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  • 1.
    Aggarwal, Varinder K.
    et al.
    Bristol University.
    Olofsson, Berit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
    Enantioselective α-arylation of cyclohexanones with diaryl iodonium salts: Application to the synthesis of (-)-epibatidine.2005In: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, ISSN 1433-7851, E-ISSN 1521-3773, Vol. 44, no 34, p. 5516-5519Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The direct asym. α-arylation of prochiral ketones has been effected using chiral lithium amide bases and diaryl iodonium salts. The methodol. has been employed in a short total synthesis of the alkaloid (-)-epibatidine. [on SciFinder(R)]

  • 2.
    Anderlund, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Dinuclear Manganese Complexes for Artificial Photosynthesis: Synthesis and Properties2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with the synthesis and characterisation of a series of dinuclear manganese complexes. Their ability to donate electrons to photo-generated ruthenium(III) has been investigated in flash photolysis experiments followed by EPR-spectroscopy. These experiment shows several consecutive one-electron transfer steps from the manganese moiety to ruthenium(III), that mimics the electron transfer from the oxygen evolving centre in photosystem II.

    The redox properties of these complexes have been investigated with electro chemical methods and the structure of the complexes has been investigated with different X-ray techniques. Structural aspects and the effect of water on the redox properties have been shown.

    One of the manganese complexes has been covalently linked in a triad donor-photosensitizer-acceptor (D–P–A) system. The kinetics of this triad has been investigated in detail after photo excitation with both optical and EPR spectroscopy. The formed charge separated state (D–P–A+) showed an unusual long lifetime for triad based on ruthenium photosensitizers.

    The thesis also includes a study of manganese-salen epoxidation reactions that we believe can give an insight in the oxygen transfer mechanism in the water oxidising complex in photosystem II.

  • 3.
    Córdova, Armando
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Engqvist, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Ibrahem, Ismail
    Casas, Jésus
    Sundén, Henrik
    Plausible origins of homochirality in the amino acid catalyzed neogenesis of carbohydrates2005In: Chemical Communications, ISSN 1359-7345, E-ISSN 1364-548X, Vol. 2005, p. 2047-2049Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The intrinsic ability of amino acids to catalyze the asymmetric formation of carbohydrates, which enzymes have mediated for millions of years, with significant amplification of enantiomeric excess suggests a plausible ancient catalytic process for the evolution of homochirality.

  • 4.
    Eklund, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Computational Analysis of Carbohydrates: Dynamical Properties and Interactions2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis a computational complement to experimental observables will be presented. Computational tools such as molecular dynamics and quantum chemical tools will be used to aid in the interpretation of experimentally (NMR) obtained structural data. The techniques are applied to study the dynamical features of biologically important carbohydrates and their interaction with proteins. When evaluating conformations, molecular mechanical methods are commonly used. Paper I, highlights some important considerations and focuses on the force field parameters pertaining to carbohydrate moieties. Testing of the new parameters on a trisaccharide showed promising results. In Paper II, a conformational analysis of a part of the repeating unit of a Shigella flexneri bacterium lipopolysaccharide using the modified force field revealed two major conformational states. The results showed good agreement with experimental data. In Paper III, a trisaccharide using Langevin dynamics was investigated. The approach used in the population analysis included a least-square fit technique to match T1 elaxation parameters. The results showed good agreement with experimental T-ROE build-up curves, and three states were concluded to be involved. In Paper IV, carbohydrate moieties were used in the development of prodrug candidates, to “hide” peptide opioid receptor agonists. Langevin dynamics and quantum chemical methods were employed to elucidate the structural preference of the compound. The results showed a chemical shift difference between hydrogens across the ring for the two isomers as well as a difference in the coupling constant, when taking the dynamics into account. In Paper V, the interaction of the Salmonella enteritidis bacteriophage P22 with its host bacterium, involves an initial hydrolysis of the O-antigenic polysaccharide (O-PS). Docking calculations were used to examine the binding between the Phage P22 tail-spike protein and the O-PS repeating unit. Results indicated a possible active site in conjunction with NMR measurements.

  • 5.
    Engqvist, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Direct Amino Acid-Catalyzed Enantioselective α-Oxidation Reactions and Asymmetric de novo Synthesis of Carbohydrates2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability of amino acids to form nucleophilic enamines with aldehydes and ketones has been used in the development of asymmetric α-oxidation reactions with electrophilic oxidizing agents. Singlet molecular oxygen has for the first time been asymmetrically incorporated into aldehydes and ketones, and the products were isolated as their corresponding diols in good yields and ee’s. Organocatalytic α-oxidations of cyclic ketones with iodosobenzene and N-sulfonyloxaziridine were also possible and furnished after reduction the product diols in generally low yields and in low to good ee’s. Amino acids have also been shown to catalyze the formation of carbohydrates by sequential aldol reactions. For example, proline and hydroxy proline mediate a highly selective trimerisation of α-benzyloxyacetaldehyde into allose, which was obtained in >99 % ee. Non linear effect studies of this reaction revealed the largest permanent nonlinear effect observed in a proline-catalyzed reaction to date. Moreover, polyketides were also assembled in a similar fashion by an amino acid-catalyzed one-pot reaction, and was successful for the trimerisation of propionaldehyde, however the sequential cross aldol reactions suffered from lower selectivities. This problem was overcome by the development of a two-step synthesis that enabled the formation of a range of polyketides with excellent selectivities from a variety of aldehydes. The method furnishes the polyketides via the shortest route reported and in comparable product yields to most multi-step synthesis. All polyketides were isolated as single diastereomers with >99 % ee. Based on the observed amino acid-catalysis, amino acids are thought to have taken part in the prebiotic formation of tetroses and hexoses.

  • 6.
    Fransson, Ann-Britt L.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Borén, Linnéa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Pàmies, Oscar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Bäckvall, Jan-Erling
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Kinetic Resolution and Chemoenzymatic Dynamic Kinetic Resolution of Functionalized γ-Hydroxy Amides2005In: Journal of Organic Chemistry, ISSN 0022-3263, E-ISSN 1520-6904, Vol. 70, no 7, p. 2582-2587Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An efficient kinetic resolution of racemic gamma-hydroxy amides 1 was performed via Pseudomas cepacia lipase (PS-C)-catalyzed transesterification. The enzyme PS-C tolerates both variation in the chain length and different functionalities giving good to high enantioselectivity (E values of up to > 250). The combination of enzymatic kinetic resolution with a ruthenium-catalyzed racemization led to a dynamic kinetic resolution. The use of 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanol as a hydrogen source to suppress ketone formation in the dynamic kinetic resolution yields the corresponding acetates in good yield and good to high enantioselectivity (ee's up to 98%). The synthetic utility of this procedure was illustrated by the practical synthesis of the versatile intermediate gamma-lactone (R)-5-methyltetrahydrofuran-2-one.

  • 7.
    Gemma, Emiliano
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Synthesis of Oligosaccharides for Interaction Studies with Various Lectins2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, the syntheses of oligosaccharides for interaction studies with various lectins are described. The first section reports the syntheses of tetra, tri- and disaccharides corresponding to truncated versions of the glucosylated arm of Glc1Man9(GlcNAc)2, found in the biosynthesis of N-glycans. The thermodynamic parameters of their interaction with calreticulin, a lectin assisting and promoting the correct folding of newly synthesised glycoproteins, were established by isothermal titration calorimetry. In the second section, a new synthetic pathway leading to the same tetra- and trisaccharides is discussed. Adoption of a convergent strategy and of a different protecting group pattern resulted in significantly increased yields of the target structures. The third section describes the syntheses of a number of monodeoxy-trisaccharides related to the above trisaccharide Glc-α-(1→3)-Man-α-(1→2)-Man-α-OMe. Differentsynthetic approaches were explored and the choice of early introduction of the deoxy functionality proved the most beneficial. In the last section, the synthesis of spacer-linked LacNAc dimers as substrates for the lectins galectin-1 and -3 is presented. This synthesis was realized by glycosidation of a number diols with peracetylated LacNAc-oxazoline. Pyridinium triflate was tested as a new promoter, affording the target dimers in high yields. This promoter in combination with microwave irradiation gave even higher yields and also shortened the reaction times.

  • 8.
    Gemma, Emiliano
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Lahmann, Martina
    Oscarson, Stefan
    Synthesis of the tetrasaccharide α-D-Glcp-(1→3)-α-D-Manp-(1→2)-α-D-Manp-(1→2)-α-D-Manp recognised by Calreticulin/Calnexin2005In: Carbohydrate Research, ISSN 0008-6215, E-ISSN 1873-426X, Vol. 340, no 16, p. 2558-2562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The title compound as its methyl glycoside was efficiently synthesized using a block synthesis approach. Halide-assisted glycosidations between 6-O-acetyl-2,3,4-tri-O-benzyl-α-d-glucopyranosyl iodide and ethyl 2-O-acetyl-4,6-di-O-benzyl-1-thio-α-d-mannopyranoside using triphenylphosphine oxide as promoter yielded, with complete α-selectivity, a disaccharide building block in high yield. The perbenzylated derivative of this proved to be an excellent donor affording 88% of the protected target tetrasaccharide in an NIS/AgOTf-promoted coupling to a known methyl dimannoside acceptor. Deprotection through catalytic hydrogenolysis then gave the target compound in 47% overall yield.

  • 9. ibrahem, Ismail
    et al.
    Samec, Joseph S M
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Bäckvall, Jan-E
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Córdiva, Armando
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Enantioselective addition of aldehydes to amines via combined catalytic biomimetic oxidation and organocatalytic C-C- bond formation2005In: Tetrahedron Letters, ISSN 0040-4039, E-ISSN 1359-8562, Vol. 46, no 23, p. 3965-3968Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The biomimetic catalytic enantioselective addition of aldehydes to amines is reported. This was accomplished by combining biomimetic coupled catalytic aerobic oxidation of amines involving ruthenium-induced dehydrogenation and organocatalytic asymmetric Mannich reactions. The novel one-pot reactions furnished β-amino aldehyde and α-amino acid derivatives in high yields with excellent chemoselectivity and up to >99% ee.

  • 10.
    Kjellgren, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Sundén, Henrik
    Szabó, Kálmán J.
    Palladium pincer complex-catalyzed stannyl and silyl transfer to propargylic substrates: Synthetic scope and mechanism2005In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 127, no 6, p. 1787-1796Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Kullberg, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Studies on nucleoside H-phosphonoselenoate chemistry and chalcogen exchange reaction between P(V) and P(III) compounds2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, the chemistry of compounds containing P-Se bonds has been studied. As a new addition to this class of compounds, H-phosphonoselenoate monoesters, have been introduced and two synthetic pathways for their preparation have been developed.

    The reactivity of H-phosphonoselenoate monoesters towards a variety of condensing agents has been studied. From these, efficient conditions for the synthesis of H-phosphonoselenoate diesters have been developed. The produced diesters have subsequently been used in oxidative transformations, which gave access to the corresponding P(V) compounds, e.g. dinucleoside phosphoroselenoates or dinucleoside phosphoroselenothioates.

    Furthermore, a new selenizing agent, triphenyl phosphoroselenoate, has been developed for selenization of P(III) compounds. This reagent has high solubility in organic solvents and was found to convert phosphite triesters and H-phosphonate diesters efficiently into the corresponding phosphoroselenoate derivatives.

    The selenization of P(III) compounds with triphenyl phosphoroselenoate proceeds through a selenium transfer reaction. A computational study was performed to gain insight into a mechanism for this reaction. The results indicate that the transfer of selenium or sulfur from P(V) to P(III) compounds proceeds most likely via an X-philic attack of the P(III) nucleophile on the chalcogen of the P(V) species. For the transfer of oxygen, the reaction may also proceed via an edge attack on the P=O bond.

  • 12.
    Kullberg, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Stawinski, Jacek
    Nucleoside H-phosphonates XX: Efficient method for the preparation of nucleoside H-phosphonoselenoate monoesters2005In: Synthesis (Stuttgart), ISSN 0039-7881, E-ISSN 1437-210X, no 10, p. 1668-1674Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Kullberg, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Stawinski, Jacek
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Preparation of nucleoside H-phosphonoselenoate monoesters via the phosphinate approach2005In: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids, ISSN 1525-7770, E-ISSN 1532-2335, Vol. 24, no 10-12, p. 1627-1633Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An efficient entry to nucleoside 3'-H-phosphonoselenoate monoesters via phosphinate intermediates was developed. It involves a reaction of suitably protected nucleosides with triethylammonium phosphinate in the presence of pivaloyl chloride, followed by selenization of the intermediate nucleoside phosphinates with triphenylphosphine selenide, to produce the corresponding nucleoside H-phosphonoselenoates in 86-92% yields.

  • 14. Linde, Christian
    et al.
    Anderlund, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Åkermark, Björn
    The Effect of Phenolates in the Mn(salen)-Catalyzed Epoxidation Reaction2005In: Tetrahedron Letters, ISSN 0040-4039, E-ISSN 1359-8562, Vol. 46, no 33, p. 5597-5600Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By addition of 2,4,6-tri-tert-butylphenolate in the Mn(salen) catalyzed epoxidation of cis-alkenes with iodosobenzene, essentially pure trans-epoxides can be obtained.

  • 15.
    Lindén, Auri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Flavins as Biomimetic Catalysts for Sulfoxidation by H2O2: Catalyst Immobilization in Ionic Liquid for H2O2 Oxidations2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with the development of catalytic oxidation reactions utilizing hydrogen peroxide as terminal oxidant. The main focus has been to find flavin catalysts that are easy to handle and stable to store but still able to perform the desired reaction. A variety of dihydroflavins were prepared and the electrochemical oxidation potentials were measured and compared with their catalytic activity.

    A flavin catalyst was applied in the sulfoxidation of allylic and vinylic sulfides by H2O2. This transformation was highly chemoselective and the sulfoxides were obtained without formation of other oxidation products. The scope of the reaction was demonstrated by applying the method on substrates with a wide range of functional groups such as a tertiary amine. Another flavin catalyst was immobilized in the ionic liquid [BMIm]PF6 and used for sulfoxidations by H2O2. The chemoselectivity was maintained in this system and the catalyst-ionic liquid system could be recycled several times.

    Finally two bimetallic catalyst systems for the dihydroxylation of alkenes by H2O2 were immobilized in the ionic liquid. These systems employed either vanadium acetylacetonate VO(acac)2 or methyl trioxorhenium (MTO) as co-catalysts together with the substrate-selective osmium catalyst. Good to excellent yields of the diols were obtained.

  • 16.
    Martín-Matute, Belén
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Bogár, Krisztián
    Edin, Michaela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Kaynak, F. Betül
    Bäckvall, Jan-E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Highly efficient redox isomerization of allylic alcohols at ambient temperature catalyzed by novel ruthenium cyclopentadienyl complexes: New insight into the mechanism2005In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 11, no 20, p. 5832-5842Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A range of ruthenium cyclopentadienyl (Cp) complexes have been prepared and used for isomerization of allylic alcohols to the corresponding saturated carbonyl compounds. Complexes bearing CO ligands show higher activity than those with PPh3 ligands. The isomerization rate is highly affected by the substituents on the Cp ring. Tetra(phenyl)methyl-substituted catalysts rapidly isomerize allylic alcohols under very mild reaction conditions (ambient temperature) with short reaction times. Substituted allylic alcohols have been isomerized by employing Ru–Cp complexes. A study of the isomerization catalyzed by [Ru(Ph5Cp)(CO)2H] (14) indicates that the isomerization catalyzed by ruthenium hydrides partly follows a different mechanism than that of ruthenium halides activated by KOtBu. Furthermore, the lack of ketone exchange when the isomerization was performed in the presence of an unsaturated ketone (1 equiv), different from that obtained by dehydrogenation of the starting allylic alcohol, supports a mechanism in which the isomerization takes place within the coordination sphere of the ruthenium catalyst.

  • 17.
    Martín-Matute, Belén
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Edin, Michaela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Bogár, Krisztián
    Kaynak, F. Betül
    Bäckvall, Jan-E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Combined ruthenium(II)- and lipase catalysis for efficient dynamic kinetic resolution of sec-alcohols. Insight into a new racemization mechanism2005In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 127, no 24, p. 8817-8825Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     

    Pentaphenylcyclopentadienyl ruthenium complexes (3) are excellent catalysts for the racemization of secondary alcohols at ambient temperature. The combination of this process with enzymatic resolution of the alcohols results in a highly efficient synthesis of enantiomerically pure acetates at room temperature with short reaction times for most substrates. This new reaction was applied to a wide range of functionalized alcohols including heteroaromatic alcohols, and for many of the latter, enantiopure acetates were efficiently prepared for the first time via dynamic kinetic resolution (DKR). Different substituted cyclopentadienyl ruthenium complexes were prepared and studied as catalysts for racemization of alcohols. Pentaaryl-substituted cyclopentadienyl complexes were found to be highly efficient catalysts for the racemization. Substitution of one of the aryl groups by an alkyl group considerably slows down the racemization process. A study of the racemization of (S)-1-phenylethanol catalyzed by ruthenium hydride η5-Ph5CpRu(CO)2H (8) indicates that the racemization takes place within the coordination sphere of the ruthenium catalyst. This conclusion was supported by the lack of ketone exchange in the racemization of (S)-1-phenylethanol performed in the presence of p-tolyl methyl ketone (1 equiv), which gave <1% of 1-(p-tolyl)ethanol. The structures of ruthenium chloride and iodide complexes 3a and 3c and of ruthenium hydride complex 8 were confirmed by X-ray analysis.

  • 18.
    Nilsson, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Kraszewski, Adam
    Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Polish Academy of Science.
    Stawinski, Jacek
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Chemical and Stereochemical Aspects of Oxidative Coupling of H Phosphonantes and H-Phosphonothioate Diesters: Reactions with N,N-, N,O- and O,O-Binucleophiles2005In: Letters in organic chemistry, ISSN 1570-1786, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 188-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient protocols for oxidative coupling of dinucleoside H-phosphonate and dinucleoside Hphosphonothioate diesters with 6-aminohexan-1-ol, hexane-1,6-diamine, and hexane-1,6-diol, promoted by iodine were developed. In the instance of coupling with O-nucleophiles, the presence of t-butyldiphenylsilyl chloride and excess of iodine during oxidative coupling were found to have beneficial effect for these reactions in terms of rates and purity of the formed products

  • 19.
    Nordmark, Eva-Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Yang, Zhennai
    Huttunen, Eine
    Widmalm, Göran
    Structural studies of an exopolysaccharide produced by Streptococcus thermophilus THS2005In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 105-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The structure of an extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) from Streptococcus thermophilus THS has been determined. A combination of component analysis, methylation analysis and NMR spectroscopy shows that the polysaccharide is composed of pentasaccharide repeating units. Sequential information was obtained by two-dimensional 1H,1H−NOESY and 1H,13C−HMBC NMR experiments. NMR data indicate different mobility within the EPS with a stiffer backbone and a more flexible side-chain.

  • 20.
    Samec, Joseph S M
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Ruthenium-catalyzed hydrogen transfer involving amines and imines: Mechanistic studies and synthetic applications2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with ruthenium-catalyzed hydrogen transfer involving amines and imines and is divided into two parts.

    In Part 1 a mechanistic study has been performed. The complexation of the imine to the catalyst and the decomplexation patterns of the formed ruthenium-amine complexes, isotope studies, and exchange studies show that the mechanism of the hydrogen transfer involving amines and imines is different from the hydrogen transfer involving alcohols and carbonyls.

    In Part 2 synthetic applications of the hydrogen transfer is presented. First the rutheniumcatalyzed transfer hydrogenation of imines by 2-propanol in an unpolar solvent was investigated. The corresponding amines were isolated in good to excellent yields. Even imines bearing labile functional groups were smoothly transferred to amines with very low catalyst loadings and short reaction times employing microwave heating. Then the reverse reaction, transfer dehydrogenation of amines to imines, was investigated using either MnO2 or oxygen as terminal oxidant. Important products such as aldimines, ketimines, and non benzylic anilines were prepared in the aerobic oxidation. We also demonstrated that the aerobic oxidation is compatible with proline-mediated organocatalysis, yielding amines in high yields and ee:s. Finally the racemization of chiral amines was investigated. A cumbersome side product formation was investigated and hampered by the use of a mild hydrogen donor, giving a mild and efficient racemization process for both primary and secondary amines.

  • 21.
    Sebelius, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Kálmán J., Szabó
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Allylation of aldehyde and imine substrates with in situ generated allylboronates - a simple route to enantioenriched homoallyl alcohols2005In: European Journal of Organic Chemistry, ISSN 1434-193X, E-ISSN 1099-0690, no 12, p. 2539-2547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Allylation of aldehyde and imine substrates was achieved using easily available allylacetates and diboronate reagents in the presence of catalytic amounts of palladium. This operationally simple one-pot reaction has a broad synthetic scope, as many functionalities including, acetate, carbethoxy, amido and nitro groups are tolerated. The allylation reactions proceed with excellent regio- and stereoselectivity affording the branched allylic isomer. By employment of commercially available chiral diboronates enantioenriched homoallyl alcohols (up to 53% ee) could be obtained. The mechanistic studies revealed that the in situ generated allylboronates react directly with the aldehyde substrates, however the allylation of the sulfonylimine substrate requires palladium catalysis.

  • 22.
    Sebelius, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Olsson, Vilhelm J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Szabó, Kálmán
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Palladium Pincer Complex Catalyzed Substitution of Vinyl Cyclopropanes, Vinyl Aziridines, and Allyl Acetates with Tetrahydroxydiboron. An Efficient Route to Functionalized Allylboronic Acids and Potassium Trifluoro(allyl)borates2005In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 127, no 30, p. 10478-10479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Palladium-catalyzed boronation of vinyl cyclopropane, vinyl aziridine, and allyl acetate substrates could be accomplished using tetrahydroxydiboron reagent in the presence of SeCSe pincer complex catalyst 1a. These reactions result in allyl boronic acids, which were converted to synthetically useful trifluoro(allyl)borates or allyl boronates. The catalytic transformations proceed under mild and neutral conditions, and therefore many functionalities Br, COOEt, ArSO2(NH), OAc, and SiRMe2 are tolerated. The selectivity of the presented processes is very high, affording the linear products incorporating a trans double bond.

  • 23.
    Teodorovic, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Synthesis of oligosaccharides related to the capsular polysaccharide of Neisseria meningitidis serotype A2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to find suitable stable vaccine candidates against Neisseria meningitidis group A, several structures related to the capsular polysaccharide have been synthesised. The first part of the thesis describes the synthesis of C-phosphonate analogues starting from glucose. The key step is a Mitsunobu coupling of a methyl C-phosphonate monomer to the 6-hydroxyl group of a 2-acetamido mannose derivative. Contained within this work is a description of an improved synthesis of 2-azido-2-deoxy-D-mannopyranose. The second part outlines the synthesis of structural elements present in the native capsular polysaccharide of Neisseria meningitidis serotype A including different acetylation and phosphorylation patterns. The final chapter describes an improved synthesis of the Lewis b hexasaccharide needed for purification of and interaction studies with the Helicobacter pylori adhesin BabA.

  • 24.
    Teodorović, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Slättegård, Rikard
    Oscarson, Stefan
    Improved Synthesis of 1,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-2-Azido-2-deoxy-α-D-mannopyranose2005In: Carbohydrate Research, ISSN 0008-6215, E-ISSN 1873-426X, Vol. 340, no 17, p. 2675-2676Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By improved (anhydrous) work-up conditions of a triflate displacement reaction, the yield in the preparation of the versatile synthetic intermediate 1,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-2-azido-2-deoxy-α-d-mannopyranose has been significantly enhanced. This important precursor is now available in three efficient steps from d-glucose.

  • 25. Urbina, Felipe
    et al.
    Nordmark, Eva-Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Yang, Zhennai
    Weintraub, Andrej
    Scheutz, Flemming
    Widmalm, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Structural elucidation of the O-antigenic polysaccharide from the enteroaggregative Escherichia coli strain 180/C3 and its immunochemical relationship with Escherichia coli O5 and O652005In: Carbohydrate Research, ISSN 0008-6215, E-ISSN 1873-426X, Vol. 340, no 4, p. 645-650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The structure of the O-antigen polysaccharide (PS) from the enteroaggregative Escherichia coli strain 180/C3 has been determined. Sugar and methylation analysis together with 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy were the main methods used. The PS is composed of tetrasaccharide repeating units with the following structure:→2)-β-d-Quip3NAc-(1→3)-β-d-Ribf-(1→4)-β-d-Galp-(1→3)-α-d-GalpNAc-(1→Analysis of NMR data indicates that the presented sequence of sugar residues also represents the biological repeating unit of the O-chain. The structure is closely related to that of O-antigen polysaccharide from E. coli O5 and partially to that of E. coli O65. The difference between the O-antigen from the 180/C3 strain and that of E. coli O5 is the linkage to the d-Quip3NAc residue, which in the latter strain is 4-O-substituted. The E. coli O65 O-antigen contains as part of its linear pentasaccharide repeating unit a similar structural element, namely →4)-β-d-GalpA-(1→3)-α-d-GlcpNAc-(1→2)-β-d-Quip3NAc-(1→, thereby indicating that a common epitope could be present for the two polysaccharides. Monospecific anti-E. coli O5 rabbit serum did not distinguish between the two positional isomeric structures neither in slide agglutination nor in an indirect enzyme immunoassay. The anti-O65 serum did react with both the 180/C3 and O5 LPS showing a partial cross-reactivity.

  • 26.
    Västilä, Patrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Development of highly modular ligands for use in asymmetric transition-metal catalyzed reactions2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The synthesis and evaluation of ligands for use in asymmetric transition metal catalyzed reactions is a widely used concept to achieve improved enantioselectivity in a variety of different transformations. The present thesis decribes the synthesis of a number of different oxazoline-based ligands and their use in titanum-catalyzed addition of diethyl zinc to aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes. Interestingly, the presence of catalytic amounts of titanium in our system was sufficient to achieve effective catalysis in contrast to what has been previously reported concerning titanium-catalyzed addition of diethyl zinc to aldehydes.

    The synthesis and evaluation of a library of novel dipeptide-like ligands are described and these ligands were employed in connection with ruthenium-catalyzed transfer hydrogenation of aromatic ketones. Excellent enantioselectivities and yields were obtained.

    Furthermore, the novel concept of forming the ligand and catalyst in situ in a one-pot system was explored. In addition to significant simplification, this approach resulted in improvements in both enantioselectivity (minor) and reaction rate (2-3 fold) compared to previously studied procedures.

    The surprizing influence of alkali salts on ruthenium-catalyzed transfer hydrogenation involving these dipeptide-like ligands are described and discussed. In the presence of these additives the ruthenium-catalyzed transfer hydrogenation performed with higher enantioselecitvity and reactivity.

    Finally, mechanistic studies concerning ruthenium-catalyzed transfer hydrogenation involving the dipeptide-like ligands are also described and discussed.

  • 27.
    Wolpher, Henriette
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Ruthenium(II) Polypyridyl Complexes in Supramolecular Systems relevant to Artificial Photosynthesis2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes the synthesis and properties of ruthenium complexes relevant to artificial photosynthesis. The work includes preparation of RuIIpolypyridine complexes as well as multi component systems where RuII(bpy)3 or RuII(tpy)2 type complexes are used as photosesnsitizers.

    In the first part, the synthesis and characterisation of bipyridyl(pyridyl)methane type ligands and the corresponding ruthenium(II) bistridentate polypyridyl complexes is described. The bipyridyl-pyridyl methane type ligands were designed to increase the excited state lifetime of ruthenium(II) bisterpyridine-type complexes by altering the ligand field as compared to normal terpyridine ligands.

    In the second part photoinduced electron transfer and formation of charge separated states in donor-photosensitizer dyads or donor-photosensitizer-acceptor triads is studied. The first covalently linked donor-photosensitizer-acceptor triad with tyrosine as electron donor was prepared, and long lived light induced charge separation was observed. RuIIterpyridine complexes linked to carotenoid or tyrosine were also prepared, for studies of light induced charge separation on a TiO2 surface. Tryptofan was covalently linked to Ru(bpy)3 and proton coupled electron transfer from tryptophan to photogenerated ruthenium(III) was demonstrated. A pH-dependent study of the electron transfer rate gave insight into the mechanism of proton coupled electron transfer in amino acids.

    Finally, the last part of the thesis presents the preparation and properties of the first complex containing a photosensitizer covalently linked to a Fe-hydrogenase active site model.

  • 28.
    Xu, Yunhua
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Synthesis and Photoinduced Electron Transfer of Donor-Sensitizer-Acceptor Systems2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Artificial systems involving water oxidation and solar cells are promising ways for the conversion of solar energy into fuels and electricity. These systems usually consist of a photosensitizer, an electron donor and / or an electron acceptor. This thesis deals with the synthesis and photoinduced electron transfer of several donor-sensitizer-acceptor supramolecular systems.

    The first part of this thesis describes the synthesis and properties of two novel dinuclear ruthenium complexes as electron donors to mimic the donor side reaction of Photosystem II. These two Ru2 complexes were then covalently linked to ruthenium trisbipyridine and the properties of the resulting trinuclear complexes were studied by cyclic voltammetry and transient absorption spectroscopy.

    The second part presents the synthesis and photoinduced electron transfer of covalently linked donor-sensitizer supramolecular systems in the presence of TiO2 as electron acceptors. Electron donors are tyrosine, phenol and their derivatives, and dinuclear ruthenium complexes. Intramolecular electron transfer from the donor to the oxidized sensitizer was observed by transient absorption spectroscopy after light excitation of the Ru(bpy)32+ moiety. The potential applications of Ru2-based electron donors in artificial systems for water oxidation and solar cells are discussed.

    In the final part, the photoinduced interfacial electron transfer in the systems based on carotenoids and TiO2 is studied. Carotenoids are shown to act as both sensitizers and electron donors, which could be used in artificial systems to mimic the electron transfer chain in natural photosynthesis.

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