Ändra sökning
Avgränsa sökresultatet
1 - 32 av 32
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Träffar per sida
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
Markera
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 1. Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Solis-Marcos, Ignacio
    Nilsson, Emma
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    The impact of driver sleepiness on fixation-related brain potentials2020Ingår i: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, artikel-id e12962Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of driver sleepiness are often quantified as deteriorated driving performance, increased blink durations and high levels of subjective sleepiness. Driver sleepiness has also been associated with increasing levels of electroencephalogram (EEG) power, especially in the alpha range. The present exploratory study investigated a new measure of driver sleepiness, the EEG fixation-related lambda response. Thirty young male drivers (23.6 +/- 1.7 years old) participated in a driving simulator experiment in which they drove on rural and suburban roads in simulated daylight versus darkness during both the daytime (full sleep) and night-time (sleep deprived). The results show lower lambda responses during night driving and with longer time on task, indicating that sleep deprivation and time on task cause a general decrement in cortical responsiveness to incoming visual stimuli. Levels of subjective sleepiness and line crossings were higher under the same conditions. Furthermore, results of a linear mixed-effects model showed that low lambda responses are associated with high subjective sleepiness and more line crossings. We suggest that the fixation-related lambda response can be used to investigate driving impairment induced by sleep deprivation while driving and that, after further refinement, it may be useful as an objective measure of driver sleepiness.

  • 2.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Berntson, ErikStockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.Björk, LisaBolin, MalinCorin, Linda
    Att synliggöra och motverka ojämställdhet i arbetslivet: En vänbok till Annika Härenstam2020Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur kommer det sig att arbetet medför status, goda arbetsvillkor och hälsa för vissa, medan det innebär vanmakt, underordning och sjukdom för andra? Denna uråldriga och till synes naiva fråga pockar allt ihärdigare på ett svar i en tid där den sociala ojämlikheten ökar. Den som är det minsta intresserad av arbetsliv och hälsa och som läser de kapitel som nu följer kommer att bli inspirerad, kanske provocerad och troligen väldigt imponerad av svensk arbetslivsforskning. Flera av Sveriges mest framträdande arbetslivsforskare medverkar i boken.

  • 3.
    Astvik, Wanja
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Welander, Jonas
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    A comparative study of how social workers' voice and silence strategies relate to organisational resources, attitudes and well-being at work2020Ingår i: Journal of Social Work, ISSN 1468-0173, E-ISSN 1741-296XArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study sets out to investigate the potential differences between social workers using voice- or silence strategies in their experience of organisational resources, attitudes and health, and whether social workers moving between strategies (voice or silence) over time have a different experience of the same outcomes than those who stay with the same strategy group. The participating social workers (n = 1356) responded to two web-based questionnaires over a one-year period. Findings The results show that voice strategies are related to the experience of more positive organisational resources, more positive attitudes (greater job satisfaction and organisational commitment, but lower intention to exit) and more positive health (greater recovery, but less emotional exhaustion and stress symptoms) than those using silence strategies. The results also show that moving from silence to voice is related to the experience of increased organisational resources, more positive attitudes and more positive health at T2, while those moving from voice to silence reported the opposite. Applications The longitudinal approach applied in this study adds empirical evidence of the relationship between voice/silence and work-related attitudes, as well as health and well-being. The close relationship between organisational resources, employee voice behaviour and related individual outcomes regarding attitudes and health imply that Human Resources (HR) management has a lot to gain by developing and securing a voice-friendly and considerate climate in their organisations.

  • 4.
    Baraldi, Erika
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Westling Allodi, Mara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Löwing, Kristina
    Smedler, Ann-Charlotte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Westrup, Björn
    Ådén, Ulrika
    Stockholm preterm interaction-based intervention (SPIBI) - study protocol for an RCT of a 12-month parallel-group post-discharge program for extremely preterm infants and their parents2020Ingår i: BMC Pediatrics, ISSN 1471-2431, E-ISSN 1471-2431, Vol. 20, nr 1, artikel-id 20:49Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Improved neonatal care has resulted in increased survival rates among infants born after only 22 gestational weeks, but extremely preterm children still have an increased risk of neurodevelopmental delays, learning disabilities and reduced cognitive capacity, particularly executive function deficits. Parent-child interaction and parental mental health are associated with infant development, regardless of preterm birth. There is a need for further early interventions directed towards extremely preterm (EPT) children as well as their parents. The purpose of this paper is to describe the Stockholm Preterm Interaction-Based Intervention (SPIBI), the arrangements of the SPIBI trial and the chosen outcome measurements.

    Methods

    The SPIBI is a randomized clinical trial that includes EPT infants and their parents upon discharge from four neonatal units in Stockholm, Sweden. Inclusion criteria are EPT infants soon to be discharged from a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), with parents speaking Swedish or English. Both groups receive three initial visits at the neonatal unit before discharge during the recruitment process, with a strengths-based and development-supportive approach. The intervention group receives ten home visits and two telephone calls during the first year from a trained interventionist from a multi-professional team. The SPIBI intervention is a strengths-based early intervention programme focusing on parental sensitivity to infant cues, enhancing positive parent-child interaction, improving self-regulating skills and supporting the infant’s next small developmental step through a scaffolding process and parent-infant co-regulation. The control group receives standard follow-up and care plus extended assessment. The outcomes of interest are parent-child interaction, child development, parental mental health and preschool teacher evaluation of child participation, with assessments at 3, 12, 24 and 36 months corrected age (CA). The primary outcome is emotional availability at 12 months CA.

    Discussion

    If the SPIBI shows positive results, it could be considered for clinical implementation for child-support, ethical and health-economic purposes. Regardless of the outcome, the trial will provide valuable information about extremely preterm children and their parents during infancy and toddlerhood after regional hospital care in Sweden.

    Trial registration

    The study was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov in October 2018 (NCT03714633).

  • 5.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Olsson, Gabriella
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Sundqvist, Kristina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Svensson, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    School ethos and adolescent gambling: a multilevel study of upper secondary schools in Stockholm, Sweden2020Ingår i: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 20, artikel-id 130Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Gambling is not uncommon among adolescents, and a non-trivial minority has serious problems with gambling. Therefore, enhanced knowledge about factors that may prevent against problematic gambling among youth is needed. Prior research has shown that a strong school ethos, which can be defined as a set of attitudes and values pervading at a school, is associated with a lower inclination among students to engage in various risk behaviours. Knowledge about the link between school ethos and adolescent gambling is however scarce. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between teacher-rated school ethos and student-reported gambling and risk gambling, when controlling also for sociodemographic characteristics at the student- and the school-level.

    Methods: Data from two separate cross-sectional surveys were combined. The Stockholm School Survey (SSS) was performed among 5123 students (aged 17–18years) in 46 upper secondary schools, and the Stockholm Teacher Survey (STS) was carried out among 1061 teachers in the same schools. School ethos was measured by an index based on teachers’ ratings of 12 items in the STS. Adolescent gambling and risk gambling were based on a set of single items in the SSS. Sociodemographic characteristics at the student-level were measured by student-reported information from the SSS. Information on sociodemographic characteristics at the school-level was retrieved from administrative registers. The statistical method was multilevel regression analysis. Two-level binary logistic regression models were performed.

    Results: The analyses showed that higher teacher ratings of the school’s ethos were associated with a lower likelihood of gambling and risk gambling among students, when adjusting also for student- and school-level sociodemographic characteristics.

    Conclusions: This study showed that school ethos was inversely associated with students’ inclination to engage in gambling and in risk gambling. In more general terms, the study provides evidence that schools’ values and norms as reflected by the teachers’ ratings of their school’s ethos have the potential to counteract unwanted behaviours among the students.

  • 6.
    Cederborg, Ann-Christin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Lamb, Michael
    Norrman, Erik
    Evaluating the quality of investigative interviews after completion of training program2020Ingår i: Investigative Interviewing: Research and Practice, ISSN 2227-7420Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 7. Epstein, Majken
    et al.
    Söderström, Marie
    Jirwe, Maria
    Tucker, Philip
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Swansea University, UK.
    Dahlgren, Anna
    Sleep and fatigue in newly graduated nurses-Experiences and strategies for handling shiftwork2020Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 29, nr 1-2, s. 184-194Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims and objectives To explore newly graduated nurses' strategies for, and experiences of, sleep problems and fatigue when starting shiftwork. A more comprehensive insight into nurses' strategies, sleep problems, fatigue experiences and contributing factors is needed to understand what support should be provided. Background For graduate nurses, the first years of practice are often stressful, with many reporting high levels of burnout symptoms. Usually, starting working as a nurse also means an introduction to shiftwork, which is related to sleep problems. Sleep problems may impair stress management and, at the same time, stress may cause sleep problems. Previously, sleep problems and fatigue have been associated with burnout, poor health and increased accident risk. Design and Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nurses (N = 11) from four different Swedish hospitals, and qualitative inductive content analysis was used. The study was approved by the Regional Ethical Review Board in Stockholm. The COREQ checklist was followed. Results Many nurses lacked effective strategies for managing sleep and fatigue in relation to shiftwork. Various strategies were used, of which some might interfere with factors regulating and promoting sleep such as the homeostatic drive. Sleep problems were common during quick returns, often due to difficulties unwinding before sleep, and high workloads exacerbated the problems. The described consequences of fatigue in a clinical work context indicated impaired executive and nonexecutive cognitive function. Conclusion The findings indicate that supporting strategies and behaviours for sleep and fatigue in an intervention for newly graduated nurses starting shiftwork may be of importance to improve well-being among nurses and increase patient safety. Relevance to clinical practice This study highlights the importance of addressing sleep and fatigue issues in nursing education and work introduction programmes to increase patient safety and improve well-being among nurses.

  • 8. Fjermestad, Krister W.
    et al.
    Føreland, Øyvind
    Oppedal, Silje B.
    Sørensen, Julie S.
    Vognild, Ylva H.
    Gjestad, Rolf
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Bjaastad, Jon F.
    Shirk, Stephen S.
    Wergeland, Gro Janne
    Therapist Alliance-Building Behaviors, Alliance, and Outcomes in Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Youth Anxiety Disorders2020Ingår i: Journal of clinical child and adolescent psychology (Print), ISSN 1537-4416, E-ISSN 1537-4424Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The alliance influences outcomes in CBT for youth anxiety disorders. Thus, knowledge about how therapists can enhance the alliance is needed. Method: Seventy-three youth with anxiety diagnoses (M age = 11.5 years, SD = 2.2; range 8 to 15 years; 47.9% boys; 90.4% white-European) participated in 10-session cognitive behavioral therapy in community clinics. Therapist alliance-building behaviors in session 2 was reliably coded with the observer-rated Adolescent Alliance-Building Behavior Scale (Revised) (AABS(R)). Alliance was measured as youth- and therapist-rated alliance, and youth-therapist alliance discrepancy in session 3. Outcomes were diagnostic recovery and anxiety symptom reduction at post-treatment and one-year follow-up, and treatment dropout. We examined the direct effects of alliance-building on alliance, alliance on outcomes, and alliance-building on outcomes in multilevel mediation models, and between- versus within-therapist variance across these effects. Results: The alliance-building behaviors collaborate, present treatment model, and explore motivation positively predicted alliance, whereas actively structuring the session (i.e., dominating) negatively predicted alliance. The alliance-building behaviors attend to experience, collaborate, explore motivation, praise, and support positively predicted outcomes. The alliance-building behaviors present treatment model, express positive expectations, explore cognitions, and support negatively predicted outcomes. The effect of collaborate on symptom reduction was mediated by youth-therapist alliance discrepancy. There was almost zero between-therapist variance in alliance-building, and considerable within-therapist variance. Conclusion: Therapist alliance-building behaviors were directly (positively and negatively) associated with alliance and/or outcomes, with only one effect mediated by alliance. Alliance-building behaviors varied far more within therapists (i.e., across clients) than between therapists.

  • 9. Flygare, Oskar
    et al.
    Andersson, Erik
    Ringberg, Helene
    Hellstadius, Anna-Clara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Edbacken, Johan
    Enander, Jesper
    Dahl, Matti
    Aspvall, Kristina
    Windh, Indra
    Russell, Ailsa
    Mataix-Cols, David
    Ruck, Christian
    Adapted cognitive behavior therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder with co-occurring autism spectrum disorder: A clinical effectiveness study2020Ingår i: Autism, ISSN 1362-3613, E-ISSN 1461-7005, Vol. 24, nr 1, s. 190-199Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder and autism spectrum disorder commonly co-occur. Adapted cognitive behavior therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder in adults with autism spectrum disorder has not previously been evaluated outside the United Kingdom. In this study, 19 adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder and autism spectrum disorder were treated using an adapted cognitive behavior therapy protocol that consisted of 20 sessions focused on exposure with response prevention. The primary outcome was the clinician-rated Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale. Participants were assessed up to 3 months after treatment. There were significant reductions on the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale at post-treatment (d = 1.5), and improvements were sustained at follow-up (d = 1.2). Self-rated obsessive-compulsive disorder and depressive symptoms showed statistically significant reductions. Improvements in general functioning and quality of life were statistically non-significant. Three participants (16%) were responders at post-treatment and four (21%) were in remission from obsessive-compulsive disorder. At follow-up, three participants (16%) were responders and one (5%) was in full remission. Adapted cognitive behavior therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder in adults with co-occurring autism spectrum disorder is associated with reductions in obsessive-compulsive symptoms and depressive symptoms. However, outcomes are modest; few patients were completely symptom free, and treatment engagement was low with few completed exposures and low adherence to homework assignments. We identify and discuss the need for further treatment refinement for this vulnerable group.

  • 10.
    Forsström, David
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Rafi, Jonas
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Dropouts’ usage of a responsible gambling tool and subsequent gambling patterns2020Ingår i: Cogent Psychology, ISSN 2331-1908, Vol. 7, nr 1, artikel-id 1715535Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Responsible gambling measures are mainly implemented by the gambling industry to reduce excessive gambling and gambling-related harm. These measures include responsible gambling tools that target online gamblers, typically through behavior tracking, feedback, and, in some cases, advice on how to reduce gambling. Playscan is a responsible gambling tool implemented at gambling sites in several countries with many users in Norway and Sweden. Previous studies have indicated that these tools have limited repeated use. Also, the tools have shown to have a low effect on decreasing gambling behavior. Our aim has been to investigate usage and effect of Playscan among Norwegian gamblers (N = 835) that began to use Playscan and then opted out. These gamblers had a high initial use, but extensive lack of repeated use of the functions included in the tool (secondary data was used). The majority of the gamblers used Playscan for a short period of time. The results indicate that the participants did not gamble less after using Playscan (gambling data analyzed using ANOVA). A hypothesis that can be suggested is that short-term use of Playscan do not decrease the level of gambling for this sample. Also, low-risk gamblers seems to have increased their gambling after using Playscan. The results implies that level of use and length of use needs to be taken into account when evaluating the effect of responsible gambling tools. The low level of use in this sample and in other studies implies that strategies to increase is needed.

  • 11. Ghisletta, Paolo
    et al.
    Mason, Fabio
    von Oertzen, Timo
    Hertzog, Christopher
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Lindenberger, Ulman
    On the use of growth models to study normal cognitive aging2020Ingår i: International Journal of Behavioral Development, ISSN 0165-0254, E-ISSN 1464-0651, Vol. 44, nr 1, s. 88-96Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Growth models (GM) of the mixed-effects and latent curve varieties have become popular methodological tools in lifespan research. One of the major advantages of GM is their flexibility in studying individual differences in change. We scrutinized the change functions of GM used in five years of publications on cognitive aging. Of the 162 publications that we identified, 88% test linear or quadratic polynomials, and fewer than 5% apply functions that are nonlinear in their parameters, such as exponential decline. This apparent bias in favor of polynomial decomposition calls for exploring what conclusions about individual differences in change are likely to be drawn if one applies linear or quadratic GMs to data simulated under a conceptually and empirically plausible model of exponential cognitive decline from adulthood to old age. Hence, we set up a simulation that manipulated the rate of exponential decline, measurement reliability, number of occasions, interval width, and sample size. True rate of decline and interval width influenced results strongly, number of occasions and measurement reliability exerted a moderate effect, and the effects of sample size appeared relatively minor. Critically, our results show that fit statistics generally do not differentiate misspecified linear or quadratic models from the true exponential model. Moreover, power to detect variance in change for the linear and quadratic GMs is low, and estimates of individual differences in level and change can be highly biased by model misspecification. We encourage researchers to also consider plausible nonlinear change functions when studying behavioral development across the lifespan.

  • 12.
    Griep, Yannick
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. University of Calgary, Canada.
    Bankins, Sarah
    The ebb and flow of psychological contract breach in relation to perceived organizational support: Reciprocal relationships over time2020Ingår i: Economic and Industrial Democracy, ISSN 0143-831X, E-ISSN 1461-7099Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Perceived organizational support (POS) is commonly treated as a consequence of perceived psychological contract breach (PCB). However, because both concepts assume a mutual exchange relationship in which each party makes assessments of, and then decides how to reciprocate, the other party's contributions, this article propounds that the PCB-POS relationship is recursive. By drawing on Conservation of Resources (COR) Theory, the authors argue that following an initial PCB, low levels of POS may then increase the likelihood of perceiving further PCBs through reduced management trust, thus generating a resource loss spiral. By estimating a two-level time-lagged mediation model on weekly data from 338 Canadian employees (1215 observations), the findings support the reciprocal PCB-POS relationship, and show that POS and PCB form a vicious cycle of resource loss. The authors suggest avenues for future research and practical implications relating to the role of time and resources in preventing further exchange deterioration.

  • 13. Hagström, Hannes
    et al.
    Talbäck, Mats
    Andreasson, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Walldius, Göran
    Hammar, Niklas
    Ability of Noninvasive Scoring Systems to Identify Individuals in the Population at Risk for Severe Liver Disease2020Ingår i: Gastroenterology, ISSN 0016-5085, E-ISSN 1528-0012, Vol. 158, nr 1, s. 200-214Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Noninvasive scoring systems are used to identify persons with advanced liver fibrosis. We investigated the ability of scoring systems to identify individuals in the general population at risk for future liver-related events. METHODS: We collected data from the Swedish Apolipoprotein Mortality Risk cohort on persons 35 to 79 years old who had blood samples collected from 1985 through 1996. We collected APRI (n = 127,302), BARD (n = 75,303), FIB-4 (n = 126,941), Forns (n = 122,419), and the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) fibrosis scores (NFS, n = 13,160). We ascertained incident cases of cirrhosis or complications by linking Swedish health data registers. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for severe liver disease at 5, 10, and a maximum follow-up time of 27 years. The predictive ability of the scores was evaluated using area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve and C-statistics analyses. Our specific aims were to investigate the predictive capabilities of scoring systems for fatal and nonfatal liver disease, determine which scoring system has the highest level of accuracy, and investigate the predictive abilities of the scoring systems in persons with a higher probability of NAFLD at baseline. RESULTS: A similar proportion of individuals evaluated by each scoring system developed cirrhosis or complications thereof (1.0%-1.4%). The incidence of any outcome was increased in intermediate- and high-risk groups compared with low-risk groups, with HRs at 10 years in the high-risk group ranging from 1.67 for the BARD score to 45.9 for the APRI score. The predictive abilities of all scoring systems decreased with time and were higher in men. All scoring systems were more accurate in persons with risk factors for NAFLD at baseline, with AUROCs reaching 0.83. CONCLUSIONS: Higher scores from noninvasive scoring systems to evaluate fibrosis are associated with an increased risk of cirrhosis in a general population, but their predictive ability is modest. Performance was better when patients were followed for shorter time periods and in persons with a higher risk of NAFLD, with AUROC values reaching 0.83. New scoring systems are needed to evaluate risk of fibrosis in the general population and in primary care.

  • 14.
    Halonen, Jaana I
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland .
    Pulakka, Anna
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Pentti, Jaana
    Laström, Hanna
    Stenholm, Sari
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Commuting time to work and behaviour-related health: a fixed-effect analysis2020Ingår i: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 77, nr 2, s. 77-83Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Long commuting times are linked to poor health outcomes, but the evidence is mainly cross-sectional. We examined longitudinal within-individual associations between commuting time and behaviour-related health.

    Methods: Data were from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health study. We selected workers who responded to a minimum of two surveys conducted every other year between 2008 and 2018. We included all study waves with self-reported commuting time (ie, the exposure, 1–5, 6–10, 11–15 or ≥15 hours/week), body mass index (based on weight and height), physical (in)activity, smoking, alcohol use and sleep problems (ie, the outcomes) (Nindividuals=20 376, Nobservations=46 169). We used conditional logistic regression for fixed effects analyses that controls for time-varying confounders by design. Analyses were stratified by working hours: normal (30–40 hours/week) or longer than normal (>40 hours/week) and adjusted for time dependent covariates: age, marital status, occupational position, presence of children, chronic disease, depressive symptoms, job strain and shift work.

    Results: Those working >40 hours/week had higher odds of physical inactivity (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.51) and sleep problems (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.35) when they were commuting >5 hours/week than when they were commuting 1–5 hours/week. Among women working normal hours, longer commuting time associated with lower odds of problem drinking.

    Conclusion: Our findings suggest that lengthy commuting time increases the risk of physical inactivity and sleep problems if individuals have longer than normal weekly working hours. Effects of work arrangements that decrease commuting time should be examined in relation to health behaviours.

  • 15.
    Högman, Lennart
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Kristiansson, Marianne
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Johansson, Anette G.M.
    Impaired facial emotion perception of briefly presented double masked stimuli in violent offenders with schizophrenia spectrum disorders2020Ingår i: Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, ISSN 2215-0013, Vol. 19, artikel-id 100163Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Social interactions require decoding of subtle rapidly changing emotional cues in others to facilitate socially appropriate behaviour. It is possible that impairments in the ability to detect and decode these signals may increase the risk for aggression. Therefore, we examined violent offenders with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) and compared these with healthy controls on a computerized paradigm of briefly presented double masked faces exhibiting 7 basic emotions. Our hypotheses were that impaired semantic understanding of emotion words and low cognitive ability would yield lowest emotion recognition. SSD exhibited lower accuracy of emotion perception than controls (46.1% compared with 64.5%, p = 0.026), even when considering the unbiased hit rate (22.4% compared with 43%, Z = 2.62, p < 0.01). Raw data showed uncommon but significant misclassifications of fear as sad, disgust as sad, sad as happy and angry as surprise. Once guessing and presentation frequencies were considered, only overall accuracy differed between SSD and healthy controls. There were significant correlations between cognitive ability, antipsychotic dose, speed and emotion accuracy in the SSD group. In conclusion, that there were no specific emotion biases in the SSD group compared to healthy controls, but particular individuals may have greater impairments in facial emotion perception, being influenced by intellectual ability, psychomotor speed and medication dosages, rather than specifically emotion word understanding. This implies that both state and trait factors influence emotion perception in the aggressive SSD group and may reveal one source of potential misunderstanding of social situations which may lead to boundary violations and aggression.

  • 16.
    Ivanova, Ekaterina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Responsible provision of online gambling: Effects, usability and gamblers’ experiences of protective measures implemented in online gambling environments2020Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Problem gambling is considered a public health problem in many countries and is associated with serious financial and health-related harms for both problem gamblers and significant others. It is possible to create gambling environments that would promote sustainable gambling behaviors and prevent excessive gambling. However, research on the effectiveness of tools for responsible provision of gambling is scarce and the quality of the research is low. Also, there exists a conflict of interest between making a profit when providing gambling and protecting vulnerable customers. The general aim of the project was to study the effects, usability and gamblers’ experiences of tools for responsible provision of online gambling. Study I evaluated the effects of a prompt to set voluntary deposit-limit of optional size among 4,328 customers of an online gambling platform. During the data collection period, all customers from Finland registering an account on the gambling platform were randomized into being prompted to set a deposit-limit either 1) at-registration, 2) before their first deposit, 3) after their first deposit or 4) to an unprompted control group. Gambling intensity, measured with aggregated net loss, was tracked during 90 days after registration. No differences in gambling intensity between the intervention and control groups were found neither on the whole-group level (B (95% CI) =-0.080 (-0.229-0.069), p=.291), nor in the subgroup of the most involved gamblers (B (95% CI) =0.042(-0.359-0.442), p=.838). Study II aimed at predicting gaming freeze (as a proxy parameter for problem gambling) in online gamblers. For the sample of N=2,618 (N=1,309 freezers), a total of 105 predictors were created based on the data tracked by the gambling platform. The analysis was carried out using the machine learning method Random Forest. The predictive accuracy of the model applied to the dataset was 0.615, with a specificity of 0.686 and a sensitivity of 0.543. Study III aimed at investigating non-problem gamblers’ experiences of protective measures. A total of N=10,200 active customers of an online gambling platform were asked to rate their previous experiences of protective tools, their inclination to abandon a gambling service due to perceived overexposure to protective measures and answer questions on their symptoms of problem gambling. N=1,223 responded to the questionnaire, with the majority of the sample being moderate-risk gamblers (38.5%), followed by low-risk gamblers (26.8%), non-problem gamblers (18.9%) and problem gamblers (15.8%). In general, non-problem gamblers were not more disturbed by protective measures than other categories of gamblers. More problem gamblers have previously abandoned a gambling service due to perceived overexposure to protective measures compared to non-problem gamblers (OR(95% CI)= 7.17(3.61-14.23), p<.001). In conclusion, a prompt to set a voluntary deposit-limit of optional size did not appear to be effective in decreasing gambling intensity in online gamblers, indicating the need of evaluating alternative designs. Predicting gaming freezes in the current project resulted in a low accuracy, indicating that gaming freeze is not suitable as a proxy measurement for problem gambling and suggesting the need for collecting subjective data on symptoms of problem gambling. The results of Study III suggest that protective measures can be tested and implemented without the risk of disturbing recreational gamblers.

  • 17. Kaldo, Viktor
    et al.
    Bothelius, Kristoffer
    Blom, Kerstin
    Lindhe, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
    Larsson, Matilda
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
    Karimi, Kobra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Melder, Susanne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Bondestam, Viveka
    Ulfsparre, Charlotte
    Sternbrink, Klara
    Jernelöv, Susanna
    An open-ended primary-care group intervention for insomnia based on a self-help book - A randomized controlled trial and 4-year follow-up2020Ingår i: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 29, nr 1, artikel-id e12881Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Chronic insomnia is a common and burdensome problem for patients seeking primary care. Cognitive behavioural therapy has been shown to be effective for insomnia, also when presented with co-morbidities, but access to sleep therapists is limited. Group-treatment and self-administered treatment via self-help books have both been shown to be efficacious treatment options, and the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of an open-ended group intervention based on a self-help book for insomnia, adapted to fit a primary-care setting. Forty primary-care patients with insomnia (mean age 55 years, 80% women) were randomized to the open-ended group intervention based on a cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia self-help book or to a care as usual/wait-list control condition. Results show high attendance to group sessions and high treatment satisfaction. Participants in the control group later received the self-help book, but without the group intervention. The book-based group treatment resulted in significantly improved insomnia severity, as well as shorter sleep-onset latency, less wake time after sleep onset, and less use of sleep medication compared with treatment as usual. The improvements were sustained at a 4-year follow-up assessment. A secondary analysis found a significant advantage of the combination of the book and the open-ended group intervention compared with when the initial control group later used only the self-help book. An open-ended treatment group based on a self-help book for insomnia thus seems to be an effective and feasible intervention for chronic insomnia in primary-care settings.

  • 18.
    Kaltenegger, Helena C.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap. University Hospital, LMU Munich, Germany.
    Philips, Björn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Autistic traits in mentalization-based treatment for concurrent borderline personality disorder and substance use disorder: Secondary analyses of a randomized controlled feasibility study2020Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Autism is suggested to be a dimensional construct and often represents a comorbid state. However, research on the clinical implications of the presence of autistic traits is scarce. This study aimed to investigate the impact of subclinical autistic traits in mentalization-based treatment (MBT) for concurrent borderline personality disorder (BPD) and substance use disorder (SUD). Based on the data of a randomized controlled feasibility study by Philips, Wennberg, Konradsson, and Franck (2018), secondary analyses were conducted. It was tested, if patients' (N = 46) levels of autistic traits were associated with treatment outcome measured in the course of and after treatment using interviews and self-report measures. Participants' autistic traits were not associated with the change in the severity of BPD throughout and at the end of the treatment. However, results showed associations between autistic traits and the change in patients' consumption of alcohol in the course of MBT. Furthermore, there was an association between autistic traits and the change in mentalizing capacity at the end of MBT, indicating that elevated autistic traits were associated with an improvement in mentalizing capacity. Autistic traits on a subclinical level do not appear to be a complicating factor in MBT for concurrent BPD and SUD. On the contrary, in terms of mentalizing capacity autistic traits might be associated with a larger potential for improvement or facilitate treatment outcome. Further research is needed to explore the role of higher autistic traits in treatment of this special patient group.

  • 19. Larue, Gregoire S.
    et al.
    Watling, Christopher N.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Australia.
    Black, Alexander A.
    Wood, Joanne M.
    Khakzar, Mahrokh
    Pedestrians distracted by their smartphone: Are in-ground flashing lights catching their attention? A laboratory study2020Ingår i: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 134, artikel-id 105346Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Pedestrian distraction is a growing road safety concern worldwide. While there are currently no studies linking distraction and pedestrian crash risk, distraction has been shown to increase risky behaviours in pedestrians, for example, through reducing visual scanning before traversing an intersection. Illuminated in-ground Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) embedded into pathways are an emerging solution to address the growing distraction problem associated with mobile use while walking. The current study sought to determine if such an intervention was effective in attracting the attention of distracted pedestrians. We conducted a controlled laboratory study (N = 24) to evaluate whether pedestrians detected the activation of flashing LEDs when distracted by a smartphone more accurately and efficiently when the lights were located on the floor compared to a control position on the wall. Eye gaze movements via an eye tracker and behavioural responses via response times assessed the detection of these flashing LEDs. Distracted participants were able to detect the activation of the floor and wall-mounted LEDs with accuracies above 90%. The visual and auditory distraction tasks increased reaction times by 143 and 124 ms, respectively. Even when distracted, performance improved with floor LEDs close to participants, with reaction time improvements by 43 and 159 ms for the LEDs 2 and 1 ms away from the participant respectively. The addition of floor LED lights resulted in a performance similar to the one observed for wall-mounted LEDs in the non-distracted condition. Moreover, participants did not necessarily need to fixate on the LEDs to detect their activation, thus were likely to have detected them using their peripheral vision. The findings suggest that LEDs embedded in pathways are likely to be effective at attracting the attention of distracted pedestrians. Further research needs to be conducted in the field to confirm these findings, and to evaluate the actual effects on behaviour under real-world conditions.

  • 20.
    Lasselin, Julie
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany; Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Karshikoff, Bianka
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Benson, Sven
    Engler, Harald
    Schedlowski, Manfred
    Jones, Mike
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Andreasson, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Macquarie University, Australia.
    Fatigue and sleepiness responses to experimental inflammation and exploratory analysis of the effect of baseline inflammation in healthy humans2020Ingår i: Brain, behavior, and immunity, ISSN 0889-1591, E-ISSN 1090-2139, Vol. 83, s. 309-314Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Inflammation is believed to be a central mechanism in the pathophysiology of fatigue. While it is likely that dynamic of the fatigue response after an immune challenge relates to the corresponding cytokine release, this lacks evidence. Although both fatigue and sleepiness are strong signals to rest, they constitute distinct symptoms which are not necessarily associated, and sleepiness in relation to inflammation has been rarely investigated. Here, we have assessed the effect of an experimental immune challenge (administration of lipopolysaccharide, LPS) on the development of both fatigue and sleepiness, and the associations between increases in cytokine concentrations, fatigue and sleepiness, in healthy volunteers. In addition, because chronic-low grade inflammation may represent a risk factor for fatigue, we tested whether higher baseline levels of inflammation result in a more pronounced development of cytokine-induced fatigue and sleepiness. Data from four experimental studies was combined, giving a total of 120 subjects (LPS N = 79, 18 (23%) women; Placebo N = 69, 12 (17%) women). Administration of LPS resulted in a stronger increase in fatigue and sleepiness compared to the placebo condition, and the development of both fatigue and sleepiness closely paralleled the cytokine responses. Individuals with stronger increases in cytokine concentrations after LPS administration also suffered more from fatigue and sleepiness (N = 75), independent of gender. However, there was no support for the hypothesis that higher baseline inflammatory markers moderated the responses in fatigue or sleepiness after an inflammatory challenge. The results demonstrate a tight connection between the acute inflammatory response and development of both fatigue and sleepiness, and motivates further investigation of the involvement of inflammation in the pathophysiology of central fatigue.

  • 21.
    Lindfors, Petra
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Organiserad psykosocial arbetsmiljö: framåtblickar utifrån befintligt kunskapsläge2020Ingår i: Att synliggöra och motverka ojämställdhet i arbetslivet: en vänbok till Annika Härenstam / [ed] Gunnar Aronsson, Erik Berntson, Lisa Björk, Malin Bolin, Linda Corin, Helsingborg: Komlitt , 2020Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 22.
    Lindström, Joanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Suicide Terrorism2020Ingår i: Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science / [ed] Todd K. Shackelford, Viviana A. Weekes-Shackelford, Springer, 2020Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Suicide terrorism, which is usually tied to a non-state organization, is the act of sacrificing one’s life in an effort to harm, damage, or destroy members of an out-group, for political and social objectives.

  • 23. Ljótsson, Brjánn
    et al.
    Jones, Michael
    Talley, Nicholas J.
    Kjellström, Lars
    Agréus, Lars
    Andreasson, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Macquarie University, Australia; Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Discriminant and convergent validity of the GSRS-IBS symptom severity measure for irritable bowel syndrome: A population study2020Ingår i: United European Gastroenterology journal, ISSN 2050-6406, E-ISSN 2050-6414Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale-Irritable Bowel Syndrome (GSRS-IBS) is a 13-item measure of IBS symptom severity. The scale has been used in several studies, but its psychometric properties have been insufficiently investigated and population-based data are not available. Objective The objective of this article is to establish the factor structure and discriminant and convergent validity of the GSRS-IBS. Methods The study was based on a Swedish population sample (the Popcol study), of which 1158 randomly selected participants provided data on the GSRS-IBS. We used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and compared total and subscales scores in different groups, including IBS diagnostic status, treatment-seeking behavior, and predominant bowel habits. The GSRS-IBS scores were also correlated with quality of life indexes. Results The sample included 164 participants with a confirmed Rome III IBS diagnosis and 994 participants without the disease. The CFA confirmed the subscales with one exception, in which the incomplete bowel-emptying item belonged to the constipation subscale rather than the diarrhea subscale. The GSRS-IBS total score and subscales were associated with diagnostic status, treatment-seeking behavior, and quality of life dimensions. The relevant subscales scores also differed between the diarrhea- and constipation-predominant subtypes of IBS. Conclusion The GSRS-IBS total score and subscales have high discriminant and convergent validity. The CFA confirmed the overall validity of the subscales but suggest that a sense of incomplete emptying belongs to the constipation rather than the diarrhea symptom cluster. We conclude that the GSRS-IBS is an excellent measure of IBS symptom severity in the general population.

  • 24. Nordentoft, Mads
    et al.
    Rod, Naja H.
    Bonde, Jens Peter
    Bjorner, Jakob B.
    Madsen, Ida E. H.
    Pedersen, Line R. M.
    Cleal, Bryan
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Nexo, Mette A.
    Pentti, Jaana
    Stenholm, Sari
    Sterud, Tom
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Rugulies, Reiner
    Effort-reward imbalance at work and risk of type 2 diabetes in a national sample of 50,552 workers in Denmark: A prospective study linking survey and register data2020Ingår i: Journal of Psychosomatic Research, ISSN 0022-3999, E-ISSN 1879-1360, Vol. 128, artikel-id 109867Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine the prospective relation between effort-reward imbalance at work and risk of type 2 diabetes.

    Methods: We included 50,552 individuals from a national survey of the working population in Denmark, aged 30–64 years and diabetes-free at baseline. Effort-reward imbalance was defined, in accordance with the literature, as a mismatch between high efforts at work (e.g. high work pace, time pressure), and low rewards received in return (e.g. low recognition, job insecurity) and assessed as a continuous and a categorical variable. Incident type 2 diabetes was identified in national health registers. Using Cox regression we calculated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for estimating the association between effort-reward imbalance at baseline and risk of onset of type 2 diabetes during follow-up, adjusted for sex, age, socioeconomic status, cohabitation, children at home, migration background, survey year and sample method.

    Results: During 136,239 person-years of follow-up (mean = 2.7 years) we identified 347 type 2 diabetes cases (25.5 cases per 10,000 person-years). For each one standard deviation increase of the effort-reward imbalance score at baseline, the fully adjusted risk of type 2 diabetes during follow-up increased by 9% (HR: 1.09, 95% CI: 0.98–1.21). When we used effort-reward imbalance as a dichotomous variable, exposure to effort-reward imbalance was associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes with a HR of 1.27 (95% CI: 1.02–1.58).

    Conclusion: The results of this nationwide study of the Danish workforce suggest that effort-reward imbalance at work may be a risk factor for type 2 diabetes.

  • 25.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik. New York University School of Medicine, USA; Nathan Kline Institute, USA.
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Roa, Catalina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Wilson, Donald A.
    Jonsson Laukka, Erika
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI). Stockholm Gerontology Research Center, Sweden.
    Interaction Between Odor Identification Deficit and APOE4 Predicts 6-Year Cognitive Decline in Elderly Individuals2020Ingår i: Behavior Genetics, ISSN 0001-8244, E-ISSN 1573-3297, Vol. 50, nr 1, s. 3-13Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Olfactory identification impairment might indicate future cognitive decline in elderly individuals. An unresolved question is to what extent this effect is dependent on the ApoE-epsilon 4, a genotype associated with risk of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Given the current concern about reproducibility in empirical research, we assessed this issue in a large sample (n = 1637) of older adults (60 - 96 years) from the population-based longitudinal Swedish National Study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen (SNAC-K). A hierarchical regression analysis was carried out to determine if a low score on an odor identification test, and the presence of ApoE-epsilon 4, would predict the magnitude of a prospective 6-year change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) after controlling for demographic, health-related, and cognitive variables. We found that overall, lower odor identification performance was predictive of cognitive decline, and, as hypothesized, we found that the effect was most pronounced among ApoE-epsilon 4 carriers. Our results from this high-powered sample suggest that in elderly carriers of the ApoE-epsilon 4 allele, odor identification impairment provides an indication of future cognitive decline, which has relevance for the prognosis of AD.

  • 26.
    Sjöberg, Linnea
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Fratiglioni, Laura
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI). Stockholm Gerontology Research Center (LF), Sweden.
    Lövdén, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Wang, Hui-Xin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Low Mood and Risk of Dementia: The Role of Marital Status and Living Situation2020Ingår i: The American journal of geriatric psychiatry, ISSN 1064-7481, E-ISSN 1545-7214, Vol. 28, nr 1, s. 33-44Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study aims to explore whether low mood is related to an increased dementia risk in two cohorts of older adults of different generations, and whether marital status and living situation modify this association. Methods: Participants (>= 70 years), free from dementia and living at home, were identified from two population-based studies: the Kungsholmen Project (KP; n = 1,197) and the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen (SNAC-K; n = 1,402). Low mood was obtained by self-report (KP and SNAC-K) at baseline in 1987-89 (KP) and 2001-04 (SNAC-K). Incident dementia cases were ascertained over 9 years, using the same diagnostic procedures and comparable criteria for the two cohorts (DSM-III-R in KP and DSM-IV-TR in SNAC-K). Hazard ratios (HR) were derived from Cox proportional hazards models. Results: Those having low mood at baseline were at higher risk of dementia in both cohorts combined (HR: 1.2, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0-1.4) than those without low mood. However, an increased risk was detected only in those who did not have a partner (HR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2-1.9), or lived alone (HR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2-1.9), but not among those who had a partner or lived with someone (HR: 0.8, 95% CI: 0.5-1.2). Conclusion: Marital status and living situation have the potential to buffer the detrimental effects of low mood on dementia onset. Thus, specific attention from health care should target individuals having low mood and who do not have a partner or live alone.

  • 27.
    Trost, Kari
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Eichas, Kyle
    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Galanti, M. Rosaria
    The Study of Family Context: Examining Its Role for Identity Coherence and Adolescent Adjustment for Swedish Adolescents2020Ingår i: Journal of Early Adolescence, ISSN 0272-4316, E-ISSN 1552-5449, Vol. 40, nr 2, s. 165-196Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present cross-sectional study aimed to examine whether characteristics of the parent-child relationship in adolescence are important for adjustment and identity development. Participants were recruited from schools in central Sweden for a larger longitudinal study when the cohort was 13- to 14-year-olds (N = 3,667). Characteristics of the parent-child relationship, like parental warmth, democratic parenting, and child communication, and adolescent adjustment problems and identity coherence were studied. It was found that democratic parenting was positively linked to child communication but negatively associated with problematic peer relationships and behavioral problems. Parental warmth was linked to other parenting characteristics as well as identity cohesion. Democratic parenting was linked to greater school engagement and identity coherence for boys and girls. Gender differences were found. The findings support the notion that democratic and warm parenting may provide support for adolescent identity development and adjustment.

  • 28. Turner, Monroe P.
    et al.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Sivakolundu, Dinesh K.
    Hubbard, Nicholas A.
    Zhao, Yuguang
    Rypma, Bart
    Bäckman, Lars
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Age-differential relationships among dopamine D1 binding potential, fusiform BOLD signal, and face-recognition performance2020Ingår i: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 206, artikel-id 116232Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Facial recognition ability declines in adult aging, but the neural basis for this decline remains unknown. Cortical areas involved in face recognition exhibit lower dopamine (DA) receptor availability and lower blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal during task performance with advancing adult age. We hypothesized that changes in the relationship between these two neural systems are related to age differences in face-recognition ability. To test this hypothesis, we leveraged positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure D1 receptor binding potential (BPND) and BOLD signal during face-recognition performance. Twenty younger and 20 older participants performed a face-recognition task during fMRI scanning. Face recognition accuracy was lower in older than in younger adults, as were D1 BPND and BOLD signal across the brain. Using linear regression, significant relationships between DA and BOLD were found in both age-groups in face-processing regions. Interestingly, although the relationship was positive in younger adults, it was negative in older adults (i.e., as D1 BPND decreased, BOLD signal increased). Ratios of BOLD:D1 BPND were calculated and relationships to face-recognition performance were tested. Multiple linear regression revealed a significant Group x BOLD:D1 BPND Ratio interaction. These results suggest that, in the healthy system, synchrony between neurotransmitter (DA) and hemodynamic (BOLD) systems optimizes the level of BOLD activation evoked for a given DA input (i.e., the gain parameter of the DA input-neural activation function), facilitating task performance. In the aged system, however, desynchronization between these brain systems would reduce the gain parameter of this function, adversely impacting task performance and contributing to reduced face recognition in older adults.

  • 29. Wahlund, Tove
    et al.
    Jolstedt, Maral
    Andersson, Erik
    Vigerland, Sarah
    Perrin, Sean
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Högström, Jens
    Serlachius, Eva
    Online cognitive behavior therapy for adolescents with excessive worry: a multiple baseline design feasibility study2020Ingår i: mHealth, ISSN 2306-9740, Vol. 6, artikel-id 5Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: One in twenty adolescents experience excessive worry and evidence-based psychological therapies are not sufficiently widespread to reach most of those affected. In this multiple baseline evaluation, we assess the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a scalable, online cognitive-behavioral intervention for adolescents with excessive worry (BIP worry).

    Methods: Thirteen adolescents (age 13–17) with excessive worry underwent the 10-week online BIP worry intervention. The treatment also included an online intervention for parents. Completion rates, treatment satisfaction, and adverse events were measures of feasibility. Clinical outcomes included worry severity, symptoms of other anxiety and depression, and general functioning. To control for time and spontaneous fluctuations in symptoms, adolescents were randomized to a 2-, 6-, or 10-week baseline phase prior to treatment. A short measure of worry severity was administered weekly during the baseline and treatment phases. Outcomes were assessed before the baseline-phase, at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and at 1- and 3-month follow-ups.

    Results: Twelve of 13 included adolescents, together with their parents, participated in BIP worry, with a mean completion rate of 9.8 of the 10 treatment modules. Adolescents reported an average of 4.4 exposures per week as homework during treatment. High levels of treatment adherence, credibility, and satisfaction, and no serious adverse events were reported. Therapists averaged 21 min per week communicating with each family. Linear mixed effects models indicated significant improvements in worry, anxiety, and general functioning from pre- to post-treatment, with these gains maintained at 1- and 3-months follow-up. Reductions in worry severity during treatment were significantly larger than during the baseline phase. The results from the multiple baseline evaluation suggested an association between the introduction of the BIP worry intervention and subsequent symptom change for some but not all adolescents.

    Conclusions: BIP worry is a feasible and potentially effective treatment. As the treatment is scalable and involves limited therapist contact, it represents a low-cost method for treating adolescents with excessive worry and anxiety. Further investigation under randomized controlled trial (RCT) conditions is warranted.

  • 30.
    Werbart, Andrzej
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Bergstedt, Annelie
    Levander, Sonja
    Love, Work, and Striving for the Self in Balance: Anaclitic and Introjective Patients’ Experiences of Change in Psychoanalysis2020Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 11, artikel-id 144Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most famous quotations credited to Freud is that, when asked what he thought a psychologically healthy person should be able to do, he said: “to love and to work.” A central goal in psychoanalytic treatment is to bring about changes in basic, mostly unconscious, mental structures. The aim of this study was to investigate, applying an inductive thematic analysis, the experiences anaclitic and introjective patients have had of change after psychoanalysis with regard to the domains Love and Relationships and Work and Achievements. Analyzing patient interviews, we identified a third domain of experienced changes, The Self, which refers to increased self-understanding, self-acceptance, and self-care rather than an improved dynamic balance between love and work. All patients experienced several positive changes in their lives during and after psychoanalysis. We also found distinctive patterns that appear to be closely linked to the patients’ initial personality orientation with regard to relationships and achievements. Generally, the patients described symmetrical, but opposite, change processes within the two specific domains of Love and Work. For the anaclitic patients, this indicated a movement inward in the domain of Love (from an excessive preoccupation with issues of their relationship with others toward more distinct self-boundaries and increased agency) and outward in the domain of Work (from unenterprising toward becoming more outgoing and daring). For the introjective patients, this pointed to a reverse movement outward in the domain of Love (from an excessive preoccupation with issues of autonomy toward increased responsiveness to others and desire to be establish close, mutual relationships) and inward in the domain of Work (from an excessive orientation on achievements toward increased becoming more grounded in their own feelings, needs, and desires). In conclusion, patients in both groups have experienced a reduced preoccupation with issues related to their initially predominant personality dimension (relatedness or self-definition) and increased receptivity to needs typical for the complementary dimension. These changes seem to be mediated by changes in the domain of The Self. Our study suggests the clinical relevance of focusing the therapeutic work on fostering a better and more dynamic balance between love and work, relatedness, or self-definition.

  • 31. White, Theresa L.
    et al.
    Thomas-Danguin, Thierry
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Zucco, Gesualdo M.
    Prescott, John
    Thought for food: Cognitive influences on chemosensory perceptions and preferences2020Ingår i: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 79, artikel-id 103776Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sensory and consumer research often focuses more on bottom-up than top-down influences on consumers' perception and acceptance of foods. Yet, cognitive processes create and transform incoming sensory information originating from separate senses, including olfaction, gustation, and somatosensation, into the perception of flavour. The present paper discusses five cognitive processes that affect human chemosensory perception and responses to food flavours: Attention, language, memory, learning, and metacognition. It is argued that each of these processes are important in shaping interactions with food via the chemical senses. Attention moderates perception through its distribution across the environment, fine-tuning it for particular stimuli. Interactions among smells, tastes, and textures are acquired through learning, as are hedonic properties. Language affects food acceptability and preference, as does the memory of prior experiences with a food, even when they are not at a conscious level of processing. Metacognitive knowledge of personal capabilities indirectly influences the results of sensory evaluations. Future sensory and consumer research should take into account the significant role that these cognitive factors play in processing incoming chemosensory information.

  • 32. Zhuo, Lai-Bao
    et al.
    Yao, Wu
    Yan, Zhen
    Giron, Maria S. T.
    Pei, Jing-Jing
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Wang, Hui-Xin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI). Zhengzhou University, China.
    Impact of effort reward imbalance at work on suicidal ideation in ten European countries: The role of depressive symptoms2020Ingår i: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 260, s. 214-221Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Evidence of the association between effort reward imbalance (ERI) and suicidal ideation is sparse. This study examined the influence of ERI at work on suicidal ideation and the mediating effect of depressive symptoms. Methods: There were 4963 workers aged 50 + without suicidal ideation at baseline in the Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe, these workers were followed-up for 8-years to detect incident suicidal ideation. ERI was measured by a short ERI questionnaire. Suicidal ideation was evaluated by one item derived from the 12-item Europe-depression scale, and depressive symptoms were assessed by the remaining 11 items in the scale. Cox models were employed to explore the relationship adjusting for potential confounders. Mediation analysis was used to test the mediating effect of depressive symptoms. Results: A significantly higher incidence of suicidal ideation was related with high effort (HR = 1.51) and low reward (HR = 1.42), respectively. A high effort-low reward imbalance was associated with even higher risk of suicidal ideation (HR = 1.96) as compared to low effort-high reward combination. The association was varied by gender, region, education and household income. Depressive symptoms mediated a modest proportion (natural indirect effect 14.4%) of the total association between ERI and suicidal ideation. Limitation: Suicidal ideation definition based on self-administered questionnaires which could lead to false negatives. And some unmeasured confounders might have biased the results. Conclusions: Efforts in promoting balanced effort-reward at work may reduce suicidal ideation among working population aged 50+. Avoiding depressive symptoms may further enhance such efforts.

1 - 32 av 32
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf