific activity involvement were analyzed using mixed-linear-effect modeling and differential item functioning. Furthermore, overall activity involvement and ability in everyday technology use were correlated.

    Results: Overall activity involvement decreased significantly over time. When adjusting for declining ability in the sample, actual differential item functioning indicated descending involvement in seven of 15 activities, while eight activities were stable. All leisure activities descended. The positive correlations between activity involvement and ability in everyday technology use became stronger over time.

    Conclusion: Variations across activities and time-points suggest that occupational therapists should repeatedly monitor the increasingly associated aspects of activity involvement and ability to use everyday technology in persons with cognitive decline.

  • 24. Holding, Benjamin C.
    et al.
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Kognitiv psykologi.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Bänziger, Tanja
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Sundelin, Tina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Multimodal Emotion Recognition Is Resilient to Insufficient Sleep: Results From Cross-Sectional and Experimental Studies2017Inngår i: Sleep, ISSN 0161-8105, E-ISSN 1550-9109, Vol. 40, nr 11, zsx145Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Insufficient sleep has been associated with impaired recognition of facial emotions. However, previous studies have found inconsistent results, potentially stemming from the type of static picture task used. We therefore examined whether insufficient sleep was associated with decreased emotion recognition ability in two separate studies using a dynamic multimodal task.

    Methods: Study 1 used a cross-sectional design consisting of 291 participants with questionnaire measures assessing sleep duration and self-reported sleep quality for the previous night. Study 2 used an experimental design involving 181 participants where individuals were quasi-randomized into either a sleep-deprivation (N = 90) or a sleep-control (N = 91) condition. All participants from both studies were tested on the same forced-choice multimodal test of emotion recognition to assess the accuracy of emotion categorization.

    Results: Sleep duration, self-reported sleep quality (study 1), and sleep deprivation (study 2) did not predict overall emotion recognition accuracy or speed. Similarly, the responses to each of the twelve emotions tested showed no evidence of impaired recognition ability, apart from one positive association suggesting that greater self-reported sleep quality could predict more accurate recognition of disgust (study 1).

    Conclusions: The studies presented here involve considerably larger samples than previous studies and the results support the null hypotheses. Therefore, we suggest that the ability to accurately categorize the emotions of others is not associated with short-term sleep duration or sleep quality and is resilient to acute periods of insufficient sleep.

  • 25. Holding, J.B.C.
    et al.
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Kognitiv psykologi.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Axelsson, John
    Sundelin, Tina
    Total sleep deprivation does not impact emotioncategorisation in dynamic stimuli2016Inngår i: Abstracts of the 23rd Congress of the European Sleep Research Society, 13–16 September 2016, Bologna, Italy. Journal of Sleep Research, 2016, Vol. 25(S1), 152-152 s., P193Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have highlighted a deficit in facial emotion recognition after sleep loss. However, while some studies suggest an overall deficit in ability, others have only found effects in individual emotions, or no effect at all. The aim of this study was to investigate this relationship in a large sample and to utilise a dynamic test of emotion recognition in multiple modalities. 145 individuals (91 female, ages 18–45) participated in a sleep-deprivation experiment. Participants were randomised into: one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD) or normal sleep (8–9 h in bed). The following day participants completed a computerised emotional recognition test, consisting of 72 visual, audio, and audio-visual clips, representing 12 different emotions. The stimuli were divided into “easy” and “hard” depending on the intensity of emotional display. A mixed ANOVA revealed significant main effects of modality and difficulty, P < 0.001, but no main effect of condition, P = 0.31, on emotional recognition accuracy. Additionally, there was no interaction between condition and difficulty, P = 0.96, or modality, P = 0.67. This study indicates that sleep deprivation does not reduce the ability to recognise emotions. Given that some studies have only found effects on single emotions, it is possible that the effects of sleep loss are more specific than investigated here. However, it is also possible that previous findings relate to the types of static stimuli used. The ability to recognise emotions is key to social perception; this study suggests that this ability is resilient to one night of sleep deprivation.

  • 26. Iaccarino, Leonardo
    et al.
    Chiotis, Konstantinos
    Alongi, Pierpaolo
    Almkvist, Ove
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Sweden.
    Wall, Anders
    Cerami, Chiara
    Bettinardi, Valentino
    Gianolli, Luigi
    Nordbereg, Agneta
    Perani, Daniela
    A Cross-Validation of FDG- and Amyloid-PET Biomarkers in Mild Cognitive Impairment for the Risk Prediction to Dementia due to Alzheimer's Disease in a Clinical Setting2017Inngår i: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, ISSN 1387-2877, E-ISSN 1875-8908, Vol. 59, nr 2, 603-614 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessments of brain glucose metabolism (F-18-FDG-PET) and cerebral amyloid burden (C-11-PiB-PET) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have shown highly variable performances when adopted to predict progression to dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (ADD). This study investigates, in a clinical setting, the separate and combined values of F-18-FDGPET and C-11-PiB-PET in ADD conversion prediction with optimized data analysis procedures. Respectively, we investigate the accuracy of an optimized SPM analysis for F-18-FDG-PET and of standardized uptake value ratio semiquantification for C-11-PiB-PET in predicting ADD conversion in 30 MCI subjects (age 63.57 +/- 7.78 years). Fourteen subjects converted to ADD during the follow-up (median 26.5 months, inter-quartile range 30 months). Receiver operating characteristic analyses showed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.89 and of 0.81 for, respectively, F-18-FDG-PET and C-11-PiB-PET. F-18-FDG-PET, compared to C-11-PiB-PET, showed higher specificity (1.00 versus 0.62, respectively), but lower sensitivity (0.79 versus 1.00). Combining the biomarkers improved classification accuracy (AUC = 0.96). During the follow-up time, all the MCI subjects positive for both PET biomarkers converted to ADD, whereas all the subjects negative for both remained stable. The difference in survival distributions was confirmed by a log-rank test (p = 0.002). These results indicate a very high accuracy in predicting MCI to ADD conversion of both F-18-FDG-PET and C-11-PiB-PET imaging, the former showing optimal performance based on the SPM optimized parametric assessment. Measures of brain glucose metabolism and amyloid load represent extremely powerful diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers with complementary roles in prodromal dementia phase, particularly when tailored to individual cases in clinical settings.

  • 27. Isaksson, Johan
    et al.
    Grigorenko, Elena L.
    Oreland, Lars
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Koposov, Roman A.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Exploring possible association between D beta H genotype (C1021T), early onset of conduct disorder and psychopathic traits in juvenile delinquents2016Inngår i: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, ISSN 0940-1334, E-ISSN 1433-8491, Vol. 266, nr 8, 771-773 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Early onset of conduct disorder (CD) with callous-unemotional traits has been linked to low levels of dopamine β-hydroxylase (DβH), an enzyme involved in dopamine turnover. The C1021T polymorphism in the DβH gene is a major quantitative-trait locus, regulating the level of DβH. In this study of juvenile delinquents from Northern Russia (n = 180), the polymorphism at -1021 was associated neither with early-onset CD nor with psychopathic traits. Association was found between psychopathic traits and early-onset CD, ADHD and mania.

  • 28. Johansson, Anette
    et al.
    Hellsing, Anna-Natalia
    Harmat, Laszlo
    Kristiansson, Marianne
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Högman, Lennart
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Severity of past aggression coupled to higher baseline oxygenated hemoglobin in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia2019Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Are there differences in working memory task related oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO) in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in those with schizophrenia, who had committed instrumental violence as opposed to reactive aggression? Is there any relationship to the severity of such aggression?

    Methods: 22 stable forensic psychiatric inpatients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (20 schizophrenia) were rated on symptom scales. Their most severe aggressive act was rated according to Cornell’s classification of instrumental or reactive aggression. The severity of aggression was also noted. Subjects completed a computerized Corsi-block-tapping test during functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Correlation analyses and GLM were used to identify factors that correlated with oxygenated hemoglobin signal in optodes 1 and 15 (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex DLPFC).

    Results / Discussion: Spearman Rank correlations with task-minus-baseline HbO in optode 1(left DLPFC) were found for total antipsychotic daily dose and scores on block 5 of the Corsi task, as well as between daily dose and negative symptom scores. Correlations were found between baseline HbO in optode 1 and 15, as well as in task-minus-baseline.  There was no effect of type of aggression on optode 1 or 15 baseline or task-minus-baseline HbO when controlled for the above. Past severe aggression, controlled for SANS, daily dose and Corsi correct responses correlated with higher HbO at baseline in optode 15 (F=9.45 p=0.007, adj R2=0.33, p=0.032) as opposed to task related HbO. Baseline and task-minus baseline optode 1 HbO correlated only with antipsychotic dose and Corsi score.

  • 29. Karlsson, Sara
    et al.
    Henningsson, Susanne
    Hovey, Daniel
    Zettergren, Anna
    Jonsson, Lina
    Cortes, Diana S.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Melke, Jonas
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Kognitiv psykologi.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Westberg, Lars
    Social memory associated with estrogen receptor polymorphisms in women2016Inngår i: Social Cognitive & Affective Neuroscience, ISSN 1749-5016, E-ISSN 1749-5024, Vol. 11, nr 6, 877-883 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to recognize the identity of faces and voices is essential for social relationships. Although the heritability of social memory is high, knowledge about the contributing genes is sparse. Since sex differences and rodent studies support an influence of estrogens and androgens on social memory, polymorphisms in the estrogen and androgen receptor genes (ESR1, ESR2, AR) are candidates for this trait. Recognition of faces and vocal sounds, separately and combined, was investigated in 490 subjects, genotyped for 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ESR1, four in ESR2 and one in the AR. Four of the associations survived correction for multiple testing: women carrying rare alleles of the three ESR2 SNPs, rs928554, rs1271572 and rs1256030, in linkage disequilibrium with each other, displayed superior face recognition compared with non-carriers. Furthermore, the uncommon genotype of the ESR1 SNP rs2504063 was associated with better recognition of identity through vocal sounds, also specifically in women. This study demonstrates evidence for associations in women between face recognition and variation in ESR2, and recognition of identity through vocal sounds and variation in ESR1. These results suggest that estrogen receptors may regulate social memory function in humans, in line with what has previously been established in mice.

  • 30.
    Karshikoff, Bianka
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Sundelin, Tina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lasselin, Julie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; University Hospital Essen, Germany.
    Role of inflammation in Human Fatigue: Relevance of Multidimensional Assessments and Potential Neuronal Mechanisms2017Inngår i: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 8, 21Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fatigue is a highly disabling symptom in various medical conditions. While inflammation has been suggested as a potential contributor to the development of fatigue, underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this review, we propose that a better assessment of central fatigue, taking into account its multidimensional features, could help elucidate the role and mechanisms of inflammation in fatigue development. A description of the features of central fatigue is provided, and the current evidence describing the association between inflammation and fatigue in various medical conditions is reviewed. Additionally, the effect of inflammation on specific neuronal processes that may be involved in distinct fatigue dimensions is described. We suggest that the multidimensional aspects of fatigue should be assessed in future studies of inflammation-induced fatigue and that this would benefit the development of effective therapeutic interventions.

  • 31. Larsson, Maria U.
    et al.
    Almkvist, Ove
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Luszcz, Mary A.
    Wahlin, Tarja-Brita Robins
    Phonemic fluency deficits in asymptomatic gene carriers for Huntington's disease2008Inngår i: Neuropsychology, ISSN 0894-4105, Vol. 22, nr 5, 596-605 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to investigate verbal fluency in preclinical Huntington's disease (HD). Phonemic and semantic fluency and the rate of word production over time were assessed for 29 asymptomatic gene carriers and 34 noncarriers of HD. The relationship between fluency tasks and other cognitive domains was investigated. Compared to noncarriers, carriers produced fewer words and produced them more slowly in the phonemic fluency task but not in the semantic fluency task. When the carrier group was divided on the basis of Predicted-Years-To-Onset (PYTO), only carriers with <12 PYTO performed worse than noncarriers on both fluency tasks. Correlational analyses revealed that phonemic fluency was associated with cognitive speed and working memory, while semantic fluency was linked with crystallized abilities. The difference between carriers and noncarriers in phonemic fluency and a difference between the two carrier groups (<12 PYTO and ≥12 PYTO) in semantic fluency, but not in phonemic fluency, suggest that frontostriatal deficits may precede temporal involvement in preclinical HD.

  • 32. Li, Xiaozhen
    et al.
    Westman, Eric
    Thordardottir, Steinunn
    Ståhlbom, Anne Kinhult
    Almkvist, Ove
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Blennow, Kaj
    Wahlund, Lars-Olof
    Graff, Caroline
    The Effects of Gene Mutations on Default Mode Network in Familial Alzheimer’s Disease2017Inngår i: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, ISSN 1387-2877, E-ISSN 1875-8908, Vol. 56, nr 1, 327-334 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Familial Alzheimer’s disease (FAD) mutations have very high penetrance but age at onset and rate of disease progression differ. Neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examinations in mutation carriers (MCs) may provide an opportunity to identify early biomarkers that can be used to track disease progression from presymptomatic to the dementia stages of disease. The default mode network (DMN) is a resting state neuronal network composed of regions known to associate with amyloid deposition in AD. We hypothesized that functional connectivity in the DMN might change at pre-clinical stages in FAD MCs and correlate with changes in CSF biomarkers as a consequence of AD brain pathology. To test the hypothesis, we compared the functional connectivity in DMN between pre-MCs/MCs and non-carriers (NCs). No significant differences between pre-MCs and NCs were observed. When comparing all MCs with NCs, significant decreased functional connectivity in the right inferior parietal lobule, right precuneus, and left posterior cingulate cortex were found. We also found statistically significant correlations between CSF amyloid-β 42 and tau protein levels and average Z-score, a resting-state functional MRI measurement reflecting the degree of the correlation between a given voxel’s time courses and the time courses corresponding to DMN, from the region with statistical difference. The observed disruption of DMN and pathological levels of AD CSF-biomarkers in FAD MCs are similar to the changes described in sporadic AD, which give further support that amyloid and tau pathology impairs neuronal and synaptic function.

  • 33. Lin, T.
    et al.
    Horta, M.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Feifel, D.
    Cohen, R.
    Ebner, N.
    Effects of Intranasal Oxytocin on Perceptions of Trustworthiness in Aging2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Perceptions of trustworthiness in others influence thought and behavior during social interactions. Growing evidence suggests that intranasal administration of the neuropeptide oxytocin increases perceived trustworthiness of unfamiliar faces, with particularly pronounced effects for in-group compared to out-group faces. To date, prosocial effects of oxytocin have been mostly investigated in young adults, and the majority of studies comprised men. Recent evidence that older adults experience increased difficulty in determining trustworthiness in faces highlights the importance of examining the potentially beneficial role of oxytocin on perceptions of trustworthiness in aging. In the present study, 48 young and 54 older participants evaluated the trustworthiness of young and older male and female unfamiliar faces, while undergoing magnetic resonance imaging. Participants were randomly assigned to either self-administer intranasal oxytocin or a placebo before engagement in the task. Behavioral analysis suggested that female faces were generally rated as more trustworthy than male faces. This effect was particularly pronounced in older participants in the oxytocin group but young participants in the placebo group. Functional connectivity analysis between amygdala and prefrontal cortex is currently underway and will identify the underlying brain mechanism of oxytocin’s effect on trustworthiness perceptions. Findings from this study emphasize the importance of considering age and sex of participants and faces when examining effects of oxytocin on perceptions of facial trustworthiness. Results will be discussed in the context of an emerging literature on oxytocin’s age-by-sex modulatory role in social and affective information processing.

  • 34.
    Lindau, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Kognitiv psykologi.
    Almkvist, Ove
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Mohammed, A.
    Effects of Stress on Learning and Memory2016Inngår i: Stress: concepts, cognition, emotion, and behavior / [ed] George Fink, Amsterdam: Academic Press, 2016, 1, 153-159 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 35. Lloyd, Christina
    et al.
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    DeMarinis, Valerie
    Emotion Regulation and Existential Meaning-Making in Young Women with Mental Ill-Health Concerns – A Qualitative Study2016Inngår i: International Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, ISSN 2163-1948, E-ISSN 2163-1956, Vol. 1, nr 1, 555553Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing rates of psychiatric problems, like anxiety, worry, and anguish among Swedish youth–especially among females, are considered a serious public mental health concern. To explore psychological and existential vulnerability and needs among female youths with mental ill-health concerns, a qualitative in-depth interview study was done with a sample comprised of ten females on the waiting-list at an outpatient psychotherapy clinic. In relation to everyday life, critical events, and ultimate concerns, two areas were explored: Emotion regulation and Existential meaning-making, and their interrelations were examined. Results indicated that these areas appear to be strongly related processes in this sample, possibly due to frequent experiences of relational losses and disruptions. Such experiences, if not repaired, might fuel existential issues like fear of death, loneliness, and alienation, increasing the vulnerability for mental ill-health. Psychotherapeutic implications were discussed.

  • 36. Lloyd, Christina Sophia
    et al.
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    DeMarinis, Valerie
    An Assessment of Existential Worldview Function among Young Women at Risk for Depression and Anxiety: A Multi-Method Study2017Inngår i: Archive for the Psychology of Religion/ Archiv für Religionspsychologie, ISSN 0084-6724, E-ISSN 1573-6121, Vol. 39, nr 2, 165-203 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing rates of psychiatric problems like depression and anxiety among Swedish youth, predominantly among females, are considered a serious public mental health concern. Multiple studies confirm that psychological as well as existential vulnerability manifest in different ways for youths in Sweden. This multi-method study aimed at assessing existential worldview function by three factors: 1) existential worldview, 2) ontological security, and 3) self-concept, attempting to identify possible protective and risk factors for mental ill-health among female youths at risk for depression and anxiety. The sample comprised ten females on the waiting list at an outpatient psychotherapy clinic for teens and young adults. Results indicated that both functional and dysfunctional factors related to mental health were present, where the quality and availability of significant interpersonal relations seemed to have an important influence. Examples of both an impaired worldview function and a lack of an operating existential worldview were found. Psychotherapeutic implications are discussed.

  • 37. Lloyd, Christina Sophia
    et al.
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    DeMarinis, Valerie
    Psychological and existential vulnerability among clinical young women: a quantitative comparison of depression-related subgroups2015Inngår i: Mental Health, Religion & Culture, ISSN 1367-4676, E-ISSN 1469-9737, Vol. 18, nr 4, 259-272 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective was to explore psychological and existential vulnerability among clinical young women in Sweden. Females (n = 53) with depression as the most common preliminary diagnosis were investigated through an online questionnaire. Included measures were Karolinska Scales of Personality, Self-concept, Strategies to Handle Negative Emotions, Sense of Coherence, and questions pertaining to existential meaning-making, including religious/spiritual belief. The sample was divided into High (n = 35) and Low/Inter (n = 18) groups according to scores on the anxiety- and depression-related personality scale Inhibition of aggression. Using independent samples t-test, the High group showed signs of significantly higher psychological and existential vulnerability than the Low/Inter group. Salutogenic factors being (1) coming from socially and societally engaged families and (2) being in a functional existential meaning-making process. The conclusion is that vulnerabilities in the psychological and existential domains are linked, especially in individuals high on depression-like aspects of personality. However, no significant differences for religion/spirituality were found. Treatment implications were addressed.

  • 38.
    Lundberg, Ulf
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Insatser på arbetsplatsen avgörande för sjukskrivna2016Inngår i: På jakt efter framtidens arbete: Utmaningar i arbetets organisering och forskning / [ed] Åke Sandberg, Stockholm: Tankesmedjan Tiden , 2016, 1, 91-93 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 39. Lundgren, Tobias
    et al.
    Högman, Lennart
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Näslund, Markus
    Parling, Thomas
    Preliminary Investigation of Executive Functions in Elite Ice Hockey Players2016Inngår i: Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, ISSN 1932-9261, Vol. 10, nr 4, 324-335 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Elite level ice hockey places high demands on player’s physical and technical attributes as well as on cognitive and executive functions. There is, however, a notable lack of research on these attributes and functions. The present study investigated executive function with selected tests from the D-KEFS test battery among 48 ice hockey players and compared them to a standardized sample. Results show that ice hockey players’ scores were significantly higher on Design Fluency (DF) compared with the standardized sample score. Elite players’ scores were not significantly higher than those of lower-league hockey players. A significant correlation was found between on-ice performance and Trail Making Test (TMT) scores. Exploratory analysis showed that elite-level center forwards scored significantly higher on DF than did players in other positions. Future research should investigate whether assessment of executive function should be taken into account, in addition to physical and technical skills, when scouting for the next ice hockey star.

  • 40. Lundqvist, Daniel
    et al.
    Svärd, Joakim
    Michelgård Palmquist, Åsa
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Svenningsson, Per
    Patients with Parkinson’s disease display a dopamine therapy related negative bias and an enlarged range in emotional responses to facial emotional stimuli2017Inngår i: Neuropsychology, ISSN 0894-4105, E-ISSN 1931-1559, Vol. 31, nr 6, 605-612 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The literature on emotional processing in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients shows mixed results. This may be because of various methodological and/or patient-related differences, such as failing to adjust for cognitive functioning, depression, and/or mood. Method: In the current study, we tested PD patients and healthy controls (HCs) using emotional stimuli across a variety of tasks, including visual search, short-term memory (STM), categorical perception, and emotional stimulus rating. The PD and HC groups were matched on cognitive ability, depression, and mood. We also explored possible relationships between task results and antiparkinsonian treatment effects, as measured by levodopa equivalent dosages (LED), in the PD group. Results: The results show that PD patients use a larger emotional range compared with HCs when reporting their impression of emotional faces on rated emotional valence, arousal, and potency. The results also show that dopaminergic therapy was correlated with stimulus rating results such that PD patients with higher LED scores rated negative faces as less arousing, less negative, and less powerful. Finally, results also show that PD patients display a general slowing effect in the visual search tasks compared with HCs, indicating overall slowed responses. There were no group differences observed in the STM or categorical perception tasks. Conclusions: Our results indicate a relationship between emotional responses, PD, and dopaminergic therapy, in which PD per se is associated with stronger emotional responses, whereas LED levels are negatively correlated with the strength of emotional responses.

  • 41.
    Nilsonne, G.
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Tamm, S.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Schwarz, J.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Almeida, R.
    Fischer, H.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Kecklund, G.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lekander, M.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Fransson, P.
    Åkerstedt, T.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Increased global FMRI signal variability after partial sleep deprivation: Findings from the Stockholm sleepy brain study2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Neural correlates of sleep deprivation are not fully understood and the difference between young and older adults in this regard has received little attention. We aimed to investigate the effect of partial sleep deprivation on resting state connectivity.

    Methods: 30 younger (20–30 years) and 23 older (65–75 years) healthy participants underwent MR imaging after normal sleep and partial sleep deprivation (3 h sleep). We acquired two runs of eyes-open resting state functional magnetic resonance images. Participants were monitored with eye-tracking to ensure their eyes remained open during scanning.

    Results: Global signal variability, defined as log-transformed standard deviation of average gray matter signal, was increased following partial sleep deprivation (0.16 [0.07, 0.24], p = 0.0004). In contrast to previous studies, we did not find that partial sleep deprivation inhibited connectivity in the default mode network, nor in other major networks investigated.

    Conclusion: Sleep deprivation caused increased global signal variability. This novel finding should be confirmed using independent data. Our finding of no difference in default mode connectivity in the sleep deprived state, could possibly be due to stricter monitoring of participants’ wakefulness compared to some earlier studies.

  • 42.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Tamm, Sandra
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Almeida, Rita
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Fransson, Peter
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Intrinsic brain connectivity after partial sleep deprivation in young and older adults2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Sleep deprivation has been reported to affect intrinsic brain connectivity, notably in the default mode network, but studies to date have shown inconsistent effects and have largely included young participants. We therefore aimed to investigate effects of partial sleep deprivation on intrinsic brain connectivity in young and older participants. Methods: Participants aged 20-30 (n = 30) and 65-75 (n = 23) years underwent partial sleep deprivation (3 h sleep) in a cross-over design, with two eyes-open resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) runs in each session. We assessed intrinsic brain connectivity using independent components analysis (ICA) as well as seed-region analyses of functional connectivity, and also analysed global signal variability, regional homogeneity, and the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations. Participants were monitored with eye-tracking to ensure they did not fall asleep during scanning. Results: Sleep deprivation caused increased global signal variability, defined as log-transformed standard deviation of average gray matter signal (0.16 [0.07, 0.24], p = 0.0004). In contrast to previous studies, sleep deprivation did not cause major changes in investigated resting state networks, nor did it cause changes in regional homogeneity. Younger participants had higher functional connectivity in most examined resting state networks, as well as higher regional homogeneity in brain areas including anterior and posterior cingulate cortex. Conclusions: We show for the first time that partial sleep deprivation caused increased global signal variability. This outcome should be examined as a potential biomarker for sleepiness using independent data. Unlike a few earlier studies, we did not find less default mode connectivity in the sleep deprived state, possibly because of stricter monitoring of participants' wakefulness.

  • 43.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Tamm, Sandra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Almeida, Rita
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Fransson, Peter
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Intrinsic brain connectivity after partial sleep deprivation in young and older adults: results from the Stockholm Sleepy Brain study2017Inngår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, 9422Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep deprivation has been reported to affect intrinsic brain connectivity, notably reducing connectivity in the default mode network. Studies to date have however shown inconsistent effects, in many cases lacked monitoring of wakefulness, and largely included young participants. We investigated effects of sleep deprivation on intrinsic brain connectivity in young and older participants. Participants aged 20–30 (final n = 30) and 65–75 (final n = 23) years underwent partial sleep deprivation (3 h sleep) in a cross-over design, with two 8-minutes eyes-open resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) runs in each session, monitored by eye-tracking. We assessed intrinsic brain connectivity using independent components analysis (ICA) as well as seed-region analyses of functional connectivity, and also analysed global signal variability, regional homogeneity, and the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations. Sleep deprivation caused increased global signal variability. Changes in investigated resting state networks and in regional homogeneity were not statistically significant. Younger participants had higher connectivity in most examined networks, as well as higher regional homogeneity in areas including anterior and posterior cingulate cortex. In conclusion, we found that sleep deprivation caused increased global signal variability, and we speculate that this may be caused by wake-state instability.

  • 44.
    Persson, Ninni
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Ebner, Natalie C.
    Lin, Tian
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Functional Correlates of Personality and Emotional Faces in Young and Older Adults2016Inngår i: 2016 Annual Meeting Program, 2016, 79-79 s., B21Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Individual differences in personality may affect perceptions of emotional states in others. Studies investigating the link between personality and blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) activation to facial expressions of emotion are scarce. We assessed the influence of personality on peak BOLD activation from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the middle frontal (MFG), inferior frontal (IFG), and insula (IN) gyri to happy and angry faces contrasted with a low-level baseline, in young (n= 30, 20-31 years) and older (n=30, 65-74 years) adults, using a facial emotion identification paradigm. Self-reported information about neuroticism, extraversion, and openness was included (NEO-PI). Latent difference score models gauged the influence of personality on BOLD activation. Individuals with higher levels of neuroticism had decreased BOLD in left IN and right IFG and in the MFG to angry faces, after accounting for age. Greater openness predicted activation of IN, controlling for the influence of age. Age magnified the effect of openness and extraversion on BOLD response to angry facial expressions, to greater activation in older adults. Inter-individual differences in personality did not explain BOLD activation to happy faces. Our findings suggest that the personality trait neuroticism is associated with increased neuronal response to negative (angry) cues in key structures associated with emotional processing, IFG, MFG and IN. Greater IN activation in more extraverted and open older compared to young individuals may be of importance for age-specific differences in emotional processing.

  • 45.
    Persson, Ninni
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Li, Tie-Qiang
    Age-related alteration of functional connectivity in the default mode network and insular cortex detected by quantitative data-driven analysis of resting-state fMRI2017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Age-related changes in the brain-parenchyma may alter the brains functional connectivity. Studies have consistently reported significant age-effects in the default mode network (DMN). Less is known about sex differences and the interaction effect with older age. Both independent component analysis and seed-based analysis have been widely used in the literature.

    Method: We investigated 29 young (age=25.0±3.4) and 31 older (n=31, age=68.4±2.7) healthy adults (♀50%) with a resting-state fMRI protocol at 3T. We evaluated voxel-wise differences in brain functional connectivity in relation to age and sex of the participants by taking advantage of a recently developed quantitative data-driven analysis (QDA) method, where the connection counters (CCI) and strength (CSI) indies for each voxel in the brain are measured.

    Results: Compared with the CSI result, more extensive brain regions showed significantly reduction in CCI in older age. Besides the brain regions involved in the DMN, we found that older age induced also functional connectivity decline in thalamus and insula cortex. On average, females had lower CCI and CSI in the right middle frontal gyrus. The anterior cingulate, right middle frontal gyrus, and left lentiform nucleus showed age and sex interaction effect. The finding of reduced functional connectivity in older adults was also confirmed by the result from linear regression analysis.

    Conclusion: Age-related effect as detected by the QDA method is largely consistently with previously reported findings. Furthermore, our study added interesting new findings in age-related differences. This indicates that QDA provides a sensitive model-free approach for voxel-wise analysis of functional connectivity.

  • 46.
    Persson, Ninni
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Stockholm Brain Institute, Sweden.
    Ghisletta, Paolo
    Dahle, Cheryl L.
    Bender, Andrew R.
    Yang, Yiqin
    Yuan, Peng
    Daugherty, Ana M.
    Raz, Naftali
    Regional brain shrinkage and change in cognitive performance over two years: The bidirectional influences of the brain and cognitive reserve factors2016Inngår i: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 126, 15-26 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined relationships between regional brain shrinkage and changes in cognitive performance, while taking into account the influence of age, vascular risk, Apolipoprotein E variant and socioeconomic status. Regional brain volumes and cognitive performance were assessed in 167 healthy adults (age 19-79 at baseline), 90 of whom returned for the follow-up after two years. Brain volumes were measured in six regions of interest (ROIs): lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), prefrontal white matter (PFw), hippocampus (Hc), parahippocampal gyrus (PhG), cerebellar hemispheres (CbH), and primary visual cortex (VC), and cognitive performance was evaluated in three domains: episodic memory (EM), fluid intelligence (Gf), and vocabulary (V). Average volume loss was observed in Hc, PhG and CbH, but reliable individual differences were noted in all examined ROIs. Average positive change was observed in EM and V performance but not in Gf scores, yet only the last evidenced individual differences in change. We observed reciprocal influences among neuroanatomical and cognitive variables. Larger brain volumes at baseline predicted greater individual gains in Gf, but differences in LPFC volume change were in part explained by baseline level of cognitive performance. In one region (PFw), individual change in volume was coupled with change in Gf. Larger initial brain volumes did not predict slower shrinkage. The results underscore the complex role of brain maintenance and cognitive reserve in adult development.

  • 47. Persson, Ninni
    et al.
    Lavebratt, Catarina
    Ebner, Natalie C.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Influence of DARPP-32 genetic variation on BOLD activation to happy faces2017Inngår i: Social Cognitive & Affective Neuroscience, ISSN 1749-5016, E-ISSN 1749-5024, Vol. 12, nr 10, 1658-1667 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Dopaminergic pathways play a crucial role in reward processing, and advanced age can modulate its efficiency. DARPP-32 controls dopaminergic function and is a chemical nexus of reward processing. In 61 younger (20-30 years) and older adults (54% female) (65-74 years), we examined how blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) activation to emotional faces, vary over genotypes at three single nucleotide polymorphism(SNPs), coding for DARPP-32 (rs879606; rs907094; 3764352). We also assessed age-magnification of DARPP-32 effects on BOLD activation. We found that major homozygote G, T or A genotypes, with higher cortical expression of DARPP-32, higher dopamine receptor efficacy, and greater bias toward positive cues, had increased functional connectivity in cortical-subcortical circuits in response to happy faces, engaging the dorsal prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), fusiform gyrus (FG) and the midbrain (MB). Local BOLD response to happy faces in FG, and MB was age dependent, so that older carriers of the major G, T or A alleles showed lesser activation than minor genotypes. These genetic variants of DARPP-32 did not modulate BOLD response to angry faces, or engagement of the inferior occipital gyrus, to happy or angry faces. Taken together our results lend support for a potential role of DARPP-32 genetic variants in neural response to potential reward triggering cues.

  • 48.
    Persson, Ninni
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Lavebratt, Catharina
    Sundström, Anna
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Pulse Pressure magnifies the effect of COMT Val158Met on 15 Year Episodic Memory Trajectories2016Inngår i: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, ISSN 1663-4365, E-ISSN 1663-4365, Vol. 8, 34Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated whether a physiological marker of cardiovascular health, pulse pressure (PP), and age magnified the effect of the functional COMT Val158Met (rs4680) polymorphism on 15-years cognitive trajectories [episodic memory (EM), visuospatial ability, and semantic memory] using data from 1585 non-demented adults from the Betula study. A multiple-group latent growth curve model was specified to gauge individual differences in change, and average trends therein. The allelic variants showed negligible differences across the cognitive markers in average trends. The older portion of the sample selectively age-magnified the effects of Val158Met on EM changes, resulting in greater decline in Val compared to homozygote Met carriers. This effect was attenuated by statistical control for PP. Further, PP moderated the effects of COMT on 15-years EM trajectories, resulting in greater decline in Val carriers, even after accounting for the confounding effects of sex, education, cardiovascular diseases (diabetes, stroke, and hypertension), and chronological age, controlled for practice gains. The effect was still present after excluding individuals with a history of cardiovascular diseases. The effects of cognitive change were not moderated by any other covariates. This report underscores the importance of addressing synergistic effects in normal cognitive aging, as the addition thereof may place healthy individuals at greater risk for memory decline.

  • 49.
    Persson, Ninni
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Persson, Jonas
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Effects of the gene coding for DARPP-32 (PPP1R1B) on the prefrontal cortex and declarative memory2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Both glutamate and dopamine can influence the prefrontal cortex and formation of memories through long-term potentiation (1). The frontal cortex itself is rich in glutamatergic and dopaminergic cells (2) and has been identified as an important site for the mediation of the behavioral effects of glutamatergic and dopaminergic agents (3–5). The PPP1R1B gene influences DARPP-32 availability in the frontal lobes. A allelic carriers (rs879606), have higher enzyme activity of DARPP-32, than G carriers (6). DARPP-32 integrates dopaminergic and glutaminergic transmission (7), and DARPP-32 concentrations can further influence cortical gray matter integrity (8). The individuals' age may enhance, or attenuate the influence of genetic variation on the brain and cognitive functions, due to additional impact from neuronal processes, relating to brain maturation in younger age and brain reduction in older age. We therefore wanted to investigate the effects of the gene coding for DARPP-32 (rs879606, in PPP1R1B) on frontal cortical volumes and declarative memory (episodic recall and semantic memory).

    Methods: Data was used from 61 younger and older adults (°‚ 54%), from the following regions of interest (ROIs): orbito-frontal cortex (OFC), inferior prefrontal cortex (iPFC), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), the superior prefrontal cortex (sPFC), and the visual cortex (VC) (the calcarine fissure; cuneus), applying Freesurfer image analysis suite. Gray matter volumes were derived from gradient echo T1-weighted images acquired by a 3-Tesla scanner (Siemens Magnetom Tim Trio), using a 32-channel head coil. A series of structural equation models with latent variables were performed to assess: (1) simple genetic effects on regional brain volumes and memory. (2) We further investigated if the individuals' age could magnify the genetic effects on brain volumes and memory performance. (3) Last, we assessed if size of regional brain volumes could mediate the relationship between the rs879606 polymorphism and declarative memory.

    Results: We found that the major allelic variant (G) in the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP): rs879606 in the PPP1R1B gene influenced both frontal gray matter volume and episodic memory (EM). Homozygous carriers of the low activity G allele had larger frontal volumes and more accurate recall of episodic information. The effect sizes were moderate for mPFC (19.1% explained variance), and OFC (14.9%) and smaller for iPFC (9.4%), and EM (5%) (moderate: >10%(9)). The gene-related difference in mPFC was moderated by age, so that younger GG carriers had larger volumes in this region, than A carriers. Regional brain volumes in the mPFC, OFC, and iPFC mediated the relationship between rs879606 and EM. No effects were present for semantic memory, the superior part of the PFC and the VC.

    Conclusions: The present study replicates previous associations between cognitive performance and rs879606 (10), and shed light on the potential influence of rs879606 on structural integrity of the frontal lobes. The influence of younger age on the relationship between rs879606 and the mPFC region may reflect gene-related variation in post adolescence brain maturation. The medial part of the frontal lobes is subject to dynamic changes through young adulthood (11) and DARPP-32 can influence dendritogenesis, through glutamatergic pathways (12). The mediated effect of the frontal lobes on EM recall may reflect a pathway by which genomic differences lead to variations at cellular levels of the frontal lobes that result in change in cognition. The findings reported herein need further replication from experimental reports including direct measures of glutamate and dopamine integration to determine the specific directions of causality.

  • 50.
    Persson, Ninni
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Persson, Jonas
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Lavebratt, Catharina
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Effects of DARPP-32 genetic variation on prefrontal cortex volume and episodic memory performance2017Inngår i: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 11, 244Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite evidence of a fundamental role of DARPP-32 in integrating dopamine and glutamate signaling, studies examining gene coding for DARPP-32 in relation to neural and behavioral cor-relates in humans are scarce. Post mortem findings evidence genotype specific expressions of DARPP-32 in the dorsal frontal lobes. We therefore investigated the effects of genomic variation in DARPP-32 coding on frontal lobe volumes and episodic memory. Volumetric data from the dorsolateral (DLPFC), and visual cortices (VC) were obtained from 61 younger and older adults (♀54%). The major homozygote G, T or A genotypes in single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs: rs879606; rs907094; rs3764352), at the DARPP-32 regulating PPP1R1B gene influenced frontal gray matter volume and episodic memory (EM). Homozygous carriers of allelic variants with lower DARPP-32 expression had overall larger prefrontal volumes, in addition to greater EM recall accuracy. The SNPs did not influence VC volume. The genetic effects on DLPFC were greater in younger adults, and selective to this group for EM. Our findings suggest that genomic variation maps on to individual differences in frontal brain volumes, and cognitive functions. Larger DLPFC volumes were also related to better EM performance, suggesting that gene-related differences in frontal gray matter may contribute to individual differences in EM. These results need further replication from experimental and longitudinal reports to determine directions of causality.

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