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  • 1. Agdal, Maren Lillehaug
    et al.
    Raadal, Magne
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Skaret, Erik
    Quality-of-life before and after cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in patients with intra-oral injection phobia2012Ingår i: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, Vol. 70, nr 6, 463-470 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. To evaluate quality-of-life (QoL), before and after cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in patients diagnosed with intra-oral injection phobia according to DSM-IV and to compare with the general population. This study also aimed to evaluate if QoL was associated with self-reported injection anxiety, dental anxiety, time since last dental treatment and oral health. Materials and methods. Subjects were 55 patients (mean age 35.5 +/- 12.2, 78.2% women) who participated in a treatment study in which 89% managed an intra-oral injection at 1 year follow-up. The patients completed a set of questionnaires including Quality of Life Inventory (QOLI), Injection Phobia Scale-Anxiety, Dental Anxiety Scale and a single-item question assessing self-perceived oral health. Objective measures of oral health and treatment needs were based on clinical examination. QOLI-scores from a non-clinical sample were used for comparison. Results. Before treatment the general and health specific QoL were lower among intra-oral injection phobics than in the non-clinical sample. At 1 year follow-up the QoL in general had improved significantly and was similar to that of the non-clinical sample. Poor self-reported oral health and long-term avoidance of dental treatment were associated with lower general and health-specific QoL. Self-reported injection anxiety and dental anxiety were not associated with QoL. Conclusions. Patients with intra-oral injection phobia report lower QoL compared with a general population. Phobia treatment seems to increase QoL to normative levels. Self-perceived poor oral health is associated with reduced QoL in these patients.

  • 2.
    Ahola, Angela
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    How reliable are eyewitness memories? Effects of retention interval, violence of act, and gender stereotypes on observers' judgments of their own memory regarding witnessed act and perpetrator:  2012Ingår i: Psychology, Crime and Law, ISSN 1068-316X, Vol. 18, nr 5, 491-503 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of (i) stimulus person's gender, (ii) type of act (neutral or violent), and (iii) retention interval (short or long) on observers' memory of a stimulus person. Participants were presented with one of two acts: neutral (walking around in a store) or violent (robbing a store). The retention interval was 10 minutes or one-three weeks. The dependent variables were questionnaire items concerning the participants' memory of (1) the stimulus person's appearance and (2) the event, and (3) rating scales where the participants were asked to evaluate the stimulus person's aggressiveness, insensitivity, and other personality traits as well as characteristics of the act. Results showed that when the act was violent, and a long retention interval was used, a female, but not a male, stimulus person was evaluated less harshly than with a short retention interval (enhancement of gender stereotype); a stimulus person was seen as behaving in a more masculine way when performing a violent rather than a neutral act; witnessing the violent act resulted in better self-rated memory of the stimulus person; and with increasing retention interval, the violent act was seen as less negative and the neutral act as more negative (regression toward the mean).

  • 3.
    Ahrén, Jennie C.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Chiesa, Flaminia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Koupil, Ilona
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Psychosocial determinants and family background in anorexia nervosa: Results from the Stockholm Birth Cohort Study2012Ingår i: International Journal of Eating Disorders, ISSN 0276-3478, E-ISSN 1098-108X, Vol. 45, nr 3, 362-369 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the associations between psychosocial factors and family background and incidence of anorexia nervosa (AN) in a Swedish cohort.

    Method: The Stockholm Birth Cohort, SBC (N = 14,294) contains information on social background and general health in males and females, born in Stockholm 1953. Hospitalizations for AN, based on diagnoses from the ICD-8 through ICD-10, were recorded from 1969 to 2002. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to measure the association between psychosocial characteristics and family background and the risk of AN.

    Results: Higher maternal education was associated with a higher risk for hospitalization for AN. An increased risk for AN was also found among females who stated that they “often compare their future prospects with others.”

    Discussion: Although the study is based on a low number of cases, it confirms earlier findings of higher maternal education among individuals with eating disorders in similar cohorts.

  • 4.
    Akrami, Nazar
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Prejudice: a reflection of core personality?2012Ingår i: The psychology of prejudice: interdisciplinary perspectives on contemporary issues / [ed] Dale W. Russell and Cristel Antonia Russell, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2012, 39-50 s.Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Book description: Is prejudice hard-wired or socially acquired? Is stigmatising the Other inevitable? Do we purposefully draw on stereotypes to provoke prejudice from others? Can we confront and correct our biases? From the judicial system to the marketplace, from women's intentional self-sexualisation to prison exonerees' stigma-by-association, this book offers a compelling and wide-ranging discussion and review of the latest scientific evidence of what prejudice is, how it emerges, what it does, and how the discrimination and stigma that ensue can be reduced.

  • 5. Allvin, Michael
    et al.
    Mellner, Christin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Movitz, Fredrik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Den utbredda flexibiliteten: ett försök att beräkna förekomsten av lågreglerade arbetsvillkor2012Ingår i: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 18, nr 1, 9-24 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Nästan 30 år efter det att begreppet flexibilitet i arbetslivet kom i bruk råder det fortfarande stor osäkerhet om vad begreppet innebär och hur vanligt det egentligen är. I artikeln diskuteras flexibilitet utifrån en representativ studie av den svenska arbetskraften. I studien konstateras att både traditionellt organiserade och helt fria arbeten är relativt ovanliga. Däremot är flexibla arbetsvillkor desto mer vanligt förekommande och spridda i varierande grad bland den svenska arbetskraften.

  • 6. Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Enander, Jesper
    Andrén, Per
    Hedman, Erik
    Ljótsson, Brjánn
    Hursti, Timo
    Bergström, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Psychiatry, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm,.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Lindefors, Nils
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Rück, Christian
    Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a randomized controlled trial2012Ingår i: Psychological Medicine, ISSN 0033-2917, E-ISSN 1469-8978, Vol. 42, nr 10, 2193-2203 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) but access to CBT is limited. Internet-based CBT (ICBT) with therapist support is potentially a more accessible treatment. There are no randomized controlled trials testing ICBT for OCD. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of ICBT for OCD in a randomized controlled trial.

    Method Participants (n=101) diagnosed with OCD were randomized to either 10 weeks of ICBT or to an attention control condition, consisting of online supportive therapy. The primary outcome measure was the Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) administered by blinded assessors.

    Results Both treatments lead to significant improvements in OCD symptoms, but ICBT resulted in larger improvements than the control condition on the YBOCS, with a significant between-group effect size (Cohen's d) of 1.12 (95% CI 0.69–1.53) at post-treatment. The proportion of participants showing clinically significant improvement was 60% (95% CI 46–72) in the ICBT group compared to 6% (95% CI 1–17) in the control condition. The results were sustained at follow-up.

    Conclusions ICBT is an efficacious treatment for OCD that could substantially increase access to CBT for OCD patients. Replication studies are warranted.

  • 7. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Paxling, Bjorn
    Roch-Norlund, Pie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Östman, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Norgren, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Almlöv, Jonas
    Georen, Lisa
    Breitholtz, Elisabeth
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Dahlin, Mats
    Cuijpers, Pim
    Carlbring, Per
    Silverberg, Farrell
    Internet-Based Psychodynamic versus Cognitive Behavioral Guided Self-Help for Generalized Anxiety Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial2012Ingår i: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, ISSN 0033-3190, E-ISSN 1423-0348, Vol. 81, nr 6, 344-355 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Guided Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) has been tested in many trials and found to be effective in the treatment of anxiety and mood disorders. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) has also been treated with ICBT, but there are no controlled trials on guided Internet-based psychodynamic treatment (IPDT). Since there is preliminary support for psychodynamic treatment for GAD, we decided to test if a psychodynamically informed self-help treatment could be delivered via the Internet. The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of IPDT for GAD and to compare against ICBT and a waiting list control group. Method: A randomized controlled superiority trial with individuals diagnosed with GAD comparing guided ICBT (n = 27) and IPDT (n = 27) against a no treatment waiting list control group (n = 27). The primary outcome measure was the Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Results: While there were no significant between-group differences immediately after treatment on the main outcome measure, both IPDT and ICBT resulted in improvements with moderate to large within-group effect sizes at 3 and 18 months follow-up on the primary measure in the completer analyses. The differences against the control group, although smaller, were still significant for both PDT and CBT when conforming to the criteria of clinically significant improvement. The active treatments did not differ significantly. There was a significant group by time interaction regarding GAD symptoms, but not immediately after treatment. Conclusions: IPDT and ICBT both led to modest symptom reduction in GAD, and more research is needed.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Childhood Self-Regulation, Academic Achievement, and Occupational Attainment2012Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The general aim of this thesis was to extend knowledge of the interplay between self-regulation (SR) skills during childhood in relation to academic achievement and later adult educational and occupational attainment.

    Previous research has shown that cool SR (i.e., cognitive) is more closely linked to academic achievement than hot SR (i.e., motivational/emotional). However, studies investigating both cool and hot SR in relation to academic achievement have been restricted to young children. Therefore, Study I assessed cool and hot SR in relation to academic achievement over a longer time period. The results showed that cool SR at age 3 was related to achievement already at age 6. Hot SR at age 3 did not predict achievement until later on in elementary school.

    Study II investigated the contribution of interference control and attention skills at age 6 to concurrent and later academic achievement at age 10. As the learning material becomes increasingly more complex throughout elementary school and teachers may give less support, interference control was expected to have a delayed effect on academic achievement relative to attention skills. Results showed that attention skills were related to academic achievement at age 6, whereas interference control only predicted academic achievement at age 10.

    Study III investigated task persistence in young adolescence in relation to academic achievement later in school and educational and occupational attainment in midlife. Results showed that task persistence contributed to change in grades between ages 13 and 16. Further, task persistence predicted later educational and occupational attainment (men only). Importantly, individual differences in intelligence, motivation, social background, and later educational attainment did not account for these effects. The findings point to a fundamental role of self-regulation in childhood for successful academic achievement and later attainment in adulthood.

  • 9.
    Annell, Stefan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Vilka sökande antas till och påbörjar polisutbildningen?: En demografisk beskrivning av 1429 sökande till polisutbildningen hösten 2008. En rapport från projektet Longitudinell validering av polisurvalet2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Strävan efter mångfald och representativitet har länge ansetts vara viktig vid antagningen till polisutbildningen, ett av de största och mest omfattande urvalen i Sverige. Det har dock hittills saknats beskrivningar av vilka sökande som går långt i urvalsprocessen, vilka som antas och vilka som påbörjar utbildningen. Likaså har det saknats utförligare beskrivningar av urvalsprocessen.

    2007 påbörjades ett flerårigt forsknings- och utvärderingsprojekt Longitudinell validering av polisurvalet. Projektet syftar bland annat till att belysa hur urvalet till den grundläggande polisutbildningen och polisyrket fungerar och hur urvalet skulle kunna förbättras. Rapporten är baserad på data från projektet och har tre syften: 1) att presentera en utförlig beskrivning av polisurvalet och undersökningsgruppen i projektet Longitudinell validering av polisurvalet som underlag för kommande publiceringar från projektet, 2) att presentera demografiska data som kan ligga till grund för bedömningar av hur väl urvalet lever upp till strävan efter mångfald och representativitet samt 3) att belysa undersökningsgruppens representativitet i förhållande till polisstuderande i allmänhet.

    Undersökningsgruppen i projektet består av de 1429 sökande som våren 2008 genomförde urvalstest på Pliktverket som en del i ansökningsprocessen till polisutbildningen. Gruppen omfattar tre undergrupper, sökande som genomförde test, de som antogs och de som påbörjade utbildningen hösten 2008. Beskrivningen av undersökningsgruppen omfattar ett flertal demografiska variabler som beskrivs i både text och tabeller. För att underlätta bedömningar av hur väl urvalet lever upp till strävan efter mångfald och representativitet jämförs data för undersökningsgruppen med uppgifter för ett antal relevanta jämförelsegrupper hämtade från nationell statistik. I undersökningsgruppen var kvinnor och sökande med utländsk bakgrund underrepresenterade i förhållande till befolkningen. Den geografiska representationen var god och en hög andel hade arbete som huvudsysselsättning. Jämfört med högskolenybörjare var gruppen äldre, i genomsnitt 26,5 år, samtidigt som färre i jämförbar ålder hade tidigare erfarenhet av högskolestudier. Gruppens högskoleprovsresultat var något under genomsnittet för provtagarna medan föräldrarnas utbildningsnivå var förhållandevis hög. Undersökningsgruppen har också jämförts med två tidigare studier av polisstuderande från läsåret 1995/96 och 2005. Dessa jämförelser visar på att det över tid finns stora likheter mellan de som antagits till polisutbildningen. Avslutningsvis belyser rapporten även ett antal svårigheter som avser mångfald och representativitet vid urval liksom frågor om generaliserbarhet från projektet.

  • 10.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Bejerot, Eva
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Härenstam, Annika
    Onödiga och oskäliga arbetsuppgifter bland läkare: Samband mellan illegitima arbetsuppgifter och stress kartlagt i enkätstudie2012Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, Vol. 109, nr 48, 2216-2219 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    I föreliggande studie har vi riktat fokus på läkaryrket som profession och på sambandet mellan avgränsning av arbetsuppgifter och anspänning och utmattning.

  • 11.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Isaksson, Kerstin
    Johansson, Gunn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Torbiörn, Ingemar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Arbets- och organisationspsykologi: Individ och organisation i samspel2012 (uppl. 1)Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Boken anlägger ett brett perspektiv på individen i arbetslivet som spänner över både arbets- och organisationspsykologi. Författarna tar upp de ramar som modernt arbetsliv skapar och hur individen rör sig innanför dessa. De beskriver arbetets roll i livet, samspelet på arbetsplatsen och vilken betydelse det kan ha för individen. Likaså behandlas fenomen som organisationsförändringar, ledarskap och motivation. Författarna har en gedigen erfarenhet av undervisning och forskning inom ämnet vilket gör boken både pedagogiskt upplagd och uppdaterad inom de senaste rönen. Boken är skriven för studerande i psykologi och beteendevetenskapliga utbildningar samt i företagsekonomi med organisationsinriktning. Boken är även lämplig för HR-specialister, chefer och andra med intresse av hur samspelet mellan individ och organisation bidrar till att skapa hållbara arbetsvillkor och effektiva organisationer.

  • 12.
    Arvidsson, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Getting a Feel for Tactile Space: Exploring Haptic Perception of Microtexture2012Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The present thesis is based on three studies that research different aspects of fine texture perception. The goal is to better understand the mechanisms involved in haptic perception of textures below 200 µm, also known as microtextures. Study I was conducted to establish a friction measurement model and relating the friction measurements to perceived coarseness of fine textures. A set of printing papers was used as stimulus material. In Study II an expanded set, including the set of Study I, was used as stimuli in a multidimensional scaling (MDS) experiment of haptic fine texture perception. Through scaling of perceptual attributes and similarities, a three dimensional space was found to best describe the data and the dimensions were interpreted as rough-smooth, thick-thin and distinct-indistinct. In Study III a series of model surfaces were manufactured with a systematically varied sinusoidal pattern, spanning from 300 nm to 80 µm. As in Study II, a similarity experiment was conducted and a two dimensional space was chosen, the dimensions of which were explained well through friction and the wavelength. Together these three studies form a better picture of fine texture perception. The dimensionality found with paper stimuli was very similar to the corresponding spaces for marcrotextures of everyday materials, even though a different perceptual system is used for fine texture perception. Regardless if the information is coded through the spatial or the vibratory sense, the perception does not seem to differ in dimensionality. Further, the largest among the microtextures seem to have been perceived as carrying spatial information. On the systematically varied, rigid, textures, the MDS space did not come out in a similar fashion to those of everyday materials but instead similar to the physical properties that characterizes the change in the textures. It was further found that the participants in Study III successfully discriminated textures with an amplitude of 13 nm from the unwrinkled surfaces. From these studies the main conclusions are (a) haptically measured friction and surface roughness are important contributors to fine texture perception, (b) even at microscales, spatial information is retrieved haptically, probably through vibrations, and (c) persons can haptically discriminate textures at a nanoscale.

  • 13.
    Axelsson, Östen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Introducing soundscape2012Ingår i: AESOP 2012, Ankara: Ankara, Turkey: Association of European Schools of Planning. / [ed] M. Balamir, M. Ersoy and E. Babalık Sutcliffe, 2012, Paper 220- s.Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    'Soundscape' – the acoustic equivalent of 'Landscape' – is a relatively new area to many. It concerns the acoustic environment as perceived, experienced or understood by people, in context. Current development in soundscape research is directed towards urban planning and design in promotion of sustainable development, health, well-being, and quality of life. Above all, soundscape is about what sounds are appropriate to, or belonging to, a place. There is no one ideal soundscape. To determine which soundscapes are good, we must consider which activities the soundscape may enable at a place. Furthermore, soundscape creates a sense of place, and it is an important aspect of our cultural heritage. For instance, what soundscapes will our generation transfer to the next, and how will this affect sustainability and quality of life in the future? To incorporate soundscape into urban planning and design, we must understand the relationship between sound and human activities in the urban environment. What sounds and human activities are compatible, and which are not? For example, what sounds are compatible with urban street-life, or with a young children’s playground? What sounds promote or impede social interaction in urban open spaces, or what sounds promote or impede tranquillity? In order to advance soundscape research, a coordinated, cooperative and interdisciplinary effort is needed.

  • 14.
    Axelsson, Östen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    The ISO 12913 series on soundscape: An update, May 20122012Ingår i: Acoustics 2012, Hong Kong, Hong Kong: The Hong Kong Institute of Acoustics (HKIOA) , 2012, Paper 805- s.Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In February 2009 the working group ISO/TC 43/SC 1/WG 54 “Perceptual assessment of soundscape quality”, International Organization for Standardization (ISO), began preparing the first International Standard on soundscape “ISO 12913-1 Acoustics – Soundscape – Part 1: Definition and conceptual framework”. This paper presents the latest version, including the definition of ‘Soundscape’ and its conceptual framework. At its current state of development the framework highlights seven general concepts and their relationships: (1) sound sources, (2) acoustic environment, (3) auditory sensations, (4) interpretation of auditory sensations, (5) responses, (6) context, and (7) outcomes. By providing a standard reference, the working group aims at international consensus in order to avoid ambiguity, and to enable conceptual progress in soundscape research. ISO 12913-1 is expected to be published as an International Standard in 2015, or before. Subsequent parts of the ISO 12913 series will deal with minimum reporting requirements in soundscape research, and methods for measuring soundscape quality.

  • 15.
    Axelsson, Östen
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Validation of the Swedish soundscape-quality protocol2012Ingår i: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, Vol. 131, nr 4, 3474- s.Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Soundscape-Quality Protocol was developed to help non-experts (e.g., officials working for municipalities rather than soundscaperesearchers) to make informed, accurate measurements of soundscape quality. The Protocol has hitherto been used in England, France, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and The Netherlands; a Korean version is being developed. Based on field studies – soundwalks in urban residential areas, recreational areas, and parks – the present paper reports on the psychometric properties of the scales of the Protocol. Participants were residents, or visitors to the areas and their results support the reliability and validity of the scales in the Protocol. Because high acoustic quality has a greater effect in visually attractive than in visually poor areas, the Swedish Soundscape-Quality Protocol includes scales for cross-sensory tabulation. These are sound source identification – sounds from humans, nature and technology – attribute scales (e.g., eventful, exciting, pleasant, and calm), overall soundscape quality, and concomitant visual impressions. In brief, the Swedish Soundscape-Quality Protocol is an easy to use and practical tool for measuringsoundscape quality. It has the potential to help operationalize how soundscapes can be measured in “quiet areas” to meet a future guideline value of the World Health Organization.

  • 16.
    Azad, Azade
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Leander, Lina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Experts' beliefs about child testimony: Do they match the research or the recommendations?2012Ingår i: Nordic Psychology, ISSN 1901-2276, Vol. 64, nr 4, 258-271 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examines prosecutors', child investigators', and plaintiff aids' (i.e., important actors during alleged child sexual abuse [CSA] investigations) beliefs about children's testimonies. More specifically, the aim was to examine whether these experts agree (a) with praxis from, for example, the Supreme Court regarding the use of certain credibility criteria when evaluating the reliability of CSA reports; and/or (b) with findings from research on issues of child testimony. The participants (n = 206) were asked to rate how detailed, consistent, and spontaneous they believe children are in their CSA reports; the effects of exposure to repeated abuse; and to indicate their opinion on the optimal number of child interviews. Due to the low response rate, results can only be discussed in terms of possible indications, however, it is interesting to note that the experts had similar opinions on the issues investigated, opinions that were also rather in line with research findings on children's testimony. Although they receive support from the research, some of these opinions are not in line with recommendations made by the Supreme Court or the Pre-trial Order. More research is needed to further examine: (a) the reliability of the credibility criteria recommended by the Swedish Supreme Court; (b) how frequently the Swedish courts actually refer to these credibility criteria; and (c) different experts' (with different functions in the legal process) opinions on these criteria.

  • 17. Beer, Netta
    et al.
    Ali, Abdullah S.
    Eskilsson, Helena
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Jansson, Andreas
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Abdul-Kadir, Faiza M.
    Rotllant-Estelrich, Guida
    Abass, Ali K.
    Wabwire-Mangen, Fred
    Björkman, Anders
    Kallander, Karin
    A qualitative study on caretakers' perceived need of bed-nets after reduced malaria transmission in Zanzibar, Tanzania2012Ingår i: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 12, 606- s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The elimination of malaria in Zanzibar is highly dependent on sustained effective coverage of bed-nets to avoid malaria resurgence. The Health Belief Model (HBM) framework was used to explore the perceptions of malaria and bed-net use after a noticeable reduction in malaria incidence. Methods: Nineteen in-depth interviews were conducted with female and male caretakers of children under five in North A district, Zanzibar. Deductive content analysis was used to identify meaning units that were condensed, coded and assigned to pre-determined elements of the HBM. Results: Awareness of malaria among caretakers was high but the illness was now seen as easily curable and uncommon. In addition to the perceived advantage of providing protection against malaria, bed-nets were also thought to be useful for avoiding mosquito nuisance, especially during the rainy season when the malaria and mosquito burden is high. The discomfort of sleeping under a net during the hot season was the main barrier that interrupted consistent bed-net usage. The main cue to using a bed-net was high mosquito density, and children were prioritized when it came to bed-net usage. Caretakers had high perceived self-efficacy and did not find it difficult to use bed-nets. Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS), which was recognized as an additional means of mosquito prevention, was not identified as an alternative for bed-nets. A barrier to net ownership was the increasingly high cost of bed-nets. Conclusions: Despite the reduction in malaria incidence and the resulting low malaria risk perceptions among caretakers, the benefit of bed-nets as the most proficient protection against mosquito bites upholds their use. This, in combination with the perceived high self-efficacy of caretakers, supports bed-net usage, while seasonality interrupts consistent use. High effective coverage of bed-nets could be further improved by reinforcing the benefits of bed-nets, addressing the seasonal heat barrier by using nets with larger mesh sizes and ensuring high bed-net ownership rates through sustainable and affordable delivery mechanisms.

  • 18. Bergh, Robin
    et al.
    Akrami, Nazar
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    The compatibility of personality and social identity processes: the effect of gender identity on neuroticism2012Ingår i: European Journal of Personality, ISSN 0890-2070, E-ISSN 1099-0984, Vol. 26, nr 3, 175-181 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In an experimental study (N?=?186), we examined the effect of identity (gender versus personal) on participants' self-rated neuroticism and estimates of mean neuroticism for men and women. Self-rated neuroticism was measured before and after the identity salience manipulation. Following self-categorization theory, we predicted that identity salience would affect levels of self-rated neuroticism and the estimates (perceptions) of mean neuroticism for each sex. From a personality perspective, we expected substantial correlations between pre-manipulation and post-manipulation neuroticism scores in both identity conditions. The relation between participants' self-rated neuroticism and their estimates of mean neuroticism for their own sex was also examined. The effect of identity salience was unclear with regard to self-rated neuroticism levels, whereas the manipulation had apparent effects on estimated mean neuroticism levels for men and women. Also, self-rated neuroticism was found to predict estimates of mean neuroticism for men and women in the gender, but not personal, identity condition. Finally, in line with a personality perspective, the relative positions in self-rated neuroticism were highly stable in both conditions. The findings indicate a compatibility of self-categorization theory and personality perspectives and suggest that both are valuable to understand the changeability and stability of the self.

  • 19.
    Bergh, Robin
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Akrami, Nazar
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    The Personality Underpinnings of Explicit and Implicit Generalized Prejudice2012Ingår i: Social Psychological and Personality Science, ISSN 1948-5506, Vol. 3, nr 5, 614-621 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The idea of prejudice as a tendency that can be generalized from one target to another and the personality–prejudice relationship have been widely examined using explicit measures. However, less is known about this tendency and its relation to personality for implicit prejudice measures, like the implicit association test (IAT). Three studies including explicit and corresponding implicit prejudice measures toward various target groups confirmed a generalized factor for both types of measures with a stronger common component for the explicit factor. Personality was significantly related to the explicit measures only. Also, the personality and prejudice measures were unrelated to explicit and implicit attitudes toward an irrelevant target which rules out potential method confound. These results indicate that explicit and implicit prejudice measures tap different psychological constructs relating differently to the individual’s self-reported personality. The findings have implications for the debate on whether IAT scores reflect personally endorsed attitudes.

  • 20.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Trygg Engen: The scientist who made colleagues grow.2012Ingår i: Olfactory Cognition: From Perception and Memory to Environmental Odours and Neuroscience / [ed] Gesualdo M. Zucco, Rachel S. Herz, Benoist Schaal, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2012, 295-297 s.Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1990, Trygg Engen was honored with a Ph.D. (Honoris Cause) at Stockholm University. Since the 1960’s, he was the world known olfactory researcher in psychology of his time, stationed at Brown University in the USA. Born Norwegian, he liked to visit Scandinavia and spent several sabbatical leaves at the Department of Psychology at Stockholm University, two of these as Fullbright Fellow. In all, 17 papers in scientific journals were published in cooperation along themes of ’the Stockholm School’ as Engen labeled the research environment originally created by Gösta Ekman during the 1950’s and 1960’s. In 1965, our joint research started in olfactory psychophysics and human odour perception, but expanded into multidimensional scaling and further into problems of measurement in psychophysics and applications in environmental psychology, especially indoor air environments.

  • 21.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Writings in remembrance of Professor Trygg Engen2012Ingår i: Olfactory Cognition: From Perception and Memory to Environmental Odours and Neuroscience / [ed] Gesualdo M. Zucco, Rachel S. Herz, and Benoist Schaal, Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2012, 295-312 s.Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 22.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Höglund, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Is there a measurement system for odour quality?2012Ingår i: Olfactory Cognition: From Perception and Memory to Environmental Odours and Neuroscience, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2012, 3-21 s.Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although humans can discriminate a huge number of odours, the mechanisms behind the perception of odours are not well understood. The theory of the present essay and our experiments were developed with the view that odours are homogeneous perceptions (as opposed to visual objects that are heterogeneous percepts). Other typical examples of homogeneous perceptions are colours and some emotional states. Thus, through perceptual learning, which is a prerequisite for perceiving, we become aware of and may recognise odours in the environment. Typically, odours are detected at very low concentrations as compared to chemical instruments, the electronic nose inclusive. Four principles of investigating the human world of odour qualities are discussed: (i) classification and sorting according to odour-quality resemblance, (ii) using names and verbal attributes for odour sources, (iii) using odour qualities for a representative set of reference odorants, and (iv) measuring odour quality by similarity scaling of pairs of odorous stimuli. Although a huge number of odours can be discriminated, the quality of odour mixtures is intermediary among the odour qualities of their components. This applies to single chemical compounds or mixtures thereof and for very broadband mixtures like indoor air. Our perceptual world simply consists of a massive amount of odour qualities potentially attributable to sources in the environment. Their organisation is, however, still a mystery.

  • 23.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Höglund, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Esfandabad, Hassan Shams
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    A bisensory method for odor and irritation detection of formaldehyde and pyridine2012Ingår i: CHEMOSENS PERCEPT, ISSN 1936-5802, Vol. 5, nr 2, 146-157 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A bisensory method was developed for determining the psychometric functions and absolute thresholds for odor and sensory irritation of two odorous irritants. Individual and group thresholds for formaldehyde or pyridine were measured for 31 age-matched subjects (18-35 years old). P (50) absolute thresholds were for formaldehyde odor 110 ppb (range 23-505), for pyridine odor 77 ppb (range 20-613), and for pyridine irritation 620 ppb (range 90-3,656); too few subjects' formaldehyde irritation thresholds were possible to determine (human exposures limited to 1 ppm). In spite of large interindividual differences, all thresholds for irritation were higher than for odor. The average slopes of the 62 psychometric functions for odor and the 32 possible for sensory irritation were highest for formaldehyde odor (83% per log ppb) and equal for pyridine odor and irritation (68% per log ppb). The bisensory method for measuring odor and sensory irritation jointly produced detection functions and absolute thresholds compatible with those earlier published; however, a steeper slope for sensory irritation than odor was expected for pyridine. The bisensory method is intended for measuring odor and sensory irritation to broadband mixtures and dynamic exposures, like indoor air.

  • 24.
    Bergman, Lars R.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Advancing Developmental Science: Some Challenges and Obstacles2012Ingår i: International Journal of Developmental Science, ISSN 2192-001X, Vol. 6, nr 1-2, 41-43 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Developmental science (DS) is defined somewhat differently by different researchers. In the present essay DS is defined as (1) it concerns understanding individual development, partly in contrast to group development, (2) DS is cross-disciplinary, and (3) the individual is regarded as a “functioning whole”, engaged in a developmental process in context, characterized by interactions. Empirical research carried out within a DS framework must pay attention to many issues such as: (1) The translation of a specific DS theory into informative hypotheses. (2) The integration of DS findings with the research literature. (3) Making the findings interpretable as addressing individual development. Finally, it was pointed out that to maximally advance DS research a shared general theoretical framework and set of central concepts are necessary.

  • 25.
    Bergman, Lars R.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Nurmi, Jari-Erik
    von Eye, Alexander A.
    I-states-as-objects-analysis (ISOA): Extensions of an approach to studying short-term developmental processes by analyzing typical patterns2012Ingår i: International Journal of Behavioral Development, ISSN 0165-0254, E-ISSN 1464-0651, Vol. 36, nr 3, 237-246 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    I-states-as-objects-analysis (ISOA) is a person-oriented methodology for studying short-term developmental stability and change in patterns of variable values. ISOA is based on longitudinal data with the same set of variables measured at all measurement occasions. A key concept is the i-state, defined as a person's pattern of variable values at a specific time point. All i-states are first subjected to a classification analysis that results in a time-invariant classification characterized by a number of typical i-states. Each person is then characterized at each time point by the typical i-state he/she belongs to. Then the person's sequences of typical i-states are analyzed with regard to structural and individual stability and change. Extensions of ISOA are presented where: (1) some methods for checking the assumption of a time-invariant classification are indicated; (2) information about the degree of dissimilarity between typical i-states is used as an aid in interpreting the findings; and (3) attention is given to closed paths-that is, typical i-state sequences that do not occur at all. To demonstrate the methods, an empirical example is given that concerns the development of children's achievement-intelligence patterns between ages 10 and 13.

  • 26.
    Berntson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Att vara anställningsbar i en turbulent omvärld2012Ingår i: Socialförsäkringsforskning: en vänbok till Staffan Marklund / [ed] Kristina Alexanderson, Karolinska Institutet , 2012, 36-49 s.Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Socialförsäkringarna är centrala för oss som individer och för vårt samhälle, samtidigt som den vetenskapliga kunskapen om dem är mycket begränsad. Detta större seminarium, som vi arrangerade den 31 augusti 2012, hade till syfte att främja diskussioner om socialförsäkringsforskningens villkor. Ett ytterligare syfte var att uppmärksamma professor Staffan Marklunds 40-åriga forskargärning inom området.

  • 27.
    Berntson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Wallin, Linda
    Härenstam, Annika
    Typical situations for managers in the Swedish public sector: cluster analysis of working conditions using the job demands resources model2012Ingår i: International Public Management Journal, ISSN 1096-7494, E-ISSN 1559-3169, Vol. 15, nr 1, 100-130 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Managers in many public domains have to meet major challenges today, which is why it is essential to focus on their working conditions in order to develop a sustainable situation. In the present study, the aim was to explore different types of managerial situations and how they discriminate in health, motivation, and performance outcomes. Using the job demands-resources model as a framework, four demands and three resources were included in a cluster analysis in order to answer the research question. In total, 548 managers in Sweden participated, including heads of department, middle managers, firstline managers, team leaders, and functional managers. The most important finding was that the eight clusters of managerial situations that were found discriminated in a distinct way against each other regarding health, motivation, and performance. The results can be used as guidance for organizational intervention as both very satisfactory and very unsatisfactory situations are identified.

  • 28.
    Blom, Victoria
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Contingent self-esteem, stressors and burnout in working women and men2012Ingår i: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 43, nr 2, 123-131 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: A high work involvement is considered central in the burnout process. Yet, research investigating how high work involvement and psychosocial stressors relate to burnout is scarce. High involvement in terms of performance-based self-esteem (PBSE) refers to individuals’ strivings to validate self-worth by achievements, a disposition linked to poor health. The aim of the present study was to examine longitudinally PBSE in relation to burnout while also taking into account work- and private life stressors. Participants: The sample consisted of 2121 working women and men. Methods: Main- and mediation effects were investigated using hierarchical regression analysis. Results: The results showed performance-based self-esteem mediated partially between the stressors and burnout. Performance-based self-esteem was the strongest predictor of burnout over time, followed by private life stressors. Women experienced more work stress than did men. Men had stronger associations between work stressors and burnout, while women had stronger associations between performance-based self-esteem and burnout. Conclusions: Individual characteristics along with both private life and work stressors are important predictors of burnout. Factors associated with burnout differ somewhat between women and men.

  • 29. Bohlin, Gunilla
    et al.
    Eninger, Lilianne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Brocki, Karin Cecilia
    Thorell, Lisa B.
    Disorganized Attachment and Inhibitory Capacity: Predicting Externalizing Problem Behaviors2012Ingår i: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, ISSN 0091-0627, E-ISSN 1573-2835, Vol. 40, nr 3, 449-458 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether attachment insecurity, focusing on disorganized attachment, and the executive function (EF) component of inhibition, assessed at age 5, were longitudinally related to general externalizing problem behaviors as well as to specific symptoms of ADHD and Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and callous-unemotional (CU) traits. General externalizing problem behaviors were also measured at age 5 to allow for a developmental analysis. Outcome variables were rated by parents and teachers. The sample consisted of 65 children with an oversampling of children with high levels of externalizing behaviors. Attachment was evaluated using a story stem attachment doll play procedure. Inhibition was measured using four different tasks. The results showed that both disorganized attachment and poor inhibition were longitudinally related to all outcome variables. Controlling for initial level of externalizing problem behavior, poor inhibition predicted ADHD symptoms and externalizing problem behaviors, independent of disorganized attachment, whereas for ASD symptoms no predictive relations remained. Disorganized attachment independently predicted CU traits.

  • 30. Bolin, Karl
    et al.
    Kedhammar, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    The influence of background sounds on loudness and annoyance of wind turbine noise2012Ingår i: Acta Acoustica united with Acustica, ISSN 1610-1928, Vol. 98, nr 5, 741-748 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural sounds may create pleasant soundscapes that mask wind turbine noise. To explore this, a listening test was performed to investigate the influence of background sounds on perceived loudness and annoyance of wind turbine noise. A magnitude estimation method was used to measure perceived loudness and annoyance of wind turbine noise heard together with and without natural ambient sounds. Results indicate that decreased loudness and annoyance occurs if the level of the background sound exceeds the level of the wind turbine noise. The loudness experiment revealed that ambient sounds influenced the perception of wind turbine noise to a higher degree than predicted from a model of energetic masking. Annoyance ratings were less altered by background sound than perceived loudness. The results of the present listening study indicates that masking of wind turbine noise by positive natural sounds may be used as a complement to conventional noise control measures to improve the sound environment in areas exposed to wind turbine noise.

  • 31.
    Borg, Elisabet
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Borg, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Performance evaluation of diving using the Borg CR100 Scale®2012Ingår i: Proceedings of Fechner Day, Vol. 28, 143-146 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In some sports, as for example in diving, performance is measured as a subjectively evaluated artistic gestalt. The purpose of this study was to compare the traditional scale used in competitive diving with the Borg CR100 scale®, a scale where categorical expressions are placed where they perceptually belong on a ratio scale (e.g., G. Borg and E. Borg, 2001). Two internationally recognized Swedish judges volunteered as subjects and judged a sample of 45 videotaped dives, both with the traditional scale and with the CR scale. The results show that the Borg CR100 scale® worked at least equally well as the traditional scale, even though there might have been some tendency for translation between scales.

  • 32.
    Borg, Elisabet
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Westerlund, Joakim
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Statistik för beteendevetare: faktabok2012 (uppl. 3)Bok (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Statistik för beteendevetare är en heltäckande grundbok i statistik. Författarna går steg för steg igenom hur du planerar, genomför och redovisar en statistisk undersökning:

    • Vilken undersökningsdesign ska jag välja?

    • Hur går jag till väga för att pröva min hypotes?

    • Vilka statistiska analyser kan jag göra?

    • Hur kan jag tolka och redovisa mina resultat?

  • 33.
    Calmfors, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Dimdins, Girts
    University of Latvia and SSE Riga.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Montgomery, Henry
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Stavlöt, Ulrika
    Fores.
    Why Do People Dislike Low-Wage Trade Competition with Posted Workers in the Service Sector?2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 34. Christensen, Marit
    et al.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Borg, Vilhelm
    Clausen, Thomas
    Guthenberg, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Hakanen, Jari
    Lundberg, Ulrika
    Vivoll Straume, Lisa
    Building engagement and healthy organisations: Validation of the Nordic Questionnaire on Positive Organisational Psychology (N-POP). The Third Report from the Nordic Project2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of the project was to investigate the predictors of positive work-related states and attitudes, e.g. work engagement, meaning at work and personal growth, and healthy organisations. A questionnaire on these positive factors at work were pilot-tested through a data collection in chosen companies in Norway and Sweden. The results of these studies were used as a base for a preliminary validation of the Nordic Questionnaire on Positive Organisational Psychology (N-POP) published in this report. It is concluded that the N-POP constitutes a reliable and valid instrument. The concluding summary suggests that the concepts of work environment, health and productivity do indeed seem able to flow together to reach an optimal point at which well-being at the individual level is coexistent with efficient and productive work organisations.

  • 35. Clefberg Liberman, Lisa
    et al.
    Paz Altuzarra, Maria
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Ollendick, Thomas
    How I feel about things: Psychometric data from a sample of Spanish-speaking children2012Ingår i: International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, ISSN 1697-2600, Vol. 12, nr 3, 419-433 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the psychometric properties of How I Feel about Things, a questionnaire that assesses perceived quality of life and life satisfaction, in a sample of 729 school children. Participants were a non-clinical sample of 8-14 year old children studying second to eighth grade at three different schools in three socio-economic areas in the Metropolitan area of Santiago de Chile. The internal consistency of the questionnaire was acceptable and its convergent validity was supported with a significant positive correlation with a self-report measure of self-esteem. The questionnaire's discriminant validity was also supported with significant negative correlations with well-known self-report measures that assess depressive symptomatology, general and social anxiety, and general fearfulness. The findings of this study provide initial support for the psychometric properties of How I Feel about Things with non-clinical children, although this questionnaire was originally adapted to assess quality of life in children receiving treatment for different anxiety disorders.

  • 36.
    Corovic, Jelena
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Christianson, Sven Å.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Bergman, Lars R.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    From Crime Scene Actions in Stranger Rape to Prediction of Rapist Type: Single-Victim or Serial Rapist?2012Ingår i: Behavioral sciences & the law (Print), ISSN 0735-3936, E-ISSN 1099-0798, Vol. 30, nr 6, 764-781 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The differences in crime scene actions in cases of stranger rape committed by convicted offenders were examined between 31 single-victim rapists and 35 serial rapists. Data were collected from police files, court verdicts, psychiatric evaluations, and criminal records. Findings indicate that the serial rapists were more criminally sophisticated than the single-victim rapists, during their first and second rapes. The single-victim rapists were significantly more likely to engage in the interpersonal involvement behavior of kissing the victim, and to engage in pre-assault alcohol use, than the serial rapists. There was, however, no significant difference in physically violent or sexual behaviors. To investigate the possibility of predicting rapist type, logistic regression analyses were performed. Results indicate that three behaviors in conjunction, kissed victim, controlled victim, and offender drank alcohol before the offense, predicted whether an unknown offender is a single-victim or serial rapist with a classification accuracy of 80.4%. The findings have implications for the classification of stranger rapists in offender profiling.

  • 37.
    Daderman, Anna M.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Edman, Gunnar
    Meurling, Ann Wirsen
    Levander, Sten
    Kristiansson, Marianne
    Flunitrazepam intake in male offenders2012Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 66, nr 2, 131-140 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The abuse of flunitrazepam (FZ) compounds is worldwide, and several studies have reflected on the consequences with regard to violence, aggression and criminal lifestyle of FZ users. Criminals take high doses of FZ or some other benzodiazepines to calm down before the planned crime. There is support from earlier studies that most likely, all benzodiazepines may increase aggression in vulnerable males. Chronic intake of high doses of FZ increases aggression in male rats. Because psychopathy involves aggression, we have examined whether psychopathy as well as any of the four facets of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) (Interpersonal, Affective, Lifestyle and Antisocial) are related to different substance use disorders, with the focus on FZ. We have also examined the relationship between each PCL-R item and FZ use. Participants were 114 male offenders aged 14-35 years, all of whom were convicted for severe, predominantly violent, offences. Substance use, including FZ, was not more common in those who scored high in psychopathy. Use of FZ was more common in offenders who scored high in Facet 4 (Antisocial) of the PCL-R (odds ratio = 4.30, 95% CI 1.86-9.94). Only one of the PCL-R items, Criminal versatility, was significantly associated with FZ use (odds ratio = 3.7). It may be concluded that intake of FZ has a specific relationship to only one of the facets and not to psychopathy per se. The findings have also important theoretical implications because Facet 4 is not a key factor of the construct of psychopathy. Clinical implications of the article: We have used the new two-factor and four-facet theoretical model of psychopathy in the young offender population, many of them with one or more substance use disorders. The present results suggest that antisocial behavior defined by Facet 4 (poor behavioral control, early behavior problems, juvenile delinquency, revocation of conditional release and criminal versatility) in the studied subjects is more typical for FZ users than it is for non-FZ users. This may have implications for assessment and treatment. Clinicians should be aware that criminals with high scores on Facet 4 have a more than fourfold odds of being a FZ user. This conclusion has an important clinical implication because FZ abuse is very common and is not always the focus of a forensic psychiatric assessment.

  • 38.
    Danielsson, Maria
    et al.
    Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Heimerson, Inger
    Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Ulf
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Perski, Aleksander
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Stefansson, Claes-Göran
    Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Psychosocial stress and health problems: Health in Sweden: The National Public Health Report 2012. Chapter 62012Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 40, nr 9 suppl, 121-134 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress can be defined as an imbalance between demands placed on us and our ability to manage them. The body’s stress system is adapted to confront sudden physical threats. Today, however, we are increasingly exposed to prolonged mental and psychosocial stress. Prolonged stress can give rise to a range of problems: poor performance, chronic fatigue, disinterest, dejection, memory disturbances, sleep problems, numbness and diffuse muscle pains. These symptoms may eventually be followed by depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and chronic fatigue syndrome, and ultimately chronic pain conditions, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Sleep is a vital counterbalance to stress as it enables the body to recover properly. Good sleep is thus essential to our ability to cope with stress and stay healthy.

    The decline in the mental wellbeing of the population since the 1980s has been accompanied by a rise in the number of pain complaints. A similar development in respect of symptoms such as anxiousness, nervousness and anxiety, constant fatigue and neck and shoulder pain and sleeping problems has been observed in the population. This increase, which continued throughout the 1990s and culminated in 2001, was followed by a slight fall. However, there was no decline among young people in the early 2000s. Rather, the number of complaints continued to increase.

    Since the mid-1990s, the proportion of people suffering from stress symptoms has risen and fallen in step with employment levels. Since the beginning of the 1980s, growing numbers of people in gainful employment have experienced their work as hectic and mentally taxing. This may indicate that the balance between healthy and unhealthy factors impacting the actively employed has tilted towards less favourable conditions. Mental stress at work has increased among women and men, particularly among county council employees. Repeated organisational restructuring may explain why hectic and mentally taxing work has become more commonplace. Mental ill-health along with musculoskeletal disorders are the most frequent diagnoses in connection with newly granted disability pensions. Sickness absence trends largely reflect the trend in stress symptoms.

  • 39.
    Davis III, Thompson E.
    et al.
    Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA..
    Ollendick, Thomas H.Child Study Center, Virginia Tech.Öst, Lars-GöranStockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Intensive One-Session Treatment of Specific Phobias2012Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Whether it’s dogs, spiders, blood, heights or some other fear, specific phobias are one of the most prevalent mental health problems, affecting as many as one in eight people. In recent years, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has emerged as particularly effective in treating young people and adults with specific phobias. And of these methods, one-session treatment stands out as a long-lasting, cost-effective intervention of choice.

    Intensive One-Session Treatment of Specific Phobias not only provides a summary of the evidence base, it also serves as a practical reference and training guide. This concise volume examines the phenomenology, epidemiology, and etiology of phobias, laying the groundwork for subsequent discussion of assessment strategies, empirically sound one-session treatment methods, and special topics. In addition, expert contributors address challenges common to exposure therapy, offer age-appropriate guidelines for treating young clients, and describe innovative computer-assisted techniques.

    Organized to be read individually or in sequence, chapters delve into key areas, including:

    • Evidence-based assessment and treatment of specific phobias in children, adolescents, and adults.

    • One-session treatment theory and practice with children, adolescents, and adults.

    • Handling difficult cases of specific phobias in youth.

    • Interventions for specific phobias in special populations.

    • Training and assessing therapists in one-session treatment.

    • Ethical issues in considering exposure.

    Intensive One-Session Treatment of Specific Phobias is an essential resource for researchers, clinicians, and graduate students in child, school, clinical, and counseling psychology; social work; and general and special education.

  • 40.
    Del Missier, Fabio
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    De Bruin, Wändi Bruine
    Decision-making Competence, Executive Functioning, and General Cognitive Abilities2012Ingår i: Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, ISSN 0894-3257, E-ISSN 1099-0771, Vol. 25, nr 4, 331-351 s.Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although previous studies investigated the relationship between general cognitive abilities and decision making, few have characterized specific cognitive abilities underlying decision-making competence. In this paper, we focus on executive functionscontrol processes involved in the regulation of cognition. Specifically, we report on an individual-differences study that investigated the relationship of executive functioning (EF) and general cognitive abilities (fluid intelligence and numeracy) with different aspects of decision-making competence. Individual differences in EF components explained aspects of decision-making competence even after controlling for fluid intelligence and numeracy. However, different aspects of decision-making competence varied in the extent to which they relied on different executive functions. In particular, resistance to framing effects, the ability to apply decision rules, and successful engagement in cognitive reflection partially depend on individual differences on the monitoring/inhibition dimension of EF. The ability to provide consistent judgments in risk perception is related to the shifting aspect of EF. The ability to recognize social norms and resistance to sunk costs were not significantly related to EF, thus supporting the idea that executive control is not a major determinant of these aspects of decision-making competence. Finally, substantial variance in some of the decision-making tasks remained unexplained, suggesting that other cognitive or non-cognitive abilities need to be considered in future studies.

  • 41.
    Döös, Marianne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Backström, Tomas
    Melin, Marika
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Wilhelmson, Lena
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Isolated cases or widespread practice?: The occurrence of sharing managers in Swedish working life2012Ingår i: Economics and Business Letters, ISSN 2254-4380, Vol. 1, nr 3, 23-36 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In investigating whether shared leadership can be tracked on a work-life level, this study aims to contribute knowledge about how common shared leadership is among managers in Sweden. A search was made for equal assumption of responsibilities and, specifically, for joint leadership, i.e. a formal mandate for decision-making affecting the full range of responsibilities attaching to the managerial post. The results show that shared leadership is tracked on a work-life level, and that the most far-reaching form joint leadership was found among 5 % of the managers. Thus, the phenomenon cannot be ignored as anecdotal. This adds relevance to influencing perceptions of leadership towards more pluralism, in which questions of leadership naturally incorporate more interactive variations than does the hitherto accepted theory of singular leadership. 

  • 42.
    Ebner, Natalie C.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.
    Johnson, Marcia K.
    Department of Psychology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Neural mechanisms of reading facial emotions in young and older adults2012Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 3, nr 223, 1-19 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to read and appropriately respond to emotions in others is central for successful social interaction. Young and older adults are better at identifying positive than negative facial expressions and also expressions of young than older faces. Little, however, is known about the neural processes associated with reading different emotions, particularly in faces of different ages, in samples of young and older adults. During fMRI, young and older participants identified expressions in happy, neutral, and angry young and older faces. The results suggest a functional dissociation of ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) in reading facial emotions that is largely comparable in young and older adults: Both age groups showed greater vmPFC activity to happy compared to angry or neutral faces, which was positively correlated with expression identification for happy compared to angry faces. In contrast, both age groups showed greater activity in dmPFC to neutral or angry than happy faces which was negatively correlated with expression identification for neutral compared to happy faces. A similar region of dmPFC showed greater activity for older than young faces, but no brain-behavior correlations. Greater vmPFC activity in the present study may reflect greater affective processing involved in reading happy compared to neutral or angry faces. Greater dmPFC activity may reflect more cognitive control involved in decoding and/or regulating negative emotions associated with neutral or angry than happy, and older than young, faces.

  • 43.
    Eib, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Does organisational justice predict employees’ organisational survival? A five years’ study2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The empirical evidence on the relationship between organisational justice and turnover is still in question. Most studies have explored the relationship between procedural justice and turnover intentions, studies on actual turnover are rare, have also only focused on procedural justice and found inconsistent results (Posthuma, Maertz, & Dworkin, 2007). Recently, a shift from specific justice dimensions towards the consideration of overall organisational justice has been proposed (Ambrose & Schminke, 2009). Stepwise logistic regression is used to explore the importance of organisational justice among other predictors for actual turnover that have been proposed such as variables from the stress and job content field (Griffeth, Hom, & Gaertner, 2000). Survival analysis as the adequate statistical tool neglected so far will be applied to study whether overall organisational justice predicts the belonging to the group of the remaining or left employees which provides a more stringent test for the issue. Questionnaire data comes from Swedish accountants who were administered over the course of five years. Preliminary results hint at that organisational justice perceptions indeed were significantly lower in employees who left the organisation. Also, trust was lower, salary, job satisfaction and commitment whereas role conflict, job insecurity and health complaints were higher. The described analyses follow. This study helps clarifying inconsistent findings regarding the relationship between organisational justice and turnover, introduces the new perspective of overall organisational justice and tests whether the relation to turnover is specific to procedural justice.

  • 44.
    Eib, Constanze
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Who does and who does not show the negative effects of informational injustice?2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Injustice at the workplace is known to be a serious stressor for workplace-related attitudes, behaviours and health. Earlier research shows that higher age and trust is important in preventing increased turnover intention. Others found that employees who engage in withdrawal behaviour indicate less emotional exhaustion when perceiving injustice. However, traditional coping behaviours have not been studied as moderators before. Yet, this could elucidate preventive factors of how to deal with injustice experiences at work. Finding coping strategies that buffer the expected negative effects of injustice might disclose more beneficial ways of handling injustice than withdrawal behaviour for the organisation and employees.

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of coping strategies as the moderators for the relation between supervisory informational injustice and its relation to job satisfaction, turnover intention and work-related health. We argue that employees with problem-focused coping (changing the situation) may have difficulties in applying this strategy within a hierarchical dependence relationship like the one to the supervisor. We predict that problem-focused coping does not attenuate the expected negative effects of perceived injustice. Employees with more emotion-focused coping strategies (avoidance and devaluation strategies) may perceive higher job satisfaction, lower turnover intention but impaired health. The analyses were also probed for the effect of gender.

    Method: Data from 373 Swedish accountants is used. The data collection was conducted in 2009.

    Results: We applied moderated hierarchical regression analyses. While change-oriented coping was found to moderate the relation between informational justice and turnover intention and work-related health, this coping strategy did not make a difference when informational justice was low. For women, the combination of high informational justice and high change-oriented coping was associated with lower levels of turnover intention and more positive work-related health.  Contrary to our predictions, avoidance and devaluation coping strategies had different effects from each other. Devaluation coping attenuated the negative association between informational injustice and job satisfaction as well as turnover intention. The opposite was true for avoidance coping which amplified the negative association between informational injustice and job satisfaction and turnover intention.

    Discussion: Based on these results two main conclusions can be made from this study. First, changing the situation seems to increase the positive effect of informational justice from the supervisor. Second, devaluing problems seems to work as a buffer factor for the negative effects of informational injustice whereas avoidance coping worsens these effects.

  • 45.
    Ek, Ulla
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Norrelgen, Fritjof
    Westerlund, Joakim
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Dahlman, Andrea
    Elizabeth, Hultby
    Fernell, Elisabeth
    Teenage outcomes after speech and language impairment at preschool age2012Ingår i: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, ISSN 1176-6328, Vol. 8, 221-227 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Ten years ago, we published developmental data on a representative group of children (n = 25) with moderate or severe speech and language impairment, who were attending special preschools for children. The aim of this study was to perform a follow-up of these children as teenagers. Methods: Parents of 23 teenagers participated in a clinical interview that requested information on the child's current academic achievement, type of school, previous clinical assessments, and developmental diagnoses. Fifteen children participated in a speech and language evaluation, and 13 participated in a psychological evaluation. Results: Seven of the 23 teenagers had a mild intellectual disability, and another three had borderline intellectual functioning. Nine had symptoms of disorders on the autism spectrum; five of these had an autism spectrum disorder, and four had clear autistic traits. Six met criteria for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)/subthreshold ADHD. Thirteen of 15 teenagers had a moderate or severe language impairment, and 13 of 15 had a moderate or severe reading impairment. Overlapping disorders were frequent. None of the individuals who underwent the clinical evaluation were free from developmental problems. Conclusion: A large number of children with speech and language impairment at preschool age had persistent language problems and/or met the criteria for developmental diagnoses other than speech and language impairment at their follow-up as teenagers. Language impairment in young children is a marker for several developmental disorders, particularly intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder.

  • 46.
    Ek, Ulla
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Westerlund, Joakim
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Furmark, Catarina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Fernell, Elisabeth
    Sahlgrenska Akademien, Göteborgs universitet.
    An audit of teenagers who had not succeeded in elementary school: a retrospective case review2012Ingår i: Clinical Audit, ISSN 1179-2760, Vol. 4, 1-7 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim was to perform a retrospective case review of pupils who had not succeeded in elementary school, in order to analyze barriers at individual and system levels. Methods: Forty-five pupils, aged 16–20 years, who had not qualified for senior high school, were consecutively assessed within the school health unit to determine their cognitive function, school history, measures taken, previous assessments, and diagnoses given. Results: School health records revealed early problems with learning, reading, mathematics, and attention, but very few students had received an appropriate diagnosis. Our review and assessment when all the data had been compiled demonstrated that the vast majority (96%) of participants had clear developmental problems. Attention problems or full attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder dominated. About half of the students reported extensive truancy. Mean intelligence quotient in the study group was 83.9, about 1 standard deviation below the mean. Fluid intelligence was significantly superior to crystallized intelligence. Conclusion: Screening and identification are needed throughout the school years of children who present symptoms that could interfere with their academic achievement. Intervention needs to be based on skilled assessment, with consideration given to each individual's broad panorama of cognitive deficits and assets, as well as concomitant social adversities that may underlie their school failure. Since there can be a significant negative impact of limited educational opportunities on future socioeconomic outcomes, the question of who is at risk is important both for affected individuals and more generally for public health. Limitations: The study group was small and may not have been fully representative. In spite of limited confidence about generalizing from the results, the findings call for reflection.

  • 47.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Socialpsykologi2012Ingår i: Grunderna i Vår tids psykologi / [ed] Philip Hwang, Ingvar Lundberg & Ann-Charlotte Smedler (, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2012, 1, 273-325 s.Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bokinformation: Grunderna i vår tids psykologi ger en gedigen grund till den moderna psykologin. Några av Sveriges främsta forskare har här samlat den mest aktuella psykologiska vetenskapen utifrån ledande svensk och internationell forskning. Tack vare författarnas omfattande undervisningserfarenhet blir framställningen begriplig, levande och nyanserad. Resultatet är en heltäckande skildring av de byggstenar som behövs för att gå vidare inom psykologins olika tillämpningsfält.

    Grunderna i vår tids psykologi är:

    Människokunskap blir vetenskap

    Biologisk psykologi

    Motivation och emotion

    Kognitionspsykologi

    Utvecklingspsykologi

    Personlighetspsykologi

    Socialpsykologi

    Boken riktar sig främst till psykologistuderande, men kan läsas på alla utbildningar där grundkunskaper i ämnet ingår. Den ger också en utmärkt introduktion till den som är nyfiken på vår tids psykologi.

  • 48.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Akrami, Nazar
    Big-Five personality and prejudice2012Ingår i: Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning / [ed] N. M. Seel, Springer, 2012, 452-454 s.Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The article gives a brief presentation of the five-factor (Big-Five) personality theory and how the factors in this theory are related to prejudice.

  • 49.
    Elwin, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Ek, Lena
    Schroder, Agneta
    Kjellin, Lars
    Autobiographical Accounts of Sensing in Asperger Syndrome and High-Functioning Autism2012Ingår i: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, ISSN 0883-9417, E-ISSN 1532-8228, Vol. 26, nr 5, 420-429 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sensory experiences in Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA) were explored by qualitative content analysis of autobiographical texts by persons with AS/HFA. Predetermined categories of hyper- and hyposensitivity were applied to texts. Hypersensitivity consists of strong reactions and heightened apprehension in reaction to external stimuli, sometimes together with overfocused or unselective attention. It was common in vision, hearing, and touch. In contrast, hyposensitivity was frequent in reaction to internal and body stimuli such as interoception, proprioception, and pain. It consists of less registration, discrimination, and recognition of stimuli as well as cravings for specific stimuli. Awareness of the strong impact of sensitivity is essential for creating good environments and encounters in the context of psychiatric and other health care.

  • 50.
    Englund, Mats P.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Hellström, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.