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  • 1. Aaro Jonsson, Catherine
    et al.
    Catroppa, Cathy
    Godfrey, Celia
    Smedler, Ann-Charlotte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Anderson, Vicki
    Cognitive Recovery and Development after Traumatic Brain Injury in Childhood: A Person-Oriented, Longitudinal Study2013Ingår i: Journal of Neurotrauma, ISSN 0897-7151, E-ISSN 1557-9042, Vol. 30, nr 2, 76-83 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Influence of childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) on cognitive recovery and subsequent development is poorly understood. In this longitudinal study we used cluster analysis to explore acute stage individual profiles of injury age and cognition in 118 children with traumatic brain injury. Repeated measures of cognitive function were conducted at 30 months, indicating recovery, and 10 years post-injury, indicating development. Nine clusters were identified. Recovery was evident in three clusters, two of them with low functioning profiles. Developmental gains occurred for three clusters and an acute profile of higher freedom from distractibility (FFD) and lower processing speed (PS) was related to positive differences. One cluster, average low functioning and especially low verbal comprehension, demonstrated a slower development than peers. This suggests that developmental change after TBI in childhood takes place on a continuum, with both chance of long-term catching up, and risk of poor development. An acute profile of higher FFD and lower PS seemed to reflect injury consequences and were followed by developmental gains. These results challenge previous findings, and warrant further investigation.

  • 2.
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Kopplingen mellan personlighet, biologi och social anpassning2013Ingår i: Att studera människors utveckling: Resultat från forskningsprogrammet IDA 1965-2013 / [ed] Anna-Karin Andershed, Henrik Andershed, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2013, 171-185 s.Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 3.
    Allvin, Michael
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Flexibility, Boundarylessness and the Strategies of Work2013Ingår i: Nordic Lights: Work, Management and Welfare in Scandinavia / [ed] Åke Sandberg, Stockholm: SNS förlag, 2013, 1, 420-435 s.Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 4.
    Allvin, Michael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Mellner, Christin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Movitz, Fredrik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    The Diffusion of Flexibility: Estimating the Incidence of Low-Regulated Working Conditions2013Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, ISSN 2245-0157, Vol. 3, nr 3, 99-116 s.Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
  • 5.
    Alvarsson, Jesper J.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Perspectives on wanted and unwanted sounds in outdoor environments: Studies of masking, stress recovery, and speech intelligibility2013Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    An acoustic environment contains sounds from various sound sources, some generally perceived as wanted, others as unwanted. This thesis examines the effects of wanted and unwanted sounds in acoustic environments, with regard to masking, stress recovery, and speech intelligibility.

    In urban settings, masking of unwanted sounds by sounds from water structures has been suggested as a way to improve the acoustic environment. However, Study I showed that the unwanted (road traffic) sound was better at masking the wanted (water) sound than vice versa, thus indicating that masking of unwanted sounds with sounds from water structures may prove difficult. Also, predictions by a partial loudness model of the auditory periphery overestimated the effect of masking, indicating that centrally located informational masking processes contribute to the effect. Some environments have also been shown to impair stress recovery; however studies using only auditory stimuli is lacking. Study II showed that a wanted (nature) sound improve stress recovery compared to unwanted (road traffic, ambient) sounds. This suggests that the acoustic environment influences stress recovery and that wanted sounds may facilitate stress recovery compared to unwanted sounds. An additional effect of unwanted sounds is impeded speech communication, commonly measured with speech intelligibility models. Study III showed that speech intelligibility starts to be negatively affected when the unwanted (aircraft sound) masker have equal or higher sound pressure level as the speech sound. Three models of speech intelligibility (speech intelligibility index, partial loudness and signal–to–noise ratio) predicted this effect well, with a slight disadvantage for the signal–to–noise ratio model. Together, Study I and III suggests that the partial loudness model is useful for determining effects of wanted and unwanted sounds in outdoor acoustic environments where variations in sound pressure level are large. But, in environments with large variations in other sound characteristics, models containing predictions of central processes would likely produce better results.

    The thesis concludes that wanted and unwanted characteristics of sounds in acoustic environments affect masking, stress recovery, and speech intelligibility, and that auditory perception models can predict these effects.

  • 6. Andersson, Evelyn
    et al.
    Rück, Christian
    Lavebratt, Catharina
    Hedman, Erik
    Schalling, Martin
    Lindefors, Nils
    Eriksson, Elias
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Furmark, Tomas
    Genetic Polymorphisms in Monoamine Systems and Outcome of Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder2013Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 11, e79015Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    The role of genetics for predicting the response to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD) has only been studied in one previous investigation. The serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR), the catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) val158met, and the tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2) G-703Tpolymorphisms are implicated in the regulation of amygdala reactivity and fear extinction and therefore might be of relevance for CBT outcome. The aim of the present study was to investigate if these three gene variants predicted response to CBT in a large sample of SAD patients.

    Method

    Participants were recruited from two separate randomized controlled CBT trials (trial 1: n = 112, trial 2: n = 202). Genotyping were performed on DNA extracted from blood or saliva samples. Effects were analyzed at follow-up (6 or 12 months after treatment) for both groups and for each group separately at post-treatment. The main outcome measure was the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale Self-Report.

    Results

    At long-term follow-up, there was no effect of any genotype, or gene × gene interactions, on treatment response. In the subsamples, there was time by genotype interaction effects indicating an influence of the TPH2 G-703T-polymorphism on CBT short-term response, however the direction of the effect was not consistent across trials.

    Conclusions

    None of the three gene variants, 5-HTTLPR, COMTval158met and TPH2 G-703T, was associated with long-term response to CBT for SAD.

  • 7. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Förord2013Ingår i: Internetbehandling med KBT: en praktisk handbok / [ed] Kristofer Vernmark, Jonas Bjärehed, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2013Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Internetbaserad KBT ger tillgång till fungerande behandling för psykisk ohälsa på patientens villkor. Metoden har utvecklats i snabb takt genom utbredda forskningsinsatser, där Sverige kan betraktas som världsledande inom området.

    Internetbehandling med KBT ger en grundlig genomgång av behandlingsarbetet med betoning på praktiska aspekter och tillämpningen i olika verksamheter. Särskilt fokus ligger på att skapa ett fungerande behandlingsupplägg, praktiska förberedelser, behandlarens roll och viktiga terapeutfärdigheter samt hur vanliga svårigheter hanteras. Läsaren får också en teoretisk orientering, kunskap om befintligt forskningsstöd och vilka fördelar metoden har för patienter, behandlare och verksamheter. Fallexempel, checklistor och annat praktiskt material gör boken till ett mycket användbart hjälpmedel.

  • 8. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Internetbaserad behandling inom allt fler diagnosområden2013Ingår i: Psykologtidningen, ISSN 0280-9702, Vol. 59, nr 9, 30-33 s.Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under de senaste 15 åren har en intensiv forskning bedrivits kring internetbaserad psykologisk behandling och svenska forskare har i hög grad deltagit i utvecklingen. Här ger Gerhard Andersson och Per Carlbring, båda professorer i klinisk psykologi, en introduktion till internetbaserad psykologisk behandling och en bild av kunskapsläget just nu.

  • 9. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Holmes, Emily A.
    Special Issue in Honour of Lars-Göran Öst: Editorial2013Ingår i: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, Vol. 42, nr 4, 259-259 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 10. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Ljótsson, Brjánn
    Hedman, Erik
    Guided Internet-Based CBT for Common Mental Disorders2013Ingår i: Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, ISSN 0022-0116, E-ISSN 1573-3564, Vol. 43, nr 4, 223-233 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet has become a part of most people’s lives in many parts of the world. Since the late 1990s there has been an intensive research activity in which psychological treatments, such as cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), have been found to be effective when delivered via the Internet. Most research studies indicate that the effects are larger when some form of guidance is provided from a therapist, and unguided treatments tend to lead to more dropout and smaller effects. Guided Internet treatments often consists of book length text materials, but can also include other components such as audio files and video clips. Homework assignment is often included and feedback is given for completed homework. Guided Internet-based CBT (iCBT) has been found to work for problems such as depression, panic-, social anxiety-, and generalized anxiety disorders. There are many research trials in which participants have been recruited via media, and there has been less research conducted in representative clinical settings. Most research has been conducted on adults and in university settings with nationwide recruitment. There is a need for treatments and studies on older adults, children and adolescents. In conclusion, dissemination of the research findings on guided iCBT to regular clinical settings is warranted.

  • 11. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Hesser, Hugo
    Veilord, Andrea
    Svedling, Linn
    Andersson, Fredrik
    Sleman, Owe
    Mauritzson, Lena
    Sarkohi, Ali
    Claesson, Elisabet
    Zetterqvist, Vendela
    Lamminen, Mailen
    Eriksson, Thomas
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Randomised controlled non-inferiority trial with 3-year follow-up of internet-delivered versus face-to-face group cognitive behavioural therapy for depression2013Ingår i: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, affectiv, Vol. 151, nr 3, 986-994 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Guided internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) has been found to be effective in the treatment of mild to moderate depression, but there have been no direct comparisons with the more established group-based CBT with a long-term follow-up.

    Method

    Participants with mild to moderate depression were recruited from the general population and randomized to either guided ICBT (n=33) or to live group treatment (n=36). Measures were completed before and after the intervention to assess depression, anxiety, and quality of life. Follow-ups were conducted at one-year and three-year after the treatment had ended.

    Results

    Data were analysed on an intention-to-treat basis using linear mixed-effects regression analysis. Results on the self-rated version of the Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Scale showed significant improvements in both groups across time indicating non-inferiority of guided ICBT, and there was even a tendency for the guided ICBT group to be superior to group-based CBT at three year follow-up. Within-group effect sizes for the ICBT condition at post-treatment showed a Cohen′s d=1.46, with a similar large effect at 3-year follow-up,d=1.78. For the group CBT the corresponding within-group effects were d=0.99 and d=1.34, respectively.

    Limitations

    The study was small with two active treatments and there was no placebo or credible control condition.

    Conclusions

    Guided ICBT is at least as effective as group-based CBT and long-term effects can be sustained up to 3 years after treatment.

  • 12. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Holmes, Emily A.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Lars-Göran Öst2013Ingår i: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, Vol. 42, nr 4, 260-264 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Lars-Göran Öst is one of the most eminent clinical researchers in the field of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) and a founder of CBT in Sweden. He has recently retired from his position as professor in clinical psychology at Stockholm University, Sweden. In this paper, we sketch a brief description of the body of work by Öst. Examples of his innovative and pioneering new treatment methods include the one-session treatment for specific phobias, as well as applied relaxation for a range of anxiety disorders and health conditions. While Öst remains active in the field, he has contributed significantly to the development and dissemination of CBT in Sweden as well as in the world.

  • 13. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Waara, Johan
    Jonsson, Ulf
    Malmaeus, Fredrik
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Internet-Based Exposure Treatment Versus One-Session Exposure Treatment of Snake Phobia: A Randomized Controlled Trial2013Ingår i: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, Vol. 42, nr 4, 284-291 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the authors compared guided Internet-delivered self-help with one-session exposure treatment (OST) in a sample of snake phobic patients. A total of 30 patients were included following a screening on the Internet and a structured clinical interview. The Internet treatment consisted of four weekly text modules which were presented on a web page, a video in which exposure was modelled, and support provided via Internet. The OST was delivered in a three-hour session following a brief orientation session. The main outcome was the behavioural approach test (BAT), and as secondary measures questionnaires measuring anxiety symptoms and depression were used. Results showed that the groups did not differ at post-treatment or follow-up, with the exception of a significant interaction for the BAT in favour of the OST. At post-treatment, 61.5% of the Internet group and 84.6% of the OST group achieved a clinically significant improvement on the BAT. At follow-up, the corresponding figures were 90% for the Internet group and 100% for the OST group (completer sample). Within-group effect sizes for the Snake Phobia Questionnaire were large (d = 1.63 and d = 2.31 for the Internet and OST groups, respectively, at post-treatment). It is concluded that guided Internet-delivered exposure treatment is a potential treatment option in the treatment of snake phobia, but that OST probably is better.

  • 14.
    Andreasson, Anna Nixon
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet.
    Szulkin, Robert
    Undén, Anna-Lena
    von Essen, Jan
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet.
    Inflammation and positive affect are associated with subjective health in women of the general population2013Ingår i: Journal of Health Psychology, ISSN 1359-1053, E-ISSN 1461-7277, Vol. 18, nr 3, 311-320 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Poor subjective health has been associated with higher levels of inflammatory cytokines. We investigated whether such an association would apply to women of the general population. Levels of cytokines, affect and subjective health were assessed in 347 women of the general population aged 45 to 90 years. Higher levels of interleukin-6 were associated with poor subjective health, especially in participants over 65 years of age. Positive affect was a more robust determinant of subjective health than negative affect. The presence of low-grade inflammation and absence of positive affect, rather than presence of negative affect, may be important determinants of subjective health.

  • 15.
    Arshamian, Artin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Olfactory Cognition: The Case of Olfactory Imagery2013Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The capacity to form olfactory images has received less attention than the formation of visual and auditory images. The evidence in favor of such ability is also inconsistent. This thesis explored some of the characteristics of olfactory imagery through three empirical studies. Study I investigated the effects of blocking spontaneous sniffing during olfactory imagery. The results indicated that the prevention of spontaneous sniffing reduced olfactory but not visual imagery capacity. Study II studied the relation between olfactory awareness (as indexed by olfactory dreams, olfactory imagery, and olfactory interest) and olfactory functions (i.e., odor threshold, episodic odor memory, and odor identification). The main findings were that compared to low, high olfactory awareness was associated with better episodic odor memory and identification, but not with higher olfactory sensitivity. Study III investigated the neural correlates of odor evoked autobiographical memories (OEAMs) as (a) a function of cue modality (i.e., odors and their verbal referents), and (b) a function of memory remoteness. The results from Study III showed that OEAMs activated regions generally associated with autobiographical memory. In addition, verbally cued OEAMs were associated with activity linked to olfactory imagery. Odor cues activated the limbic and temporal polar regions more than verbal cues; a result that may explain the phenomenological differences found between the cued memories. Moreover, OEAMs from the first decade of life were associated with higher activity in the secondary olfactory cortex, whereas memories from young adulthood were related to areas linked to semantic memory processing. Taken together these studies favor the notion of a human capacity to form olfactory images. 

  • 16.
    Arshamian, Artin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Iannilli, Emilia
    Gerber, Johannes C.
    Willander, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Persson, Jonas
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Seo, Han-Seok
    Hummel, Thomas
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    The functional neuroanatomy of odor evoked autobiographical memories cued by odors and words2013Ingår i: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 51, nr 1, 123-131 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Behavioral evidence indicates that odor evoked autobiographical memories (OEAMs) are older, more emotional, less thought of and induce stronger time traveling characteristics than autobiographical memories (AMs) evoked by other modalities. The main aim of this study was to explore the neural correlates of AMs evoked by odors as a function of retrieval cue. Participants were screened for specific OEAMs and later presented with the odor cue and its verbal referent in an fMRI paradigm. Because the same OEAM was retrieved across both cue formats (odor and word), potential cue dependent brain activations were investigated. The overall results showed that odor and word cued OEAMs activated regions typically associated with recollection of autobiographical information. Although no odors were presented, a verbal cuing of the OEAMs activated areas associated with olfactory perception (e.g., piriform cortex). However, relative to word cuing, an odor cuing of OEAMs resulted in more activity in MTL regions such as the parahippocampus, and areas involved in visual vividness (e.g., occipital gyrus and precuneus). Furthermore, odor cues activated areas related to emotional processing, such as limbic and tempopolar regions significantly more. In contrast, word cues relative to odor cues recruited a more widespread and bilateral prefrontal activity. Hippocampus activity did not vary as function of the remoteness of the memory, but recollection of OEAMs from the 1st vs the 2nd decade of life showed specific activation in the right OFC, whereas the 2nd reflected a higher activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus.

  • 17.
    Astvik, Wanja
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Melin, Marika
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Coping with the imbalance between job demands and resources: A study of different coping patterns and implications for health and quality in human service work2013Ingår i: Journal of Social Work, ISSN 1468-0173, E-ISSN 1741-296X, Vol. 13, nr 4, 337-360 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades the public welfare sector has been subjected to major structural changes, and studies of various occupational groups within human service work have reported increased workload and a high prevalence of work-related stress. Using questionnaire data from a sample of human service workers within social work, child care and elderly care, the aim of this study was to identify different patterns of coping strategies to manage the imbalance between work demands and resources, and then to investigate their impact on outcomes in employee health and service quality. Findings: Cluster analysis identified three strategy profiles: compensatory and quality reducing, voice and support seeking and self-supporting, and the comparative analysis indicated that the compensatory and quality reducing cluster may be regarded as a risk group. Results of hierarchical regression analyses disclosed that the identified strategies affected health outcomes as well as perceived service quality. The use of compensatory and quality reducing strategies was negatively related to health and quality, although work demands, resources and background characteristics were controlled for. Applications: The results add to the research field through the identification of compensatory and quality reducing strategies not previously described in the coping literature, as well as the risks associated with them. Applied in practice, the identified strategy clusters might help distinguish risk behaviors' from more beneficial strategies. The results also point toward the importance of providing organizational structures that allow the employees to voice their opinions and critique, as well as to give and receive social support.

  • 18.
    Astvik, Wanja
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Melin, Marika
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Överlevnadsstrategier i socialt arbete: hur påverkar copingstrategier kvalitet och hälsa?2013Ingår i: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 19, nr 4, 61-73 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Förändringarna inom välfärdstjänstesektorn i Sverige har det senaste decenniet varit genomgripande. Rationaliseringar och ett decentraliserat resultat- och kostnadsansvar har i många fall medfört ökade arbetskrav, och socialsekreterares situation framstår som särskilt svår. Ansvaret att hantera obalansen mellan krav och resurser har decentraliserats till den enskilde socialsekreteraren. När resurserna inte matchar de kvalitetskrav som ställs tvingas socialsekreterarna tillämpa strategier som antingen äventyrar deras egen hälsa eller kvaliteten i arbetet.

  • 19.
    Axelsson, Östen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Sound Cities2013Ingår i: AESOP / ACSP 5th Joint Congress 2013: Planning for Resilient Cities and Regions: eBook of Abstracts, Dublin, Ireland: Association of European Schools of Planning , 2013, 772-772 s.Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Soundscape is an overlooked aspect of sustainable urban development and resilient cities. Particularly, soundscape is associated with urban open space quality and urban design. It concerns the acoustic environment as perceived or experienced and/or understood by people in context. It includes all sounds – positive as well as negative. Unlike current management of the acoustic environment, soundscape is not primarily about reducing sound levels below an acceptable guideline value. Rather, it is about what sounds belong to a place. From a heritage perspective it is important to ask what soundscapes present generations create and transfer to future generations. How do people want the city to sound? This relates to architecture and the urban infra structure, such as location of buildings, roads and parks, including the activities they entail. Much of what present generations create is durable and will affect many generations to come, by limiting the number of degrees of freedom at their disposal. This paper presents an early report on the Sound Cities projects that investigate how soundscapes may be consciously and expediently designed, as well as what we should mean with soundscape quality. For example, what is the relationship between soundscape and human activity in the city, or between soundscape and different kinds of sound sources? The aim of the projects is to promote sustainable urban development, quality of life, as well as health and well-being among urban residents, today and in the future. The projects include in situ questionnaires, psychoacoustic listening experiments, as well as machine learning, based on music information retrieval technology.

  • 20.
    Axelsson, Östen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Soundscape Quality2013Ingår i: AIA-DAGA/EAA Euroregio 2013: Program, Berlin: Deutschen Gesellschaft für Akustik , 2013, 204-205 s.Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    With the formation of the working group ISO/TC 43/SC 1/WG 54 “Perceptual Assessment of Soundscape Quality” of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in 2008, a debate has arisen on what soundscape quality should mean. The Swedish Soundscape-Quality Protocol defines soundscape quality operationally as a single, one-dimensional Good-Bad scale. Critics argue that this is unsatisfactory, because there is no one ideal soundscape. Rather, they argue that soundscape quality is relative to a place and the outcomes that the soundscape of that place facilitates or enables (e.g., conversation without interruption, nature appreciation or psychological restoration). In 2013, a questionnaire study will be conducted in Sheffield, UK, including about 900 users/visitors in 45 urban and peri-urban areas, divided on 9 different kinds (e.g., pedestrian areas, residential areas, parks, and plazas). The purpose is to define soundscape quality and to further develop measurement methods in this field. The results are expected to contribute to methods for 'green labelling' of soundscapes, and to support the development of the International Standard ISO 12913 on soundscape. The present paper discusses research plans and initial results.

  • 21.
    Axelsson, Östen
    et al.
    University of Sheffield, UK.
    Lundén, Peter
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Sound Cities: Computational modelling of urban soundscape quality2013Ingår i: Inter Noise 2013: Noise Control for Quality of Life. Innsbruck, Austria / [ed] W. Talasch, 2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Whether to improve existing acoustic environments, as they are perceived or experienced and/or understood by people, in context (i.e., soundscapes), or to design future soundscapes it is central to have a prediction model that relates predictors (i.e., acoustic indicators) to outcomes (i.e., psychological variables). In the Sound Cities project it is proposed to use as outcome what Axelsson previously has termed Information Load. The purpose of the Sound Cities project is to identify what acoustic indicators may predict the information load of soundscapes. The method will be psychoacoustic experiments in which a large sample of naïve listeners will assess recordings of authentic acoustic environments with regards to information load. Acoustic signals and information-load data will be submitted to machine learning, based on music information retrieval technology. It is expected that the Sound Cities project will contribute to the underpinnings of future tools for soundscape planning and design, like soundscape maps that provide information on how people perceive the acoustic environment. This is in contrast to present noise maps, which only provide calculated sound-pressure levels from transportation and industry.

  • 22.
    Baraldi, Stephan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Sjöberg, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Lindevall, Thomas
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Individuella skillnader i attityd till belöning och prestation: betydelsen av målorientering och utbildningsnivå2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med dagens fokus på prestation och belöning i arbetslivet är det viktigt att framhäva betydelsen av individens egna upplevelser av dessa begrepp. De kan exempelvis operationaliseras i termer av attityd till resultatbaserad lön, självbestämd lön och lönetillfredsställelse, å ena sidan, samt arbetsrelaterad självtillit, kvalitet i det egna arbetet och personligt ansvarstagande för resultat, å andra sidan. Samtidigt behöver vi veta mer om bakomliggande faktorer som påverkar individens upplevelser av prestation och belöning. Sådana bakomliggande faktorer skulle kunna utgöras av individuella skillnader relevanta för just prestation och belöning – exempelvis målorientering och utbildningsnivå. I föreliggande studie klassades respondenter in i fyra typer av målorientering – ospecificerad (OMO), prestationsbaserad (PMO), inlärningsbaserad (IMO), och prestations- och inlärningsbaserad (PIMO) samt två utbildningsnivåer (hög, låg). Tvärsnittsdata (n=626) analyserades med tvåvägs (4x2) MANOVA. Sammanfattat visade resultaten att individer klassade som IMO och PIMO var mer positiva till resultatbaserad lön, hade högre självtillit i arbetet, skattade egna prestationer högre i kvalitet samt tog större ansvar för egna resultat (gällde inte grupperna lågutbildade/PIMO och högutbildade/IMO) jämfört med individer klassade som PMO eller OMO. Effekter av utbildningsnivå observerades endast för lönetillfredsställelse och självbestämd lön där lågutbildade var mer nöjda med sin lön (gällde endast individer klassade som IMO och PIMO) medan högutbildade skulle ta ut en högre lön om de själva fick bestämma. Praktiska konsekvenser av studiens resultat samt förslag på vidare forskning diskuteras.

  • 23.
    Bejerot, Eva
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Hasselbladh, Hans
    Örebro universitet.
    Forms of Intervention in Public Sector Organizations: Generic Traits in Public Sector Reforms2013Ingår i: Organization Studies, ISSN 0170-8406, E-ISSN 1741-3044, Vol. 34, nr 9, 1357-1380 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper argues that recent research on public sector reforms offers few contributions to the body of knowledge on this topic because it adds little to the conclusions drawn during the first generation of research in this area. Although these later studies have often been context-specific and have explored the details of the process of change in some depth, it is rather difficult to compare their results or to make reasoned judgements of the comprehensiveness and centrality of the analysed change. Although most public sector reforms that affect hospitals, schools or social services are initiated and designed by national governments, individual case studies of local administrations often fail to capture the generic traits of nationwide reforms. However, public sector change cannot be approached as if it comprises collections of nominally independent local events. The present paper argues for two new approaches to the study of public sector change: (i) the systematic categorization of the different forms of governmental intervention under study and (ii) analysis of the ways in which these forms of intervention are linked and interact. Based on extensive empirical research, this paper suggests a generic classification of these forms of intervention that can be used in empirical research on comprehensive public sector change. Consequently, five interventions in public sector organizations are suggested, namely political intervention, intervention by laws and regulations, intervention by audit and inspection, intervention by management and intervention by rationalizing professional practice. The model is particularly well suited to the longitudinal analysis of complex public sector reforms. This approach provides a conceptual tool to distinguish between interventions based on different forms of knowledge and to investigate how they are linked to each other vertically and horizontally. We demonstrate the usefulness of the model by analysing two empirical examples of reforms in which a variety of interventions were imposed at the local level, through legislation as well as a spectrum of voluntary measures proposed by government agencies, by national associations for local and regional councils and by other national or regional actors.

  • 24.
    Bejerot, Eva
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Hasselbladh, Hans
    Örebro universitet.
    Linking change across time and connecting different layers of change  – an analysis of institutional transformation in Swedish health care2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper draws upon a model for analysing institutional transformation originating from the Governmentality-tradition in social science. The model suggest a distinction between three separate between modes of institutional transformation: ‘problematization’ refers to the manufacturing of the conditions of possibilities for change, ‘programmatics’ to the envisioning of a new regime in a domain of society and lastly the actualization of change, where new ideals, forms of knowledge and new aims are technically designed as permanent systems of positing and governing a new institutional reality. The model, and the way we apply it, makes it possible to display change processes over time in a systematic way. That is particularly important with respect to institutional transformation which is characterized by change in several dimensions, across different layers of organized action in iterative, and sometimes halted, processes. The model is used to analyse a crucial phase in the transformation of Swedish health care, starting in the 1980s. We end our analysis 2010 when the new regime for governing health care in Sweden has become dominant.

  • 25. Bergendal, G.
    et al.
    Martola, J.
    Stawiarz, L.
    Kristoffersen-Wiberg, M.
    Fredrikson, S.
    Almkvist, Ove
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Callosal atrophy in multiple sclerosis is related to cognitive speed2013Ingår i: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6314, E-ISSN 1600-0404, Vol. 127, nr 4, 281-289 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Bergendal G, Martola J, Stawiarz L, Kristoffersen-Wiberg M, Fredrikson S, Almkvist O. Callosal atrophy in multiple sclerosis is related to cognitive speed. Acta Neurol Scand: 2013: 127: 281-289. (C) 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Background Long-term changes regarding corpus callosum area (CCA) and information processing speed in cognitive and sensory-motor tasks have rarely been studied in multiple sclerosis (MS). Objective and methods Information processing speed in cognitive (Symbol Digit Modalities Test, SDMT), sensory (visual and auditory reaction time) and motor (finger-tapping speed, FT; right and left hand) tasks as well as auditory inter-hemispheric transfer (verbal dichotic listening, VDL) was related to CCA, measured by MRI at baseline and at follow-up after nine years in 22 patients with MS. Possible confounding by demographic (age, gender and education), clinical (symptom onset, duration, severity of disease) and relative brain volume (RBV) as well as T2 lesion load was taken into account. Results The smaller the CCA at baseline, the slower was SDMT performance at baseline. In a similar way, CCA at follow-up was associated with poor SDMT result at follow-up. Furthermore, the higher the annual rate of change in CCA, the poorer was performance in VDL on the left ear and the more pronounced was the right ear advantage. A positive relationship between performance in VDL right ear and annual rate of change in RBV was also seen. Sensory-motor tests were not significantly associated with CCA. T2 lesion load at baseline was associated with FT performance at baseline. Demographic, clinical and radiological (RBV and T2 lesion load) characteristics did not confound the significant relation between CCA and SDMT. Conclusions CCA unlike RBV and T2 lesion load was associated with SDMT, which indicated a marked cognitive rather than perceptual-motor component.

  • 26.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Measurement in Psychology: Conceptual Analysis and Synthesis Revisited2013Ingår i: Journal of Physics : Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 459, nr 1, 012001- s.Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The imagined existences of "quantity" in psychology is a prerequisite for measurement. Any person (researcher or subject) may imagine homogeneous concepts as quantities, for example, (perceived) redness, loudness or heaviness of different kinds of objects or events. Conversely, heterogeneous concepts may be merged to imagined quantities such as intelligence or personality, which both are constructed from agreed upon sets of theoretical concepts. Measurement in physics, psychophysics and psychology will be contemplated, comparatively.

  • 27. Bergman, Ingvar
    et al.
    Almkvist, Ove
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    The effect of age on fluid intelligence is fully mediated by physical health2013Ingår i: Archives of gerontology and geriatrics (Print), ISSN 0167-4943, E-ISSN 1872-6976, Vol. 57, nr 1, 100-109 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigated the extent to which the effect of age on cognitive ability is predicted by individual differences in physical health. The sample consisted of 118 volunteer subjects who were healthy and ranging in age from 26 to 91. The examinations included a clinical investigation, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain neuroimaging, and a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment. The effect of age on fluid IQ with and without visual spatial praxis and on crystallized IQ was tested whether being fully-, partially-or non-mediated by physical health. Structural equation analyses showed that the best and most parsimonious fit to the data was provided by models that were fully mediated for fluid IQ without praxis, non-mediated for crystallized IQ and partially mediated for fluid IQ with praxis. The diseases of the circulatory and nervous systems were the major mediators. It was concluded from the pattern of findings that the effect of age on fluid intelligence is fully mediated by physical health, while crystallized intelligence is non-mediated and visual spatial praxis is partially mediated, influenced mainly by direct effects of age. Our findings imply that improving health by acting against the common age-related circulatory-and nervous system diseases and risk factors will oppose the decline in fluid intelligence with age.

  • 28.
    Bergman, Lars R.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Vargha, Andras
    Matching method to problem: a developmental science perspective2013Ingår i: European Journal of Developmental Psychology, ISSN 1740-5629, E-ISSN 1740-5610, Vol. 10, nr 1, 9-28 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In developmental research there is quite often a mismatch between the scientific problem and the methods used to address it. In this article we discuss what this mismatch is about and we suggest some remedies. Our discussion is confined to typical matching situations that arise within a developmental science (DS) theoretical framework. A number of measurement issues are brought up including variable standardization and how to measure change. It is argued that to study individual development precise measurements are necessary and that, for this purpose, most measures currently used in developmental research are not sufficiently reliable. Further, we discuss the choice of a statistical method suitable for analysis within a DS framework and it is concluded that increased use should be made of person-oriented methods and methods developed for studying nonlinear dynamic systems. Finally, causality issues are discussed and a distinction is made between the study of average and individual causality.

  • 29. Bergman Nordgren, Lise
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Linna, Emma
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Role of the Working Alliance on Treatment Outcome in Tailored Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Anxiety Disorders: Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial2013Ingår i: JMIR Research Protocols, ISSN 1929-0748, Vol. 2, nr 1, e4- s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) is a form of guided self-help that has been found to be effective for addressing several problems. The target for this type of therapy is usually restricted to one specific disorder. Tailoring the treatment widens the scope of ICBT in that it can address comorbid conditions directly. Objectives: The working, or therapeutic, alliance has been found to predict outcome in studies of face-to-face therapy. The extent to which these findings apply to ICBT is largely unknown. We therefore decided to find out whether the working alliance could predict outcome in tailored ICBT for anxiety disorders. Methods: Data were obtained from the treatment group (n=27) in a randomized controlled trial aiming to test the effects of tailored ICBT for anxiety disorders. The forthcoming study was designed to test the hypothesis that the working alliance measured both pre-treatment and early in treatment (week 3) can predict treatment outcome as measured by the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation–Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) in a heterogeneous group of patients with anxiety disorders (n=27). Results: Working alliance measured at week 3 into the treatment correlated significantly with the residual gain scores on the primary outcome measure (r=-.47, P=.019, n=25), while expected working alliance pre-treatment did not (r=-.17, P=.42, n=27). Conclusions: These results raise questions about the importance of working alliance in ICBT treatments, and suggest that the working alliance could be important in ICBT.

  • 30.
    Bergström, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Les nouvelles thérapies par Internet2013Ingår i: RESET – Recherches en Sciences Sociales sur Internet, ISSN 2264-6221, Vol. 1, nr 2, 130-149 s.Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [fr]

    Cet article propose une synthèse du développement scientifique du traitement psychologique par Internet, en explicitant et discutant ses traits caractéristiques. L’auteur y compare ce type de soin avec la psychothérapie traditionnelle et dessine les enjeux que revêtent les traitements sur Internet dans le champ de la psychothérapie; avant tout au niveau théorique mais aussi au niveau pratique. Plus précisément, il met en évidence les nombreux facteurs indiquant que les thérapies utilisant Internet constituent, cent ans après la naissance de la discipline, un défi profond et durable pour la psychothérapie.

  • 31.
    Bernard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Temporary, self-employed and permanent workers: A Swedish study on work characteristics and individual well-being over time2013Ingår i: , 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 32.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Stengård, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Östergren, P-O
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Inlåsning, anställningsbarhet och välbefinnande efter en omorganisation2013Ingår i: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 19, nr 4, 101-112 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under perioder där arbetsmarknaden erbjuder färre alternativ är det troligt att fler människor accepterar arbetsplatser där de inte trivs eller stannar kvar på arbeten som de inte vill ha och känner sig inlåsta i. Tidigare forskning har kopplat inlåsning till sämre välbefinnande. Hur inlåsning och välbefinnande förändras när människor byter jobb är mindre känt. Föreliggande studie belyser förändringar i inlåsning, upplevd anställningsbarhet och välbefinnande vid en svensk myndighet efter en organisationsförändring som medfört organisationsinterna arbetsplatsbyten. Resultaten visar på negativa effekter av inlåsning: att stanna kvar på eller flytta till en arbetsplats som man inte önskar ha i framtiden är inte gynnsamt för hälsan.

  • 33.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Rigotti, Thomas
    Clinton, Michael
    de Jong, Jeroen
    Job insecurity and well-being in the temporary workforce: Testing volition and contract expectations as boundary conditions2013Ingår i: European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, ISSN 1359-432X, E-ISSN 1464-0643, Vol. 22, nr 2, 203-217 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates whether temporary contract volition and workers' expectations for contract renewal are boundary conditions to explain differences in temporary workers' job insecurity feelings and well-being. It is hypothesized that (1) low volition through higher job insecurity indirectly associates with lower well-being and that (2) temporary workers' expectations of contract renewal weakens the links between both low volition and high job insecurity and high job insecurity and impaired well-being. Results based on an international data set of 1755 temporary workers employed in the education, manufacturing, and service sectors supported the first hypothesis and partly also the second. More specifically, low preferences for temporary contracts associated via higher job insecurity with lower job satisfaction, impaired health, and higher irritation. Contract expectations placed a boundary condition upon this indirect relation; however, the negative association between high job insecurity and impaired well-being was not weakened but strengthened. In conclusion, particularly temporary workers with low contract volition and high job insecurity feelings, who have high expectations for contract renewal are at risk for impaired well-being. Hence, this study sheds light onto the question how volition for temporary work and expected contract renewal relate to job insecurity and associate with individual well-being.

  • 34. Birath, Christina Scheffel
    et al.
    Beijer, Ulla
    DeMarinis, Valerie
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Women with substance abuse problems exposed to men’s violence – a public mental health challenge2013Ingår i: Journal of Addiction Research &Therapy, Special Issue: Alcoholism, Vol. 4, nr 2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To explore self-rated physical and psychological health in two groups of women with substance misuse problems, subjected to male violence.

    Methods: An examination of the health situation for women with substance dependence being exposed to male violence during life. The study took place in a Swedish context exploring data from 35 women with housing (WwH) and 44 homeless women (HW), regarding posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, psychological and physical problems. Mann-Whitney U-test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient were used to calculate differences between groups and correlations.

    Results: The proportion of women being exposed to male violence during life for the studied group was 91% (72 of 79 women; WwH 29; HW 43). It was found that the WwH had physical health problems but compared to the HW, significantly less frequent. Regarding psychological health problems, both groups were suffering from self-reported problems, most notably in variables measuring stress susceptibility and embitterment, where both WwH and HW had scores markedly above norm mean scores. The HW had overall a poorer mental health profile as compared to the WwH. The WwH still maintained a foundation in the society compared to the HW regarding housing (100/0%), and custody over their children (91/0%).

    Conclusion: The study indicated that women with substance dependence and those who are victims of male violence have major problems with both their psychological and physical health. Particularly vulnerable are the HW. Past experiences of violence that have not been processed can further aggravate the women’s health. Thus, we suggest initiating the process of asking women if they have experienced violence in order to then be able to provide appropriate treatment interventions. For the WwH, this process may lead to a prevention of serious consequences for both their housing situation and for their health.

  • 35.
    Björk, Lisa
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Sociol & Work Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bejerot, Eva
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Jacobshagen, Nicola
    Univ Bern, Inst Psychol, Bern, Switzerland.
    Harenstam, Annika
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Sociol & Work Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    I shouldn't have to do this: Illegitimate tasks as a stressor in relation to organizational control and resource deficits2013Ingår i: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335, Vol. 27, nr 3, 262-277 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of tasks that are perceived as unnecessary or unreasonable - illegitimate tasks - represents a new stressor concept that refers to assignments that violate the norms associated with the role requirements of professional work. Research has shown that illegitimate tasks are associated with stress and counterproductive work behaviour. The purpose of this study was to provide insight into the contribution of characteristics of the organization on the prevalence of illegitimate tasks in the work of frontline and middle managers. Using the Bern Illegitimate Task Scale (BITS) in a sample of 440 local government operations managers in 28 different organizations in Sweden, this study supports the theoretical assumptions that illegitimate tasks are positively related to stress and negatively related to satisfaction with work performance. Results further show that 10% of the variance in illegitimate tasks can be attributed to the organization where the managers work. Multilevel referential analysis showed that the more the organization was characterized by competition for resources between units, unfair and arbitrary resource allocation and obscure decisional structure, the more illegitimate tasks managers reported. These results should be valuable for strategic-level management since they indicate that illegitimate tasks can be counteracted by means of the organization of work.

  • 36. Blom, Victoria
    et al.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Bodin, M.
    Bergström, G.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Svedberg, P.
    Work–home interference and burnout in Swedish women and men: The importance of genetics and family environment2013Ingår i: Forum för arbetslivsforskning (FALF) - Changes in Working Life: Individual, Organizational, and Methodological Perspectives, Stockholm, Sweden, June 17-19, 2013, 2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Genetic influences on perceived demands and burnout are shown in previous studies, suggesting genetic and shared environmental influences may underlie the associations between work–home interference and burnout. The present study sets out to increase the currently limited understanding of the biological and social correlates of work–home interference (WHI) by investigating whether WHI is related to burnout while taking sex, age, children, and genetic and shared environmental factors into account. A total of 13 730 individuals, including 2223 complete twin pairs, from the Swedish Twin Registry were included in the study. The effects of work–home conflict (WHC) and home–work conflict (HWC) on burnout between- and within-pairs were analyzed with Linear Mixed Models with and without stratification by sex. The results showed significant main effects of WHC and HWC on burnout and co-twin control analyses suggested that shared environmental factors may be involved in the association between HWC and burnout in women. As regards WHC and burnout, genetic or shared environmental factors did not seem to be involved. Adjustment for age and children did not change the results. The present study contributes with new knowledge of the mechanisms involved in the associations between work–home interference and burnout.

  • 37. Blomqvist, My
    et al.
    Ek, Ulla
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Fernell, Elisabeth
    Holmberg, Kirsten
    Westerlund, Joakim
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Dahlloö, Göran
    Cognitive ability and dental fear and anxiety2013Ingår i: European Journal of Oral Sciences, ISSN 0909-8836, E-ISSN 1600-0722, Vol. 121, nr 2, 117-120 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dental fear and anxiety (DFA), as well as dental behavior management problems, are common in children and adolescents. Several psychological factors in the child, and parental DFA, have been studied and found to correlate to the child's DFA. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between cognitive ability and DFA in a population-based group of children with identified behavior and learning problems. In conjunction with a dental examination at 11yr of age, 70 children were assessed with regard to DFA using the Children's Fear Survey Schedule Dental Subscale (CFSS-DS), and their cognitive ability was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. In addition, parental DFA was measured using the Corah Dental Anxiety Scale. The results revealed that DFA was significantly correlated to verbal intelligence quotient (IQ) but not to any other cognitive index. A significant correlation was found between parental DFA and child DFA. The results indicate that the child's verbal capacity may be one factor of importance in explaining dental fear in children.

  • 38.
    Bodin Danielsson, Christina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Wulff, Cornelia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Is perception of leadership influenced by office environment?2013Ingår i: Journal of Corporate Real Estate, ISSN 1463-001X, E-ISSN 1479-1048, Vol. 15, nr 3/4, 194-212 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This explorative study aims to examine the impact of office type on employees' perception of managerial leadership, a largely unexplored area. A gender perspective is applied to examine whether women and men perceive leadership differently in different office types.

    Design/methodology/approach – Cross-sectional study is based on 5,358 office employees from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Study of Health in 2010. The employees worked in the seven different office types identified in contemporary office design: cell-offices, shared-room offices, small open plan offices, medium-sized open plan offices, large open plan offices, flex-offices, and combi-offices. Cell-office was used as reference in the analysis.

    Findings – Poorer ratings of leadership were found in shared-room offices, and better in medium-sized open plan offices. A tendency towards a gender difference in perceived leadership was found only in small open plan offices, which appear to be better for men and worse for women.

    Practical implications – The results suggest that the office environment has an influence on perceived managerial leadership. This means office design should be considered in relation to leadership style in order for an organization to be successful.

    Originality/value – To the authors' knowledge, no other study has investigated the relationship between office environment and managerial leadership.

  • 39.
    Boettcher, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Combining attention training with cognitive-behavior therapy in Internet-based self-help for social anxiety: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial2013Ingår i: Trials, ISSN 1745-6215, Vol. 14, nr 68Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Guided Internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT) has been found to be effective for social anxiety disorder (SAD) by several independent research groups. However, since the extent of clinically significant change demonstrated leaves room for improvement, new treatments should be developed and investigated. A novel treatment, which has generally been found to be effective, is cognitive bias modification (CBM). This study aims to evaluate the combination of CBM and ICBT. It is intended that two groups will be compared; one group randomized to receiving ICBT and CBM towards threat cues and one group receiving ICBT and control training. We hypothesize that the group receiving ICBT plus CBM will show superior treatment outcomes.

    Methods/design: Participants with SAD (N = 128), will be recruited from the general population. A composite score combining the scores obtained from three social anxiety questionnaires will serve as the primary outcome measure. Secondary measures include self-reported depression and quality of life. All treatments and assessments will be conducted via the Internet and measurement points will be baseline, Week 2, post-treatment, and 4 months post-treatment.

    Discussion: There is no direct evidence of the effects of combining CBM and ICBT in SAD. Adding attention-training sessions to ICBT protocols could increase the proportion of participants who improve and recover through Internet-based self-help.

  • 40.
    Boettcher, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Free University of Berlin .
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Renneberg, Babette
    Berger, Thomas
    Internet-Based Interventions for Social Anxiety Disorder - an Overview2013Ingår i: Verhaltenstherapie (Basel), ISSN 1016-6262, E-ISSN 1423-0402, Vol. 23, nr 3, 160-168 s.Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet-based interventions hold specific advantages and disadvantages in the treatment of social anxiety disorder (SAD). The present review examines different approaches in the internet-based treatment of SAD and reviews their efficacy and effectiveness. 21 studies investigated the potential of guided and unguided internet-based cognitive-behavioral treatments (ICBT) for SAD, comprising a total of N = 1,801 socially anxious individuals. The large majority of these trials reported substantial reductions of social anxiety symptoms through ICBT programs. Within effect sizes were mostly large and comparisons to waitlist and more active control groups were positive. Treatment gains were stable from 3 months to 5 years after treatment termination. In conclusion, ICBT is effective in the reduction of social anxiety symptoms. At the same time, not all participants benefit from these treatments to a sufficient degree. Future research should focus on what makes these interventions work in which patient populations, and at the same time, examine ways to implement internet-based treatment in the routine care for socially anxious patients.

  • 41.
    Boettcher, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Leek, Linda
    Matson, Lisa
    Holmes, Emily A.
    Browning, Michael
    MacLeod, Colin
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Internet-Based Attention Bias Modification for Social Anxiety: A Randomised Controlled Comparison of Training towards Negative and Training Towards Positive Cues2013Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 9, e71760- s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Biases in attention processes are thought to play a crucial role in the aetiology and maintenance of Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). The goal of the present study was to examine the efficacy of a programme intended to train attention towards positive cues and a programme intended to train attention towards negative cues. In a randomised, controlled, double-blind design, the impact of these two training conditions on both selective attention and social anxiety were compared to that of a control training condition. A modified dot probe task was used, and delivered via the internet. A total of 129 individuals, diagnosed with SAD, were randomly assigned to one of these three conditions and took part in a 14-day programme with daily training/control sessions. Participants in all three groups did not on average display an attentional bias prior to the training. Critically, results on change in attention bias implied that significantly differential change in selective attention to threat was not detected in the three conditions. However, symptoms of social anxiety reduced significantly from pre- to follow-up-assessment in all three conditions (d(within) = 0.63-1.24), with the procedure intended to train attention towards threat cues producing, relative to the control condition, a significantly greater reduction of social fears. There were no significant differences in social anxiety outcome between the training condition intended to induce attentional bias towards positive cues and the control condition. To our knowledge, this is the first RCT where a condition intended to induce attention bias to negative cues yielded greater emotional benefits than a control condition. Intriguingly, changes in symptoms are unlikely to be by the mechanism of change in attention processes since there was no change detected in bias per se. Implications of this finding for future research on attention bias modification in social anxiety are discussed.

  • 42. Boman, Krister K.
    et al.
    Kjällander, Ylva
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Karolinska Institute .
    Eksborg, Staffan
    Becker, Jeremy
    Impact of Prior Traumatic Life Events on Parental Early Stage Reactions following a Child's Cancer2013Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 3, e57556- s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In pediatric oncology, effective clinic-based management of acute and long-term distress in families calls for investigation of determinants of parents' psychological response to the child's cancer. We examined the relationship between parents' prior exposure to traumatic life events (TLE) and the occurrence of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) following their child's cancer diagnosis. Factors mediating the TLE-PTSS relationship were analyzed. Methodology: The study comprised 169 parents (97 mothers, 72 fathers) of 103 cancer diagnosed children (median age: 5,9 years; range 0.1-19.7 years). Thirty five parents were of immigrant origin (20.7%). Prior TLE were collated using a standardized questionnaire, PTSS was assessed using the Impact of Events-Revised (IES-R) questionnaire covering intrusion, avoidance and hyperarousal symptoms. The predictive significance of prior TLE on PTSS was tested in adjusted regression models. Results: Mothers demonstrated more severe PTSS across all symptom dimensions. TLE were associated with significantly increased hyperarousal symptoms. Parents' gender, age and immigrant status did not significantly influence the TLE-PTSS relationship. Conclusions: Prior traumatic life-events aggravate posttraumatic hyperarousal symptoms. In clinic-based psychological care of parents of high-risk pediatric patients, attention needs to be paid to life history, and to heightened vulnerability to PTSS associated with female gender.

  • 43.
    Borg, Elisabet
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Perception of blackness as a training material for the Borg CR100 Scale®2013Ingår i: Fechner Day 2013: Proceedings of the 29th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics / [ed] Jiˇr´ı Wackermann, Marc Wittmann, Wolfgang Skrandies, Freiburg, Germany: International Society for Psychophysics , 2013, 98-98 s.Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The Borg CR100 Scale® is a general intensity scale suitable formost kinds of experiences and symptoms. On the scale verbal labels are placed in congruence with a ratio scale from 0 (nothing at all) to 100 (“Maximal” and anchored in a previously experienced perception of, for example, perceived exertion), with, for example, “Strong” at 50 and with the possibility to exceed 100 in extreme situations. For instruction and training the blackness of 5x5 cm cardboard squares (varying from 5% to 95% blackness NCS) have previously been used with an exponent in the psychophysical power function of between 0.9 and 1.2 (obtained both for Magnitude estimation and previous versions of Borg CR scales). For practical reasons it is important to be able to use a Powerpoint presentation of blackness stimuli, for example when running classroom experiments. Two different randomized orders of 18 (2x9) blackness stimuli were presented in a classroom setting to 47 participants (16 men and 31 women, students of psychology). Microsoft Powerpoint for Apple was used with the 9 different greys preset in the program (5, 15, 25, 35, 50, 65, 75, 85, 95% blackness) and scaled with the Borg CR100!R  Scale. Two orders of presentation were used, the second being the reverse of the first. The responses obtained with the Borg CR100 scale!R  ranged from 2 to 90 (median values) showing that blackness worked well across the whole subjective dynamic range. This is of importance for a good training material. The group exponent, computed from geometric means, was n =  1. 3 (r =  0. 994) and thus a little higher than previously obtained. For a subgroup of 14 subjects who were retested after approximately 15 minutes the exponent for both occasions was n =  1. 1 (r =  0. 985 and r =  0. 965, respectively). From graphs it was obvious that there was a slight “dip” with relatively lower responses for 35%, 50% and 65% blackness, especially for the first presentation order. This might in part explain why the exponent was a little higher than obtained with the older cardboard presentations. If this “dip” was mainly due to design, the blackness stimuli, or the scale, remains to be tested. However, as a training material, this would have less consequence. As a conclusion, a Powerpoint presentation of blackness works well, and may be recommended as a training material for the Borg CR100 scale®.

  • 44.
    Borg, Elisabet
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Borg, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    A demonstration of level-anchored ratio scaling for prediction of grip strength2013Ingår i: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 44, nr 5, 835-840 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Level-anchored ratio scaling, such as the Borg CR10 scale (R) and the Borg CR100 scale (R), uses verbal anchors in congruence with numbers to give ratio data together with natural levels of intensity. This presupposes that the anchors possess natural positions in the subjective dynamic range and also numerical inter-relations. In an experiment, subjects had to produce a force of handgrip corresponding to their conception of Strong, followed by a Maximal performance. By using the previously found relationship between Strong and Maximal of 1:2 together with knowledge of the exponent in the power S-R-function (R = c x S-n) for grip strength, n = 1.8, predictions of individual maximal performances were obtained. The predicted values correlated 0.76 with, and deviated only 3% (ns) from, actual maximal performances of grip strength. This result as previously also found for aerobic capacity gives a strong support for the use of verbal anchors, so common in category scaling, also in ratio scaling and that the Borg CR-scales fulfill the requirements for ratio scales. For estimation of muscular strength, such as grip strength, this present study points to the value of using submaximal determinations as a compliment to maximal performances (e.g., to obtain measures of functional capacity). The results also support the increasingly common use of the CR-methodology in other ergonomic settings concerning suitable design of tools and equipment.

  • 45.
    Borg, Elisabet
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Borg, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    How well does the Wong-Baker FACES scale identify the variation of pain?2013Ingår i: Fechner Day 2013: Proceedings of the 29th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics / [ed] Jiri Wackermann, Marc Wittmann, Wolfgang Skrandies, Freiburg, Germany: International Society for Psychophysics , 2013, 97-97 s.Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Pain is one of the most common symtoms reported clinically. Apart from the Visual Analogue scale, several rating scales are used varying in degree of interpretability and suitability for various types of pain. One scale often used, especially for children, is the Wong–Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale where pain is expressed in six drawn faces varying in expression from (1) a smiling face denoting “no hurt” to (6) a crying face for “hurts worst”. Two experiments were carried out. Firstly, 12 university professors of psychology (8 men and 4 women, 50–79 yrs) answered where (in what face) they judged that pain with certainty started. Three answered that pain started in the sixth face. Two said that no face showed pain and the rest said that the dimension shown was degree of happiness-sadness. However, if the intensity of pain was estimated as if using cross-modality matching (sadness to pain), three said face no. 4, one no. 4-5, one no. 4,5, or 6, and two said face number 5 (median = 4.5). Secondly, sixteen university students (4 men and 12 women, mean age = 27.2, SD = 7.4 yrs) answered the same question as above and then also used the Borg CR100 (centiMax) Scale®  , a general 0—100 intensity Category-Ratio scale for most kinds of subjective measurement3 , to scale the pain intensity expressed in each of the six faces (presented twice in a randomized order in a Powerpoint presentation). Pain was “with certainty” judged to start at the fifth face, and several participants scaled the first two faces as “zero pain”. A continuous progression of pain intensity for the six faces was on the average obtained with the CR100 scale: medians = 0.0, 0.5, 11, 31, 48, 72 centiMax. Thus, expressed with the verbal labels on the CR100 scale, the first two faces were below “Minimal”, which indicates that these faces were not judged to show any pain, the third face was just above “Weak” (13), the fourth face just above “Moderate” (25), the 5th face just below “Strong” (50) and the 6th face was just below “Very strong” (70). The conclusion was that the faces only with hesitation can be used to estimate pain. The last face was not judged to show more than a very strong pain, thus causing a restriction of range and a ceiling effect. Aproblem with these kinds of scales is poor congruence between pictures, verbal labels and numbers.

  • 46.
    Borg, Elisabet
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Westerlund, Joakim
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Statistik för beteendevetare: övningsbok2013 (uppl. 1)Bok (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Övningsbok till Statistik för beteendevetare är ett komplement till faktaboken med samma namn. Boken inleds med en kort repetition av grundläggande matematik och på omslagets insida finns ett flödesschema till hjälp för att avgöra vilken statistisk analys som bör väljas i en specifik situation.

  • 47.
    Bujacz, Aleksandra
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Satisfied if you don’t mind, engaged when you care: Positive emotions in relation to work centrality and turnover intention2013Ingår i: Imagine the future world: How do we want to work tomorrow?: Abstract proceedings of the 16th EAWOP Congress 2013 / [ed] G. Hertel, C. Binnewies, S. Krumm, H. Holling, & M. Kleinmann, 2013, 187-187 s.Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The affective space of human emotions is considered to be structured by two dimensions: the pleasure vs. displeasure continuum and the degree of arousal. Highly energetic positive states, such as engagement, are distinguished from more passive ones, such as satisfaction. Both can be considered indicators of employees’ well-being. The aim of this study was to investigate whether employees characterized by contrast levels of work centrality and turnover intention, differ with respect to feelings of engagement and satisfaction. We hypothesized that divergent attributes of those two emotions are linked to contrasting causes.

    Design/Methodology: In order to test this assumption we conducted a study, in which 579 Swedish employees completed a questionnaire measuring positive feelings at work, intention to leave the company and work centrality.

    Results: Multivariate analyses revealed that the feeling of satisfaction was negatively associated with decision of leaving the job. However, among employees expressing an intention to remain in the organization, highly engaged were primarily those, who considered work as central in their lives.

    Limitations: Findings refer to a general, overall feelings. It is recommended to check whether differences between satisfaction and engagement hold also on a state level of emotions.

    Research/Practical Implications: Satisfaction is a sign of reaching an acceptable level of what is expected from a job. However, results suggest that this is not enough to be engaged. Individuals have to highly value their work to feel engaged.

    Originality/Value: This study explores the difference between two forms of employees’ well-being, which is often ignored in work psychology.

  • 48. Bäck, Emma
    et al.
    Lindqvist, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Hen can do it: Effects of using a gender neutral pronoun in a recruitment situation2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 49.
    Calmfors, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Dimdins, Girts
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Montgomery, Henry
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Stavlöt, Ulrika
    Why do people dislike low-wage trade competition with posted workers in the service sector?2013Ingår i: The Journal of Socio-Economics, ISSN 1053-5357, Vol. 47, 82-93 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The issue of low-wage competition in services trade involving posted workers is controversial in the EU. Using Swedish survey data, people's attitudes are found to be more negative to such trade than to goods trade. The differences depend on both a preference for favouring social groups to which individuals belong (the domestic population) and altruistic justice concerns for foreign workers. In small-group experiments, we find a tendency for people to adjust their evaluations of various aspects of trade to their general attitude. This tendency is stronger for those opposed to than those in favour of low-wage trade competition. This may indicate that the former group forms its attitudes in a less rational way than the latter group.

  • 50.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Förord2013Ingår i: Kort om ångest / [ed] Daniel Freeman och Jason Freeman, Stockholm: Fri tanke , 2013, 1, 7-8 s.Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Ur förordet: "I boken beskrivs fobier, social fobi, paniksyndrom, generaliserat ångestsyndrom, tvångssyndrom och posttraumatiskt stressyndrom. Du får ta del av modern forskning och medryckande redogörelser för hur olika teoretiska skolbildningar ser på uppkomst och vidmakthållande. […] Jag hoppas att denna bok hjälper till att skapa en medvetenhet om ångestproblemen och därmed gör dem mindre tabubelagda."

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