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  • 201.
    Deiana, Luca
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Zhao, Gui-Ling
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Lin, Shuangzheng
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Dziedzic, Pawel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Zhang, Qiong
    Leijonmarck, Hans
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Córdova, Armando
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Organocatalytic enantioselective aziridination of α-substituted α,β-unsaturated aldehydes: asymmetric synthesis ot terminal aziridines2010In: Advanced Synthesis and Catalysis, ISSN 1615-4150, E-ISSN 1615-4169, Vol. 352, no 18, p. 3201-3207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first example of a highly enantioselective organocatalytic aziridination of α-substituted α,β-unsaturated aldehydes is presented. The reaction is catalyzed by simple chiral amines and gives access to highly functional terminal azirdines containing an α-tertiary amine stereocenter in high yields and enantiomeric ratios (95.5:4.5–98:2).

  • 202.
    Deng, Hong-Ping
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Wang, Dong
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Szabó, Kálmán J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Direct Allylation of Quinones with Allylboronates2015In: Journal of Organic Chemistry, ISSN 0022-3263, E-ISSN 1520-6904, Vol. 80, no 6, p. 3343-3348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Allylboronates undergo C-H allylation of unsubstituted or monosubstituted benzoquinone and naphthoquinone substrates. In the case of 2,5- or 2,6-disubstituted quinones addition involving the substituted carbon takes place. Allylation with stereodefined allylboronates occurs with retention of the configuration.

  • 203.
    Deng, Youqian
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Bartholomeyzik, Teresa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Persson, Andreas K. A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Sun, Junliang
    Bäckvall, Jan-E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Palladium-Catalyzed Oxidative Arylating Carbocyclization of Allenynes2012In: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, ISSN 1433-7851, E-ISSN 1521-3773, Vol. 51, no 11, p. 2703-2707Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 204.
    Deng, Youqian
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Bäckvall, Jan-E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Palladium-Catalyzed Oxidative Acyloxylation/Carbocyclization of Allenynes2013In: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, ISSN 1433-7851, E-ISSN 1521-3773, Vol. 52, no 11, p. 3217-3221Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 205.
    Deska, Jan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Bäckvall, Jan-Erling
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Enzymatic kinetic resolution of primary allenic alcohols. Application to the total synthesis and stereochemical assignment of striatisporolide A2009In: Organic and biomolecular chemistry, ISSN 1477-0520, E-ISSN 1477-0539, Vol. 7, no 17, p. 3379-3381Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 206.
    Deska, Jan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    del Pozo Ochoa, Carolina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Bäckvall, Jan-Erling
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Chemoenzymatic dynamic kinetic resolution of axially chiral allenes2010In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 16, no 15, p. 4447-4451Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dimeric palladium bromide complexes bearing monodentate N-heterocyclic carbene ligands have been identified as efficient catalysts for the chemoselective racemization of axially chiral allenyl alcohols. In combination with porcine pancreatic lipase as biocatalyst, a dynamic kinetic resolution has been developed, giving access to optically active allenes in good yield and high enantiomeric purity (

  • 207.
    Dey, Chandan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Lindstedt, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Olofsson, Berit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Wallenberg Research Centre at Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Metal-Free C-Arylation of Nitro Compounds with Diaryliodonium Salts2015In: Organic Letters, ISSN 1523-7060, E-ISSN 1523-7052, Vol. 17, no 18, p. 4554-4557Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An efficient, mild, and metal-free arylation of nitro-alkanes with diaryliodonium salts has been developed, giving easy access to tertiary nitro compounds. The reaction proceeds in high yields without the need for excess reagents and can be extended to alpha-arylation of nitroesters. Nitroalkanes were selectively C-arylated in the presence of other easily arylated functional groups, such as phenols and aliphatic alcohols.

  • 208. Dorau, Robin
    et al.
    Görbe, Tamás
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Svedendahl Humble, Maria
    Improved Enantioselectivity of Subtilisin Carlsberg Towards Secondary Alcohols by Protein Engineering2018In: ChemBioChem (Print), ISSN 1439-4227, E-ISSN 1439-7633, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 338-346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Generally, the catalytic activity of subtilisin Carlsberg (SC) for transacylation reactions with secondary alcohols in organic solvent is low. Enzyme immobilization and protein engineering was performed to improve the enantioselectivity of SC towards secondary alcohols. Possible amino-acid residues for mutagenesis were found by combining available literature data with molecular modeling. SC variants were created by site-directed mutagenesis and were evaluated for a model transacylation reaction containing 1-phenylethanol in THF. Variants showing high E values (>100) were found. However, the conversions were still low. A second mutation was made, and both the E values and conversions were increased. Relative to that shown by the wild type, the most successful variant, G165L/M221F, showed increased conversion (up to 36 %), enantioselectivity (E values up to 400), substrate scope, and stability in THF.

  • 209.
    Dziedzic, Pawel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Bartoszewicz, Agnieszka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Córdova, Armando
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Inorganic ammonium salts as catalysts for direct aldol reactions in the presence of water2009In: Tetrahedron Letters, ISSN 0040-4039, E-ISSN 1359-8562, Vol. 50, no 52, p. 7242-7245Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 210.
    Dziedzic, Pawel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Schyman, Patric
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Kullberg, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Córdova, Armando
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Highly enantioselective organocatalytic addition of aldehydes to acylimines: Asymmetric syntheses of the paclitaxel and docetaxel side-chains and their analogs2010In: Abstracts of Papers, 239th ACS National Meeting, San Francisco, CA, United States, March 21-25, 2010, Washington, D C: American Chemical Society , 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 211.
    Edin, Michaela
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Bäckvall, Jan-E.
    On the mechanism of the unexpected facile formation of meso-diacetate products in enzymatic acetylation of alkanediols2003In: Journal of Organic Chemistry, ISSN 0022-3263, E-ISSN 1520-6904, Vol. 68, p. 2216-2222Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 212.
    Edin, Michaela
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Bäckvall, Jan-E.
    Córdova, Armando
    Tandem enantioselective organo- and biocatalysis: a direct entry for the synthesis of enantiomerically pure aldols2004In: Tetrahedron Letters, ISSN 0040-4039, E-ISSN 1359-8562, Vol. 45, p. 7697-7701Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 213.
    Edin, Michaela
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Steinreiber, Johannes
    Bäckvall, Jan-E.
    One-pot synthesis of enantiopure syn-1,3-diacetates from racemic diastereomeric mixtures of 1,3-diols by dynamic kinetic asymmetric transformation2004In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 101, p. 5761-5766Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 214.
    Eklund, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Computational Analysis of Carbohydrates: Dynamical Properties and Interactions2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis a computational complement to experimental observables will be presented. Computational tools such as molecular dynamics and quantum chemical tools will be used to aid in the interpretation of experimentally (NMR) obtained structural data. The techniques are applied to study the dynamical features of biologically important carbohydrates and their interaction with proteins. When evaluating conformations, molecular mechanical methods are commonly used. Paper I, highlights some important considerations and focuses on the force field parameters pertaining to carbohydrate moieties. Testing of the new parameters on a trisaccharide showed promising results. In Paper II, a conformational analysis of a part of the repeating unit of a Shigella flexneri bacterium lipopolysaccharide using the modified force field revealed two major conformational states. The results showed good agreement with experimental data. In Paper III, a trisaccharide using Langevin dynamics was investigated. The approach used in the population analysis included a least-square fit technique to match T1 elaxation parameters. The results showed good agreement with experimental T-ROE build-up curves, and three states were concluded to be involved. In Paper IV, carbohydrate moieties were used in the development of prodrug candidates, to “hide” peptide opioid receptor agonists. Langevin dynamics and quantum chemical methods were employed to elucidate the structural preference of the compound. The results showed a chemical shift difference between hydrogens across the ring for the two isomers as well as a difference in the coupling constant, when taking the dynamics into account. In Paper V, the interaction of the Salmonella enteritidis bacteriophage P22 with its host bacterium, involves an initial hydrolysis of the O-antigenic polysaccharide (O-PS). Docking calculations were used to examine the binding between the Phage P22 tail-spike protein and the O-PS repeating unit. Results indicated a possible active site in conjunction with NMR measurements.

  • 215.
    Ekström, Jesper
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Transition Metal Hydrides: Biomimetic Studies and Catalytic Applications2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, studies of the nature of different transition metal-hydride complexes are described. The first part deals with the enantioswitchable behaviour of rhodium complexes derived from amino acids, applied in asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of ketones. We found that the use of amino acid thio amide ligands resulted in the formation of the R-configured product, whereas the use of the corresponding hydroxamic acid- or hydrazide ligands selectively gave the S-alcohol.

    Structure/activity investigations revealed that the stereochemical outcome of the catalytic reaction depends on the ligand mode of coordination.

    In the second part, an Fe hydrogenase active site model complex with a labile amine ligand has been synthesized and studied. The aim of this study was to find a complex that efficiently catalyzes the reduction of protons to molecular hydrogen under mild conditions. We found that the amine ligand functions as a mimic of the loosely bound ligand which is part of the active site in the hydrogenase.

    Further, an Fe hydrogenase active site model complex has been coupled to a photosensitizer with the aim of achieving light induced hydrogen production. The redox properties of the produced complex are such that no electron transfer from the photosensitizer part to the Fe moiety occurs.

    In the last part of this thesis, the development of a protocol for the transfer hydrogenation of ketones to secondary alcohols without the involvement of transition metal catalysts is described. A variety of ketones were efficiently reduced in 2-propanol using catalytic amounts of alkali alkoxide under microwave irradiation.

  • 216.
    Ekström, Jesper
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Wettergren, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Adolfsson, Hans
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    A Simple and Efficient Catalytic Method for the Reduction of Ketones2007In: Advanced Synthesis and Catalysis, ISSN 1615-4150, E-ISSN 1615-4169, Vol. 349, no 10, p. 1609-1613Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A range of ketones was efficiently reduced in the presence of catalytic amounts of lithium isopropoxide in 2-propanol under microwave heating, with alcohol products being formed in yields up to 99 %.

  • 217.
    Endo, Yoshinori
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Bäckvall, Jan-E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Aerobic Lactonization of Diols by Biomimetic Oxidation2011In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 17, no 45, p. 12596-12601Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 218.
    Engelmark Cassimjee, Karim
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Kadow, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Wikmark, Ylva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Svedendahl Humble, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Rothstein, M. L.
    Rothstein, D. M.
    Bäckvall, Jan-Erling
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    A general protein purification and immobilization method on controlled porosity glass: biocatalytic applications2014In: Chemical Communications, ISSN 1359-7345, E-ISSN 1364-548X, Vol. 50, no 65, p. 9134-9137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A general combined purification and immobilization method to facilitate biocatalytic process development is presented. The support material, EziG (TM), is based on controlled porosity glass (CPG) or polymer-coated versions thereof (HybCPG) and binds protein affinity tags. Biocatalytic reactions in aqueous and organic media with seven enzymes of biocatalytic interest are shown.

  • 219.
    Engelmark Cassimjee, Karim
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Manta, Bianca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Himo, Fahmi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    A quantum chemical study of the ω-transaminase reaction mechanism2015In: Organic and biomolecular chemistry, ISSN 1477-0520, E-ISSN 1477-0539, Vol. 13, no 31, p. 8453-8464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ω-Transaminases are valuable tools in biocatalysis due to their stereospecificity and their broad substrate range. In the present study, the reaction mechanism of Chromobacterium violaceum ω-transaminase is investigated by means of density functional theory calculations. A large active site model is designed based on the recent X-ray crystal structure. The detailed energy profile for the half-transamination of (S)-1-phenylethylamine to acetophenone is calculated and the involved transition states and intermediates are characterized. The model suggests that the amino substrate forms an external aldimine with the coenzyme pyridoxal-5′-phosphate (PLP), through geminal diamine intermediates. The external aldimine is then deprotonated in the rate-determining step, forming a planar quinonoid intermediate. A ketimine is then formed, after which a hemiaminal is produced by the addition of water. Subsequently, the ketone product is obtained together with pyridoxamine-5′-phosphate (PMP). In the studied half-transamination reaction the ketone product is kinetically favored. The mechanism presented here will be valuable to enhance rational and semi-rational design of engineered enzyme variants in the development of ω-transaminase chemistry.

  • 220.
    Engqvist, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Direct Amino Acid-Catalyzed Enantioselective α-Oxidation Reactions and Asymmetric de novo Synthesis of Carbohydrates2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability of amino acids to form nucleophilic enamines with aldehydes and ketones has been used in the development of asymmetric α-oxidation reactions with electrophilic oxidizing agents. Singlet molecular oxygen has for the first time been asymmetrically incorporated into aldehydes and ketones, and the products were isolated as their corresponding diols in good yields and ee’s. Organocatalytic α-oxidations of cyclic ketones with iodosobenzene and N-sulfonyloxaziridine were also possible and furnished after reduction the product diols in generally low yields and in low to good ee’s. Amino acids have also been shown to catalyze the formation of carbohydrates by sequential aldol reactions. For example, proline and hydroxy proline mediate a highly selective trimerisation of α-benzyloxyacetaldehyde into allose, which was obtained in >99 % ee. Non linear effect studies of this reaction revealed the largest permanent nonlinear effect observed in a proline-catalyzed reaction to date. Moreover, polyketides were also assembled in a similar fashion by an amino acid-catalyzed one-pot reaction, and was successful for the trimerisation of propionaldehyde, however the sequential cross aldol reactions suffered from lower selectivities. This problem was overcome by the development of a two-step synthesis that enabled the formation of a range of polyketides with excellent selectivities from a variety of aldehydes. The method furnishes the polyketides via the shortest route reported and in comparable product yields to most multi-step synthesis. All polyketides were isolated as single diastereomers with >99 % ee. Based on the observed amino acid-catalysis, amino acids are thought to have taken part in the prebiotic formation of tetroses and hexoses.

  • 221.
    Engström, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Enantioselective biotransformations using engineered lipases from Candida antarctica2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Enzymes are attractive catalysts in organic synthesis since they are efficient, selective and environmentally friendly. A large number of enzyme-catalyzed transformations have been described in the literature. If no natural enzyme can carry out a desirable reaction, one possibility is to modify an existing enzyme by protein engineering and thereby obtain a catalyst with the desired properties. In this thesis, the development of enantioselective enzymes and their use in synthetic applications is described. 

    In the first part of this thesis, enantioselective variants of Candida antarctica lipase A (CALA) towards α-substituted p-nitrophenyl esters were developed by directed evolution. A highly selective variant of CALA towards p-nitrophenyl 2-phenylpropanoate was developed by pairwise randomization of amino acid residues close to the active site. The E value of this variant was 276 compared to 3 for the wild type.

    An approach where nine residues were altered simultaneously was used to discover another highly enantioselective CALA variant (E = 100) towards an ibuprofen ester. The sterical demands of this substrate made it necessary to vary several residues at the same time in order to reach a variant with improved properties.

    In the second part of the thesis, a designed variant of Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) was employed in kinetic resolution (KR) and dynamic kinetic resolution (DKR) of secondary alcohols. The designed CALB variant (W104A) accepts larger substrates compared to the wild type, and by the application of CALB W104A, the scope of these resolutions was extended.

    First, a DKR of phenylalkanols was developed using CALB W104A. An enzymatic resolution was combined with in situ racemization of the substrate, to yield the products in up to 97% ee. Secondly, the KR of diarylmethanols with CALB W104A was developed. By the use of diarylmethanols with two different aryl groups, highly enantioselective transformations were achieved.

  • 222.
    Engström, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Protein engineering of enzymes for improved enantioselectivity and application of engineered enzymes in organic synthesis2010Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 223.
    Engström, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Johnston, Eric V.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Verho, Oscar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Gustafson, Karl P. J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Shakeri, Mozaffar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Tai, Cheuk-Wai
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Bäckvall, Jan-E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Co-immobilization of an Enzyme and a Metal into the Compartments of Mesoporous Silica for Cooperative Tandem Catalysis: An Artificial Metalloenzyme2013In: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, ISSN 1433-7851, E-ISSN 1521-3773, Vol. 52, no 52, p. 14006-14010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surpassing nature: A hybrid catalyst in which Candida antarctica lipase B and a nanopalladium species are co-immobilized into the compartments of mesoporous silica is presented. The metal nanoparticles and the enzyme are in close proximity to one another in the cavities of the support. The catalyst mimics a metalloenzyme and was used for dynamic kinetic resolution of a primary amine in high yield and excellent enantioselectivity.

  • 224.
    Engström, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Nyhlén, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Sandström, Anders G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Bäckvall, Jan-Erling
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Directed evolution of an enantioselective lipase with broad substrate scope for hydrolysis of α-substituted esters2010In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 132, no 20, p. 7038-7042Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A variant of Candida antarctica lipase A (CalA) was developed for the hydrolysis of α-substituted p-nitrophenyl esters by directed evolution. The E values of this variant for 7 different esters was 45−276, which is a large improvement compared to 2−20 for the wild type. The broad substrate scope of this enzyme variant is of synthetic use, and hydrolysis of the tested substrates proceeded with an enantiomeric excess between 95−99%. A 30-fold increase in activity was also observed for most substrates. The developed enzyme variant shows (R)-selectivity, which is reversed compared to the wild type that is (S)-selective for most substrates.

  • 225.
    Engström, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Nyhlén, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Sandström, Anders G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Bäckvall, Jan-Erling
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Enantioselective Kinetic Resolution of p-Nitrophenyl 2-Phenylpropanoate by a Variant of Candida antarctica Lipase A Developed by Directed Evolution2010In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 132, no 20, p. 7038-7042Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A variant of Candida antarctica lipase A (CalA) was developed for the hydrolysis of α-substituted p-nitrophenyl esters by directed evolution. The E values of this variant for 7 different esters was 45−276, which is a large improvement compared to 2−20 for the wild type. The broad substrate scope of this enzyme variant is of synthetic use, and hydrolysis of the tested substrates proceeded with an enantiomeric excess between 95−99%. A 30-fold increase in activity was also observed for most substrates. The developed enzyme variant shows (R)-selectivity, which is reversed compared to the wild type that is (S)-selective for most substrates.

  • 226.
    Engström, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Shakeri, Mozaffar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Bäckvall, Jan-E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Dynamic Kinetic Resolution of β-Amino Esters by a Heterogeneous System of a Palladium Nanocatalyst and Candida antarctica Lipase A2011In: European Journal of Organic Chemistry, ISSN 1434-193X, E-ISSN 1099-0690, no 10, p. 1827-1830Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A dynamic kinetic resolution (DKR) of β-amino esters have been developed by the use of a heterogeneous racemization catalyst and an immobilized enzyme that accepts aromatic, heteroaromatic and aliphatic substrates. The reaction conditions were optimized to yield an efficient catalytic system without by-product formation. The products are obtained in 96–99 % ee and high yields

  • 227.
    Engström, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Vallin, Michaela
    Hult, Karl
    Bäckvall, Jan-E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Kinetic resolution of diarylmethanols using a mutated variant of lipase CALB2012In: Tetrahedron, ISSN 0040-4020, E-ISSN 1464-5416, Vol. 68, no 37, p. 7613-7618Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An enzymatic kinetic resolution of diarylmethanols via acylation has been developed. This was achieved by the use of a mutated variant of CALB that accepts larger substrates compared to the wild type. By the use of diarylmethanols with two differently sized aryl groups, enantioselective transformations were achieved. A larger size-difference led to a higher enantioselectivity. In addition, substrates with electronically different aryl groups, such as phenyl and pyridyl, also gave an enantioselective reaction. The highest E value was observed with a substrate where steric and electronic effects were combined.

  • 228.
    Engström, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Carbohydrate dynamics and interactions studied by NMR spectroscopy2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The combination of NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are powerful tools in the studying of bioorganic molecules in solution. In this thesis two such studies are presented with focus on the NMR aspect. The caffeine association to sugars (D-glucose and sucrose) was investigated by NMR titrations and NOESY experiments in paper I. The observations from the NMR experiments confirmed MD simulations showing that the binding occurs by a face-to-face interaction between the aromatic surface of the caffeine and axial protons of the sugar ring. Different sugar molecules and residues have different preferences regarding which side of the sugar ring that are involved in the binding. The sucrose residues bind with only one ring face each whereas β-D-glucopyranose has two sides of similar binding probability and the α-D-glucopyranose has something in between. The MD simulations showed that the driving force of the binding is partly driven by hydration effects that favor the enthalpy of the system. A new approach to calculate NMR relaxation parameters (that is dependent on molecular motions) from computational simulations is presented in paper II. Each sugar residue is assumed to be a rigid unit connected by flexible joints in the approach, thus the name diffusive chain model (DCM). The simplified model together with a stochastic simulation approach lowers the computational cost which makes it possible to acquire long enough trajectories to the calculations of spin relaxation parameters. Two case studies with slightly different methodologies are presented. In one of them, spin relaxation parameters are reproduced for the human milk oligosaccharide LNF-1 in a feasible way by the use of Brownian dynamics.

  • 229.
    Engström, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Exploring the Molecular Behavior of Carbohydrates by NMR Spectroscopy: Shapes, motions and interactions2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbohydrates are essential biomolecules that decorate cell membranes and proteins in organisms. They are important both as structural elements and as identification markers. Many biological and pathogenic processes rely on the identification of carbohydrates by proteins, thereby making them attractive as molecular blueprints for drugs. This thesis describes how NMR spectroscopy can be utilized to study carbohydrates in solution at a molecular level. This versatile technique facilitates for investigations of (i) shapes, (ii) motions and (iii) interactions.

    A conformational study of an E. coli O-antigen was performed by calculating atomic distances from NMR NOESY experiments. The acquired data was utilized to validate MD simulations of the LPS embedded in a membrane. The agreement between experimental and calculated data was good and deviations were proven to arise from spin-diffusion. In another study presented herein, both the conformation and the dynamic behavior of amide side-chains linked to derivatives of D-Fucp3N, a sugar found in the O-antigen of bacteria, were investigated. J-couplings facilitated a conformational analysis and 13C saturation transfer NMR experiments were utilized to measure rate constants of amide cis-trans isomerizations.

    13C NMR relaxation and 1H PFG diffusion measurements were carried out to explore and describe the molecular motion of mannofullerenes. The dominating motions of the mannofullerene spectral density were found to be related to pulsating motions of the linkers rather than global rotational diffusion. The promising inhibition of Ebola viruses identified for a larger mannofullerene can thus be explained by an efficient rebinding mechanism that arises from the observed flexibility in the linker.

    Molecular interactions between sugars and caffeine in water were studied by monitoring chemical shift displacements in titrations. The magnitude of the chemical shift displacements indicate that the binding occurs by a face to face stacking of the aromatic plane of caffeine to the ring plane of the sugar, and that the interaction is at least partly driven by solvation effects. Also, the binding of a Shigella flexneri serotype Y octasaccharide to a bacteriophage Sf6 tail spike protein was investigated. This interaction was studied by 1H STD NMR and trNOESY experiments. A quantitative analysis of the STD data was performed employing a newly developed method, CORCEMA-ST-CSD, that is able to simulate STD data more accurately since the line broadening of protein resonances are accounted for in the calculations.

  • 230.
    Engström, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Mobarak, Hani
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Ståhle, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Widmalm, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Conformational Dynamics and Exchange Kinetics of N-Formyl and N-Acetyl Groups Substituting 3-Amino-3,6-dideoxy-alpha-D-galactopyranose, a Sugar Found in Bacterial O-Antigen Polysaccharides2017In: Journal of Physical Chemistry B, ISSN 1520-6106, E-ISSN 1520-5207, Vol. 121, no 41, p. 9487-9497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three dimensional shape and conformation of. carbohydrates are important factors in molecular recognition events and the N-acetyl group of a monosaccharide residue can function as a conformational gatekeeper whereby it influences the overall shape of the oligosaccharide. NMR spectroscopy and quantum mechanics (QM) calculations are used herein to investigate both the conformational preferences and the dynamic behavior of N-acetyl and N-formyl substituents of 3-amino-3,6-dideoxy-alpha-D-galactopyranose, a sugar and substitution pattern found in bacterial O-antigen polysaccharides. QM calculations suggest that the amide oxygen can be involved in hydrogen bonding with the axial OH4 group primarily but also with the equatorial OH2 group. However, an NMR J coupling analysis indicates that the 01 torsion angle, adjacent to the sugar ring, prefers an ap conformation where conformations <180 degrees also are accessible, but does not allow for intramolecular hydrogen bonding. In the formyl-substituted compound (4)J(HH) coupling constants to the exo-cyclic group were detected and analyzed. A van't Hoff analysis revealed that the trans conformation at the amide bond is favored by Delta G degrees approximate to - 0.8 kcal.mol(-1) in the formyl-containing compound and with Delta G degrees approximate to -2.5 kcal.mol(-1) when the N-acetyl group is the substituent. In both cases the enthalpic term dominates to the free energy, irrespective of water or DMSO as solvent, with only a small contribution from the entropic term. The cis-trans isomerization of the theta(2) torsion angle, centered at the amide bond, was also investigated by employing H-1 NMR line shape analysis and C-13 NMR saturation transfer experiments. The extracted transition rate constants were utilized to calculate transition energy barriers that were found to be about 20 kcal.mol(-1) in both DMSO-d(6) and D2O. Enthalpy had a higher contribution to the energy barriers in DMSO-d(6) compared to in D2O, where entropy compensated for the loss of enthalpy.

  • 231.
    Engström, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Muñoz, Antonio
    Illescas, Beatriz M.
    Martin, Nazario
    Ribeiro-Viana, Renato
    Rojo, Javier
    Widmalm, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Investigation of glycofullerene dynamics by NMR spectroscopy2015In: Organic and biomolecular chemistry, ISSN 1477-0520, E-ISSN 1477-0539, Vol. 13, no 32, p. 8750-8755Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Glycofullerenes, in which carbohydrate molecules are attached via a linker to a [60]fullerene core, facilitate spherical presentation of glyco-based epitopes. We herein investigate the dynamics of two glycofullerenes, having 12 and 36 mannose residues at their periphery, by NMR translational diffusion and quantitative C-13 relaxation studies employing a model-free approach for their interpretation. The sugar residues are shown to be highly flexible entities with S-2 < 0.2 in both compounds. Notably, the larger glycofullerene with longer linkers shows faster internal dynamics and higher flexibility than its smaller counterpart. The dynamics and flexibility as well as the slower translational diffusion of the larger glycofullerene, thereby favoring rebinding to a receptor, may together with its spatial extension explain why it is better than the smaller one at blocking the DC-SIGN receptor and inhibiting the infection by pseudotyped Ebola virus particles.

  • 232.
    Erbing, Elis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Selective C-H Iodination of Benzamides and Weinreb Amides through Iridium and Acid CatalysisManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 233.
    Erbing, Elis
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Sanz-Marco, Amparo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Vazquez-Romero, Ana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Malmberg, Jesper
    Johansson, Magnus J.
    Gomez-Bengoa, Enrique
    Martín-Matute, Belén
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Base- and Additive-Free Ir-Catalyzed ortho-Iodination of Benzoic Acids: Scope and Mechanistic Investigations2018In: ACS Catalysis, ISSN 2155-5435, E-ISSN 2155-5435, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 920-925Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A protocol for the C-H activation/iodination of benzoic acids catalyzed by a simple iridium complex has been developed. The method described in this paper allows the ortho-selective iodination of a variety of benzoic acids under extraordinarily mild conditions in the absence of any additive or base in 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoroisopropanol as the solvent. The iridium catalyst used tolerates air and moisture, and selectively gives ortho-iodobenzoic acids with high conversions. Mechanistic investigations revealed that an Ir(III)/Ir(V) catalytic cycle operates, and that the unique properties of HFIP enables the C-H iodination using the carboxylic moiety as a directing group.

  • 234.
    Erbing, Elis
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Vazquez-Romero, Ana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Bermejo Gómez, Antonio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Platero-Prats, Ana E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Carson, Fabian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Zou, Xiaodong
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Tolstoy, Päivi
    Martín-Matute, Belén
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    General, Simple, and Chemoselective Catalysts for the Isomerization of Allylic Alcohols: The Importance of the Halide Ligand2016In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 22, no 44, p. 15659-15663Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Remarkably simple Ir-III catalysts enable the isomerization of primary and sec-allylic alcohols under very mild reaction conditions. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and mass spectrometry (MS) studies indicate that the catalysts, with the general formula [Cp*Ir-III], require a halide ligand for catalytic activity, but no additives or additional ligands are needed.

  • 235.
    Ericsson, Daniel J.
    et al.
    1Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Uppsala University, Biomedical Center.
    Kasrayan, Alex
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Johansson, Patrik
    1Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Uppsala University, Biomedical Center.
    Bergfors, Terese
    1Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Uppsala University, Biomedical Center.
    Sandström, Anders G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Bäckvall, Jan-Erling
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Mowbray, Sherry L.
    Department of Molecular Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Biomedical Center.
    X-Ray structure of Candida antarctica lipase A shows a novel lid structure and a likely mode of interfacial activation2008In: Journal of Molecular Biology, ISSN 0022-2836, Vol. 376, no 1, p. 109-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In nature, lipases (EC 3.1.1.3) catalyze the hydrolysis of triglycerides to form glycerol and fatty acids. Under the appropriate conditions, the reaction is reversible, and so biotechnological applications commonly make use of their capacity for esterification as well as for hydrolysis of a wide variety of compounds. In the present paper, we report the X-ray structure of lipase A from Candida antarctica, solved by single isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering, and refined to 2.2-Å resolution. The structure is the first from a novel family of lipases. Contrary to previous predictions, the fold includes a well-defined lid as well as a classic α/β hydrolase domain. The catalytic triad is identified as Ser184, Asp334 and His366, which follow the sequential order considered to be characteristic of lipases; the serine lies within a typical nucleophilic elbow. Computer docking studies, as well as comparisons to related structures, place the carboxylate group of a fatty acid product near the serine nucleophile, with the long lipid tail closely following the path through the lid that is marked by a fortuitously bound molecule of polyethylene glycol. For an ester substrate to bind in an equivalent fashion, loop movements near Phe431 will be required, suggesting the primary focus of the conformational changes required for interfacial activation. Such movements will provide virtually unlimited access to solvent for the alcohol moiety of an ester substrate. The structure thus provides a basis for understanding the enzyme's preference for acyl moieties with long, straight tails, and for its highly promiscuous acceptance of widely different alcohol and amine moieties. An unconventional oxyanion hole is observed in the present structure, although the situation may change during interfacial activation

  • 236.
    Eriksson, Kristofer
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Gothelid, Emmanuelle
    Puglia, Carla
    Bäckvall, Jan-E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Oscarsson, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Performance of a biomimetic oxidation catalyst immobilized on silica particles2013In: Journal of Catalysis, ISSN 0021-9517, E-ISSN 1090-2694, Vol. 303, p. 16-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A biomimetic oxidation catalyst, cobalt porphyrin with thiol linkers, was chemically conjugated to silica particles and utilized in the oxidation of hydroquinone to benzoquinone. The cobalt porphyrin/silica particle catalyst was characterized with Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The catalytic performance of the cobalt porphyrin molecules was compared to previous results for the same catalyst grafted to a gold surface and on silicon wafers. The measured catalytic activity, after background correction, was 100 times higher than that of its homogeneous counterpart, 10 times higher than that on a silicon wafer, and almost the same as that on a gold surface. The turnover frequency rates after 400 h are still comparable with initial rates reported for homogeneous porphyrins and salophens, whereas the use of particles as support increases the active surface area, which removes the limitations for scale-up associated with the previously used silicon wafers and gold surfaces.

  • 237. Eriksson, Kristofer L. E.
    et al.
    Chow, Winnie W. Y.
    Puglia, Carla
    Bäckvall, Jan-Erling
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Göthelid, Emmanuelle
    Oscarsson, Sven
    Performance of a biomimetic oxidation catalyst immobilized on silicon wafers: comparison with its gold congener2010In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 26, no 21, p. 16349-16354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the aim of extending the usefulness of an existing biomimetic catalytic system, cobalt porphyrin catalytic units with thiol linkers were heterogenized via chemical grafting to silicon wafers and utilized for the catalytic oxidation of hydroquinone to p-benzoquinone. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to analyze the morphology and composition of the heterogeneous catalyst. The results of the catalytic oxidation of hydroquinone obtained with porphyrins grafted on silicon were compared with those obtained earlier with the same catalyst in homogeneous phase and immobilized on gold. It was found that the catalysis could run over 400 h, without showing any sign of deactivation. The measured catalytic activity is at least 10 times higher than that measured under homogeneous conditions, but also 10 times lower than that observed with the catalytic unit immobilized on gold. The reasons of this discrepancy are discussed in term of substrate influence and overlayer organization. The silicon-immobilized catalyst has potential as an advanced functional material with applications in oxidative heterogeneous catalysis of organic reactions, as it combines long-term relatively high activity with low cost.

  • 238.
    Eriksson, Kristofer
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Verho, Oscar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Nyholm, Leif
    Oscarsson, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Bäckvall, Jan-E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Dispersed Gold Nanoparticles Supported in the Pores of Siliceous Mesocellular Foam: A Catalyst for Cycloisomerization of Alkynoic Acids to gamma-Alkylidene Lactones2015In: European Journal of Organic Chemistry, ISSN 1434-193X, E-ISSN 1099-0690, no 10, p. 2250-2255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A versatile approach for the production of dispersed thiol-stabilized gold nanoparticles in the pores of siliceous mesocellular foam (MCF) is described. The reported method is based on an electrochemical oxidation of a gold surface generating oxidative Au-III species, which give rise to a surface-confined redox reaction yielding MCF-supported Au-I thiolates. By reducing the corresponding Au-I-S-MCF species with sodium borohydride, thiol-stabilized gold nanoparticles in the size range of 1-8 nm were obtained as determined by transmission electron microscopy. Elemental analysis indicated an Au loading of 3% (w/w) on the MCF. The surface-confined Au nanoparticles were used to catalyze the cycloisomerization of alkynoic acids to the corresponding -alkylidene lactones in high efficiency and complete 5-exo-dig selectivity under mild reaction conditions.

  • 239.
    Eriksson, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Widmalm, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Methyl 3-O-α-l-fucopyranosyl β-d-glucopyranoside tetrahydrate2012In: Acta Crystallographica Section E: Structure Reports Online, ISSN 1600-5368, E-ISSN 1600-5368, Vol. 68, p. o3180-o3181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The title compound, C13H24O10·4H2O, is the methyl glycoside of a disaccharide structural element present in the backbone of the capsular polysaccharide from Klebsiella K1, which contains only three sugars and a substituent in the polysaccharide repeating unit. The conformation of the title disaccharide is described by the glycosidic torsion angles ϕH = 51.1 (1)° and ψH = 25.8 (1)°. In the crystal, a number of O—HO hydrogen bonds link the methyl glycoside and water mol­ecules, forming a three-dimensional network. One water mol­ecule is disordered over two positions with occupancies of 0.748 (4) and 0.252 (4).

  • 240. Eriksson, Lars
    et al.
    Widmalm, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Methyl α-l-rhamnosyl-(1→2)[α-l-rhamnosyl-(1→3)]-α-l-rhamnoside penta­hydrate: synchrotron study2012In: Acta Crystallographica Section E: Structure Reports Online, ISSN 1600-5368, E-ISSN 1600-5368, Vol. 68, no 7, p. o2221-o2222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The title hydrate, C19H34O13·5H2O, contains a vicinally disubstituted tris­accharide in which the two terminal rhamnosyl sugar groups are positioned adjacent to each other. The conformation of the tris­accharide is described by the glycosidic torsion angles ϕ2 = 48 (1)°, ψ2 = −29 (1)°, ϕ3 = 44 (1)° and ψ3 = 4 (1)°, whereas the ψ2 torsion angle represents a conformation from the major state in solution, the ψ3 torsion angle conformation may have been caught near a potential energy saddle-point when compared to its solution structure, in which at least two but probably three conformational states are populated. Extensive inter­molecular O—HO hydrogen bonding is present in the crystal and a water-containing channel is formed along the b-axis direction.

  • 241.
    Fontana, Carolina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    NMR spectroscopy in structural and conformational analysis of bacterial polysaccharides2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbohydrates constitute one of the three major classes of biomolecules found in all living cells and, unlike nucleic acids and proteins, their polymeric structures are not based on a template. The structural diversity of these molecules confers them an enormous capacity to encode information in biological systems, acting as efficient mediators in the interaction of the cell with the environment. In order to understand the roles of glycans in biological processes it is of key importance to have a detailed understanding of their structures and conformational preferences, and NMR spectroscopy is one of most powerful techniques for the study of these molecules in solution.

    This thesis is focused on the structural and conformational analysis of lipopolysaccharides from Gram-negative bacteria. In the first two projects (Chapter 2 and 3) the structural analyses of the biological repeating units of the O-antigen polysaccharides from E. coli O174ab and O115 are described; in both cases a combination of NMR spectroscopy and gas chromatography techniques were used. Special emphasis was made in the characterization of the O-acetylation patterns observed in the native O-antigen polysaccharide from E. coli O115. Chapter 4 describes the development of a new methodology for the determination of the absolute configuration of monosaccharide components of glycans. This methodology was used in the structural elucidation of the O-antigen PS of E. coli O155 (Chapter 5) that was carried out in a semi-automated manner using the program CASPER and unassigned NMR data. The conformational preferences of O-antigen PS of E. coli O5ac and O5ab are analyzed in Chapter 6, using a combination of NMR spectroscopy and molecular modeling methods. In Chapter 7 the structural analysis is focused on the core region of the LPS, and the structures of the deacylated lipooligosaccharides of three rough mutants of B. melitesis are reported. In several of the aforementioned chapters, the biosynthetic aspects behind the assembly of the respective PSs were examined on the bases of genetic information available in the NCBI and ECODAB databases.  Finally, in Chapter 8, different NMR pulse sequences available for the study of proteins and nucleic acids were evaluated and optimized for the structural analysis of 13C uniformly-labeled oligo- and polysaccharides.

  • 242.
    Fontana, Carolina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Structural studies of glycans by NMR spectroscopy2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 243.
    Fontana, Carolina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Conde-Alvarez, Raquel
    Ståhle, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Holst, Otto
    Iriarte, Maite
    Zhao, Yun
    Arce-Gorvel, Vilma
    Hanniffy, Sean
    Gorvel, Jean-Pierre
    Moriyon, Ignacio
    Widmalm, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Structural Studies of Lipopolysaccharide-defective Mutants from Brucella melitensis Identify a Core Oligosaccharide Critical in Virulence2016In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 291, no 14, p. 7727-7741Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The structures of the lipooligosaccharides from Brucella melitensis mutants affected in the WbkD and ManB(core) proteins have been fully characterized using NMR spectroscopy. The results revealed that disruption of wbkD gives rise to a rough lipopolysaccharide (R-LPS) with a complete core structure (beta-D-Glcp-(1 -> 4)-alpha-Kdop-(2 -> 4)[beta-D-GlcpN-(1 -> 6)-beta-D-GlcpN-(1 -> 4)[beta-D-GlcpN-(1 -> 6)]-beta-D-GlcpN-(1 -> 3)-alpha-D-Manp-(1 -> 5)]-alpha-Kdop-(2 -> 6)-beta-D-GlcpN3N4P-(1 -> 6)-alpha-D-GlcpN3N1P), in addition to components lacking one of the terminal beta-D-GlcpN and/or the beta-D-Glcp residues (48 and 17%, respectively). These structures were identical to those of the R-LPS from B. melitensis EP, a strain simultaneously expressing both smooth and R-LPS, also studied herein. In contrast, disruption of man-B-core gives rise to a deep-rough pentasaccharide core (beta-D-Glcp-(1 -> 4)-alpha-Kdop-(2 -> 4)-alpha-Kdop-(2 -> 6)-beta-D-GlcpN3N4P-(1 -> 6)-alpha-D-GlcpN3N1P) as the major component (63%), as well as a minor tetrasaccharide component lacking the terminal beta-D-Glcp residue (37%). These results are in agreement with the predicted functions of the WbkD (glycosyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of the O-antigen) and ManB(core) proteins (phosphomannomutase involved in the biosynthesis of a mannosyl precursor needed for the biosynthesis of the core and O-antigen). We also report that deletion of B. melitensis wadC removes the core oligosaccharide branch not linked to the O-antigen causing an increase in overall negative charge of the remaining LPS inner section. This is in agreement with the mannosyltransferase role predicted for WadC and the lack of GlcpN residues in the defective core oligosaccharide. Despite carrying the O-antigen essential in B. melitensis virulence, the core deficiency in the wadC mutant structure resulted in a more efficient detection by innate immunity and attenuation, proving the role of the beta-D-GlcpN-(1 -> 6)-beta-D-GlcpN-(1 -> 4)[beta-D-GlcpN-(1 -> 6)]-beta-D-GlcpN-(1 -> 3)-alpha-D-Manp-(1 -> 5) structure in virulence.

  • 244.
    Fontana, Carolina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Holst, Otto
    Moriyón, Ignacio
    Widmalm, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Structural studies of the rough lipopolysaccharides of Brucella melitensis mutants affected in the biosynthesis of the core and O-antigen polysaccharideManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 245.
    Fontana, Carolina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Kovacs, Helena
    Widmalm, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    NMR structure analysis of uniformly 13C-labeled carbohydrates2014In: Journal of Biomolecular NMR, ISSN 0925-2738, E-ISSN 1573-5001, Vol. 59, no 2, p. 95-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a set of nuclear magnetic resonance experiments, some of them commonly used in the study of C-13-labeled proteins and/or nucleic acids, is applied for the structure determination of uniformly C-13-enriched carbohydrates. Two model substances were employed: one compound of low molecular weight [(UL-C-13)-sucrose, 342 Da] and one compound of medium molecular weight (C-13-enriched O-antigenic polysaccharide isolated from Escherichia coli O142, similar to 10 kDa). The first step in this approach involves the assignment of the carbon resonances in each monosaccharide spin system using the anomeric carbon signal as the starting point. The C-13 resonances are traced using C-13-C-13 correlations from homonuclear experiments, such as (H)CC-CT-COSY, (H)CC-NOESY, CC-CT-TOCSY and/or virtually decoupled (H)CC-TOCSY. Based on the assignment of the C-13 resonances, the H-1 chemical shifts are derived in a straightforward manner using one-bond H-1-C-13 correlations from heteronuclear experiments (HC-CT-HSQC). In order to avoid the (1) J (CC) splitting of the C-13 resonances and to improve the resolution, either constant-time (CT) in the indirect dimension or virtual decoupling in the direct dimension were used. The monosaccharide sequence and linkage positions in oligosaccharides were determined using either C-13 or H-1 detected experiments, namely CC-CT-COSY, band-selective (H)CC-TOCSY, HC-CT-HSQC-NOESY or long-range HC-CT-HSQC. However, due to the short T-2 relaxation time associated with larger polysaccharides, the sequential information in the O-antigen polysaccharide from E. coli O142 could only be elucidated using the H-1-detected experiments. Exchanging protons of hydroxyl groups and N-acetyl amides in the C-13-enriched polysaccharide were assigned by using HC-H2BC spectra. The assignment of the N-acetyl groups with N-15 at natural abundance was completed by using HN-SOFAST-HMQC, HNCA, HNCO and C-13-detected (H)CACO spectra.

  • 246.
    Fontana, Carolina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Li, Shengyu
    Yang, Zhennai
    Widmalm, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Structural studies of the exopolysaccharide from Lactobacillus plantarum C88 using NMR spectroscopy and the program CASPER2015In: Carbohydrate Research, ISSN 0008-6215, E-ISSN 1873-426X, Vol. 402, p. 87-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some lactic acid bacteria, such as those of the Lactobacillus genus, have the ability to produce exopolysaccharides (EPSs) that confer favorable physicochemical properties to food and/or beneficial physiological effects on human health. In particular, the EPS of Lactobacillus plantarum C88 has recently demonstrated in vitro antioxidant activity and, herein, its structure has been investigated using NMR spectroscopy and the computer program CASPER (Computer Assisted Spectrum Evaluation of Regular polysaccharides). The pentasaccharide repeating unit of the O-deacetylated EPS consists of a trisaccharide backbone, -> 4)-alpha-DGalp-(1 -> 2)-alpha-D-Glcp-(1 -> 3)-beta-D-Glcp-(1 ->, with terminal D-Glc and D-Gal residues (1.0 and 0.8 equiv per repeating unit, respectively) extending from O3 and O6, respectively, of the -> 4)-alpha-D-Galp-(1 -> residue. In the native EPS an O-acetyl group is present, 0.85 equiv per repeating unit, at O2 of the alpha-linked galactose residue; thus the repeating unit of the EPS has the following structure: -> 4)[beta-D-Glcp-(1 -> 3)][beta-D-Galp-(1 -> 6)]alpha-D-Galp2Ac-(1 -> 2)-alpha-D-Glcp-(1 -> 3)-beta-D-Glcp-(1 ->. These structural features, and the chain length (similar to 10(3) repeating units on average, determined in a previous study), are expected to play an important role in defining the physicochemical properties of the polymer.

  • 247.
    Fontana, Carolina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Lundborg, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Weintraub, Andrej
    Widmalm, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Rapid structural elucidation of polysaccharides employing predicted functions of glycosyltransferases and NMR data: Application to the O-antigen of Escherichia coli O592014In: Glycobiology, ISSN 0959-6658, E-ISSN 1460-2423, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 450-457Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A computerized method that uses predicted functions of glycosyltransferases (GTs) in conjunction with unassigned NMR data has been developed for the structural elucidation of bacterial polysaccharides (PSs). In this approach, information about the action of GTs (consisting of possible sugar residues used as donors and/or acceptors, as well as the anomeric configuration and/or substitution position in the respective glycosidic linkages) is extracted from the Escherichia coli O-antigen database and is submitted, together with the unassigned NMR data, to the CASPER program. This time saving methodology, which alleviates the need for chemical analysis, was successfully implemented in the structural elucidation of the O-antigen PS of E. coli O59. The repeating unit of the O-specific chain was determined using the O-deacylated PS and has a branched structure, namely, -> 6)[alpha-d-GalpA3Ac/4Ac-(1 -> 3)]-alpha-d-Manp-(1 -> 3)-alpha-d-Manp-(1 -> 3)-beta-d-Manp-(1 -> 3)-alpha-d-GlcpNAc-(1 ->. The identification of the O-acetylation positions was efficiently performed by comparison of the H-1,C-13 HSQC NMR spectra of the O-deacylated lipopolysaccharide and the lipid-free PS in conjunction with chemical shift predictions made by the CASPER program. The side-chain d-GalpA residue carries one equivalent of O-acetyl groups at the O-3 and O-4 positions distributed in the LPS in a 3:7 ratio, respectively. The presence of O-acetyl groups in the repeating unit of the E. coli O59 PS is consistent with the previously proposed acetyltransferase WclD in the O-antigen gene cluster.

  • 248.
    Fontana, Carolina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Lundborg, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Weintraub, Andrej
    Widmalm, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Structural studies and biosynthetic aspects of the o antigen polysaccharide from Escherichia coli o1742012In: Carbohydrate Research, ISSN 0008-6215, E-ISSN 1873-426X, Vol. 354, p. 102-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The structure of the repeating unit of the O-antigenic polysaccharide (PS) from Escherichia coli O174 has been determined. Component analysis together with H-1 and C-13 NMR spectroscopy experiments were employed to elucidate the structure. Inter-residue correlations were determined by H-1, C-13-heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation and H-1, H-1-NOESY experiments. The PS is composed of tetrasaccharide repeating units with the following structure: -> 4)-beta-D-GlcpA-(1 -> 3)-beta-D-Galp-(1 -> 3)-beta-D-GalpNAc-(1 -> vertical bar beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1 -> 2) Cross-peaks of low intensity were present in the NMR spectra consistent with a beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1 -> 2)-beta-D-GlcpA(1 -> structural element at the terminal part of the polysaccharide, which on average is composed of similar to 15 repeating units. Consequently the biological repeating unit has a 3-substituted N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residue at its reducing end.

  • 249.
    Fontana, Carolina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Ramström, Kristoffer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Weintraub, Andrej
    Widmalm, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Structural studies of the O-antigen polysaccharide from Escherichia coli O115 and biosynthetic aspects thereof2013In: Glycobiology, ISSN 0959-6658, E-ISSN 1460-2423, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 354-362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The structure of the O-antigen polysaccharide (PS) of Escherichia coliO115 has been investigated using a combination of component analysis and 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy experiments. The repeating unit of the O-antigen was elucidated using the O-deacetylated PS and has the following branched pentasaccharide structure: →3)[β-L-Rhap-(1 → 4)]-β-D-GlcpNAc-(1 → 4)-α-D-GalpA-(1 → 3)-α-D-Manp-(1 → 3)-β-D-GlcpNAc-(1→. Cross-peaks of low intensity, corresponding to a β-L-Rhap-(1 → 4)-β-D-GlcpNAc-(1→ structural element, were present in the NMR spectra and attributed to the terminal part of the PS; this information defines the biological repeating unit of the O-antigen by having a 3-substituted N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) residue at its reducing end. Analysis of the NMR spectra of the native PS revealed O-acetyl groups distributed over different positions of theL-Rhap residue (∼0.70 per repeating unit) as well as at O-2 and O-3 of the D-GalpA residue (∼0.03 and ∼0.25 per repeating unit, respectively), which is in agreement with the presence of two acetyltransferases previously identified in the O-antigen gene cluster (Wang Q, Ruan X, Wei D, Hu Z, Wu L, Yu T, Feng L, Wang L. 2010. Mol Cell Probes. 24:286–290.). In addition, the four glycosyltransferases initially identified in the O-antigen gene cluster of E. coli O115 were analyzed using BLAST, and the function of two of them predicted on the basis of similarities with glycosyltransferases from Shigella dysenteriae type 5 and 12, as well as E. coli O58 and O152.

  • 250.
    Fontana, Carolina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Weintraub, Andrej
    Karolinska Institute.
    Widmalm, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Facile Structural Elucidation of Glycans Using NMR Spectroscopy Data and the Program CASPER: Application to the O-Antigen Polysaccharide of Escherichia coli O1552013In: ChemPlusChem, ISSN 2192-6506, Vol. 78, no 11, p. 1327-1329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The program CASPER was successfully employed to rapidly elucidate a new O-antigen polysaccharide structure (obtained from a strain of Escherichia coli serogroup O155), using solelyunassigned NMR spectroscopy data as input information. Thus, what is considered the most tedious and time-consuming part of the structural elucidation process has been reduced from several hours (or even days) of manual interpretation to about four minutes of automated analysis.

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