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  • 1. Aarne, Päivikki
    et al.
    Almkvist, Ove
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Risholm Mothander, Pia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Tallberg, Ing-Mari
    Parent-rated socio-emotional development in children with language impairment in comparison with typically developed children2014Ingår i: European Journal of Developmental Psychology, ISSN 1740-5629, E-ISSN 1740-5610, Vol. 11, nr 3, 279-291 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Children with language impairment (LI) and children with typical development (TD) were assessed by their respective parents using The MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories (Swedish version SECDI) and Greenspan Socio Emotional Growth Chart (GSEGC). The aim was to investigate socio-emotional and language development in children with LI and TD with respect to possible differential patterns and relations between the groups. The results highlight a clear association between language and socio-emotional development. Children with LI were rated similar to young language-matched children with TD, but significantly lower relative to age-matched TD children, particularly concerning symbolic stages of development: the use of linguistic symbols as well as related areas such as symbol play and symbolic mental ability. The results are discussed in light of presumable background factors and possible consequences for children or sub-groups of children with LI.

  • 2. Aaro Jonsson, Catherine C.
    et al.
    Emanuelson, Ingrid M.
    Smedler, Ann-Charlotte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Variability in quality of life 13 years after traumatic brain injury in childhood2014Ingår i: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, ISSN 0342-5282, E-ISSN 1473-5660, Vol. 37, nr 4, 317-322 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    With the aim of describing variability in the long-term outcome of quality of life after neurosurgically treated pediatric traumatic brain injury, mostly self-reports of 21 individuals with mild or moderate/severe injury were gathered using Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory in telephone interviews 13 years aftyer injury. A majority of the participants reported brain injury-related problems. The median outcome on Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory was mild to moderate limitations. The variation within the moderate/severe group varied between relatively good outcome and moderate/severe limitations. Concentration, irritability, fatigue, and transportation were reported as the most problematic areas, whereas self-care was reported as well functioning. Societal participation appeared to be the best functional domain in this Swedish study. Examples of individual reports of the life-situation at various outcome levels were provided. Variability in outcome is large within severity groups, and research may gain by addressing both outcomes of the individuals and groups. Objective questions of outcome should be accompanied by questions of actual functioning in everyday life. To ensure long-term support for quality of life for those with remaining dysfunction after pediatric traumatic brain injury, healthcare systems should implement systematic routines for referral to rehabilitation and support.

  • 3. Abbass, Allan
    et al.
    Lilliengren, Peter
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Town, Joel
    On Paolo Migione's "What Does Brief Mean?"2014Ingår i: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, ISSN 0003-0651, E-ISSN 1941-2460, Vol. 62, nr 5, NP18-NP22 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 4. Aletta, F.
    et al.
    Axelsson, Östen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Kang, J.
    Towards acoustic indicators for soundscape design2014Ingår i: Proceeding of Forum Acusticum 2014, 2014, SS31_10Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Scientific research on how people perceive, experience or understand the acoustic environment as a whole (i.e., soundscape) is still in development, both with regards to acoustic properties, as well as personality and individual differences. In order to predict how people would perceive an acoustic environment, it is central to identify the underlying acoustic properties of soundscapes. In this study these properties were approached by investigating the visual similarity of colour prints of 50 audio spectrograms (time vs. frequency), representing audio recordings of a variety of acoustic environments. In total, 15 female and 15 male students from the University of Sheffield were recruited to assess the 50 spectrograms by sorting them into groups based on how similar they were perceived to be. A distance matrix, derived from the sorting data, was subjected to a Multidimensional Scaling analysis to map the underlying dimensions of similarity among the spectrograms, which are proposed to represent the underlying acoustic properties of the corresponding acoustic environments. Three dimensions were identified. The first dimension relates to Distinguishable–Indistinguishable sound sources, the second dimension to Background–Foreground sounds, and the third dimension to Intrusive–Smooth sound sources. The results also show that established acoustic parameters are inappropriate as indicators of acoustic environments and that further research is needed in this field.

  • 5.
    Alm, Charlotta
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Eriksson, Åsa
    Durbeej, Natalie
    Palmstierna, Tom
    Berman, Anne H.
    Kristiansson, Marianne
    Hellner Gumpert, Clara
    Classification of offenders with mental health problems and problematic substance use using the Addiction Severity Index version 6: Analysis of three-year follow-up data and predictive validity2014Ingår i: Mental Health and Substance Use, ISSN 1752-3281, E-ISSN 1752-3273, Vol. 7, nr 4, 431-445 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research is scarce on the problems and needs of the “triply troubled” – among offenders with mental health problems and problematic substance use. Classifying this population into clusters based on problem profiles may provide information about individual needs for treatment. In a previous study, we identified four clusters of triply troubled: less troubled, severely triply troubled, triply troubled with medical problems, and working triply troubled. The present study explored the stability and predictive validity of these clusters in a naturalistic design. In total, 125 triply troubled individuals included in any of the four clusters were followed for approximately three years with regard to their inpatient and outpatient treatment participation. They were also interviewed with the 6th version of the Addiction Severity Index, the Psychopathy Checklist–Revised, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life–Bref. The main finding of the study was that on average the participants of all four clusters exhibited substantial improvements over the course of time but that improvements were cluster-specific rather than sample-specific. Implications of the study are discussed.

  • 6.
    Alvarsson, Jesper J.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Nordström, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Lundén, Peter
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Aircraft noise and speech intelligibility in an outdoor living space2014Ingår i: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 135, nr 6, 3455-3462 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of effects on speech intelligibility from aircraft noise in outdoor places are currently lacking. To explore these effects, first-order ambisonic recordings of aircraft noise were reproduced outdoors in a pergola. The average background level was 47 dB L-Aeq. Lists of phonetically balanced words (L-ASmax,L- word = 54 dB) were reproduced simultaneously with aircraft passage noise (L-ASmax,L- noise = 72-84 dB). Twenty individually tested listeners wrote down each presented word while seated in the pergola. The main results were (i) aircraft noise negatively affects speech intelligibility at sound pressure levels that exceed those of the speech sound (signal-to-noise ratio, S/N < 0), and (ii) the simple A-weighted S/N ratio was nearly as good an indicator of speech intelligibility as were two more advanced models, the Speech Intelligibility Index and Glasberg and Moore's [J. Audio Eng. Soc. 53, 906-918 (2005)] partial loudness model. This suggests that any of these indicators is applicable for predicting effects of aircraft noise on speech intelligibility outdoors.

  • 7.
    Anderbro, Therese
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Svirsky, Liv
    Par i beteendeterapi: förhållningssätt och metoder2014Bok (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Att arbeta med par ställer psykoterapeuten inför helt nya utmaningar. Den här boken ger teoretisk kunskap och praktiska instruktioner för att hjälpa par med relationssvårigheter. Metoden som presenteras utgår från den så kallade tredje vågens beteendeterapi och betonar vikten av acceptans. Boken visar hur bedömningen går till och hur behandlingen genomförs. Den ger också fylliga beskrivningar av acceptans- och förändringsstrategier och arbetets olika faser illustreras med hjälp av fallbeskrivningar och dialoger. Par i beteendeterapi är den första boken som presenterar metoden IBCT (Integrative Behavioural Couples Therapy) på svenska. Den vänder sig till KBT-behandlare som vill börja arbeta med par och till behandlare som redan arbetar med parterapi och vill öka sin kunskap om hur man kan göra det ur ett inlärningsteoretiskt perspektiv. Boken är även lämplig som kurslitteratur under utbildning.

  • 8. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Internet-Delivered Treatments for Social Anxiety Disorder2014Ingår i: The Wiley Blackwell Handbook of Social Anxiety Disorder / [ed] Justin W. Weeks, Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, 2014, 579-587 s.Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter we review the literature on internet-delivered treatment for social anxiety disorder (SAD). There are several different treatment programs that have been tested in randomized controlled trials and evidence now suggests that guided internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) can be as effective as face-to-face therapy, that therapists may need less training than in face-to-face treatment, and that ICBT works in representative clinical settings, thereby supporting effectiveness. Moreover, there are studies to suggest that ICBT has enduring effects up to five years after treatment and that it is cost-effective. Since there are advantages with internet treatments, this treatment option should be considered as a complement or alternative to face-to-face treatments for SAD. Treatment mechanisms, including moderators and mediators of outcome, remain to be investigated.

  • 9. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Cuijpers, P.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Riper, H.
    Hedman, E.
    Internet-Based Vs. Face-To-Face Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Psychiatric and Somatic Disorders: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis2014Ingår i: Abstracts from the 44th Congress of the European Association for Behavioural & Cognitive Therapies, Utrecht: EABCT , 2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) has been tested in many research trials but to a lesser extent been directly compared against face-to-face delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on trials in which guided ICBT was directly compared against face-to-face CBT within the same trial. Studies on psychiatric and somatic conditions were included. Systematic searches resulted in 13 studies (total N=1053) that met all review criteria and were included in the review. There were 3 studies on social anxiety disorder, 3 on panic disorder, 2 on depressive symptoms, 2 on body dissatisfaction, 1 on tinnitus, 1 on male sexual dysfunction, and 1 on spider phobia. Face-to-face CBT was either in the individual format (n=6 ) or in the group format (n=7). We also assessed quality and risk of bias. Results showed a pooled effect size at post-treatment across of Hedges g = -0.01 (95% CI, -0.13 to 0.12), indicating that ICBT and face-to-face treatment produce equivalent overall effects. Study quality did not affect outcomes. While the overall results indicate equivalence, there are still few studies for each psychiatric and somatic condition and many for which guided ICBT has not been compared against face-to-face treatment. Thus, more research is needed to establish equivalence of the two treatment formats.

  • 10. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Cuijpers, Pim
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Riper, Heleen
    Hedman, Erik
    Guided Internet-based vs. face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy for psychiatric and somatic disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis2014Ingår i: World Psychiatry, ISSN 1723-8617, Vol. 13, nr 3, 288-295 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) has been tested in many research trials, but to a lesser extent directly compared to face-to-face delivered cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of trials in which guided ICBT was directly compared to face-to-face CBT. Studies on psychiatric and somatic conditions were included. Systematic searches resulted in 13 studies (total N=1053) that met all criteria and were included in the review. There were three studies on social anxiety disorder, three on panic disorder, two on depressive symptoms, two on body dissatisfaction, one on tinnitus, one on male sexual dysfunction, and one on spider phobia. Face-to-face CBT was either in the individual format (n=6) or in the group format (n=7). We also assessed quality and risk of bias. Results showed a pooled effect size (Hedges' g) at post-treatment of −0.01 (95% CI: −0.13 to 0.12), indicating that guided ICBT and face-to-face treatment produce equivalent overall effects. Study quality did not affect outcomes. While the overall results indicate equivalence, there are still few studies for each psychiatric and somatic condition and many conditions for which guided ICBT has not been compared to face-to-face treatment. Thus, more research is needed to establish equivalence of the two treatment formats.

  • 11. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Nordgren, Lise B.
    Buhrman, Monica
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Psychological treatments for depression delivered via the Internet and supported by a clinician: an update2014Ingår i: Spanish Journal of Clinical Psychology, ISSN 1136-5420, Vol. 19, nr 3, 217-225 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Guided internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) has been tested in many trials since the early studies dating back to the late 1990’s. The aim of this review was to investigate the most recent literature on guided ICBT for depression. We identified 11 controlled studies published between January 2013 and September 2014. Overall, large treatment effects were observed with a few exceptions. A majority (7 studies) provided some information regarding unwanted effects such as deterioration. Three studies directly compared guided ICBT against face-to-face CBT. We added an earlier study and calculated meta-analytic summary statistics for the four studies involving a total of 336 participants. The average effect size difference was Hedges = 0.12 (95% CI: -0.08~0.32) in the direction of favouring guided ICBT, but with no practical importance. We conclude that guided ICBT is a promising treatment for depression and mood disorders and that the research is rapidly expanding.

  • 12. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Riper, Heleen
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Editorial: introducing Internet Interventions — A new Open Access Journal2014Ingår i: Internet Interventions, ISSN 2214-7829, Vol. 1, nr 1, 1-2 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 13. Andersson, Håkan
    et al.
    Lovén, Johanna
    Bergman, Lars R.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    The Importance of High Competence in Adolescence for Career Outcomes in Midlife2014Ingår i: RESEARCH IN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT, ISSN 1542-7609, Vol. 11, nr 3, 204-216 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier studies have indicated the importance of IQ, educational aspirations, school grades, and task persistence during childhood and adolescence for later educational and vocational attainment. In this study, these characteristics were studied from a person-oriented perspective, identifying typical competence profiles using cluster analysis. The aim was to investigate a potential career bonus for adolescents with a highly positive competence profile for later educational and occupational success. Data were analyzed from the longitudinal Swedish Individual Development and Adaptation (IDA) study (N = 1326) with career outcomes measured in midlife (age 43-47). Results showed that having a highly positive competence profile predicted higher income and increased the probability of having a high occupational level, controlling for the separate competence components. The effects were only significant for males. Taken together, our findings support the idea that adolescent boys with a highly positive competence profile are optimized for career success to a larger extent than could be expected from the competence components considered separately.

  • 14.
    Annell, Stefan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Swedish Defence Recruitment Agency, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. North-West University, South Africa.
    Use and interpretation of test scores from limited cognitive test batteries: How g plus Gc can equal g2014Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 55, nr 5, 399-408 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Single scores from limited and unbalanced test batteries of cognitive ability can be ambiguous to interpret theoretically. In this study, a limited verbally and knowledge-loaded cognitive test battery, from applicants to the Swedish police academies (N=1,344), was examined to provide foundations for the use and interpretation of test scores. Three measurement models were compared: one single factor model and two bifactor models, which decomposed the variance of the battery into orthogonal components. The models were evaluated by fit indices and omega coefficients, and then applied to the prediction of academic performance. The overall prediction of all models was similar, although specific abilities also were found to provide substantial predictive validity over and above general intelligence (g). The findings provide support for the use of single scores in applied settings (selection), but suggest that it may be more appropriate to interpret such scores as composites of substantive components, and not just as measures of g.

  • 15.
    Arnberg, Alexandra
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    CBT for Children with Depressive Symptoms: A Meta-Analysis2014Ingår i: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, E-ISSN 1651-2316, Vol. 43, nr 4, 275-288 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Pediatric depression entails a higher risk for psychiatric disorders, somatic complaints, suicide, and functional impairment later in life. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is recommended for the treatment of depression in children, yet research is based primarily on adolescents. The present meta-analysis investigated the efficacy of CBT in children aged 8-12 years with regard to depressive symptoms. We included randomized controlled trials of CBT with participants who had an average age of <= 12 years and were diagnosed with either depression or reported elevated depressive symptoms. The search resulted in 10 randomized controlled trials with 267 participants in intervention and 256 in comparison groups. The mean age of participants was 10.5 years. The weighted between-group effect size for CBT was moderate, Cohen's d=0.66. CBT outperformed both attention placebo and wait-list, although there was a significant heterogeneity among studies with regard to effect sizes. The weighted within-group effect size for CBT was large, d=1.02. Earlier publication year, older participants, and more treatment sessions were associated with a larger effect size. In conclusion, the efficacy of CBT in the treatment of pediatric depression symptoms was supported. Differences in efficacy, methodological shortcomings, and lack of follow-up data limit the present study and indicate areas in need of improvement.

  • 16.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Astvik, Wanja
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Klas
    Work conditions, Recovery and Health: A study among workers within Pre-School, Home Care and Social Work2014Ingår i: British Journal of Social Work, ISSN 0045-3102, E-ISSN 1468-263X, Vol. 44, nr 6, 1654-1672 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The study investigated the working conditions associated with the accumulation of stress and lack of recovery and how recovery is related to health. The study group was employed in pre-school, home care and social work (n = 193). Recovery was assumed to be an explanatory variable for the relations between work and health. The response rate on a survey was 79 per cent. Cluster analysis identified three groups: the ‘Recovered’ (36 per cent of the total group) and ‘Not Recovered’ (25 per cent) and the ‘In-between’ (39 per cent). The Not Recovered displayed the whole chain of risk factors, involving difficult working conditions to which they responded with increased compensatory strategies. Despite this group having significantly greater reports of ill health, work absenteeism was not greater, which is likely related to their substituting sickness absence with sickness presence. As many as 43 per cent of the social workers were found to belong to the Not Recovered group. Multiple regression analyses controlling for background variables revealed that the Not Recovered group had a significantly higher relative risk for poor self-rated health than those in the Recovered group. Even sharper increases in relative risk existed for the other five symptoms that were analysed. Practical implications and new research questions are discussed.

  • 17.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Bejerot, Eva
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Brist på kollegialt inflytande urholkar lojalitet med chef och organisation ... men inte med patienterna2014Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, Vol. 111, CM9U- s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    I en enkätstudie undersöktes relationen mellan läkares uppfattning om kollegialt inflytande och lojalitet, protest och sorti.

    Stark lojalitet med organisation och chef är 2–3 gånger vanligare bland dem som har stor tillgång till arenor för kollegialt inflytande. Lojaliteten med profession och patienter är stark och oberoende av tillgång till arenor.

    Bland dem som har stor tillgång till arenor anser 87 procent att de får gehör för synpunkter jämfört med 21 procent bland dem med liten tillgång. 

    Överväganden om att byta yrke, arbetsgivare eller arbetsplats är dubbelt så vanliga vid liten tillgång till arenor.

    Arbetsgivare som vill attrahera läkare måste ha arenor där läkarna får inflytande över verksamheten.

  • 18.
    Arshamian, Artin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Same same but different: the case of olfactory imagery2014Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 5, UNSP 34- s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work we present an overview of experimental findings corroborating olfactory imagery observations with the visual and auditory modalities. Overall, the results indicate that imagery of olfactory information share many features with those observed in the primary senses although some major differences are evident. One such difference pertains to the considerable individual differences observed, with the majority being unable to reproduce olfactory information in their mind. Here, we highlight factors that are positively related to an olfactory imagery capacity, such as semantic knowledge, perceptual experience, and olfactory interest that may serve as potential moderators of the large individual variation.

  • 19.
    Astvik, Wanja
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Melin, Marika
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Allvin, Michael
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Survival strategies in social work: A study of how coping strategies affect service quality, professionalism and employee health2014Ingår i: Nordic Social Work Research, ISSN 2156-857X, E-ISSN 2156-8588, Vol. 4, nr 1, 52-66 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The restructuring of human service organisations into more lean organisations has brought increased work demands for many human service professions. Social work stands out as a particularly exposed occupational group, in which high work demands are paired with a large individual responsibility to carry out the job. The objectives of the study were to identify what kind of coping strategies social workers employ to handle the imbalance between demands and resources in work and to investigate how different strategies affect outcomes regarding health, service quality and professional development. 16 individual interviews and four group interviews with another 16 social workers were conducted. The analysis identified five different main types of strategies: Compensatory, Demand-reducing, Disengagement, Voice and Exit. An extensive use of compensatory strategies was connected with negative outcomes in health. Often these compensatory strategies were replaced or combined with different means of reducing the work demands, which in turn influence performance and service quality in a negative way. The results highlight dilemmas the social workers are facing when the responsibility to deal with this imbalance are “decentralised” to the individual social worker. When resources do not match the organisational goals or quality standards, the social workers are forced into strategies that either endanger their own health or threaten the quality of service.

  • 20. Athlin, A. Muntlin
    et al.
    Farrokhnia, N.
    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Introduction of multi-professional teamwork: a promising approach towards a more patient-centred care in the emergency department2014Ingår i: International Emergency Nursing, ISSN 1755-599X, E-ISSN 1878-013X, Vol. 22, nr 4, 274-275 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 21.
    Axelsson, Östen
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Hellström, Björn
    Lundén, Peter
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    A field experiment on the impact of sounds from a jet-and-basin fountain on soundscape quality in an urban park2014Ingår i: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, Vol. 123, 49-60 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A field experiment was conducted to explore whether water sounds from a fountain had a positive impact on soundscape quality in a downtown park. In total, 405 visitors were recruited to answer a questionnaire on how they perceived the park, including its acoustic environment. Meanwhile the fountain was turned on or off, at irregular hours. Water sounds from the fountain were not directly associated with ratings of soundscape quality. Rather, the predictors of soundscape quality were the variables Road-traffic noise and Other natural sounds. The former had a negative and the latter a positive impact. However, water sounds may have had an indirect impact on soundscape quality by affecting the audibility of road-traffic and natural sounds. The present results, obtained in situ, agree with previous results in soundscape research that the sounds perceived particularly roadtraffic and natural sounds explain soundscape quality. They also agree with the results from laboratory studies that water sounds may mask roadtraffic sounds, but that this is not simple and straight forward. Thus sound should be brought into the design scheme when introducing water features in urban open spaces, and their environmental impact must be thoroughly assessed empirically.

  • 22.
    Azad, Azade
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Christianson, Sven-Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Selenius, Heidi
    Children's reporting patterns after witnessing homicidal violence - the effect of repeated experience and repeated interviews2014Ingår i: Psychology, Crime and Law, ISSN 1068-316X, Vol. 20, nr 5, 407-429 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    For both legal and clinical purposes, it is of importance to study children's memories and reports of stressful events. The present study investigated the reporting patterns of 83 children who had witnessed homicidal violence, which is considered to be a highly stressful experience. More specifically, we explored the possible effects of prior violence exposure and of repeated questioning on the amount of details reported. Results showed that the majority of children provided detailed reports about the homicidal violence they had witnessed, including details concerning what happened before, during, and after the violent act. The children provided detailed and vivid testimonies from their experiences, whether they witnessed the event for the first time or had prior experience of witnessing severe violence against the victim by the perpetrator. Children with no prior experience of repeated violence who underwent repeated interviews provided more details than those interviewed once. The present data indicate that children are competent witnesses when questioned in legal contexts after having been exposed to extremely stressful events. These findings have implications for research related to children's memories and reporting of traumatic experiences, as well as practical implications for future treatment and evaluation of children's testimonies.

  • 23. Bandelow, B.
    et al.
    Hau, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Beutel, M.E.
    Deutsche S3-Leitlinie Behandlung von Angststörungen2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [de]

    Die deutsche S3-Leitline zur Behandlung von Angststörungen (Panikstörung/Agoraphobie, generalisierte Angststörung, soziale Phobie, spezifische Phobie) bei Erwachsenen wurde unter Beratung und Moderation durch die Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Wissenschaftlichen Medizinischen Fachgesellschaften (AWMF) von einem Gremium erstellt, das 20 Fachverbände und andere Organisationen aus den Bereichen Psychotherapie, Psychologie, psychosomatische Medizin, Psychiatrie und Allgemeinmedizin sowie Patientenvertreter und Selbsthilfeorganisationen umfasst. Die Empfehlungen dieser Leitlinie basieren auf einer Sichtung der Evidenz der verfügbaren randomisierten klinischen Studien zu Angststörungen nach ICD/DSM und einer Synthese der Empfehlungen anderer Leitlinien.

  • 24. Bask, Miia
    et al.
    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Salmela-Aro, Katariina
    Bergman, Lars R.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Pathways to educational attainment in middle adulthood: the role of gender and parental educational expectations in adolescence2014Ingår i: Gender Differences in Aspirations and Attainment: A Life Course Perspective / [ed] Schoon, I.; Eccles, J. S., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014, 389-411 s.Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, we apply the expectancy-value model of motivation, particularly the family socialization aspect of the model (Eccles (Parsons) et al., 1983; Eccles, 1994, 2007; Wigfield & Eccles, 2002) to address a number of key questions regarding gender differences in adult attainment, in particular educational attainment. When some individuals in the work force of today were children, what kinds of expectations did they have for themselves? What expectations did their parents have for them? Did these expectations vary for girls and boys? Were parents' expectations about their children's future education related to the actual education that these adolescents later attained in midlife? How did the child's academic ability and characteristics of the family figure into this picture? We present original empirical findings, drawing on data collected for a Swedish longitudinal study that spans from childhood to middle adulthood. In line with the expectancy-value model of motivation, the family's socioeconomic status (SES) was identified as an important predictor of several outcomes. Consistent with the model, for both genders, the family's SES and parental educational expectations in middle adolescence predicted middle adult educational attainment. The importance of grades differed by gender in that the mathematics grade was a statistically significant predictor of middle adult educational attainment for males, while for females grades in Swedish were a statistically significant predictor of middle adult educational attainment. In this chapter, we situated these study findings in the wider pertinent scholarly literature and discussed the implications of our results as they might relate to efforts to promote equitable and optimal life chances for the current generation of European girls and boys.

  • 25. Beier, Susanne
    et al.
    Eib, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Oehmann, Verena
    Fiedler, Peter
    Fiedler, Klaus
    Influence of judges' behaviors on perceived procedural justice2014Ingår i: Journal of Applied Social Psychology, ISSN 0021-9029, E-ISSN 1559-1816, Vol. 44, nr 1, 46-59 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of judges' behaviors on procedural justice was analyzed in a field study, observing the judges' behaviors during n=129 trials and assessing the defendants and the audiences' justice perceptions. The observed judicial behavior was unrelated to the defendants' justice perceptions. However, the more respectful the judge treated the defendants, the fairer the audience perceived the trial. In general, the effect size of the relationship between observational measures and subjective justice ratings was small in comparison to the relationship within defendants' or audiences' ratings. There were striking differences in the justice perception between the two data sources, namely defendants and audience. Thus, the source matters, and to avoid a same-source bias, should be taken into account when analyzing justice perceptions.

  • 26. Bejerot, Susanne
    et al.
    Edman, Gunnar
    Anckarsäter, Henrik
    Berglund, Gunilla
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Gillberg, Christopher
    Hofvander, Björn
    Humble, Mats B.
    Mörtberg, Ewa
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Råstam, Maria
    Ståhlberg, Ola
    Frisén, Louise
    The Brief Obsessive - Compulsive Scale (BOCS): A self-report scale for OCD and obsessive–compulsive related disorders2014Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 68, nr 8, 549-559 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Brief Obsessive Compulsive Scale (BOCS), derived from the Yale–Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) and the children's version (CY-BOCS), is a short self-report tool used to aid in the assessment of obsessive–compulsive symptoms and diagnosis of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). It is widely used throughout child, adolescent and adult psychiatry settings in Sweden but has not been validated up to date. Aim: The aim of the current study was to examine the psychometric properties of the BOCS amongst a psychiatric outpatient population. Method: The BOCS consists of a 15-item Symptom Checklist including three items (hoarding, dysmorphophobia and self-harm) related to the DSM-5 category “Obsessive–compulsive related disorders”, accompanied by a single six-item Severity Scale for obsessions and compulsions combined. It encompasses the revisions made in the Y-BOCS-II severity scale by including obsessive–compulsive free intervals, extent of avoidance and excluding the resistance item. 402 adult psychiatric outpatients with OCD, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder and other psychiatric disorders completed the BOCS. Results: Principal component factor analysis produced five subscales titled “Symmetry”, “Forbidden thoughts”, “Contamination”, “Magical thoughts” and “Dysmorphic thoughts”. The OCD group scored higher than the other diagnostic groups in all subscales (P < 0.001). Sensitivities, specificities and internal consistency for both the Symptom Checklist and the Severity Scale emerged high (Symptom Checklist: sensitivity = 85%, specificities = 62–70% Cronbach's α = 0.81; Severity Scale: sensitivity = 72%, specificities = 75–84%, Cronbach's α = 0.94). Conclusions: The BOCS has the ability to discriminate OCD from other non-OCD related psychiatric disorders. The current study provides strong support for the utility of the BOCS in the assessment of obsessive–compulsive symptoms in clinical psychiatry.

  • 27.
    Bejerot, Susanne
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Riksson, Jonna M.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Mörtberg, Ewa
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Social anxiety in adult autism spectrum disorder2014Ingår i: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 220, nr 1-2, 705-707 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A link has been suggested between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and anxiety disorders. The aim of the study was to examine the severity of social anxiety measured by the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale Self-Report and prevalence of Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) in adults with ASD, with SAD and a non-ASD comparison group. Individuals with ASD showed significantly higher scores of social anxiety and social avoidance relative to the comparison group, but significantly lower scores relative to the SAD sample.

  • 28.
    Bergman, Lars R.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Corovic, Jelena
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Modig, K.
    High IQ in early adolescence and career success in adulthood: Findings from a Swedish longitudinal study2014Ingår i: Research in Human Development, ISSN 1542-7609, Vol. 11, nr 3, 165-185 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To what extent do intellectually talented adolescents pursue educational and vocational careers that match their intellectual resources? Career outcomes were compared between groups within different IQ ranges with a focus on comparing those with high IQ (top 10%, IQ > 119) to those with average IQ. Data were analyzed from the longitudinal Swedish IDA study (N = 1,326) with career outcomes measured in midlife (age 43–47). To obtain at least a master’s degree was almost 10 times more common for those of high IQ than for those of average IQ. Still, the proportion of high-IQ adolescents who did this was not high (13% of females, 34% of males) and as much as 20% of them did not even graduate from 3-year high school. For men only, there was a graded raise in income by IQ group.Within the high-IQ group there was no significant relationship between parents’ socioeconomic status and income. For men, high IQ predicted a strongly increased income/vocational level in midlife beyond what was predicted from a linear model of the IQ-outcome relationship.

  • 29.
    Bergman, Lars R.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Integrative summary and future research2014Ingår i: Research in Human Development, ISSN 1542-7609, Vol. 11, nr 3, 237-240 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article provides a summary and treatment of the wider implications of the findings reported in four empirical articles, in which the importance for outcomes in midlife of having a high IQ was studied. All studies were based on data from the Swedish longitudinal research program Individual Development and Adaptation (N = 1,326, born 1955). Some highlights from the studies include the identification of a nonlinear relationship between IQ and a number of adult outcomes, suggesting that nonlinear IQ-outcome relationships might not be rare. In common with numerous studies of IQ-outcome relationships, parents’ socioeconomic status was found to be a moderately strong predictor of vocational outcomes when the whole sample was studied. However, within the high-IQ group no significant relationship existed. In adolescence, the adjustment for those of high IQ was often better than for those of average IQ, but in midlife this positive difference often disappeared and was in some cases reversed. Intellectually talented women as compared to intellectually talented men often had considerably less successful careers, especially vocational careers. Underachieving women as compared to women who did not underachieve also tended to have more adjustment roblems in midlife. It was concluded that schools and their personnel must be adequately supported to “make good on” society’s obligation to further the potential of students that show early intellectual talent. Given past and current inequalities of opportunity, this seems especially important for bright girls and women.

  • 30.
    Bergman, Lars R.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    The Implications of High IQ in Early Adolescence for Education, Career, and Adjustment in Midlife: Findings from a Swedish Longitudinal Study2014Ingår i: Research in Human Development, ISSN 1542-7609, Vol. 11, nr 3, 161-164 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Inquiry into what intellectual talent is and how social institutions can support intellectually talented youth are historic, internationally held concerns. This article provides an introduction to a special issue that deals with the implications of high IQ in early adolescence for several important midlife outcomes. From a societal perspective, it is vital to know the extent to which intellectually talented youth attain an advanced education and become engaged in qualified occupations. Studies in this issue document a diversity of midlife outcomes for a large, reasonably representative urban cohort of intellectually talented Swedish adolescents, as well as consider the importance of gender and social class for these outcomes.

  • 31.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Stengård, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Näswall, Katharina
    University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    How Are They Now?: Managers’ Well-Being and Organizational Attitudes after the Restructuring of Their Job Positions in a Swedish Governmental Agency2014Ingår i: Book of Proceedings, 11th Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology: Looking at the past-planning for the future: Capitalizing on OHP multidisciplinarity / [ed] N.J.A. Andreou, A. Jain, D. Hollis, J. Hassard & K. Teoh, Nottingham, UK: European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology , 2014, 257-258 s.Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Planned organizational changes often aim to secure organizational sustainability through the means of optimising structures and strategies. However, for employees such organizational changes often imply job changes and the loss of familiar routines. 

    Plausibly, this increases perceived uncertainty and may have negative effects on employees’ organizational attitudes and well-being during the change. If levels of well-being and organizational attitudes are negatively affected in the long run, this may pose threats to the initial aim to secure organizational sustainability. This may even more so be the case if employees such as managers show long-term negative reactions, since managers are in key positions to promote the organizations aims vis à vis employees. Whereas there is much research on employees’ reactions towards organizational change, few studies have specifically analysed managers’ reactions at different organizational levels. Also, many studies focus on certain aspects of uncertainty, but few inspect the consequences of (unwanted) job, task or responsibility changes.

    Accordingly, this study aimed to investigate managers’ well-being and organizational attitudes after organizational changes of management structures. More specifically, it studied how changes in managers’ organizational attitudes and well-being related to changes in job positions, tasks and responsibilities shortly after the organizational restructuring, and more than a year later.

    The study used questionnaire data collected from managers in a Swedish governmental agency undergoing structural changes. During this period all managers had to go through a new recruitment process. Questionnaires were sent out at T1 (summer 2011, one month before the change process started), T2 (spring 2012, two months after the organizational change was finalised) and T3 (summer 2013, 18 months after the organizational change was finalised).

    Data are currently being analysed cross-sectionally (N = 173, 144, and 125) and longitudinally (N = 91 with complete date for t1, t2 and t3). The preliminary findings show the percentage of managers who rated their job positions favorably steadily decreased from T1 to T3, and this related to a significant decrease in self-rated health and job satisfaction. Interestingly, perceptions of tasks and responsibilities of their old and new jobs were still rather similar at T2. How the perceptions of changes in tasks and responsibilities relate to attitudes and well-being a year later (T3) is currently under analysis.

  • 32.
    Berntson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Corin, Linda
    Hur har chefen det? Chefens perspektiv på förutsättningarna i arbetet2014Ingår i: Chefskapets förutsättningar och konsekvenser: metoder och resultat från Chefios-projektet - slutrapport del 1 / [ed] Annika Härenstam och Anders Östebo, Göteborg: Västra Götalandsregionen (ISM 14:1) , 2014, , 59-84 s.59-84 s.Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    En viktig utgångspunkt i beskrivningen av chefers arbetsmiljö har varit att karaktärisera deras situation dels ur ett helhetsperspektiv och dels utifrån såväl negativa (belastande) som positiva (resurser) variabler. En teoretisk referensram som är särskilt lämplig i detta sammanhang har varit Job demands-resources model (JD-R) (Demerouti, Bakker, Nachreiner & Schaufeli, 2001).

  • 33.
    Berntson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Härenstam, Annika
    Lindgren, Hans
    Pousette, Anders
    Szücs, Stefan
    Improving Organizational Prerequisites for Public Sector Managers – a Follow-up Study With Long-term Effects2014Ingår i: Book of Proceedings, 11th Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology: Looking at the past-planning for the future: Capitalizing on OHP multidisciplinarity / [ed] N.J.A. Andreou, A. Jain, D. Hollis, J. Hassard & K. Teoh, Nottingham, UK: European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology , 2014, 345- s.Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational interventions have been suggested to be important instruments in order to improve working conditions as well as employee health and well-being. Even though such studies are relevant the effects are difficult to measure (Nielsen, 2013; Nielsen & Abildgaard, 2013). There is an ongoing discussion on why it is difficult to measure and how to do it. One aspect of this is when the effects are prevalent. In the present study we focus on long-term effects of an intervention. The study is a survey-feedback intervention directed at managers in public sector authorities. The purpose of the intervention, which was a participatory intervention, was to improve organizational prerequisites for the managers in the study.

    In a previous investigation of the effects of the intervention, the short-term effects where studied, implying mixed results. There was a tendency of a positive effect among those intervention organizations that also had a successful implementation process. On the other hand, in those organizations with an unsuccessful implementation process, the results came out negative. In the present study, the aim is to investigate long-term effects of the participatory intervention, regarding work conditions among public sector managers.

    In this study 720 managers participated. There were six intervention organizations and 22 controls, located in seven local authorities in Western Sweden. Questionnaires were answered pre and post intervention (in 2009 and 2011). In addition, register data were used and interviews made, providing a multi-method approach. During the intervention year, process support was provided. The focus of the quantitative measures was to investigate if working conditions improved as a result of the intervention. Variables such as resource problems, conflicts of logics, illegitimate tasks, supporting structures, hindrance, managerial problems but also factors such as span of control, performance and perceived stress were measured. In the present study, a follow-up questionnaire will be answered by one of the intervention organizations. Results from this third questionnaire will be analyzed and presented.

  • 34.
    Berntson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Härenstam, Annika
    Gender Differences in Career Prospects: Does Work-Family Conflict Matter for Perceived Employability and Career Opportunities?2014Ingår i: Book of Proceedings, 11th Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology: Looking at the past-planning for the future: Capitalizing on OHP multidisciplinarity / [ed] N.J.A. Andreou, A. Jain, D. Hollis, J. Hassard & K. Teoh, Nottingham, UK: European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology , 2014, 237- s.Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender equality in the labourmarket has been emphasized as an important factor several times in European community (EU Commission, 1997; 2010). Nevertheless, differences in career opportunities have been found in previous research, indicating that women report more barriers then men regarding career aspects (Hawley McWirther, 1997). In this respect, a number of possible explanations has been put forward, for example work-family conflict (WFC) (Gali Cinnamon, 2006). In the present study we are interested in investigating possible predictors of career opportunities and more specifically the aim of the present study is to investigate antecedents of career opportunities and perceived employability.

    The present study comprised a representative sample of 1,609 Swedish workers (716 men and 883 women) in the ages of 26 to 51, who answered two questionnaires, one in 2005 and one in 2006. The study comprised questions regarding career opportunities and perceived employability (outcomes) and age, mental well-being, education, tenure, children at home, working hours (per week) and WFC (predictors). The data was analyzed by means of a regression analysis.

    Preliminary results indicate that women reported lower levels of employability as well as career opportunities. They also had a higher level of education, shorter tenure and worked fewer hours per week. Regarding the regression analysis, the results displayed a significant association between WFC and the outcomes for men but not for women. For women part-time work predicted both outcomes. It could also be found that tenure had a negative effect on both outcomes, suggesting that for both men and women (although somewhat stronger for men) working longer in one organization affects perceived career prospects in a negative way. In addition, the results indicate that subjective mental well-being is an important predictor for employability as well as for career opportunities.

    The results confirm earlier studies in that women report more career barriers. We also find it interesting that the results from the preliminary analyses suggest that WFC is primarily a problem for men. For women, the number of hours per week seems to be more important.

  • 35. Bhatara, Anjali
    et al.
    Laukka, PetriStockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.Levitin, Daniel J.
    Expression of emotion in music and vocal communication2014Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Two of the most important social skills in humans are the ability to determine the moods of those around us, and to use this to guide our behavior. To accomplish this, we make use of numerous cues. Among the most important are vocal cues from both speech and non-speech sounds. Music is also a reliable method for communicating emotion. It is often present in social situations and can serve to unify a group's mood for ceremonial purposes (funerals, weddings) or general social interactions. Scientists and philosophers have speculated on the origins of music and language, and the possible common bases of emotional expression through music, speech and other vocalizations. They have found increasing evidence of commonalities among them. However, the domains in which researchers investigate these topics do not always overlap or share a common language, so communication between disciplines has been limited. The aim of this Research Topic is to bring together research across multiple disciplines related to the production and perception of emotional cues in music, speech, and non-verbal vocalizations. This includes natural sounds produced by human and non-human primates as well as synthesized sounds. Research methodology includes survey, behavioral, and neuroimaging techniques investigating adults as well as developmental populations, including those with atypical development. Studies using laboratory tasks as well as studies in more naturalistic settings are included.

  • 36. Bhatara, Anjali
    et al.
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Levitin, Daniel J.
    Expression of emotion in music and vocal communication: introduction to the research topic2014Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 5, 399- s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In social interactions, we must gauge the emotional state of others in order to behave appropriately. We rely heavily on auditory cues, specifically speech prosody, to do this. Music is also a complex auditory signal with the capacity to communicate emotion rapidly and effectively and often occurs in social situations or ceremonies as an emotional unifier.

    In sum, the main contribution of this Research Topic, along with highlighting the variety of research being done already, is to show the places of contact between the domains of music and vocal expression that occur at the level of emotional communication. In addition, we hope it will encourage future dialog among researchers interested in emotion in fields as diverse as computer science, linguistics, musicology, neuroscience, psychology, speech and hearing sciences, and sociology, who can each contribute knowledge necessary for studying this complex topic.

  • 37. Birath Scheffel, Christina
    et al.
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    DeMarinis, Valerie
    Hauke, Sarah
    Smallwood, Jennifer A.
    Chang, Grace
    Risky drinking women: contrasting therapeutic approaches2014Ingår i: Journal of Alcoholism & Drug Dependence, ISSN 2329-6488, Vol. 2, nr 3, 1000160- s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The importance of early identification and effective treatment for risky drinking grows with the increasing rate of alcohol use by women. Objectives: This study aims to contrast treatment approaches for two samples of problem drinking women. Methods: The samples consisted of (i) 134 alcohol treatment-seeking Swedish women receiving long-term comprehensive services; and (ii) 152 US women who were not seeking treatment for alcohol but were medical outpatients with one of four conditions exacerbated by excessive alcohol use and received a brief intervention as part of a study. Data consisted of questionnaires assessing alcohol consumption, perceived stress and attitudes towards change. Results: While the treatment-seeking Swedish group drank more alcohol at the start of treatment, all women reduced their consumption of alcohol at the end of treatment/follow-up. Women who reported more stress drank more initially in both samples. Conclusion and Scientific Significance: This report contrasts two “extreme” approaches to treatment: longterm, open-ended, outpatient treatment and, time-limited, structured brief intervention for risky drinking women. Both treatment methods yielded positive results with significantly reduced drinking. Factors associated with successful outcome included the women’s attitudes toward treatment and conviction for the necessity of change in drinking habits.

  • 38. Birath Scheffel, Christina
    et al.
    Beijer, Ulla
    DeMarinis, Valerie
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Institutionen för Kvinnors och Barns Hälsa, Karolinska Institutet.
    Barn till våldsutsatta kvinnor med missbruksproblem2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande rapport är att utifrån insamlade och bearbetade data från ursprungsprojektet 'Studie om mäns våld mot kvinnor med missbruksproblem' sammanställa resultat som speglar barns psykosociala familjesituation där modern har missbruksproblem och i många fall blivit utsatt för manligt våld av partner och/eller släkting, bekant, eller myndighetsperson. Sammanfattningsvis lyfter resultaten, avseende barnens egen ogynnsamma utveckling och den generationsöverskridande problematiken i föreliggande studie, frågan om betydelsen av tidiga interventioner riktade till barn i riskmiljöer. Detta förefaller vara av särskild vikt för att ge underbyggt stöd för aktivt handlande avseende Barns rätt i samhället enligt Barnkonventionen.

  • 39. Blom, Victoria
    et al.
    Richter, Anne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Hallsten, Lennart
    Svedberg, Pia
    Investigating the Association between Job Insecurity and Burnout: The Moderating and Mediating Role of Performance-Based Self-Esteem2014Ingår i: Book of Proceedings, 11th Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology: Looking at the past-planning for the future: Capitalizing on OHP multidisciplinarity / [ed] N.J.A. Andreou, A. Jain, D. Hollis, J. Hassard & K. Teoh, Nottingham, UK: European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology , 2014, 94-94 s.Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite an overall agreement on the negative effects of job insecurity, more knowledge needs to be generated addressing the mechanisms of why and for whom job insecurity has these negative effects. The present study aims to investigate the mechanisms of job insecurity on burnout by studying the intervening influences of performance-based self-esteem (PBSE), an individual’s self-esteem that is contingent on good performance. The participants were 13,185 twins from the Swedish Twin Registry. In order to test two potential mechanisms, PBSE was tested as a moderator as well as a mediator of the relation between job insecurity and burnout. The results showed that job insecurity was significantly associated with burnout. Moreover, PBSE slightly moderated this association; burnout increased more during job insecurity for individuals with high PBSE than for individuals with low PBSE. PBSE also partially mediated the association between job insecurity and burnout, in that experiences of job insecurity to some extent triggered PBSE, which in turn was related to burnout. It is suggested that the rather episodic character of job insecurity and its role-changing consequences contributed to the rather modest moderating and mediating effects of PBSE.

  • 40. Blom, Victoria
    et al.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Bodin, Lennart
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Svedberg, Pia
    Work-Home Interference and Burnout A Study Based on Swedish Twins2014Ingår i: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 56, nr 4, 361-366 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study sets out to investigate the impact of work-home interference on burnout in women and men, while taking genetic and family environmental factors into account. Methods: A total of 4446 Swedish twins were included in the study. The effects of work-home conflict (WHC) and home-work conflict (HWC) on burnout between and within pairs were analyzed with co-twin control analyses. Results: Both WHC and HWC were significantly associated with burnout. Genetic factors may be involved in the association between HWC and burnout in women. Familial factors were not involved for WHC and burnout, neither for women nor for men. Conclusions: This study shows the importance to encounter WHC per se to prevent burnout. Because of genetic confounding in HWC and burnout in women, preventive efforts may also take into account individual characteristics.

  • 41.
    Bodin Danielsson, Christina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Chungkham, Holendro Singh
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Wulff, Cornelia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Office design's impact on sick leave rates:  2014Ingår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 57, nr 2, 139-147 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of office type on sickness absence among office employees was studied prospectively in 1852 employees working in (1) cell-offices; (2) shared-room offices; (3) small, (4) medium-sized and (5) large open-plan offices; (6) flex-offices and (7) combi-offices. Sick leaves were self-reported two years later as number of (a) short and (b) long (medically certified) sick leave spells as well as (c) total number of sick leave days. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used, with adjustment for background factors. A significant excess risk for sickness absence was found only in terms of short sick leave spells in the three open-plan offices. In the gender separate analysis, this remained for women, whereas men had a significantly increased risk in flex-offices. For long sick leave spells, a significantly higher risk was found among women in large open-plan offices and for total number of sick days among men in flex-offices. Practitioner Summary: A prospective study of the office environment's effect on employees is motivated by the high rates of sick leaves in the workforce. The results indicate differences between office types, depending on the number of people sharing workspace and the opportunity to exert personal control as influenced by the features that define the office types.

  • 42.
    Boettcher, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Freie Universitaet Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Hasselrot, Jonas
    Umeå University.
    Sund, Erik
    Umeå University.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University & Karolinska Institutet.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Combining attention training with Internet-based cognitive-behavioural self-help for social anxiety: a randomised controlled trial2014Ingår i: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, Vol. 43, nr 1, 34-48 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Guided Internet-based cognitive-behavioural self-help (ICBT) has been proven to be effective for social anxiety disorder (SAD) by several independent research groups. However, as the proportion of clinical significant change has room for improvement, new treatments should be developed and investigated. A novel treatment is attention bias modification (ABM). This study aimed at evaluating the combination of ABM and ICBT. We compared two groups, one group receiving ICBT and ABM targeting attentional avoidance and the other group receiving ICBT and control training. ABM and control training tasks were both based on the dot-probe paradigm. A total of 133 participants, diagnosed with SAD, were randomised to these two groups. The attention training group (N = 66) received 2 weeks of daily attention training followed by 9 weeks of ICBT. The control group (N = 67) received 2 weeks of daily control training, also followed by 9 weeks of ICBT. Social anxiety measures as well as the attention bias were assessed at pre-assessment, at week 2, and at post-treatment. Results showed no significant differences between the attention training group and the control group. Both groups improved substantially on social anxiety symptoms from pre- to post-assessment (dwithin = 1.39–1.41), but showed no change in attention processes (dwithin = 0.10–0.17). In this trial, the attention modification training failed to induce differential change in attention bias. Results demonstrate that the applied ABM procedure with its focus on the reduction of attentional avoidance was ineffective in the Internet-based setting. The results do not suggest that adding ABM targeting attentional avoidance to ICBT results in better outcomes than ICBT alone.

  • 43.
    Boettcher, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Freie Universitaet Berlin, Germany.
    Rozental, Alexander
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Side effects in Internet-based interventions for Social Anxiety Disorder2014Ingår i: Internet Interventions, ISSN 2214-7829, Vol. 1, nr 1, 3-11 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet-based interventions are effective in the treatment of various mental disorders and have already been integrated in routine health care in some countries. Empirical data on potential negative effects of these interventions is lacking. This study investigated side effects in an Internet-based treatment for Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD).

    A total of 133 individuals diagnosed with SAD took part in an 11-week guided treatment. Side effects were assessed as open formatted questions after week 2 and at post-treatment after week 11. Answers were independently rated by two coders. In addition, rates of deterioration and non-response were calculated for primary social anxiety and secondary outcome measures (depression and quality of life).

    In total, 19 participants (14%) described unwanted negative events that they related to treatment. The emergence of new symptoms was the most commonly experienced side effect, followed by the deterioration of social anxiety symptoms and negative well-being. The large majority of the described side effects had a temporary but no enduring negative effect on participants' well-being. At post-treatment, none of the participants reported deterioration on social anxiety measures and 0–7% deteriorated on secondary outcome measures. Non-response was frequent with 32–50% for social anxiety measures and 57–90% for secondary outcomes at post-assessment.

    Results suggest that a small proportion of participants in Internet-based interventions experiences negative effects during treatment. Information about potential side effects should be integrated in patient education in the practice of Internet-based treatments.

  • 44.
    Boettcher, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Free University of Berlin, Germany.
    Åstrom, Viktor
    Påhlsson, Daniel
    Schenström, Ola
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Internet-Based Mindfulness Treatment for Anxiety Disorders: A Randomized Controlled Trial2014Ingår i: Behavior Therapy, ISSN 0005-7894, E-ISSN 1878-1888, Vol. 45, nr 2, 241-253 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mindfulness-based interventions have proven effective for the trans diagnostic treatment of heterogeneous anxiety disorders. So far, no study has investigated the potential of mindfulness-based treatments when delivered remotely via the Internet. The current trial aims at evaluating the efficacy of a stand-alone, unguided, Internet-based mindfulness treatment program for anxiety. Ninety-one participants diagnosed with social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, or anxiety disorder not otherwise specified were randomly assigned to a mindfulness treatment group (MTG) or to an online discussion forum control group (CG). Mindfulness treatment consisted of 96 audio files with instructions for various mindfulness meditation exercises. Primary and secondary outcome measures were assessed at pre-, post-treatment, and at 6-months follow-up. Participants of the MTG showed a larger decrease of symptoms of anxiety, depression, and insomnia from pre- to postassessment than participants of the CG (Cohen's d(between) = 0.36-0.99). Within effect sizes were large in the MTG (d = 0.82-1.58) and small to moderate in the CG (d = 0.45-0.76). In contrast to participants of the CG, participants of the MTG also achieved a moderate improvement in their quality of life. The study provided encouraging results for an Internet-based mindfulness protocol in the treatment of primary anxiety disorders. Future replications of these results will show whether Web-based mindfulness meditation can constitute a valid alternative to existing, evidence-based cognitive-behavioural Internet treatments.

  • 45. Bolin, Karl
    et al.
    Bluhm, Gosta
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Listening Test Comparing A-Weighted and C-Weighted Sound Pressure Level as Indicator of Wind Turbine Noise Annoyance2014Ingår i: Acta Acoustica united with Acustica, ISSN 1610-1928, E-ISSN 1861-9959, Vol. 100, nr 5, 842-847 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A listening test was conducted to investigate whether A-or C-weighed sound levels are most suitable as indicator of annoyance due to wind turbine noise. The tests consisted of fifteen different wind turbine noises presented at eight sound levels together with pink noise signals as reference sounds. A total number of 31 persons performed the listening test divided into two subgroups. The first group comprising of 20 students conducted the test in a semi anechoic chamber, and the second group of 11 residents annoyed by wind turbine noise in their homes, conducted the test in their own homes. Results from both subgroups showed that A-weighed sound levels were a more accurate description of wind turbine noise annoyance than C-weighed sound levels. The residents found the same wind turbine noises more annoying than the students, indicating a higher sensitivity to wind turbine noise among persons a priori annoyed by this noise and exposed to this source in their residential settings.

  • 46.
    Borg, Elisabet
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    A range model and a schematized conception for intermodal comparisons2014Ingår i: Fechner Day 2014: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics / [ed] G.R. Patching, M. Johnson, E. Borg, & Å. Hellström, Lund: International Society for Psychophysics , 2014, 7-7 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The human brain is supposed to have a capacity for supramodal evaluation of information-interaction from several senses (often studied through fMRI). Gunnar Borg’s Range Model is a theoretical framework for interindividual, intermodal and interdisciplinary comparisons. The model postulates that the total natural subjective dynamic range from zero (or the threshold) to maximum (or a terminal level very close to the maximal intensity) is approximately subjectively equal for all individuals. Each individual experience is thus interpreted in relation to its position in the individual range, regardless of the size of the physical stimulus range. For interindividual and intermodal comparisons it is also important to have a good reference, a firmly schematized conception, with high interindividual agreement. A maximal perceived exertion has been found to work well for this purpose. Perceived exertion is an emergent modality consisting of many symptoms and cues with several sensory systems involved in conveying information to the brain from the muscles, respiration, skin, joints etc.; and with several important physiological correlates (e.g., heart rate, blood lactate, ventilation, skin temperature). In contrast to many other modalities, the perception of exertion comes from an active interaction of the body with the environment and the person usually regulates performance as a response to the perception. For healthy people it is also not harmful with a maximal exertion.  Thus, a maximal perceived exertion is something most of us have experienced. In a questionnaire study the idea was investigated that, at least in some cases, what schematized conception is used will have importance. This should for example be true for modalities where individual experiences vary greatly, as, e.g., for pain. Modalities included were taste (sourness and sweetness), heaviness, loudness, brightness, fear, smell, and pain. Two groups of 20 persons (10 men and 10 women) followed one of two instructions. Group A compared each item with their conception of a maximal heaviness (as “100”) and Group B used item-specific (intramodal) references of "sourest, sweetest, loudest, etc., imaginable". The cross-modal task of comparing different modalities to the conception of a maximal heaviness worked well. As expected there was a significant difference between the two kinds of instructions for pain (with a lower mean value for group B, p < 0,001), but, and more importantly, also a larger variance for group B. For most modalities, except for pain, the intramodal references (sourest, sweetest, loudest, etc.) may thus be conceived of as similar across individuals as well as approximately equal to the reference of a maximal heaviness, or at least was used that way. For a modality, such as pain, where individual experiences may differ extensively, the cross-modal task of using the conception of a maximal heaviness should be preferred.

  • 47.
    Borg, Elisabet
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Carlberg, Charlotte
    Scaling loudness with the Borg CR100 Scale®2014Ingår i: Fechner Day 2014: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics / [ed] G.R. Patching, M. Johnson, E. Borg, & Å. Hellström, Lund: International Society for Psychophysics , 2014, 8-8 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Borg CR Scales® are general intensity scales suitable for most kinds of experiences and symptoms including loudness, but have predominantly been used for perceived exertion and pain assessment. Even if earlier versions have, the present Borg CR100 scale® has not, however, been tested on loudness. The scales are constructed to give ratio data and exponents that mimic what is obtained with magnitude estimation (ME). To also give level determinations and for interindividual comparisons, verbal labels are placed on the scale in congruence with the ratio scale from 0 (nothing at all) to 100 (”Maximal” and anchored in a previously experienced perception of, for example, perceived exertion), with, for example, ”Strong” at 50 and with the possibility to exceed 100 in extreme situations1. 36 university students (9 men and 27 women: mean age 22.4 years, s = 3.1 years) partook in a loudness experiment, scaling loudness with the Borg CR100 Scale®. All sounds, S ={40; 50; 60; 70; 80; 90; 100} dB(A), were presented four times in the same randomized order to all subjects. Sounds were generated by NMATLAB script, presented through earphones (Sennheiser HD 580 Precision) in a sound proof listening room using a stationary computer (Windows 7 Professional with RME Fireface 400 external sound card, sampling frequency 48 kHz, 24 bit depth). Geometric means of results obtained with the Borg CR100 scale® were R = {4.7; 7.3; 12.2; 19.2; 29.5; 51.0; 86.5} thus ranging from approx. “Very week” to just below “Extremely strong”. The power function, computed from individual geometric means, was R = 61.7 x S0.42 (r = 0.912) and thus similar to what has often been obtained with ME and also with previous versions of Borg CR scales. Coefficients of variation fell from 0.61 (40 dB) to 0.14 (100 dB), similar to what has been obtained for perceived exertion. The latest Borg CR100 scale® thus works fine for scaling loudness of pure tones.

  • 48.
    Borg, Elisabet
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Love, Chantella
    Evaluating elite performance with the Borg CR100 scale® in a Swedish championship in diving2014Ingår i: Fechner Day 2014: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics / [ed] G.R. Patching, M. Johnson, E. Borg, & Å. Hellström, Lund, Sweden: International Society for Psychophysics , 2014, 9-9 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In many sports, such as for example, in diving, figure skating and ski jumping, subjective assessment is essential in evaluating the performance. Judges usually score the performance according to a complicated setup of rules but uses quite simple rating scales. The Borg CR Scales®, commonly used for perceptual scaling of a variety of modalities and symptoms, may also be used for performance evaluation. The Borg CR100 Scale®, is a general intensity scale from 0 to 100,  "Maximal". For diving, “Maximal” was anchored in a "perfect dive". Five judges used the Borg CR100 scale together with the traditional scale for 4 men and 6 women who partook in the semi-finals in the Swedish Championships in diving, 2012. Judges were consistent in their way of using the scales, as can be seen from individual correlations with the contest results. Strong significant correlations were obtained between the traditional scale and the Borg CR100 scale® (r = 0.80) and for both scales with the contest results (0.63 and 0.62). With the Borg CR100 scale® several dives were assessed with a more precise differentiation between the dives. This is illustrated in Fig. 1 by the two individual dives no. 281 and 350. Since the CR100 is more finely graded, the scale gives a better flexibility in the judgments. Because the Borg CR scales can be used for self appraisal of for example perceived exertion, perceived difficulty, and motivation, the results in this study opens up an interesting field of possible comparisons in the study of performance enhancement and in the training of elite athletes.

  • 49.
    Borg, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Borg, Elisabet
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    To determine the magnitude of pain with Borg CR-scales®2014Ingår i: Fechner Day 2014: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics / [ed] G.R. Patching, M. Johnson, E. Borg, & Å. Hellström, Lund: International Society for Psychophysics , 2014, 10-10 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There are many demands on a good pain-scale. It should be possible to: use for all kinds of pain; determine direct levels of intensity over the total range; treat responses with statistical methods, preferably parametric statistics; study degrees of changes with stimulus intensity, medication and time; make interindividual, intermodal and psychophysiological comparisons; avoid ceiling and floor effects; make estimations and also productions; determine psychophysical S-R-functions, possible to describe with a general equations as, e.g., R=a+c(S-b)^n, where a is the basic “noise” at rest  (or the absolute threshold), and b is the starting point of the function; make two-way communication; handle round off tendencies; use internationally. To meet these demands the scale must be constructed according to basic psychophysical and linguistic knowledge, and tested in relevant experiments. To cover the total subjective range there is a need of a number variation from 0 to 50 or a little more, about 26. Several anchors should be used that people understand very well, and that are placed correctly. Most existing scales do not fulfill these demands. A common drawback is that there is a too limited range, or a maximal endpoint defined as “Highest (or Worst) Imaginable”, which is not a schematized conception and problematic for interindividual comparisons. Examples are the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), and is the "Labeled Magnitude Scale" (LMS) for oral sensation. On the LMS verbal anchors are placed to give ratio data, but “Strong” is 34.7, “Very strong” 52,5. For general usage, e.g., in two-way communication for prescription of exercise, this is not good, nor does the scales facilitate predictions of max-levels from sub-max estimations. The best scales are the Borg CR Scales® (CR10 and CR100). In these scales quantitative semantics is used by applying ratio scaling to determine interpretation, meaning position in the range for congruence between anchors (labels) and numbers, and preciseness meaning interindividual agreement. It is especially important that the anchors for Zero and Maximal refer to schematized conceptions. A maximal magnitude is defined as a maximal perceived exertion and effort, for example a maximal heaviness. These ideas have been presented during several ISP meetings by G. Borg, last time in Freiburg 2013. The CR10 has been used in many studies, e.g., during tests of functional capacity and chest pain, and muscular-skeletal pain. The CR100 scale has, however, a greater potential as a general scale making possible determinations of most kinds of perceptual magnitudes. An advantage to the CR10 is that decimals need not be used and that the dynamic range is bigger and more in accordance with the psychophysical demands. The extra constants in the power function can then better reflect the true sensory processes.

  • 50.
    Bujacz, Aleksandra
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Dunne, Sara
    Fink, David
    Gatej, Alexandra Raluca
    Karlsson, Ebba
    Ruberti, Veronica
    Wronska, Marta Katarzyna