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  • 1. Aletta, Francesco
    et al.
    Margaritis, Efstathios
    Filipan, Karlo
    Puyana Romero, Virginia
    Axelsson, Östen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Kang, Jian
    Characterization of the soundscape in Valley Gardens, Brighton, by a soundwalk prior to an urban design intervention2015Ingår i: Proceedings of Euronoise 2015 / [ed] C. Glorieux, Nederlands Akoestisch Genootschap and ABAV - Belgian Acoustical Society , 2015, 1547-1552 s., 357Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to characterize the soundscape of the Valley Gardens in Brighton before the area is converted into a downtown park. Valley Gardens is located in the busy city centre. It extends from the Brighton Pier at the seafront and approximately 1.5 km to the north. It includes Old Stein, Victoria Gardens, St Peter’s Church, and The Level. In 2015 work will commence on redeveloping Victoria Gardens and St Peter’s Church. In order to characterize the soundscape of the Valley Gardens prior to this urban design intervention a soundwalk was conducted. In October 2014, a group of 21 persons -experts in acoustics and officers of the City Council- were guided through the area together, and assessed the soundscape at eight sites: five within the Valley Gardens and three reference sites. The assessments covered the soundscape quality, how appropriate the soundscape is to the place, the dominance of perceived sound sources, and the affective quality of the soundscape. In addition, binaural recordings and sound-level measurements were conducted at each of the eight sites during the soundwalk. Preliminary results indicate that the Valley Gardens was dominated by the sound of road traffic, and that the soundscape was perceived as inappropriate to the place. Consequently, the planned design intervention should reduce the dominance of road-traffic sound and introduce more positive sounds, like the sound of people and nature. This would be done through careful planning of the landscape and human activities within the area. The plan is to follow-up these results with a post-intervention soundwalk.

  • 2.
    Almkvist, Ove
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Kadir, Ahmadul
    Nordberg, Agneta
    Degree of abnormality is associated with rate of change in measures of beta-amyloid, glucose metabolism and cognition in an autopsy-verified Alzheimer’s disease case2015Ingår i: Neurocase, ISSN 1355-4794, E-ISSN 1465-3656, Vol. 21, nr 6, 738-747 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The degree of abnormality and rate of change in cognitive functions, positron emission tomography Pittsburg compound B (PET PIB), and fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) measures were studied for 8 years in an autopsy-confirmed Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patient, who died 61 years old (Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score 7). At first encounter with medical care, the patient was very mildly demented (MMSE score 27). She had four cognitive assessments and two examinations with PET PIB and FDG in 23 bilateral brain regions. The onset of cognitive decline was retrospectively estimated to have started in the early forties. The degree of impairment was inversely related to the rate of decline. A similar relationship was seen between the rate of change and the level of abnormality in both PIB and FDG. To conclude, rate of change in cognition, PIB, and FDG was associated with the degree of abnormality.

  • 3.
    Anderbro, Therese
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Gonder-Frederick, Linda
    Bolinder, Jan
    Lins, Per-Eric
    Wredling, Regina
    Moberg, Erik
    Lisspers, Jan
    Johansson, Unn-Britt
    Fear of hypoglycemia: relationship to hypoglycemic risk and psychological factors2015Ingår i: Acta Diabetologica, ISSN 0940-5429, E-ISSN 1432-5233, Vol. 52, nr 3, 581-589 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The major aims of this study were to examine (1) the association between fear of hypoglycemia (FOH) in adults with type 1 diabetes with demographic, psychological (anxiety and depression), and disease-specific clinical factors (hypoglycemia history and unawareness, A(1c)), including severe hypoglycemia (SH), and (2) differences in patient subgroups categorized by level of FOH and risk of SH. Questionnaires were mailed to 764 patients with type 1 diabetes including the Swedish translation of the Hypoglycemia Fear Survey (HFS) and other psychological measures including the Perceived Stress Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Anxiety Sensitivity Index, Social Phobia Scale, and Fear of Complications Scale. A questionnaire to assess hypoglycemia history was also included and A(1c) measures were obtained from medical records. Statistical analyses included univariate approaches, multiple stepwise linear regressions, Chi-square t tests, and ANOVAs. Regressions showed that several clinical factors (SH history, frequency of nocturnal hypoglycemia, self-monitoring) were significantly associated with FOH but R (2) increased from 16.25 to 39.2 % when anxiety measures were added to the model. When patients were categorized by level of FOH (low, high) and SH risk (low, high), subgroups showed significant differences in non-diabetes-related anxiety, hypoglycemia history, self-monitoring, and glycemic control. There is a strong link between FOH and non-diabetes-related anxiety, as well as hypoglycemia history. Comparison of patient subgroups categorized according to level of FOH and SH risk demonstrated the complexity of FOH and identified important differences in psychological and clinical variables, which have implications for clinical interventions.

  • 4.
    Anderbro, Therese
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Moberg, E.
    Gonder-Frederick, L.
    Lins, P.
    Adamson, U.
    Johansson, U.
    A longitudinal study of fear of hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to investigate fear of hypoglycemia (FoH) longitudinally in adult patients with type 1 diabetes. Specifically, we investigated two subgroups of patients who over four years either showed a significantly higher or significantly lower level of FoH in order to identify factors associated with changes in FoH.

    Method

    The Swedish version of the Hypoglycemia Fear Survey (HFS) along with a questionnaire to assess hypoglycemia history (mild, moderate, nocturnal and severe hypoglycaemia (SH), unawareness, and daytime/nocturnal self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG)) were sent by mail to 764 patients in 2010. The responders in 2010 (n=469) received another set of the same two questionnaires in 2014. A1c, insulin regimen, weight and creatinine from 2010 and 2014 were obtained from medical records. Those with an absolute difference in HFS scores ≥ 75th percentile were included in the subgroup analyses. Statistical analyses included one-sample t-tests and chi-square.

    Results

    The absolute difference in the HFS total score (n=359) between 2010 and 2014 was m=±7.6, SD ±6 (range -29 - +35). In the subgroup with increased FoH 2014 (n=45), more patients reported unawareness (76% vs 58%, Χ2= 5.05, p= 0.025) and a higher frequency of moderate hypoglycemia (52% v s 38%, Χ2= 3.93, p= 0.047) compared to 2010. In the group with decreased FoH (n=43), fewer patients reported going to the emergency department due to hypoglycemia in 2014 compared to 2010 (2% vs 14%, Χ2= 4.84, p= 0.028). There were no differences in the remaining hypoglycemia history variables or medical variables between 2010 and 2014. Between group analyzes show that in the decreased FoH group more patients have a high frequency of daily SMBG compared to the increased FoH group in 2010 (35% vs 17%, Χ2= 12.23, p= 0.00) and in 2014 (33% vs 13%, Χ2= 13.75, p= 0.00). In the increased FoH group more patients report a high level of mild (67% vs 49%,Χ2= 6.4, p= 0.011) and moderate (52% vs 23%,Χ2= 14.00, p= 0.00) hypoglycemic episodes as well as unawareness (76% vs 54%,Χ2= 11.37, p= 0.001) in 2014 compared with the decreased FoH group.

    Discussion

    To our knowledge, this is the first longitudinal study of FoH in patients with type 1 diabetes. Our study shows that FoH is stable across time for most patients although a number of patients show increased or decreased levels of FoH. The patients whose level of FoH increased experienced a higher frequency of moderate hypoglycemic episodes and more hypoglycemic unawareness in 2014.

  • 5. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Rozental, Alexander
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Rück, Christian
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Guided Internet-delivered CBT: Can it really be as good as seeing a therapist?2015Ingår i: The Behavior Therapist, ISSN 0278-8403, Vol. 38, nr 5, 123-126 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 6.
    Annell, Stefan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Swedish Defence Recruitment Agency.
    Hållbar polisrekrytering: Teoretiska, metodologiska och praktiska perspektiv på rekrytering och urval2015Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Organisationer behöver kvalificerad personal för att fungera effektivt och därmed blir rekrytering en viktig aktivitet. Det är också angeläget att ny personal anpassar sig väl till arbetsförhållandena. Syftet med denna avhandling var att tydliggöra möjligheterna att genom urval bidra till en långsiktigt hållbar rekrytering för organisation, individ och samhälle.

    Avhandlingen omfattar tre delstudier och baseras på data från rekrytering av nya poliser i Sverige. En kohort har följts från urvalet av de sökande till polisutbildningen våren 2008 (N = 1 344) över tre uppföljningstillfällen (N = 717–729), nämligen vid slutet av två års polisutbildning, vid slutet av sex månaders aspirantutbildning och vid slutet av det första anställningsåret.

    Studie I syftade till att undersöka möjligheterna att välja ut de sökande som är mest lämpade att bli poliser genom att kombinera information från flera urvalsmetoder. Vanligtvis används intervjuer för att i slutet av urvalsprocessen välja ut de mest lämpade kandidaterna. Analyser med flera kriterier på framgångsrik rekrytering (prestation, tillfredsställelse med utbildning respektive arbete, vilja att stanna i yrket och hälsa) vid de tre uppföljningstillfällen, visade att ett alternativt förfarande – att kombinera information från urvalsmetoder som i tidigare steg använts för att sålla bort olämpliga sökande – hade högre prognosförmåga. Det handlade om information från begåvningstest, personlighetstest och konditionstest. Ett sådant förfarande kan också vara mer tillförlitligt och resurseffektivt. Vid urval av poliser bör intervjuer däremot främst ses som ett verktyg för att sålla bort olämpliga kandidater.

    Studie II syftade till att öka förståelsen för hur resultat från begåvningstest ska tolkas och användas vid urval. För de flesta yrken, inklusive polisyrket, har begåvningstest visats vara en av de urvalsmetoder som bäst predicerar prestation. Det har förklarats med effekter av generell begåvning. Resultaten från Studie II visade dock att utöver generell begåvning kan också en verbal och kunskapsladdad komponent antas viktig för att predicera prestation. Samtidigt gav studien stöd för att vid urval använda en samlad totalpoäng från begåvningstest.

    Studie III syftade till att undersöka den relativa betydelsen av urvalsfaktorer som personlighet och begåvning respektive den psykosociala arbetsmiljön för nya polisers arbetsrelaterade attityder och hälsa efter det första anställningsåret. Studien visade att arbetsmiljöfaktorer, såsom möjligheter till utveckling och återkoppling i arbetet samt rimlig arbets­belastning, var betydligt viktigare än urvalsfaktorer för nya polisers anpassning till arbetsförhållandena i yrket.

    Sammanfattningsvis visar föreliggande avhandling att det är meningsfullt att över tid beakta flera kriterier på framgångsrik rekrytering. Den visar också att information från flera urvalsmetoder bör kombineras för att välja ut de mest lämpade kandidaterna. Vidare visar avhandlingen på värdet av att använda verbalt laddade begåvningstest vid urval. Förmågan att predicera framgång i polisyrket med olika urvalsmetoder är dock måttlig. Avhandlingen visar däremot att arbetsförhållandena för ny personal kan ha avgörande betydelse. Det betyder att organisationer som strävar efter hållbar rekrytering bör prioritera både urval och sunda arbetsförhållanden för ny personal. Det gäller inte minst polisorganisationer där kostnaderna för rekrytering är höga.

  • 7.
    Annell, Stefan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Perspektiv på polisurval2015Ingår i: The Past, the Present and the Future of Police Research: proceedings from the fifth Nordic Police Research seminar / [ed] Rolf Granér, Ola Kronkvist, Växjö: Linnéuniversitetet , 2015, 131-152 s.Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur ska de som är bäst lämpade väljas ut bland alla de som söker sig till polisyrket? Inom den nordiska polisforskningen har den frågan sällan belysts utifrån ett urvalsmetodologiskt perspektiv, men två konferensbidrag från projektet Longitudinell validering av polisurvalet bidrar till att täcka detta glapp. De aktuella studierna utgår från ett internationellt perspektiv på polisurval och omfattar data från antagningen till den svenska polisutbildningen och tre uppföljningstillfällen. Den ena studien (Studie 1) visar att en multimetodansats, med metoder som återspeglar polisarbetets mångfacetterade karaktär, kan antas vara den mest framgångrika urvalsmodellen. Den andra studien (Studie 2) fokuserar på betydelsen av kognitiva förmågor, och visar att utöver generell begåvning har verbal förmåga och kunskap betydelse för prestation under polisutbildningen.

  • 8.
    Annell, Stefan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. North-West University, South Africa.
    Police selection – implications during training and early career2015Ingår i: Policing: an international Journal of Police Strategies and Managment, ISSN 1363-951X, Vol. 38, nr 2, 221-238 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The cost of selecting and training new police officers is high. However, previous researchhas provided limited guidance on how to select the best applicants. The purpose of this paper is toenhance the understanding of the possibilities to select suitable applicants by using combinations offour common categories of selection methods, namely cognitive tests, personality inventories, physicaltests, and rater-based methods (i.e. interviews).

    Design/methodology/approach – Using a sample of Swedish police recruits (n¼750) the authorsperformed hierarchical multiple regression analyses, predicting four criteria – performance, satisfaction,retention, and health – at three consecutive time points (after two years of academy training, after sixmonths of field training, and after the first work year).

    Findings – No group of selection methods consistently predicted all four criteria at the three timepoints. In most analyses more than one class of selection methods were statistically significant, but thefindings did not support the use of rater-based methods.

    Practical implications – Instead of the common praxis of using interviews, the findings suggest analternative praxis. This involves using the remaining information from cognitive tests, personalityinventories, and general fitness tests that had been used in earlier hurdles to screen out unsuitable applicants.

    Originality/value – The study extends previous research by including several follow-ups, showingthe value of combining different selection methods, and using alternative criteria of successful policerecruitment (i.e. satisfaction, retention, and health).

  • 9.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Arbete - förbannelse eller livets mening - observationer och reflexioner2015Ingår i: Tankar om arbete: 17 texter om arbete, arbetsliv och samhällsförändring / [ed] A Bergman, G Gillberg & L Ivarsson, Stockhom: Premiss förlag, 2015, 16-36 s.Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 10.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Tillit2015Ingår i: Psykisk hälsa, ISSN 0033-3212, Vol. 56, nr 3, 22-30 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 11.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Ishäll, Lars
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. (numera verksam vid Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, Jönköping.
    Göransson, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Nylén, Eva Charlotta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Arbetsuppdrag och återhämtning i välfärdstjänstearbete2015Ingår i: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 21, nr 2, 7-25 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Artikeln beskriver ett uppdragsperspektiv på arbete, det vill säga en fokusering på hur ett arbetsuppdrag formas och är sammansatt med avseende på resurser och krav med betydelse för att kunna genomföra uppdraget på ett bra sätt. I studien undersöks hur förutsättningarna för att utföra arbetet, i termer av arbetskrav och resurser i arbetet, hänger samman med återhämtning inom välfärdstjänstearbete i två kommuner. Uppdragsförutsättningarna har ett relativt högt förklaringsvärde gentemot återhämtning men de ingående variablerna bidrar i olika grad.

  • 12.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Johansen, Vegard
    Marklund, Staffan
    Rønning, Rolf
    Solheim, Liv Johanne
    Sjukfrånvarons dimensioner: svensk-norska jämförelser och analyser2015 (uppl. 1)Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I både Sverige och Norge baseras sjukersättningarna på principen om inkomstbortfall, som ger sjukskrivna ersättning i förhållande till arbetsinkomsten. Men länderna skiljer sig också åt vilket möjliggör intressanta jämförelser och analyser. I Norge är exempelvis ersättningsnivån 100 procent från första dagen jämfört med 80 procent i Sverige, som också har en karensdag. Frågor som tas upp gäller bland annat hur sjukskrivna upplever sin vardagstillvaro, omgivningens acceptans för sjukskrivning, sjuknärvaro, stigmatisering, framtidstro och synen på hjälpapparat och myndigheter. Boken är värdefull vid utbildningar inom socialt arbete och är intressant i den debatt om sjukfrånvaro som pågår i samhället. Den bygger på ett svensk-norskt forskningsprojekt och använder såväl kvalitativa som kvantitativa data.

  • 13.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Lundberg, Ulf
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Interventioner för återgång i arbete vid sjukskrivning: En systematisk kunskapsöversikt av metaanalyser med inriktning på muskuloskeletala och psykiska besvär2015Ingår i: Arbete och Hälsa, ISSN 0346-7821, ISSN 0346-7821, Vol. 49, nr 2, 1-50 s.Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
  • 14.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Marklund, Staffan
    Solheim, Liv Johanne
    Skam, stigmatisering och framtidstro bland långtidssjukskrivna i ”osynliga” diagnoser2015Ingår i: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 92, nr 4, 519-534 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet var att undersöka stigma- och skamupplevelser bland långtidssjukskrivna i psykiska och muskuloskeletala diagnoser och om upplevelserna skiljer sig diagnoserna mellan. 2300 personer besvarade en enkät och på basis av enkätsvar bildades även en grupp med båda slagen av besvär. Bland de med psykiatriska och kombinationsdiagnoser tillhörde 33 respektive 34% hög-skamgruppen jämfört med 10% bland de med muskuloskeletala diagnoser. Ju fler tidigare sjukskrivningar desto större andel upplevde skam och stigma och desto vanligare att se förtidspension som en realistisk framtid. Nivåskillnaderna var stora. Bland de med psykiatriska diagnoser och hög grad av stigma var det 16%, som angav förtidspensionsalternativet jämfört med 31% bland de med muskuloskeletal diagnos och 39% bland de med kombinationsdiagnos.

  • 15. Augustsson, Hanna
    et al.
    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Stenfors-Hayes, Terese
    Hasson, Henna
    Investigating Variations in Implementation Fidelity of an Organizational-Level Occupational Health Intervention2015Ingår i: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, E-ISSN 1532-7558, Vol. 22, nr 3, 345-355 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The workplace has been suggested as an important arena for health promotion, but little is known about how the organizational setting influences the implementation of interventions. The aims of this study are to evaluate implementation fidelity in an organizational-level occupational health intervention and to investigate possible explanations for variations in fidelity between intervention units. The intervention consisted of an integration of health promotion, occupational health and safety, and a system for continuous improvements (Kaizen) and was conducted in a quasi-experimental design at a Swedish hospital. Implementation fidelity was evaluated with the Conceptual Framework for Implementation Fidelity and implementation factors used to investigate variations in fidelity with the Framework for Evaluating Organizational-level Interventions. A multi-method approach including interviews, Kaizen notes, and questionnaires was applied. Implementation fidelity differed between units even though the intervention was introduced and supported in the same way. Important differences in all elements proposed in the model for evaluating organizational-level interventions, i.e., context, intervention, and mental models, were found to explain the differences in fidelity. Implementation strategies may need to be adapted depending on the local context. Implementation fidelity, as well as pre-intervention implementation elements, is likely to affect the implementation success and needs to be assessed in intervention research. The high variation in fidelity across the units indicates the need for adjustments to the type of designs used to assess the effects of interventions. Thus, rather than using designs that aim to control variation, it may be necessary to use those that aim at exploring and explaining variation, such as adapted study designs.

  • 16.
    Axelsson, Östen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    How to measure soundscape quality2015Ingår i: Proceedings of Euronoise 2015 / [ed] C. Glorieux, Nederlands Akoestisch Genootschap and ABAV - Belgian Acoustical Society , 2015, 1477-1481 s., 67Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Soundscape-Quality Protocol has been criticized for being insufficient, because it proposes to assess soundscape quality by a Good–Bad Scale, and alternatively by eight attribute scales assessing the perceived affective quality of a soundscape. Critics argue that further alternative definitions of ‘soundscape quality’ must be explored. In particular they argue for assessing ‘soundscape quality’ by asking to what extent a soundscape is appropriate to a place. The Sound Cities project at School of Architecture, University of Sheffield, in the UK, investigated this issue by a listening experiment involving 50 university students and 25 urban and peri-urban areas from the UK. The results indicate that the Good–Bad Scale is correlated with the perceived affective quality of a soundscape. Conversely, the appropriateness of a soundscape to a place is orthogonal to the former two assessments and provides additional information. Thus, a soundscape can be appropriate to a place even though it is poor. This raises the issue of which information should be given priority. Probably the best recommendation is to assess soundscape by perceived affective quality. In addition, it is possible to complement this assessment by assessing the appropriateness of the soundscape to the place. However, the latter assessment should not be used on its own, as this may lead to unfortunate conclusions.

  • 17.
    Axelsson, Östen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Soundscape and the human scale in urban design2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    With changing practices in urban planning, moving away from thinking of the city primarily in terms of infrastructure towards a growing appreciation of the city as a stage for social interaction, the human scale is all more important in urban design. What do the citizens need, and how would they like the city to be? Soundscape research focuses on these issues with regards to the acoustic environment, aiming to develop knowledge, tools and strategies. Central purposes of soundscapes studies are to describe, evaluate, change or to design/create acoustic environments. The aim is to promote health, well-being and quality of life. Because soundscape concerns how people perceive, experience or understand the acoustic environment the human scale is taken into account by definition. This paper will discuss questions that are central to soundscape theory and its application in an increasingly dense urban environment.

  • 18.
    Axelsson, Östen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Towards guidelines for soundscape design2015Ingår i: Book of Proceedings AESOP Prague Annual Congress 2015: Definite Space – Fuzzy Responsibility / [ed] M. Macoun & K. Maier, 2015, 802-808 s.Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Architects and urban planners request guidelines with regards to soundscape design. In 2013 staff and students at the University of Sheffield, UK, were invited to take part in an electronic survey to investigate what kinds of urban open spaces that they prefer, and how these spaces should be designed with regards to soundscape. Respondents were asked to freely name their favourite outdoor place in Sheffield, and to what extent they found a list of 45 social and recreational activities, as well as a list of 40 sound sources appropriate for this place. A total of 935 individuals completed the questionnaire. A hierarchical cluster analysis of the 45 social and recreational activities revealed three main categories of favourite outdoor places: ‘Urban Park’, ‘City Centre’, and ‘My Space’. For ‘Urban Park’ natural sounds were appropriate when clearly audible, sounds of individuals when moderately audible, sounds of crowds when slightly audible, and technological sounds when inaudible. For ‘City Centre’ sounds of individuals were appropriate when moderately audible, whereas natural sounds, and sounds of crowds were appropriate when slightly audible. Technological sounds were appropriate when inaudible. For ‘My Space’ natural sounds and sounds of individuals were appropriate when moderately audible, whereas sounds of crowds and technological sounds were appropriate when inaudible. This kinds of profiles may serve as design guidelines for urban outdoor spaces with regards to soundscape, based on their social and recreational purposes.

  • 19.
    Azad, Azade
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Leander, Lina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Children's Reporting About Sexual Versus Physical Abuse: Patterns of Reporting, Avoidance and Denial2015Ingår i: Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, ISSN 1321-8719, E-ISSN 1934-1687, Vol. 22, nr 6, 890-902 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analysed the reporting patterns of 22 sexually abused children and 23 physically abused children (all cases had been verified). Police interviews with the children were analysed in relation to the amount and type of information reported, as well as the frequency of denial and avoidance of critical information. Physically and sexually abused children reported more neutral information from the abusive acts per se than information regarding sexual or physically violent acts. The children were also high in avoidance and denial regarding information about the abuse. The physically abused children reported more severe information about physically abusive acts compared with the amount of information the sexually abused children reported about severe sexual acts. An explanation for this may have been the shameful and taboo nature of sexual abuse. It is important to undertake further investigation of how the nature and type of abuse, to which child witnesses have been exposed, may affect the reporting pattern. Such information may broaden our knowledge about how to conduct and evaluate child interviews.

  • 20. Backeström, Anna
    et al.
    Eriksson, Sture
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Olsson, Tommy
    Rolandsson, Olov
    Glucose but not insulin or insulin resistance is associated with memory performance in middle-aged non-diabetic women: a cross sectional study2015Ingår i: Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome, ISSN 1758-5996, Vol. 7, 20Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Elevated concentrations of plasma glucose appear to play a role in memory impairment, and it has been suggested that insulin might also have a negative effect on cognitive function. Our aim was to study whether glucose, insulin or insulin resistance are associated with episodic or semantic memory in a non-diabetic and non-demented population. Methods: We linked and matched two population-based data sets identifying 291 participants (127 men and 164 women, mean age of 50.7 +/- 8.0 years). Episodic and semantic memory functions were tested, and fasting plasma insulin, fasting plasma glucose, and 2-hour glucose were analysed along with other potential influencing factors on memory function. Since men and women display different results on memory functions they were analysed separately. Insulin resistance was calculated using the HOMA-IR method. Results: A higher fasting plasma glucose concentration was associated with lower episodic memory in women (r = -0.08, 95% CI -0.14; -0.01), but not in men. Plasma insulin levels and insulin resistance were not associated with episodic or semantic memory in women or in men after adjustments for age, fasting glucose, 2-hour glucose, BMI, education, smoking, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, cholesterol, and physical activity. Conclusions: This indicates that fasting glucose but not insulin, might have impact on episodic memory in middle-aged women.

  • 21. Barnevik Olsson, Martina
    et al.
    Westerlund, Joakim
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Lundstrom, Sebastian
    Giacobini, MaiBritt
    Fernell, Elisabeth
    Gillberg, Christopher
    Recovery from the diagnosis of autism - and then?2015Ingår i: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, ISSN 1176-6328, E-ISSN 1178-2021, Vol. 11, 999-1005 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim of this study was to follow up the 17 children, from a total group of 208 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who recovered from autism. They had been clinically diagnosed with ASD at or under the age of 4 years. For 2 years thereafter they received intervention based on applied behavior analysis. These 17 children were all of average or borderline intellectual functioning. On the 2-year follow-up assessment, they no longer met criteria for ASD. Methods: At about 10 years of age they were targeted for a new follow-up. Parents were given a semistructured interview regarding the child's daily functioning, school situation, and need of support, and were interviewed using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) and the Autism - Tics, Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD), and other Comorbidities (A-TAC) telephone interview. Results: The vast majority of the children had moderate-to-severe problems with attention/activity regulation, speech and language, behavior, and/or social interaction. A majority of the children had declined in their VABS scores. Most of the 14 children whose parents were A-TAC-interviewed had problems within many behavioral A-TAC domains, and four (29%) had symptom levels corresponding to a clinical diagnosis of ASD, AD/HD, or both. Another seven children (50%) had pronounced subthreshold indicators of ASD, AD/HD, or both. Conclusion: Children diagnosed at 2-4 years of age as suffering from ASD and who, after appropriate intervention for 2 years, no longer met diagnostic criteria for the disorder, clearly needed to be followed up longer. About 3-4 years later, they still had major problems diagnosable under the umbrella term of ESSENCE (Early Symptomatic Syndromes Eliciting Neurodevelopmental Clinical Examinations). They continued to be in need of support, educationally, from a neurodevelopmental and a medical point of view. According to parent interview data, a substantial minority of these children again met diagnostic criteria for ASD.

  • 22. Beijer, Ulla
    et al.
    Birath Scheffel, Christina
    DeMarinis, Valerie
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Male violence against women with substance abuse problems: some health aspects2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective was to investigate to which extent two groups of women with substance abuse problems were exposed to male violence; women with a residence (WR, n= 35) and homeless women (HW, n= 44). The sample thus included 79 women (mean age: 47.8 years), of which 91% had experienced different kinds of male violence: from former partners, male friends or acquaintances, and 71% reported “Countless occasions of violent events”.  Almost half of the women (46%) met criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and HW displayed the higher risk (RR 3.78) as compared to WR. Furthermore, one-third of the abused women (26 out of 72) had been forced to commit criminal acts. Compared to the abused women without this experience, they were more likely: to be homeless, to be illicit drug addicts, to have reported parental alcohol and/or drug problems, to have witnessed domestic violence in childhood, and to have been victims of sexual abuse. Finally, the two groups significantly differed concerning ever having received treatment for mental problems, in that more WR women had received such treatment (74 % as compared to 46 %). In conclusion, it is suggested that experiences of male violence are to be considered in all different forms of treatment facilities for women with substance abuse problems.

  • 23. Bengtsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Nordin, S.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Therapists’ experiences of conducting cognitive behavioural therapy online vis-à-vis face-to-face2015Ingår i: Abstracts from the 7th Swedish Congress on internet interventions (SWEsrii), Linköping: Linköping University Press , 2015, 18-18 s.Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study has explored therapists' experiences of conducting cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) online and face-to-face. Eleven therapists partook in semi-structured interviews, which were thematically analysed using an abductive approach. The results indicate that the therapists viewed face-to-face therapy as a stronger experience than Internet-based CBT (ICBT), and the latter as being more manualised, but providing more work-time control. Several participants also thought that working alliance may be achieved faster and more easily in face-to-face therapy, and might worsen with fewer modalities of communication. Clinical implications in need of investigation are whether working with ICBT might buffer therapist exhaustion, and whether this therapy form can be improved by becoming less manual dependant in order to be easier to individualise.

  • 24. Bengtsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Nordin, Steven
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Therapists' Experiences of Conducting Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Online vis-à-vis Face-to-Face2015Ingår i: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, E-ISSN 1651-2316, Vol. 44, nr 6, 470-479 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study has explored therapists' experiences of conducting cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) online and face-to-face. Eleven therapists partook in semi-structured interviews, which were thematically analysed using an abductive approach. The results indicate that the therapists viewed face-to-face therapy as a stronger experience than Internet-based CBT (ICBT), and the latter as being more manualised, but providing more work-time control. Several participants also thought that working alliance may be achieved faster and more easily in face-to-face therapy, and might worsen with fewer modalities of communication. Clinical implications in need of investigation are whether working with ICBT might buffer therapist exhaustion, and whether this therapy form can be improved by becoming less manual dependant in order to be easier to individualise.

  • 25. Berg, Hanna
    et al.
    Söderlund, Magnus
    Lindström, Annika
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Spreading joy: examining the effects of smiling models on consumer joy and attitudes2015Ingår i: Journal of Consumer Marketing, ISSN 0736-3761, E-ISSN 2052-1200, Vol. 32, nr 6, 459-469 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine consumer response to pictures of smiling models in marketing, focusing on the roles of emotional contagion from the smiling models and the perceived typicality of marketing with smiling models. Design/methodology/approach - This paper reports the findings from three experimental studies, comparing consumer response to two versions of an advertisement (Study 1) and a packaging design (Study 2 and 3), including either a picture of a smiling or a non-smiling model. To measure consumer response, a combination of self-report questionnaires and eye-tracking methodology was used. Findings - The pictures of smiling models produced more consumer joy and more positive attitudes for the marketing. The positive effects on attitudes were mediated by consumer joy, and the effects on consumer joy were mediated by the perceived typicality of the marketing with smiling models. Originality/value - Despite the ubiquity of photos of smiling faces in marketing, very few studies have isolated the effects of the smile appeal on consumer response to marketing objects. By comparing marketing where the same model is shown smiling or with a neutral facial expression, the positive effects were isolated. The roles of emotional contagion and perceived typicality in this mechanism were also examined and implications of the findings for research and practitioners are discussed.

  • 26.
    Bergman, Lars R.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Zukauskiene, Rita
    Career outcomes of adolescents with below average IQ: Who succeeds against the odds?2015Ingår i: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 52, 9-17 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The educational and vocational careers of adolescents with below average IQ were studied in a sample of Swedish adolescents (N = 1326), born in 1955 and followed from early adolescence to midlife. Compared to those with average IQ, the level of education and occupational status achieved by those with below average IQ were, generally, considerably lower. This was the case, in particular, for female participants in the lowest IQ group. No significant relationships were found between parents' socioeconomic status and educational level, income, or occupational status in midlife for adolescents with low IQ (lowest 20%). When those with a successful educational or vocational career were compared to others on a number of competence factors, own educational aspirations stood out as the factor that differed most within each IQ group between those who succeeded and those who did not. The differences were largest for those of low IQ (effect sizes 0.4–1.6). These findings were consistent with results from multiple regression analyses, which, for instance, showed that, within the low IQ group and controlling for confounders, the only significant predictor of career outcomes was educational aspirations.

  • 27.
    Bernhard Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Department of Psychology, University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Career continuance and transfer of competencies after job transitions: Insights from a Swedish study2015Ingår i: Handbook of research on sustainable careers / [ed] Ans de Vos, Beatrice I.J.M. van der Heijden, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, 381-397 s.Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Book information: What is a sustainable career and how can individuals and organizations develop pathways that lead to them? With current levels of global unemployment and the need for life-long learning and employability enhancement these questions assume a pressing significance. With twenty-eight chapters from leading scholars, the Handbook of Research on Sustainable Careers makes an important contribution to our understanding of sustainable careers and lays the foundation for the direction of future research.

  • 28.
    Binde, Per
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Forsström, David
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    The Swedish translation of DSM-5 “Gambling Disorder”: Reflections on nosology and terminology2015Ingår i: Nordisk Alkohol- og narkotikatidsskrift (NAT), ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 32, nr 2, 219-226 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this commentary we discuss the translation into Swedish of the term Gambling Disorder (GD) in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2015). An earlier commentary in this journal described and discussed the translation into Finnish (Castrén, Salonen, Alho, & Lahti, 2014).

  • 29.
    Bodin Danielsson, Christina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. The Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Bodin, Lennart
    Wulff, Cornelia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    The relation between office type and workplace conflict: A gender and noise perspective2015Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 42, 161-171 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This exploratory study aimed to investigate the impact of the office design on workplace conflicts, with a special attention to noise in the office. A gender perspective was applied. The sample consisted of 5229 employees from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health 2010 (SLOSH), working in different office types. In the multivariate analysis office type was used as the explanatory variable with adjustments for age, supervisory position and labour market sector. Analysis stratified for gender was used. Among women a significant impact of office type per se on workplace conflicts was found, but not among men. For women several office types differed significantly from the cell-office with regard to prevalence of conflicts during the past two years, but for men only the combi-office differed from the cell-office. Noise had an impact on workplace conflicts, but is not the only explanatory factor since the effect of office type remained also after adjustment for noise in multivariate analyses. Other environmental factors inherent in the office type might thus explain the occurrence of conflicts.

  • 30. Bosnes, O.
    et al.
    Dahl, O. -P.
    Almkvist, Ove
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Including a subject-paced trial may make the PASAT more acceptable for MS patients2015Ingår i: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6314, E-ISSN 1600-0404, Vol. 132, nr 4, 219-225 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) is regularly used in the evaluation of cognition in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the test may impose frustration, distress, and anxiety in patients, which may result in refusal to participate by many patients. ObjectivesIn this study, a subject- and experimenter-paced PASAT was compared and analyzed, with regard to independent measures of cognitive functions, as well as disability, fatigue, depression, and anxiety. MethodsA population-based sample of patients with MS (n=34; mean age 47.28.6) was examined with the PASAT, including a subject-paced condition, in addition to the standard experimenter-paced conditions using three levels of interstimuli intervals (ISI: 3.0, 2.5, and 2.0s). A comprehensive set of neuropsychological tests, measures of disease severity, fatigue, anxiety, and depression were studied as potentially associated factors. ResultsSubject- and experimenter-paced PASAT performance correlated significantly and the subject-paced administration correlated even higher with measures of information processing speed, executive function, attention, and working memory than standard experimenter-paced administration of PASAT. DiscussionThe associations between PASAT performance and measures of fatigue, anxiety, and depression were not significant. ConclusionThe results indicate that the altered PASAT procedure measures the same cognitive functions in MS as the standard procedure. At the same time, the altered procedure may make the PASAT more user-friendly for patients with MS.

  • 31. Botteldooren, Dick
    et al.
    Andringa, Tjeerd
    Aspuru, Itziar
    Brown, A. Lex
    Dubois, Danièle
    Guastavino, Catherine
    Kang, Jian
    Lavandier, Catherine
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Preis, Anna
    Schulte-Fortkamp, Brigitte
    From Sonic Environment to Soundscape2015Ingår i: Soundscape and the Built Environment / [ed] Jian Kang, Brigitte Schulte-Fortkamp, Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2015, 17-41 s.Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 32. Braun, Ulrike
    et al.
    Borg, Elisabet
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Predictive factors of successful self treatment for social anxiety - with or without elements of Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy2015Ingår i: Abstracts from the 7th Swedish Congress on internet interventions (SWEsrii), Linköping: Linköping University Press , 2015, 12-12 s.Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) and self-help books have proven to be effective treatments for social anxiety. These treatments can increase the opportunity for more people to access evidence-based psychological treatment. More knowledge of the factors that predict treatment outcomes is needed for individuals to get the right type of treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate if education level, recruitment mechanism, or previous psychological or psychopharmacological treatment predicts successful treatment outcomes in conjunction with self-help treatment for social anxiety disorder (with or without elements of ICBT). Two treatment groups (n = 138) underwent a six-week self-help treatment. Treatment for one of the groups included a mobile application. Measurements using the Liebowitz So-cial Anxiety Scale Self-Report as the main outcome measure were taken before, during, and in connection with the completion of treatment. Recruitment via DN was associated with higher odds of a successful treatment outcome (OR = 4.1) compared to recruitment via Facebook. Similarly, absence of previous psychological treatment was associated with higher odds of a successful treatment outcome (OR = 4.4).

  • 33.
    Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Nystrom, M.
    Lindner, Philip
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Martell, C.
    Forsberg, L.
    Ström, L.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Hassmén, Peter
    The effects on depression of Internet-administered behavioral activation vs. physical exercise2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite their potential as low-threshold, low-cost and high-flexibility treatments of depression, behavioral activation and physical exercise have not yet been directly compared. This study has examined the effects of these interventions, administered via the Internet. In this randomized controlled trial a total of 312 participants meeting the diagnostic criteria for mild to moderate major depression, recruited in multiple cycles and randomized to either a waiting list control group with delayed treatment, or one of the four active treatment groups: (1) physical exercise without a clear psychological treatment rationale; (2) physical exercise with a psychological treatment rationale; (3)behavioral activation a la Lewinsohn; or (4) behavioral activation a la Martel. A total of 72% were women and the average age of the participants were M=42.3 years (SD=13,5). More than half (53,9%) had a history of previous psychological treatment. Primary outcome measure was the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Assessments were made on a weekly basis for the full duration of the acute treatment which was 12 weeks. The preliminary results are in line with previous online studies showing that all active treatment groups were superior to the waitlist (large effect sizes) and that only minor differences could be identified between the four active groups (large within effect sizes). At the time of the conference 6-month follow-up data will be available in addition to the already collected post-assessment data (analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle).

  • 34.
    Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Nystrom, Markus
    Umeå universitet.
    Lindner, Philip
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Martell, Christopher
    University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin, USA.
    Forsberg, Lars
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ström, Lars
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Karolinska Institutet och Linköpings universitet.
    Hassmén, Peter
    University of Canberra, Australia.
    Behavioral Activation vs. Physical Exercise in the Treatment of Mild to Moderate Depression2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite their potential as low-threshold, low-cost and high-flexibility treatments of depression, behavioral activation and physical exercise have not yet been directly compared. This study has examined the effects of these interventions, administered via the Internet. In this randomized controlled trial a total of 312 participants meeting the diagnostic criteria for mild to moderate major depression, recruited in multiple cycles and randomized to either a waiting list control group with delayed treatment, or one of the four active treatment groups: (1) physical exercise without a clear psychological treatment rationale; (2) physical exercise with a psychological treatment rationale; (3) behavioral activation a la Lewinsohn; or (4) behavioral activation a la Martel. A total of 72% were women and the average age of the participants were M=42.3 years (SD=13,5). More than half (53,9%) had a history of previous psychological treatment. Primary outcome measure was the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Assessments were made on a weekly basis for the full duration of the acute treatment which was 12 weeks. The preliminary results are in line with previous online studies showing that all active treatment groups were superior to the waitlist (large effect sizes) and that only minor differences could be identified between the four active groups (large within effect sizes). At the time of the conference 6-month follow-up data will be available in addition to the already collected post-assessment data (analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle).

  • 35. Cernvall, Martin
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Ljungman, Lisa
    Ljungman, Gustaf
    von Essen, Louise
    Internet-based Guided Self-help for Parents of Children Diagnosed with Cancer: 1-year Follow-up of a Randomized Controlled Trial2015Ingår i: Abstracts of the 2015 World Congress of Psycho-Oncology, 28 July – 1 August 2015, Washington, DC, USA. Psycho-Oncology, 24 (Suppl. 2): Special issue: Psycho-Oncology, 24 (Suppl. 2), 2015, Vol. 24, 125-126 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: A considerable proportion of parents of children diagnosed with cancer reports a clinically significant level of distress such as symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTSS), depression, and anxiety during and after their child’s treatment. Results from intervention studies targeting distress during the child’s treatment have been mixed, and long-term follow-ups are lacking. In a randomized controlled trial, we investigate the efficacy of Internet-based guided self-help for parents of children recently diagnosed with cancer. Significant effects with large effect sizes for PTSS and depression have been shown from pre-assessment to post-assessment, indicating that the intervention is efficacious in the short term. Results from the 1-year follow-up for PTSS, depression, and anxiety will be presented at the conference. METHODS: Fifty-eight parents of children recently diagnosed with cancer, fulfilling criteria for partial posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on the PTSD Checklist, were randomly allocated to the intervention (n =31) or to a wait-list control condition (n =27). The intervention group accessed a 10-week guided self-help program via the Internet based on principles from cognitive behavioral therapy. The primary outcome PTSS and the secondary outcomes depression and anxiety were assessed by self-reports pre-intervention and post-intervention, and at 1-year follow-up. Eighteen participants completed the intervention, and 37 participants completed the post-assessment. One-year follow-up data will be available in June. RESULTS: Results from the 1-year follow-up will be presented at the conference. CONCLUSIONS: The intervention is efficacious in the short term, and results presented at the conference will clarify if the effects are maintained at 1-year follow-up.

  • 36. Cernvall, Martin
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Ljungman, Lisa
    Ljungman, Gustaf
    von Essen, Louise
    Internet-based guided self-help for parents of children on cancer treatment: a randomized controlled trial2015Ingår i: Psycho-Oncology, ISSN 1057-9249, E-ISSN 1099-1611, Vol. 24, nr 9, 1152-1158 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of an Internet-based guided self-help intervention for posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and related symptoms in parents of children on cancer treatment.

    Methods: Parents of children on cancer treatment, who fulfilled the modified symptom criteria on the PTSD Checklist, were randomly allocated to the intervention or to a wait-list control condition. The intervention group accessed a 10-week guided self-help program via the Internet based on principles from cognitve behavior therapy. The primary outcome PTSS and the secondary outcomes depression and anxiety were assessed by self-report preintervention and postintervention.

    Results: Seven hundred forty-seven parents were approached and informed about the study, 92 were assessed for eligibility, and 58 were included and randomized to the intervention (n = 31) or wait list (n = 27). Eightteen participants completed the intervention. Intention-to-treat analyses indicated a significant effect of the intervention on PTSS with a large between-group effect size at postassessment (Cohen's d = 0.88). The intervention group reported reductions in PTSS with a large within-group effect size (d = 1.62) compared with a minimal reduction in the wait-list group (d = 0.09). There was a significant intervention effect on depression and anxiety and reductions in the intervention group with large within-group effect sizes (d = 0.85–1.09).

    Conclusions: Findings indicate a low enrollment rate and considerable attrition but also that Internet-based guided self-help shows promise for parents of children on cancer treatment who report a high level of PTSS and would like to take part in an Internet-based intervention.

  • 37. Clason, J.
    et al.
    Johansson, F.
    Mörtberg, Ewa
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Individual Cognitive Therapy for Professional Actors with Performance Anxiety2015Ingår i: Annals of Depression and Anxiety, ISSN 2381-8883, Vol. 2, nr 6, 1066Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Performance anxiety, which could be regarded as a type of social anxiety disorder, is a common and debilitating condition among professional artists. In spite of this, no clinical research has previously been done on treatment methods for professional actors with PA. In the current study A-B single case experimental designs and parametric statistics were used to report the treatment process of five actors with PA who were treated with 11-12 sessions of Individual Cognitive Therapy (ICT). ICT was found to reduce PA in four of the five cases, and resulted in significantly lower frequencies of safety behaviors and negative social thoughts. It was concluded that ICT could be an effective course of treatment for actors with PA.

  • 38. Clefberg Liberman, Lisa
    et al.
    Larsson, Karolina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Paz Altuzarra, Maria
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Ollendick, Thomas
    Self-reported Life Satisfaction and Response Style Differences Among Children in Chile and Sweden2015Ingår i: Journal of Child and Family Studies, ISSN 1062-1024, E-ISSN 1573-2843, Vol. 24, nr 1, 66-75 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the current study was to assess self-perceived life satisfaction in Chilean and Swedish children. The total sample consisted of a non-clinical sample of 1,352 school children between 8 and 14 years of age. Analyses were carried out to compare the children's subjective quality of life and life satisfaction. In addition, possible response style differences across the two countries were explored. Based on our findings, no difference was found between the two countries for the total life satisfaction score, and the only area on which the Swedish children had a significantly higher rating than the Chilean children was on their satisfaction with their friends. However, the Chilean children reported a higher satisfaction with their siblings, school and health than the Swedish children. Moreover, an interaction effect was found between country and age group on the school variable, with the three age groups in the Swedish sample being significantly different, whereas no significant difference was found between the age groups on this variable among the Chilean children. Overall, the satisfaction with the children's different life areas decreased, as they grew older, whereas gender differences were only found on three variables. Small significant response style differences were found between the Chilean and Swedish children. As the effect sizes of these differences were quite small, they should be viewed with caution, and are not likely to explain the few differences found between the children. How I Feel about Things seems fully adequate for use across normal non-clinical boys and girls belonging to different age groups and living in different countries in order to assess their self-reported life satisfaction.

  • 39.
    Cornell Kärnekull, Stina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Kognitiv psykologi.
    Willander, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. University College of Gävle, Sweden.
    Sikström, Sverker
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Long-Term Memory for Odors: Influences of Familiarity and Identification Across 64 Days2015Ingår i: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 40, nr 4, 259-267 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Few studies have investigated long-term odor recognition memory, although some early observations suggested that the forgetting rate of olfactory representations is slower than for other sensory modalities. This study investigated recognition memory across 64 days for high and low familiar odors and faces. Memory was assessed in 83 young participants at 4 occasions; immediate, 4, 16, and 64 days after encoding. The results indicated significant forgetting for odors and faces across the 64 days. The forgetting functions for the 2 modalities were not fundamentally different. Moreover, high familiar odors and faces were better remembered than low familiar ones, indicating an important role of semantic knowledge on recognition proficiency for both modalities. Although odor recognition was significantly better than chance at the 64 days testing, memory for the low familiar odors was relatively poor. Also, the results indicated that odor identification consistency across sessions, irrespective of accuracy, was positively related to successful recognition.

  • 40.
    Cosme, Danielle
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. University of Oregon, USA.
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Self-Reported Trait Mindfulness and Affective Reactivity: A Motivational Approach Using Multiple Psychophysiological Measures2015Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 3, e0119466Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As a form of attention, mindfulness is qualitatively receptive and non-reactive, and is thought to facilitate adaptive emotional responding. One suggested mechanism is that mindfulness facilitates disengagement from an affective stimulus and thereby decreases affective reactivity. However, mindfulness has been conceptualized as a state, intervention, and trait. Because evidence is mixed as to whether self-reported trait mindfulness decreases affective reactivity, we used a multi-method approach to study the relationship between individual differences in self-reported trait mindfulness and electrocortical, electrodermal, electromyographic, and self-reported responses to emotional pictures. Specifically, while participants (N = 51) passively viewed pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant IAPS pictures, we recorded high-density (128 channels) electrocortical, electrodermal, and electromyographic data to the pictures as well as to acoustic startle probes presented during the pictures. Afterwards, participants rated their subjective valence and arousal while viewing the pictures again. If trait mindfulness spontaneously reduces general emotional reactivity, then for individuals reporting high rather than low-mindfulness, response differences between emotional and neutral pictures would show relatively decreased early posterior negativity (EPN) and late positive potential (LPP) amplitudes, decreased skin conductance responses, and decreased subjective ratings for valence and arousal. High mindfulness would also be associated with decreased emotional modulation of startle eyeblink and P3 amplitudes. Although results showed clear effects of emotion on the dependent measures, in general, mindfulness did not moderate these effects. For most measures, effect sizes were small with rather narrow confidence intervals. These data do not support the hypothesis that individual differences in self-reported trait mindfulness are related to spontaneous emotional responses during picture viewing.

  • 41. Crocetti, Elisabetta
    et al.
    Hale, William W., III
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Abubakar, Amina
    Gao, Cheng-Hai
    Agaloos Pesigan, Ivan Jacob
    Generalized Anxiety Symptoms and Identity Processes in Cross-Cultural Samples of Adolescents from the General Population2015Ingår i: Child and Youth Care Forum, ISSN 1053-1890, E-ISSN 1573-3319, Vol. 44, nr 2, 159-174 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Approximately 20 % of adolescents around the world experience mental health problems, most commonly depression or anxiety. High levels of anxiety disorder symptoms can hinder adolescent development, persist into adulthood, and predict negative mental outcomes, such as suicidal ideation and attempts. We analyzed generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms in cross-cultural samples from the general population. We sought to examine cultural and gender differences, and correlates of GAD symptoms in samples of adolescents from six countries located in three different continents (Europe: Bulgaria, Italy, the Netherlands; Africa: Kenya; Asia: China and Philippines). Participants were 3,445 (51 % male) adolescents aged between 14 and 18 years old. They filled self-report measures of GAD symptoms and identity. First, it was found that the scores on GAD symptoms varied significantly across countries, with Dutch respondents reporting the lowest levels whereas Filipino participants exhibited the highest levels of GAD symptoms. Second, gender differences (i.e., girls reported more GAD symptoms than boys) were significant in each country (as well as in the total sample), with the only exception being that of Kenya. Third, GAD symptoms were significantly related to identity processes and similarities and differences across countries were examined. This study highlighted that prevalence, gender differences, and correlates of GAD vary across countries. Therefore, it is important when researching GAD symptoms to examine one's research findings within a global perspective.

  • 42. Croy, Ilona
    et al.
    Zehner, Cora
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Zucco, Gesualdo M.
    Hummel, Thomas
    Test-Retest Reliability and Validity of the Sniffin' TOM Odor Memory Test2015Ingår i: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 40, nr 3, 173-179 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Few attempts have been made to develop an olfactory test that captures episodic retention of olfactory information. Assessment of episodic odor memory is of particular interest in aging and in the cognitively impaired as both episodic memory deficits and olfactory loss have been targeted as reliable hallmarks of cognitive decline and impending dementia. Here, 96 healthy participants (18-92 years) and an additional 19 older people with mild cognitive impairment were tested (73-82 years). Participants were presented with 8 common odors with intentional encoding instructions that were followed by a yes-no recognition test. After recognition completion, participants were asked to identify all odors by means of free or cued identification. A retest of the odor memory test (Sniffin' TOM = test of odor memory) took place 17 days later. The results revealed satisfactory test-retest reliability (0.70) of odor recognition memory. Both recognition and identification performance were negatively affected by age and more pronounced among the cognitively impaired. In conclusion, the present work presents a reliable, valid, and simple test of episodic odor recognition memory that may be used in clinical groups where both episodic memory deficits and olfactory loss are prevalent preclinically such as Alzheimer's disease.

  • 43. D'Angiulli, Amedeo
    et al.
    Griffiths, Gordon
    Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Neural correlates of visualizations of concrete and abstract words in preschool children: a developmental embodied approach2015Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, 856Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The neural correlates of visualization underlying word comprehension were examined in preschool children. On each trial, a concrete or abstract word was delivered binaurally (part 1: post-auditory visualization), followed by a four-picture array (a target plus three distractors; part 2: matching visualization). Children were to select the picture matching the word they heard in part 1. Event-related potentials (ERPs) locked to each stimulus presentation and task interval were averaged over sets of trials of increasing word abstractness. ERP time-course during both parts of the task showed that early activity (i.e., <300 ms) was predominant in response to concrete words, while activity in response to abstract words became evident only at intermediate (i.e., 300-699 ms) and late (i.e., 700-1000 ms) ERP intervals. Specifically, ERP topography showed that while early activity during post-auditory visualization was linked to left temporo-parietal areas for concrete words, early activity during matching visualization occurred mostly in occipito-parietal areas for concrete words, but more anteriorly in centro-parietal areas for abstract words. In intermediate ERPs, post-auditory visualization coincided with parieto-occipital and parieto-frontal activity in response to both concrete and abstract words, while in matching visualization a parieto-central activity was common to both types of words. In the late ERPs for both types of words, the post-auditory visualization involved right-hemispheric activity following a post-anterior pathway sequence: occipital, parietal, and temporal areas; conversely, matching visualization involved left-hemispheric activity following an ant-posterior pathway sequence: frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital areas. These results suggest that, similarly, for concrete and abstract words, meaning in young children depends on variably complex visualization processes integrating visuo-auditory experiences and supramodal embodying representations.

  • 44. de Jong, Jeroen
    et al.
    Clinton, Michael
    Rigotti, Thomas
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Nonlinear associations between breached obligations and employee well-being2015Ingår i: Journal of Managerial Psychology, ISSN 0268-3946, Vol. 30, nr 4, 374-389 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to analyze the nonlinear association between proportions of breached obligations within the psychological contract (PC) and three dimensions of employee well-being, and the mediating role of contract violation in these relationships. With this study the authors gain a more detailed understanding of PC evaluations and their consequences for well-being. Design/methodology/approach - The authors build on asymmetry effects theory and affective events theory to propose that breached obligations outweigh fulfilled obligations in their association with well-being. The hypotheses are tested using a sample of 4,953 employees from six European countries and Israel. Findings - The results provide support for the hypotheses, as the effect sizes of the indirect relationships for breached obligations on well-being via violation are initially strong compared to fulfilled obligations, but decrease incrementally as the proportion of breached obligations become greater. At a certain point the effect sizes become nonsignificant. Research limitations/implications - The study shows that PC theory and research needs to better acknowledge the potential for asymmetrical effects of breach relative to fulfillment, such that the breach of obligations can sometimes have a stronger effect on employee well-being than the fulfillment of obligations. Practical implications - Those responsible for managing PCs in organizations should be aware of the asymmetrical effects of breach relative to fulfillment, as trusting on the acceptance or tolerance of employees in dealing with breached obligations may quickly result in lower well-being. Originality/value - The findings have implications for the understanding of PC breach and its associations with employee well-being.

  • 45.
    Del Missier, Fabio
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. University of Trieste, Italy.
    Visentini, Mimi
    Mantyla, Timo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Option generation in decision making: ideation beyond memory retrieval2015Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 5, 1584Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    According to prescriptive decision theories, the generation of options for choice is a central aspect of decision making. A too narrow representation of the problem may indeed limit the opportunity to evaluate promising options. However, despite the theoretical and applied significance of this topic, the cognitive processes underlying option generation are still unclear. In particular, while a cued recall account of option generation emphasizes the role of memory and executive control, other theoretical proposals stress the importance of ideation processes based on various search and thinking processes. Unfortunately, relevant behavioral evidence on the cognitive processes underlying option generation is scattered and inconclusive. In order to reach a better understanding, we carried out an individual-differences study employing a wide array of cognitive predictors, including measures of episodic memory, semantic memory, cognitive control, and ideation fluency. The criterion tasks consisted of three different poorly-structured decision-making scenarios, and the participants were asked to generate options to solve these problems. The main criterion variable of the study was the number of valid options generated, but also the diversity and the quality of generated options were examined. The results showed that option generation fluency and diversity in the context of ill-structured decision making are supported by ideation ability even after taking into account the effects of individual differences in several other aspects of cognitive functioning. Thus, ideation processes, possibly supported by search and thinking processes, seem to contribute to option generation beyond basic associative memory retrieval. The findings of the study also indicate that generating more options may have multifaceted consequences for choice, increasing the quality of the best option generated but decreasing the mean quality of the options in the generated set.

  • 46. Delin, Lovisa
    et al.
    Sjöblom, Katja
    Lundén, C.
    Blomdahl, R.
    Marklund, A.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet & Karolinska Institutet.
    Dahl, J.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Challenger - A mobile phone application for treatment of social phobia: A randomized controlled trial of a self-help treatment in book form with or without the addition of mobile phone application2015Ingår i: Abstracts from the 7th Swedish Congress on internet interventions (SWEsrii), Linköping: Linköping University Press , 2015, 23-23 s.Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Social phobia is one of the most common anxiety disorders. The diagnosis results in great suffering for the individual but also large social costs. This randomized, controlled study (N = 209) aimed to evaluate the relative impact of a self-help treatment in book form, with or without the addition of a mobile phone application for people with social phobia. Results demonstrated a statistically significant greater improvement between the two active treatment groups and the waiting list. A medium-sized effect size on the primary outcome measure Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale self report was found only between the waiting list and the group treated with the addition of mobile application. Statistically significant differences were not found between the two active treatment groups. The results of this study strengthen previous research which has shown that bibliotherapy is effective for social phobia. Since the research on the efficiency of mobile phone applications for treatment of social phobia are limited, this study contributes to necessary knowledge in the field.

  • 47.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Aydinli, Arzu
    Chasiotis, Athanasios
    Bender, Michael
    van de Vijver, Fons J. R.
    Heritage Identity and Maintenance Enhance Well-Being of Turkish-Bulgarian and Turkish-German Adolescents2015Ingår i: Social Psychology, ISSN 1864-9335, Vol. 46, nr 2, 93-103 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study compares Turkish minority youth in Bulgaria and Germany by examining differences in ethnic identity (heritage and mainstream), acculturation (host culture adoption and heritage culture maintenance), and their influence on psychological and sociocultural outcomes. Participants were 178 Turkish-Bulgarian and 166 Turkish-German youth (mean age of 15.96 years). Youth in both cultural contexts regarded their Turkish identity and culture maintenance as more relevant than their mainstream identity and culture adoption. Turkish-Bulgarians also reported higher scores on host culture adoption than Turkish-Germans. A multigroup path model showed that Turkish identity and maintenance were positively related to well-being and adjustment to both cultures, whereas mainstream identity and adoption were positively associated with adjustment to the host culture only.

  • 48.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Trost, Kari
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Intergenerational transmission of ethnic identity and life satisfaction of Roma minority adolescents and their parents2015Ingår i: Journal of Adolescence, ISSN 0140-1971, E-ISSN 1095-9254, Vol. 45, 296-306 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates intergeneration transmission of ethnic identity as a resource for life satisfaction of Roma adolescents and their parents. Historically, Roma represent the largest ethnic minority in Europe. They have been exposed to severe discrimination, social exclusion, and poverty. Therefore, identifying resources for their life satisfaction is theoretically and practically important. The present study included 1093 participants, of which there were 171 Roma adolescents (age: M = 14.96 years, SD = 1.85), 155 mothers (age: M = 36.16 years, SD = 5.77) and 123 fathers (age: M = 39.68 years, SD = 6.06). Further, a comparison group of 248 mainstream adolescents with their mothers (n = 221) and fathers (n = 175) was also included in the study. Adolescents and their parents provided data on ethnic identity (MEIM;  Phinney, 1992) and life satisfaction (SWLS; Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985). Results indicated that Roma youth were lower on endorsement of ethnic identity and average on life satisfaction compared to their mainstream peers. A structural equation model showed that ethnic identity was a positive predictor of life satisfaction for both adolescents and their Roma parents. Furthermore, parents' ethnic identity was a predictor of adolescent life satisfaction. We concluded that for Roma youth and their parents, ethnic identity represents a salient source for life satisfaction and an intergenerational continuity of identity and life satisfaction exists.

  • 49. Ebner, Natalie C.
    et al.
    Horta, Marilyn
    Lin, Tian
    Feifel, David
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Cohen, Ronald A.
    Oxytocin modulates meta-mood as a function of age and sex2015Ingår i: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, ISSN 1663-4365, E-ISSN 1663-4365, Vol. 7, 175Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Attending to and understanding one's own feelings are components of meta mood and constitute important socio-affective skills across the entire lifespan. Growing evidence suggests a modulatory role of the neuropeptide oxytocin on various socio-affective processes. Going beyond previous work that almost exclusively examined young men and perceptions of emotions in others, the current study investigated effects of intranasal oxytocin on meta-mood in young and older men and women. In a double-blind between-group design, participants were randomly assigned to self-administer either intranasal oxytocin or a placebo before responding to items from the Trait Meta Mood Scale (TMMS) about attention to feelings and clarity of feelings. In contrast to older women, oxytocin relative to placebo increased attention to feelings in older men. Oxytocin relative to placebo enhanced meta-mood in young female participants but reduced it in older female participants. This pattern of findings supports an age- and sex-differential modulatory function of the neuropeptide oxytocin on meta-mood, possibly associated with neurobiological differences with age and sex.

  • 50.
    Eib, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Processes of Organizational Justice: Insights into the perception and enactment of justice2015Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Well-being at work is of major public interest, and justice at the workplace can be a key factor contributing to employees and managers feeling well. Research has found direct relationships between organizational justice perceptions and work and health outcomes. With research on the justice–health link still emerging, this thesis examines the moderating and mediating processes for the effects of justice perceptions on work outcomes and especially health outcomes. As little is known about those who enact justice, the antecedents and consequences of justice enactment are also studied. In Study I, the relationships between organizational justice and work and health outcomes were in focus, as the moderating role of job characteristics was investigated utilizing the demand–control(–support) model. Organizational justice and job characteristics were associated with work and health outcomes within and across time. The multiplicative effects showed that the organizational justice effects were stronger when perceived job demands were high, job control was low or social support was low. Study II examined the processes through which justice perceptions translate into health outcomes. Building on the allostatic load model, mental preoccupation with work was found to be a relevant mediator of the justice–health relationship, with locus of control moderating the mediated relationships. Study III focused on the actor perspective. Investigating predictions based on the deontic model of justice and ego-depletion theory, moral regard and justice self-efficacy predicted justice enactment positively, and justice enactment had positive effects on feeling professionally recognized but also negative health consequences for the actors themselves. This thesis contributes to advancing the emergent justice–health research stream by providing insights into the processes underlying these aspects, and by incorporating this stream into the actor perspective. 

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