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  • 1. Abdollahi, Abbas
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Khanbani, Mehdi
    Abdollahi Ghahfarokhi, Shahyar
    Emotional intelligence moderates perceived stress and suicidal ideation among depressed adolescent inpatients2016Ingår i: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 102, 223-228 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Because it remains one of the third leading causes of death among adolescents around the world, suicide is a major public health concern. This study was designed in response to this concern by examining the relationships among perceived stress, emotional intelligence, and suicidal ideation and to test the moderating role of emotional intelligence in the relationship between perceived stress and suicidal ideation. A sample of depressed adolescents (n = 202) was recruited from five hospitals in Tehran, Iran, and then asked to complete measures of patient health, suicidal ideation, perceived stress, and emotional intelligence. Structural Equation Modeling showed that depressed adolescent in-patients with high levels of perceived stress and low levels of emotional intelligence were more likely to report suicidal ideation. Multi-group analysis indicated that depressed in-patients high in both perceived stress and emotional intelligence had less suicidal ideation than others. The findings support the notion that perceived stress acts as a vulnerability factor that increase suicidal ideation among depressed inpatients. Suicidal history moderated the relationship between emotional intelligence and suicidal ideation. These findings also highlight the importance of emotional intelligence as a buffer in the relationship between perceived stress and suicidal ideation.

  • 2. Abubakar, Amin
    et al.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Social connectedness, life satisfaction and school engagement: moderating role of ethnic minority status on resilience processes of Roma youth2016Ingår i: European Journal of Developmental Psychology, ISSN 1740-5629, E-ISSN 1740-5610, Vol. 13, nr 3, 361-376 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined the influence of connectedness on school engagement and life satisfaction among Roma (n = 121) and Bulgarian (n = 143) mainstream adolescents (mean age 15.89, SD = 1.18). A set of measures on family, peer, school and neighbourhood connectedness were administered alongside life satisfaction and school engagement scales. Multigroup path analysis indicated that while the relationship between connectedness, life satisfaction and school engagement was largely the same across groups, the strength of such relationship differed among groups. A closer inspection of the model indicated that when it comes to school engagement, there was a salient difference in the role of different forms of connectedness between Roma and mainstream adolescents. For Roma adolescents, familial connectedness was especially salient for school engagement. The practical and theoretical implications of our findings for strengths and adaptive processes among Roma adolescents in Bulgaria are discussed.

  • 3. Abubakar, Amina
    et al.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Tair, Ergyul
    Measurement Invariance of the Brief Multidimensional Student’s Life Satisfaction Scale Among Adolescents and Emerging Adults Across 23 Cultural Contexts2016Ingår i: Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, ISSN 0734-2829, E-ISSN 1557-5144, Vol. 34, nr 1, 28-38 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is hardly any cross-cultural research on the measurement invariance of the Brief Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scales (BMSLSS). The current article evaluates the measurement invariance of the BMSLSS across cultural contexts. This cross-sectional study sampled 7,739 adolescents and emerging adults in 23 countries. A multi-group confirmatory factor analysis showed a good fit of configural and partial measurement weights invariance models, indicating similar patterns and strengths in factor loading for both adolescents and emerging adults across various countries. We found insufficient evidence for scalar invariance in both the adolescents’ and the emerging adults’ samples. A multi-level confirmatory factor analysis indicated configural invariance of the structure at country and individual level. Internal consistency, evaluated by alpha and omega coefficients per country, yielded acceptable results. The translated BMSLSS across different cultural contexts presents good psychometric characteristics similar to what has been reported in the original scale, though scalar invariance remains problematic. Our results indicate that the BMSLSS forms a brief measure of life satisfaction, which has accrued substantial evidence of construct validity, thus suitable for use in cross-cultural surveys with adolescents and emerging adults, although evaluation of degree of invariance must be carried out to ensure its suitability for mean comparisons.

  • 4. Aletta, Francesco
    et al.
    Kang, Jian
    Axelsson, Östen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik. University of Sheffield, United Kingdom.
    Soundscape descriptors and a conceptual framework for developing predictive soundscape models2016Ingår i: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 149, 65-74 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Soundscape exists through human perception of the acoustic environment. This paper investigates how soundscape currently is assessed and measured. It reviews and analyzes the main soundscape descriptors in the soundscape literature, and provides a conceptual framework for developing predictive models in soundscape studies. A predictive soundscape model provides a means of predicting the value of a soundscape descriptor, and the blueprint for how to design soundscape. It is the key for implementing the soundscape approach in urban planning and design. The challenge is to select the appropriate soundscape descriptor and to identify its predictors. The majority of available soundscape descriptors are converging towards a 2-dimensional soundscape model of perceived affective quality (e.g., Pleasantness–Eventfulness, or Calmness–Vibrancy). A third potential dimension is the appropriateness of a soundscape to a place. This dimensions provides complementary information beyond the perceived affective quality. However, it depends largely on context, and because a soundscape may be appropriate to a place although it is poor, this descriptor must probably not be used on its own. With regards to predictors, or soundscape indicators, perceived properties of the acoustic environment (e.g., perceived sound sources) are winning over established acoustic and psychoacoustic metrics. To move this area forward it is necessary that the international soundscape community comes together and agrees on relevant soundscape descriptors. This includes to agree on numerical scales and assessment procedures, as well as to standardize them.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet och Karolinska Instutet.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Behandling via internet2016Ingår i: Socialt arbete och internet: att förstå och hantera sociala problem på nya arenor / [ed] Kristian Daneback, Emma Sorbring, Stockholm: Liber, 2016, 215-225 s.Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom det sociala arbetets praktik ser vi en ökad närvaro av internetrelaterade problem. Samtidigt föredrar allt fler människor webbaserad hjälp, samt råd och stöd i relation till mer traditionella behandlings- och preventionsprogram, vilket öppnar för nya möjligheter för det sociala arbetet.

  • 6. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Lindefors, Nils
    History and current status of ICBT2016Ingår i: Guided internet-based treatments in psychiatry / [ed] Nils Lindefors, Gerhard Andersson, Springer, 2016, 1-16 s.Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We begin this chapter with a discussion of the history of ICBT and its roots in bibliotherapy and computerised CBT. We then provide a brief description of one way of administering guided ICBT, including the role of the therapist and data security issues. This description is followed by examples of conditions that are not covered later in the book, such as specific phobias and addictions. We end this chapter with a discussion of technical developments, cost-effectiveness and implementation.

  • 7. Andéhn, Mikael
    et al.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomiska institutionen.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Facets of country image and brand equity: Revisiting the role of product categories in country-of-origin effect research2016Ingår i: Journal of Consumer Behaviour, ISSN 1472-0817, E-ISSN 1479-1838, Vol. 15, nr 3, 225-238 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The country-of-origin effect is a topic central to the field of international marketing. Country of origin has been found to exert a particularly potent effect on consumer evaluation in situations where there is a strong link between a country and a particular product category. The present study provides further insight into how this particular effect can be understood. Drawing on a novel conceptualization of how country image and product categories interact, this study tested the relative evaluative relevance of product category with respect to estimates of brand equity across a variety of product categories. The findings suggest that facets of a country's image that are more closely related to the evaluation situation exert a greater influence on the evaluation of brands. This result encourages scholars as well as practitioners to re-evaluate which situations might cause the country of origin effect to hold managerial relevance and paves the way for new paths toward a more comprehensive understanding of the effect. 

  • 8.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Gränslöst arbete, resiliens och kompensation2016Ingår i: Friska arbetsplatser för kvinnor och män i alla åldrar, Stockholm: Arbetsmiljöverket , 2016, 22-36 s.Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 9.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Mellner, Christin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Illegitima arbetsuppgifter och identitet - en introduktion2016Ingår i: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 22, nr 3/4, 28-46 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Stressreaktioners styrka beror inte bara på hur mycket och hur ofta människor arbetar utan hör även samman med ett arbetsuppdrags sociala innebörd. Forskningen om illegitima arbetsuppgifter och stress inkluderar denna sociala aspekt, vilken antas vara relaterad till individens självuppfattning och identitet. I artikeln introduceras en modell om illegitima uppgifter som identitetsrelevanta stressorer. Dessutom redovisas en empirisk studie av tre yrkesgrupper kring sambandet mellan identitetsrelevanta stressorer och ohälsoreaktioner.

  • 10.
    Axelsson, Östen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Effects of a low-height sound absorbent street furniture and a fountain on the soundscape in a Stockholm pocket park2016Ingår i: Proceedings of the Inter-Noise 2016, 2016, 5203-5211 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the effects of a mock-up version of a low-height sound absorbent street furniture and a fountain on the local soundscape in a pocket park in Stockholm. Binaural recordings were conducted at two distances from the main road (on the sidewalk and in the park). The recordings were conducted with or without the mock-up, and with the local fountain either turned on or off. Thirty-two students (16 women, Mage = 26.6 yrs., SDage = 5.7) participated in a listening experiment, and assessed eight experimental sounds, in context of 12 fill sounds, on how pleasant or eventful they were. ANOVA showed that the mock-up had a stronger effect on pleasantness on the sidewalk than in the park, and the fountain contributed to pleasantness only in the absence of the mock-up. Moreover, the fountain reduced the eventfulness in the park but not on the sidewalk. The results are in line with previous case studies. Taken together, they suggest that it is better to build low-height sound absorbent street furniture  han fountains, to improve the urban soundscape.

  • 11. Aydinli-Karakulak, Arzu
    et al.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Brief report: When does identity lead to negative affective experiences?: A comparison of Turkish–Bulgarian and Turkish–German adolescents2016Ingår i: Journal of Adolescence, ISSN 0140-1971, E-ISSN 1095-9254, Vol. 47, 125-130 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine relationships between social identity domains (ethnic, national, and religious) and negative affect among Turkish–Bulgarian and Turkish–German youth. Path analysis confirmed a multiple social identities (MSI) factor that has negative relations to experiencing negative affect for Turkish youth in both countries. Beyond this negative relationship, the component of national identity showed a positive relationship to negative affect for Turkish–Bulgarians, but not for Turkish–Germans. Our findings indicate that beyond the generally adaptive effect of MSI on youth development, unique components of social identity may not always be an asset: In an assimilative acculturation context (i.e., Bulgaria), the endorsement of national identity was not adaptive. Our research therefore highlights the need for a contextually differentiated view on “healthy” identity formation among immigrants for research and practice.

  • 12. Beijer, Ulla
    et al.
    Scheffel Birath, Christina
    DeMartinis, Valerie
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Facets of male violence against women with Substance Abuse Problems: Women with residence and homeless women2016Ingår i: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this study were to investigate the type and extent to which women with substance abuse problems have been exposed to male violence during their lifetime, and to examine possible differences between women with a residence (WR) and homeless women (HW). The total sample included 79 women (WR, n = 35; HW, n = 44; M age = 47.8 years). Of the total sample, 72 women (91%) had experienced different kinds of male violence, 88% from former partners, and 26% from male friends or acquaintances. Of the 72 women, 71% further reported “Countless occasions of violent events,” and 36% had been forced to commit criminal acts. Abused women who had been forced to commit criminal acts were significantly more frequently found to be homeless, have reported parental alcohol and/or drug problems, have witnessed domestic violence in childhood, have been victims of sexual violence, have used illicit drugs as a dominant preparation, and have injected illicit drugs. Almost half of the abused women (46%) met criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), where HW showed an almost 4-time higher risk (RR 3.78) than WR. In conclusion there is a particular vulnerability in women with substance abuse to male violence, which has an important impact on their health status. Thus, from a public health perspective, it is suggested that for those women who have experienced male violence, treatment protocols need to include both assessing and addressing the impact of such experience in relation to substance abuse as well as concomitant health concerns.

  • 13. Bergman, Ingvar
    et al.
    Johansson, Kurt
    Almkvist, Ove
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Catarina
    Health-adjusted neuropsychological test norms based on 463 older Swedish car drivers2016Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 57, nr 2, 93-107 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for improved normative information in particular for older persons. The present study provides neuropsychological test norms on seven cognitive tests used in a sample representing the general older driving population, when uncontrolled and controlled for physical health. A group of 463 healthy Swedish car drivers, aged 65 to 84 years, participated in a medical and neuropsychological examination. The latter included tests of visual scanning, mental shifting, visual spatial function, memory, reaction time, selective attention, and simultaneous capacity. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that, when uncontrolled for health, old age was associated with significant impairment on all seven tests. Education was associated with a significant advantage for all tests except most reaction time subtests. Women outperformed men on selective attention. Controlling for health did not consistently change the associations with education, but generally weakened those with age, indicating rises in normative scores of up to 0.36 SD (residual). In terms of variance explained, impaired health predicted on average 2.5%, age 2.9%, education 2.1% and gender 0.1%. It was concluded (1)that individual regression-based predictions of expected values have the advantage of allowing control for the impact of health on normative scores in addition to the adjustment for various demographic and performance-related variables and (2) that health-adjusted norms have the potential to classify functional status more accurately, to the extent that these norms diverge from norms uncontrolled for physical health.

  • 14.
    Berntson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Christensen, Marit
    Clausen, Thomas
    Mauno, Saija
    The Launch of a New Scandinavian Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology2016Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, E-ISSN 2002-2867, Vol. 1, nr 1, 1-2 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 15.
    Berntson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi. University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Enkätmetodik2016Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Enkätmetodik ger såväl teoretisk som praktisk kunskap om enkätundersökningar från att identifiera ett problem och formulera lämpliga frågor, till att analysera och tolka resultatet. Boken har ett evidensbaserat perspektiv där läsaren får lära sig olika verktyg som bidrar till undersökningens tillförlitlighet.

    Fokus ligger på metodiken, som förklaras och sätts in i sitt sammanhang med hjälp av många exempel, faktarutor och tydliga beskrivningar. Läsaren får således god förståelse för centrala områden såsom mätteori, reliabilitet, validitet och faktoranalys.

  • 16. Bhatara, Anjali
    et al.
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Kognitiv psykologi. Södertörn University, Sweden.
    Boll-Avetisyan, Natalie
    Granjon, Lionel
    Anger Elfenbein, Hillary
    Bänziger, Tanja
    Second Language Ability and Emotional Prosody Perception2016Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 6, e0156855Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examines the effect of language experience on vocal emotion perception in a second language. Native speakers of French with varying levels of self-reported English ability were asked to identify emotions from vocal expressions produced by American actors in a forced-choice task, and to rate their pleasantness, power, alertness and intensity on continuous scales. Stimuli included emotionally expressive English speech (emotional prosody) and non-linguistic vocalizations (affect bursts), and a baseline condition with Swiss-French pseudo-speech. Results revealed effects of English ability on the recognition of emotions in English speech but not in non-linguistic vocalizations. Specifically, higher English ability was associated with less accurate identification of positive emotions, but not with the interpretation of negative emotions. Moreover, higher English ability was associated with lower ratings of pleasantness and power, again only for emotional prosody. This suggests that second language skills may sometimes interfere with emotion recognition from speech prosody, particularly for positive emotions.

  • 17. Bjaastad, Jon Fauskanger
    et al.
    Haugland, Bente Storm Mowatt
    Fjermestad, Krister W.
    Torsheim, Torbjorn
    Havik, Odd E.
    Heiervang, Einar R.
    Öst, Lars-Goran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Competence and Adherence Scale for Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CAS-CBT) for Anxiety Disorders in Youth: Psychometric Properties2016Ingår i: Psychological Assessment, ISSN 1040-3590, E-ISSN 1939-134X, Vol. 28, nr 8, 908-916 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Competence and Adherence Scale for Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CAS-CBT). The CAS-CBT is an 11-item scale developed to measure adherence and competence in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders in youth. A total of 181 videotapes from the treatment sessions in a randomized controlled effectiveness trial (Wergeland et al., 2014) comprising youth (N = 182, M age = 11.5 years, SD = 2.1, range 8-15 years, 53% girls, 90.7% Caucasian) with mixed anxiety disorders were assessed with the CAS-CBT to investigate interitem correlations, internal consistency, and factor structure. Internal consistency was good (Cronbach's alpha = .87). Factor analysis suggested a 2-factor solution with Factor 1 representing CBT structure and session goals (explaining 46.9% of the variance) and Factor 2 representing process and relational skills (explaining 19.7% of the variance). The sum-score for adherence and competence was strongly intercorrelated, r = .79, p < .001. Novice raters (graduate psychology students) obtained satisfactory accuracy (ICC > .40, n = 10 videotapes) and also good to excellent interrater reliability when compared to expert raters (ICC = .83 for adherence and .64 for competence, n = 26 videotapes). High rater stability was also found (n = 15 videotapes). The findings suggest that the CAS-CBT is a reliable measure of adherence and competence in manualized CBT for anxiety disorders in youth. Further research is needed to investigate the validity of the scale and psychometric properties when used with other treatment programs, disorders and treatment formats.

  • 18. Bjälkebring, Pär
    et al.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Svenson, Ola
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Kognitiv psykologi.
    Slovic, Paul
    Regulation of Experienced and Anticipated Regret in Daily Decision Making2016Ingår i: Emotion, ISSN 1528-3542, E-ISSN 1931-1516, Vol. 16, nr 3, 381-386 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Decisions were sampled from 108 participants during 8 days using a web-based diary method. Each day participants rated experienced regret for a decision made, as well as forecasted regret for a decision to be made. Participants also indicated to what extent they used different strategies to prevent or regulate regret. Participants regretted 30% of decisions and forecasted regret in 70% of future decisions, indicating both that regret is relatively prevalent in daily decisions but also that experienced regret was less frequent than forecasted regret. In addition, a number of decision-specific regulation and prevention strategies were successfully used by the participants to minimize regret and negative emotions in daily decision making. Overall, these results suggest that regulation and prevention of regret are important strategies in many of our daily decisions.

  • 19. Björk, Lisa
    et al.
    Härenstam, Annika
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Differences in organizational preconditions for managers in genderized municipal services2016Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, E-ISSN 1873-3387, Vol. 32, nr 4, 209-219 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In contrast to much research concerned with differences in male and female managers’ leadership strategies, this study focuses on how organizational arrangements vary for managers in differently genderized contexts; it explores the opportunities for frontline managers in municipal services to fulfil their assignment. The organisational preconditions for over 400 managers of municipal health and social care, education and technical services are analysed in a cross-level and comparative research design. The results indicate that managers of feminized care services work in an environment with fewer resources, less organisational support and larger spans of control, than managers in masculinized municipal services. These results shed light on meso-level mechanisms involved in the unequal distribution of health risks among men and women in working life.

  • 20. Boraxbekk, C. J.
    et al.
    Hagkvist, Filip
    Lindner, Philip
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi. Umeå University, Sweden; Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Motor and mental training in older people: Transfer, interference, and associated functional neural responses2016Ingår i: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 89, 371-377 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning new motor skills may become more difficult with advanced age. In the present study, we randomized 56 older individuals, including 30 women (mean age 70.6 years), to 6 weeks of motor training, mental (motor imagery) training, or a combination of motor and mental training of a finger tapping sequence. Performance improvements and post-training functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were used to investigate performance gains and associated underlying neural processes. Motor only training and a combination of motor and mental training improved performance in the trained task more than mental-only training. The fMRI data showed that motor training was associated with a representation in the premotor cortex and mental training with a representation in the secondary visual cortex. Combining motor and mental training resulted in both premotor and visual cortex representations. During fMRI scanning, reduced performance was observed in the combined motor and mental training group, possibly indicating interference between the two training methods. We concluded that motor and motor imagery training in older individuals is associated with different functional brain responses. Furthermore, adding mental training to motor training did not result in additional performance gains compared to motor-only training and combining training methods may result in interference between representations, reducing performance.

  • 21.
    Bouchard, Stéphane
    et al.
    Universite du Quebec en Outaouais, Gatineau, Canada.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Loranger, Claudie
    Universite du Quebec en Outaouais, Gatineau, Canada.
    Botella, Cristina
    Universitat Jaume.
    Mechanisms underlying the efficacy of exposure in virtual reality for anxiety disorders2016Ingår i: EABCT 2016 Abstract Book: Total Awareness, The European Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Therapies , 2016, 139-139 s.Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Many studies have documented the efficacy and effectiveness of using virtual reality to conduct exposure in the treatment of anxiety disorders (Wiederhold &amp; Bouchard, 2014). However, the factors related to treatment outcome remain unclear. In this symposium, four studies will be presented in order to document: (a) the role of presence in the potential of virtual reality (VR) to induce anxiety reactions in people suffering from an anxiety disorder (PTSD); (b) mechanisms of change, including treatment expectations, in the cognitive behavior treatment (CBT) of panic disorder where VR and in vivo techniques were used to conduct exposure; (c) the role of cognitive changes and self-efficacy compared to other predictors of change, such as presence and treatment alliance, in the CBT of social anxiety using VR and in vivo exposure; and (d) expanding these findings on predictors of change to augmented reality exposure for specific phobia. The first study is based on an experimental anxiety induction protocol while the other three use randomized control trials. The findings highlight to contribution of a few factors specific to technology-based exposure and those common to CBT of anxiety disorders. Attendees to the symposium will benefit from a clear understanding of what are the few key factors they need to take into account when conducting exposure with VR and augmented reality.

  • 22.
    Bujacz, Aleksandra
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi. Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Germany.
    Dunne, Sara
    Fink, David
    Gatej, Alexandra Raluca
    Karlsson, Ebba
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Ruberti, Veronica
    Wronska, Marta Katarzyna
    Why do we enjoy creative tasks? Results from a multigroup randomized controlled study2016Ingår i: Thinking Skills and Creativity, ISSN 1871-1871, E-ISSN 1878-0423, Vol. 19, 188-197 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have linked positive emotions with creativity, but it remains unknown why creative activities may enhance positive emotions. We tested how creative tasks influence autonomous self-expression and task absorption, and whether this in turn increases positive emotions. Data from 478 participants were divided into four language samples (English, German, Italian, and Polish) and analyzed in a series of multigroup structural equation models. The indirect effects were replicated in all samples. Creative tasks enhanced positive emotions through an increase in autonomy. However, participants who solved creative tasks also reported lower task absorption, and this has hindered their experience of positive emotions. In total, a small increase of positive emotions was recorded for creative tasks in comparison to non-creative ones. We suggest that creative activities may support autonomous functioning and enhance positive emotions, given that participants will stay sufficiently focused on the task.

  • 23. Buzea, Carmen
    et al.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Internal versus External Ethnic Identification of Roma: Implications for Social Inclusion in Romania2016Ingår i: Social Work Review, ISSN 1583-0608, nr 3Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Roma represent the most relevant and sizable ethnic minority across Europe with estimates varying from 10 up to 15 million of people. However, discrepancy in external (ascribed by others) and internal or self-defined ethnic identification of Roma are largely present in Europe and Romania in particular. We set out to explore internal and external ethnic identification of Romanian Roma by investigating Roma communities from 58 Romanian sites (10 cities and 48 villages), based on data collected from local experts (policemen, teachers, social workers, religious leaders). Results showed that: a) external ethnic identification (identification made by others) is three times higher than the official census data and the extreme poverty is the common characteristic of Roma communities; b) according to local experts, main markers to identify Roma refer to geographic proximity, extreme poverty, poor living conditions and enlarged family size. Implications for social inclusion programs at local and European level are discussed along with directions for future research.

  • 24.
    Cancino-Montecinos, Sebastian
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Cognitive dissonance leads to an abstract mindset2016Ingår i: Book of abstract, Kraków: Centre for Social Cognitive Studies , 2016, 38-38 s.Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the effects of cognitive dissonance on abstract thinking. According to action-identification theory, whenever people try to understand a situation in a new way, they activate an abstract mindset. Based on this premise, dissonance was hypothesized to put people in an abstract mindset. The induced compliance paradigm, in which participants are asked to write a counter-attitudinal essay under either low choice (producing little dissonance) or high choice (producing more dissonance), was employed. Results showed that dissonance did in fact activate a more abstract mindset, and this effect was more pronounced for participants having a more concrete mindset to begin with. This suggests that increasing abstraction, as a reaction to cognitive conflict, is a way for people to resolve inconsistencies.

  • 25.
    Cancino-Montecinos, Sebastian
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    The effects of cognitive dissonance on abstract thinking: Dissonance leads to an abstract mindset2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we investigated how individuals’ abstract thinking increases when experiencing dissonance. Dissonance theory holds that people reduce dissonance by accommodating their attitudes in order to fit their most recent behavior. This process resembles the reasoning of action-identification theory (AIT), which postulates that people usually try to understand their actions in a meaningful and coherent way, and also that actions can take on new meanings when people move from a low-level to a high-level understanding of the action. Thus, acting inconsistently threatens the coherent understanding of ones action; and in order to regain a sense of consonance, people will try to find a new meaning of their action (e.g., via attitude change). However, this occurs when moving to a high-level understanding (i.e., thinking more abstractly) of ones action. However, the effect of dissonance on abstraction should be stronger for individuals with low level of abstraction to begin with – since AIT holds that people who naturally tend to think abstractly already have high-level understandings of their actions. We predicted that: (1) dissonance puts people in a more abstract mindset, and (2) this effect will be more apparent for individuals low in abstraction. First, we established participants’ natural tendencies to abstract thinking with the Gestalt Completion Test (GCT). This variable was later split into low and high GCT. Several days later, we employed the induced compliance paradigm, in which participants were asked to write a counter-attitudinal essay under either low choice or high choice. High-choice participants usually experience more dissonance. We also created a neutral condition (to serve as a comparison to the other conditions) in which individuals were asked to write a pro-attitudinal essay. After the induced compliance manipulation, the Behavior Identification Form (BIF) was used to measure abstraction. The sample consisted of 125 non-psychology students. A 3 (condition: high-choice vs. low-choice vs. neutral) ˙ 2 (GCT: low vs. high) between subjects factorial ANOVA showed that participants in the high-choice condition (who experienced more dissonance) did exhibit a more abstract mindset, and level of GCT moderated this effect. The following simple effects analysis showed a significant effect for the low-GCT groups: (F(2, 119) = 6.607, p = .002, &#951;2 = .100) and the pairwise comparisons revealed that high-choice participants exhibited a significantly more abstract mindset (M = 16.65, SD = 4.54) compared to both the low-choice participants (M = 13.18, SD = 4.45) p = .013, d = .77 and the neutral participants (M = 12.25, SD = 4.71) p < .001, d = .95. No significant effects were found when comparing the high-GCT groups (p = .398). The present study demonstrated that dissonance activates abstract thinking, which is thought to facilitate people’s understanding their recent actions. This finding has important implication for the future study of consequences of cognitive conflicts, and also the study of how abstraction enables people to find new meanings of their own actions. Hence, investigation on these mechanisms could shed more light on how people regulate their thoughts, emotions and behavior in real time.

  • 26.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Internet-Delivered CBT: State of the Art and Future Directions2016Ingår i: EABCT 2016 Abstract Book: Total Awareness, The European Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Therapies , 2016, 18-18 s.Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) has a relatively short history, with the first trials being conducted in the late 1990s. Since then well above 120 randomized controlled trials suggest that ICBT can be effective. Effect sizes for ICBT have been well within the range of face-to-face CBT with the exception of unguided programs (e.g., not even minimal therapist contact), which usually, but not always, result in smaller effects. So, the evidence is there but how is it done? In this keynote Carlbring will present recent research findings from efficacy and effectiveness studies, but also share experiences of how to become a true expert internet therapist. It is clear that therapist guidance generally is important for good outcome – but how much, how often and when should you do it? And most importantly, what should you write in your feedback? Based on the Swedish research from analyzing the written content of email messages, sent from both the client and the therapist, suggestions will be shared.

    In the keynote short clinical case examples will be provided together with screenshots and demonstration of treatment systems including the Swedish web platform as well as a gamified virtual reality exposure therapy intervention. Furthermore, a recently tested smartphone application will also be briefly presented.

    Finally, you will learn about the risk of negative effects of Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy and how to measure the occurrence of symptom deterioration, adverse and unwanted events, and their relationship with long term treatment outcome.

  • 27.
    Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University and Karolinska Institutet.
    Internet treatment for anxiety disorders2016Ingår i: EABCT 2016 Abstract Book: Total Awareness, The European Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Therapies , 2016, 51-51 s.Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Scientific background: Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) has a relatively short history, with the first trials being conducted in the late 1990s. Since then well above 120 randomized controlled trials suggest that ICBT can be effective. Effect sizes for ICBT have been well within the range of face-to-face CBT with the exception of unguided programs (e.g., not even minimal therapist contact), which usually, but not always, result in smaller effects.

    So, the evidence is there but how is it done? In this workshop two pioneers in the field will present some recent research findings, but primarily share their experiences of how to become a true expert internet therapist. It is clear that therapist guidance generally is important for good outcome – but how much, how often and when should you do it? And most importantly, what should you write in your feedback? Based on their own research from analyzing the written content of email messages, sent from both the client and the therapist, clear suggestions will be shared and also practiced during the workshop.

    In the workshop clinical case examples will be provided together with screenshots and demonstration of treatment systems including the Swedish web platform as well as a gamified virtual reality exposure therapy intervention. Furthermore, a recently tested smartphone application will also be briefly presented.

    Finally, you will learn about the risk of negative effects of Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy and how to measure the occurrence of symptom deterioration, adverse and unwanted events, and their relationship with long term treatment outcome.

    Key learning objectives

    • Understanding the varieties of Internet treatments and their differential effects
    • Getting to know what is needed to set up a service using the Internet (the basics)
    • Learning what is required to obtain good outcomes with guided Internet treatment
    • Knowing what is required in terms of therapist training and skills.
    • Learning about the pros and cons of Internet treatment including tailoring treatment according to patient symptom profile.

    Training modalities: Lecture, role play, group discussions.

    Key references: Andersson, G. (2014). The internet and CBT: A clinical guide. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

    Andersson, G., Cuijpers, P., Carlbring, P., Riper, H., & Hedman, E. (2014). Internet-based vs. face-to-face cognitive behaviour therapy for psychiatric and somatic disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. World Psychiatry, 13, 288-295. Doi: 10.1002/wps.20151

    Workshop leaders: Both professor Per Carlbring and professor Gerhard Andersson are licensed psychologists, licensed psychotherapists and board certified specialists in clinical psychology. They have been active researchers in the internet interventions field since the late 1990s. For more information detailed see their respective web sites: www.carlbring.se and www.gerhardandersson.se

    Implications for everyday clinical practice of CBT: After this workshop you will know more about how these alternative methods of CBT support can be integrated within a busy practice and supporting people in innovative ways.

  • 28.
    Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Hassmén, Peter
    Nyström, Markus
    Lindner, Philip
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    The relative effects of behavioral activation vs. physical exercise in the treatment of mild to moderate depression2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Despite their potential as low-threshold, low-cost and high-flexibility treatments of depression, behavioral activation and physical exercise have not yet been directly compared. This study has examined the effects of these interventions, administered via the Internet.

    Method: In this randomized controlled trial a total of 312 participants meeting the diagnostic criteria for mild to moderate major depression, recruited in multiple cycles and randomized to either a waiting list control group with delayed treatment, or one of the four active treatment groups: (1) physical exercise without a clear psychological treatment rationale; (2) physical exercise with a psychological treatment rationale; (3) behavioral activation a la Lewinsohn; or (4) behavioral activation a la Martel.

    Results: A total of 72% were women and the average age of the participants were M=42.3 years (SD=13,5). More than half (53,9%) had a history of previous psychological treatment. Primary outcome measure was the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Assessments were made on a weekly basis for the full duration of the acute treatment which was 12 weeks.

    Conclusion: The preliminary results are in line with previous online studies showing that all active treatment groups were superior to the waitlist (large effect sizes) and that only minor differences could be identified between the four active groups (large within effect sizes). At the time of the conference 6-month follow-up data will be available in addition to the already collected post- assessment data (analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle).

  • 29.
    Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Huppert, Jonathan
    Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
    Koster, Ernst
    Ghent University.
    Watkins, Ed
    University of Exeter.
    Boettcher, Johanna
    Freie Universität Berlin.
    Blackwell, Simon
    Ruhr-Universität Bochum.
    What can bias modification training add to CBT?2016Ingår i: EABCT 2016 Abstract Book: Total Awareness, The European Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Therapies , 2016, 100-100 s.Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Bias modification training is a broad but very different form of CBT that is heavily inspired by experimental psychopathology research. Basically this treatment targets mechanisms maintaining psychopathology such as selective attention and memory biases. Some studies have found large effects of bias modification training but there are also negative findings. The panel will discuss the pros and cons of this treatment format including the prospect of combining traditional CBT delivery with bias modification training.

  • 30.
    Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Ljungman, Lisa
    Ljungman, Gustaf
    von Essen, Louise
    Cernvall, Martin
    Internet-based guided self-help for parents of children diagnosed with cancer: Long-term follow-up of a randomized controlled trial2016Ingår i: EABCT 2016 Abstract Book: Total Awareness, The European Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Therapies , 2016, 470-470 s.Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A considerable proportion of parents of children on cancer treatment experience distress such as symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTSS), depression and anxiety. The purpose was to investigate the long-term efficacy of Internetbased guided self-help for these parents.

    Methods: 58 parents of children on cancer treatment (median months since diagnosis = 3) were randomized to receive 10 weeks of guided self-help via the Internet or to wait-list (intervention n = 31, wait-list n = 27). The intervention utilized principles from cognitive behavior therapy and included psychoeducation, relaxation training, coping with thoughts and feelings, problem solving, and emotional writing. Weekly support via e-mail was provided. Outcomes included PTSS (PCL-C), depression (BDI-II) and anxiety (BAI) and were assessed at pre and post intervention and at one-year follow-up.

    Results: 18 participants completed the intervention. 16 participants in the intervention condition and 16 participants in the wait-list condition participated in the one-year follow-up. Intention-to-treat analyses indicated significant time*group interactions for all three outcomes with reductions favoring the intervention group: PCL-C; F = 10.9, < .001, BDI-II; F = 12.0, < .001, BAI; F = 14.6, < .001. At the one-year follow-up there were large between-group effect sizes for all three outcomes (Cohens d 0.8 to 1.1).

    Conclusions: The high drop-out rate warrants caution in interpretation of the findings. However, Internet-based guided self-help may be an accessible alternative for some parents of children on cancer treatment and findings indicate that short-term efficacy can be maintained in the long term.

  • 31.
    Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Marklund, A.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Miloff, Alexander
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Sjöblom, K.
    Delin, L.
    Lundén, C.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Blomdahl, R.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Braun, U.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Cotter, K.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Magnusson, K.
    Andersson, G.
    Treat your social anxiety disorder with this gamified smartphone app2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common debilitating mental illness with large negative effects on quality of life and economic productivity. Modern psychotherapy treatments utilizing cognitive–behavioral theory are increasingly delivered over the Internet and more recently using smartphone applications. The Challenger App written natively for the Apple iPhone was developed at the Stockholm University Department of Psychology for the treatment of SAD and uses a number of advanced features not previously seen in past mental health applications; these include real-time location awareness, notifications, anonymous social interaction between users, a high-degree of personalization and use of gamification techniques.

    Method: A total of 209 participants with a primary diagnosis of SAD were randomized to one of three groups: 1) Self-help book, 2) Self-help book + the Challenger app, or 3) waitlist. The treatment period lasted 6 weeks. Primary outcome measure was Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale self- report (LSAS-SR). Also included where the Quality of Life Inventory, Patient Health Questionnaire, and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7). Outcome was analyzed according to the intention to treat principle.

    Results: Both treatment groups were superior to the waitlist. On the main outcome measure (LSAS-SR) the effect size for the waitlist was Cohens d=0.14. The group that received the self-help book with the addition of the Challenger app was significantly superior (d=1.0) to just reading the self- help book (d=0.61). Participants requited by way of Newspaper advertisement were more likely to reach high end-state functioning (OR=4.1) and the same was true for participants without prior psychological treatment history as compared with having a previous experience (OR=4.4).

    Conclusion: Adding the smartphone app is a cost effective way of improving the outcome when treating SAD with a self-help book.

  • 32. Carlsson, L. Höglund
    et al.
    Saltvedt, S.
    Anderlid, B. -M.
    Westerlund, Joakim
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Kognitiv psykologi. Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Gillberg, C.
    Westgren, M.
    Fernell, E.
    Prenatal ultrasound and childhood autism: long-term follow-up after a randomized controlled trial of first- vs second-trimester ultrasound2016Ingår i: Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 0960-7692, E-ISSN 1469-0705, Vol. 48, nr 3, 285-288 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To analyze whether the frequency of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in a cohort of Swedish children differs between those exposed to ultrasound in the 12th week and those exposed to ultrasound in the 18th week of gestation.

    Methods: The study cohort consisted of approximately 30 000 children born between 1999 and 2003 to mothers who had been randomized to a prenatal ultrasound examination at either 12 or 18weeks' gestation as part of the framework for a study on nuchal translucency screening. The outcome measure in the present study was the rate of ASD diagnoses among the children. Information on ASD diagnoses was based on data from the Swedish social insurance agency concerning childcare allowance granted for ASD.

    Results: Between 1999 and 2003, a total of 14 726 children were born to women who underwent a 12-week ultrasound examination and 14 596 to women who underwent an 18-week ultrasound examination. Of these, 181 (1.2%) and 176 (1.2%) children, respectively, had been diagnosed with ASD. There was no difference in ASD frequency between the early and late ultrasound groups.

    Conclusions: Women subjected to at least one prenatal ultrasound examination at either 12 or 18weeks' gestation had children with similar rates of ASD. However, this result reflects routine care 10-15 years ago in Sweden. Today, higher intensity ultrasound scans are performed more frequently, at earlier stages during pregnancy and for non-medical purposes, implying longer exposure time for the fetus. This change in the use of ultrasound necessitates further follow-up study of the possible effects that high exposure to ultrasound during the gestational period has on the developing brain.

  • 33. Cernvall, Martin
    et al.
    Hovén, Emma
    Ljungman, Lisa
    Ljungman, Gustaf
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    von Essen, Louise
    Posttraumatic Stress and Attentional Bias towards Cancer-Related Stimuli in Parents of Children Recently Diagnosed with Cancer2016Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 4, e0152778Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To investigate whether posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are related to attentional bias towards cancer-related stimuli among parents of children recently diagnosed with cancer. Methods Sixty-two parents completed questionnaires measuring PTSS, depression, and anxiety and the emotional Stroop task via the Internet. The emotional Stroop task included cancer-related words, cardiovascular disease-related words, and neutral words. Results Participants were split in two groups based on the median of PTSS: High-PTSS and Low-PTSS. There was a significant interaction between word-type and group and a planned contrast test of this interaction indicated that the High-PTSS group had longer response latencies on cancer-related words compared to the other word-type and group combinations. Conclusions Findings suggest that PTSS are related to attentional bias towards cancer-related stimuli among parents of children recently diagnosed with cancer. Implications of this finding for the understanding of PTSS in this population, future research, and clinical practice are discussed.

  • 34. Cernvall, Martin
    et al.
    Skogseid, Ellen
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Ljungman, Lisa
    Ljungman, Gustaf
    von Essen, Louise
    Experiential avoidance and rumination in parents of children on cancer treatment: relationships with posttraumatic stress symptoms and symptoms of depression2016Ingår i: Journal of clinical psychology in medical settings, ISSN 1068-9583, E-ISSN 1573-3572, Vol. 23, nr 1, 67-76 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We conducted a cross-sectional survey study to investigate whether there is a relationship between experiential avoidance (EA), rumination, post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), and symptoms of depression, in parents of children on cancer treatment. Data from 79 parents (55 mothers) of 79 children with a median of three months since their cancer diagnosis were included in cross-sectional analyses. EA and rumination were positively correlated with PTSS and symptoms of depression. EA and rumination did not provide incremental explained variance in PTSS over and above that explained by symptoms of depression, while controlling for symptoms of anxiety and demographic characteristics. However, EA and rumination provided incremental explained variance in symptoms of depression over and above that explained by PTSS, while controlling for symptoms of anxiety and demographic characteristics. Rumination and EA are important constructs in the understanding of PTSS and symptoms of depression in parents of children on cancer treatment. Future research should delineate the temporal relationships between these constructs.

  • 35. Chiotis, Konstantinos
    et al.
    Saint-Aubert, Laure
    Savitcheva, Irina
    Jelic, Vesna
    Andersen, Pia
    Jonasson, My
    Eriksson, Jonas
    Lubberink, Mark
    Almkvist, Ove
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Wall, Anders
    Antoni, Gunnar
    Nordberg, Agneta
    Imaging in-vivo tau pathology in Alzheimer's disease with THK5317 PET in a multimodal paradigm2016Ingår i: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, ISSN 1619-7070, E-ISSN 1619-7089, Vol. 43, nr 9, 1686-1699 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The aim of this study was to explore the cerebral distribution of the tau-specific PET tracer [F-18]THK5317 (also known as (S)-[F-18]THK5117) retention in different stages of Alzheimer's disease; and study any associations with markers of hypometabolism and amyloid-beta deposition. Methods Thirty-three individuals were enrolled, including nine patients with Alzheimer's disease dementia, thirteen with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), two with non-Alzheimer's disease dementia, and nine healthy controls (five young and four elderly). In a multi-tracer PET design [F-18]THK5317, [C-11] Pittsburgh compound B ([C-11]PIB), and [F-18]FDG were used to assess tau pathology, amyloid-beta deposition and cerebral glucose metabolism, respectively. The MCI patients were further divided into MCI [C-11]PIB-positive (n=11) and MCI [C-11]PIB-negative (n=2) groups. Results Test-retest variability for [F-18]THK5317-PET was very low (1.17-3.81 %), as shown by retesting five patients. The patients with prodromal (MCI [C-11]PIB-positive) and dementia-stage Alzheimer's disease had significantly higher [F-18]THK5317 retention than healthy controls (p=0.002 and p=0.001, respectively) in areas exceeding limbic regions, and their discrimination from this control group (using the area under the curve) was >98 %. Focal negative correlations between [F-18]THK5317 retention and [F-18]FDG uptake were observed mainly in the frontal cortex, and focal positive correlations were found between [F-18]THK5317 and [C-11] PIB retentions isocortically. One patient with corticobasal degeneration syndrome and one with progressive supranuclear palsy showed no [C-11]PIB but high [F-18]THK5317 retentions with a different regional distribution from that in Alzheimer's disease patients. Conclusions The tau-specific PET tracer [F-18]THK5317 images in vivo the expected regional distribution of tau pathology. This distribution contrasts with the different patterns of hypometabolism and amyloid-beta deposition.

  • 36. Corin, Linda
    et al.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Härenstam, Annika
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Managers’ Turnover in the Public Sector: The Role of Psychosocial Working Conditions2016Ingår i: International Journal of Public Administration, ISSN 0190-0692, E-ISSN 1532-4265, Vol. 39, nr 10, 790-802 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An important challenge for public organizations is to attract and retain skilled managers. The present study explores how profiles of psychosocial working conditions, assessed by the combination of managerial-specific job demands and job resources, longitudinally predict managers’ turnover intentions and actual turnover in Swedish municipalities. Considerable effects of managers’ psychosocial working conditions on turnover intentions but not on actual turnover were found. Thus, poor working conditions may result in psychologically detached managers in public organizations, which may have considerable and costly effects on both the organizations and the managers, in terms of decreased commitment, performance, and impaired health.

  • 37.
    Cornell Kärnekull, Stina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Arshamian, Artin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Radboud University, Netherlands.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    From Perception to Metacognition: Auditory and Olfactory Functions in Early Blind, Late Blind, and Sighted Individuals2016Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, 1450Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although evidence is mixed, studies have shown that blind individuals perform better than sighted at specific auditory, tactile, and chemosensory tasks. However, few studies have assessed blind and sighted individuals across different sensory modalities in the same study. We tested early blind (n = 15), late blind (n = 15), and sighted (n = 30) participants with analogous olfactory and auditory tests in absolute threshold, discrimination, identification, episodic recognition, and metacognitive ability. Although the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) showed no overall effect of blindness and no interaction with modality, follow-up between-group contrasts indicated a blind-over-sighted advantage in auditory episodic recognition, that was most pronounced in early blind individuals. In contrast to the auditory modality, there was no empirical support for compensatory effects in any of the olfactory tasks. There was no conclusive evidence for group differences in metacognitive ability to predict episodic recognition performance. Taken together, the results showed no evidence of an overall superior performance in blind relative sighted individuals across olfactory and auditory functions, although early blind individuals exceled in episodic auditory recognition memory. This observation may be related to an experience-induced increase in auditory attentional capacity.

  • 38.
    Cortes, Diana S.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Kognitiv psykologi.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Age differences in judgments of attractiveness, likeability, and trustworthiness of faces2016Ingår i: Program of SANS 2016, 2016, 58-58 s., B-23Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    People constantly evaluate faces to obtain social information. However, the link between aging and social evaluation of faces is not well understood. Todorov and colleagues introduced a data-driven model defined by valence and dominance as the two main components underlying social judgments of faces. They also created a stimulus set consisting of computer-generated faces which systematically vary along various social dimensions (e.g., Todorov et al., 2013, Emotion, 13, 724-38). We utilized a selection of these facial stimuli to investigate age-related differences in judgments of the following dimensions: attractiveness, competence, dominance, extraversion, likeability, threat, and trustworthiness. Participants rated how well the faces represented the intended social dimensions on 9-point scales ranging from not at all to extremely well. Results from 71 younger (YA; mean age = 23.42 years) and 60 older adults (OA; mean age = 69.19 years) showed that OA evaluated untrustworthy faces as more trustworthy, dislikeable faces as more likeable, and unattractive faces as more attractive compared to YA. OA also evaluated attractive faces as more attractive compared to YA, whereas YA did rate likeable and trustworthy faces as more likeable and trustworthy than did OA. In summary, our findings showed that OA evaluated negative social features less negatively compared to YA. This suggests that older and younger persons may use different cues for social evaluation of faces, and is in line with prior research suggesting age-related decline in the ability to recognize negative emotion expressions.

  • 39. Dahlin, Mats
    et al.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Magnusson, Kristoffer
    Johansson, Tomas
    Sjögren, Johan
    Håkansson, Andreas
    Pettersson, Magnus
    Kadowaki, Åsa
    Cuijpers, Pim
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Internet-delivered acceptance-based behaviour therapy for generalized anxiety disorder: A randomized controlled trial2016Ingår i: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, E-ISSN 1873-622X, Vol. 77, 86-95 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a disabling condition which can be treated with cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). The present study tested the effects of therapist-guided internet-delivered acceptance-based behaviour therapy on symptoms of GAD and quality of life. An audio CD with acceptance and mindfulness exercises and a separate workbook were also included in the treatment. Participants diagnosed with GAD (N = 103) were randomly allocated to immediate therapist-guided internet-delivered acceptance-based behaviour therapy or to a waiting-list control condition. A six month follow-up was also included. Results using hierarchical linear modelling showed moderate to large effects on symptoms of GAD (Cohen's d = 0.70 to 0.98), moderate effects on depressive symptoms (Cohen's d = 0.51 to 0.56), and no effect on quality of life. Follow-up data showed maintained effects. While there was a 20% dropout rate, sensitivity analyses showed that dropouts did not differ in their degree of change during treatment. To conclude, our study suggests that internet-delivered acceptance-based behaviour therapy can be effective in reducing the symptoms of GAD.

  • 40. Dahlin, Mats
    et al.
    Ryberg, Marielle
    Vernmark, Kristofer
    Annas, Nina
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Internet-delivered acceptance-based behavior therapy for generalized anxiety disorder: A pilot study2016Ingår i: Internet Interventions, ISSN 2214-7829, Vol. 6, 16-21 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) has been developed and tested for treating persons with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). A new form of CBT focuses on acceptance (of internal experiences or difficult psychological content), mindfulness and valued actions. To date this form of CBT has not been delivered via the internet for persons with GAD. The aim of this study was to describe the functionality of a new internet-delivered acceptance-based behavior therapy for GAD, and to test the effect of the intervention in an open pilot trial. Methods: Following exclusion of two patients we included 14 patients diagnosed with GAD from two primary care clinics. At 2–3 months follow-up after treatment 10 patients completed the outcome measures. The treatment lasted for an average of 15 weeks and consisted of acceptance-based techniques, behavior therapy components and homework assignments. Results: A majority of participants completed all modules during the treatment. Findings on the Penn State Worry Questionnaire showed a within-group improvement of Cohen's d = 2.14 at posttreatment. At the follow-up results were maintained. Client satisfaction ratings were high. Conclusions: We conclude that internet-delivered acceptance-based behavior therapy potentially can be a promising new treatment for GAD. A controlled trial of the program has already been completed.

  • 41. Dang, Junhua
    et al.
    Xiao, Shanshan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Liu, Ying
    Jiang, Yumeng
    Mao, Lihua
    Individual differences in dopamine level modulate the ego depletion effect2016Ingår i: International Journal of Psychophysiology, ISSN 0167-8760, E-ISSN 1872-7697, Vol. 99, 121-124 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Initial exertion of self-control impairs subsequent self-regulatory performance, which is referred to as the ego depletion effect. The current study examined how individual differences in dopamine level, as indexed by eye blink rate (EBR), would moderate ego depletion. An inverted-U-shaped relationship between EBR and subsequent self regulatory performance was found when participants initially engaged in self-control but such relationship was absent in the control condition where there was no initial exertion, suggesting individuals with a medium dopamine level may be protected from the typical ego depletion effect. These findings are consistent with a cognitive explanation which considers ego depletion as a phenomenon similar to switch costs that would be neutralized by factors promoting flexible switching.

  • 42. Dang, Junhua
    et al.
    Xiao, Shanshan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Zhang, Ting
    Liu, Ying
    Jiang, Bin
    Mao, Lihua
    When the poor excel: Poverty facilitates procedural learning2016Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 57, nr 4, 288-291 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research has shown that poverty directly impeded cognitive functions because the poor could be easily distracted by monetary concerns. We argue that this effect may be limited to functions relying on working memory. For functions that rely on proceduralized processes however, monetary concerns elicited by reminding of financial demands would be conducive rather than harmful. Our results supported this hypothesis by showing that participants with lower income reached the learning criterion of the information-integration categorization task faster than their more affluent counterparts after reminding of financial demands.

  • 43. Danielsson, Katarina
    et al.
    Jansson Fröjmark, Markus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Broman, Jan-Erik
    Markström, Agneta
    Cognitive Behavioral Therapy as an Adjunct Treatment to Light Therapy for Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder in Young Adults: A Randomized Controlled Feasibility Study2016Ingår i: Behavioral Sleep Medicine, ISSN 1540-2002, Vol. 14, nr 2, 212-232 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD) is common among young people, but there is still no evidence-based treatment available. In the present study, the feasibility of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) was evaluated as an additive treatment to light therapy (LT) in DSPD. A randomized controlled trial with participants aged 16 to 26 years received LT for two weeks followed by either four weeks of CBT or no treatment (NT). LT advanced sleep-wake rhythm in both groups. Comparing LT+CBT with LT+NT, no significant group differences were observed in the primary endpoints. Although anxiety and depression scores were low at pretreatment, they decreased significantly more in LT+CBT compared to LT+NT. The results are discussed and some suggestions are given for further studies.

  • 44. Danielsson, Katarina
    et al.
    Markström, Agneta
    Broman, Jan-Erik
    von Knorring, Lars
    Jansson-Fröjmark, Markus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Delayed sleep phase disorder in a Swedish cohort of adolescents and young adults: Prevalence and associated factors2016Ingår i: Chronobiology International, ISSN 0742-0528, E-ISSN 1525-6073, Vol. 33, nr 10, 1331-1339 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A delayed sleep-wake and circadian rhythm often occurs during puberty. While some individuals only develop a delayed sleep phase (DSP), others will fulfill the criteria for the diagnosis of delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD). All previous studies have however not separated DSP from DSPD, and, as a result, the prevalence and associated factors are largely unknown for the two conditions individually. We estimated the prevalence of DSP and DSPD in a Swedish cohort of adolescents and young adults. We also investigated associated factors in the two conditions relative to each other and individuals with no DSP. A questionnaire regarding sleep patterns, demographics, substance use/abuse and symptoms of depression, anxiety, worry and rumination was sent to 1000 randomly selected participants (16-26 years of age) in Uppsala, Sweden (response rate = 68%). DSP was defined as a late sleep onset and a preferred late wake-up time. The DSPD diagnosis was further operationalized according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Edition 5 (DSM-5) criteria including insomnia or excessive sleepiness, distress or dysfunction caused by the DSP and that the sleep problem had been evident for 3 months. DSP occurred at a frequency of 4.6% and DSPD at a frequency of 4% in the investigated cohort. DSP was more common in males and was associated with not attending educational activity or work, having shift work, nicotine and alcohol use and less rumination. DSPD was equally common in males and females and was associated with not attending educational activity or work and with elevated levels of anxiety. Both DSP and DSPD appear to be common in adolescents and young adults in this Swedish cohort. No educational activity or work was associated with both DSP and DSPD. However, there were also apparent differences between the two groups in shift work, substance use and mental health, relative to persons with no DSP. Thus, it seems reasonable to assess DSP and DSPD as distinct entities in future studies.

  • 45. De Smedt, Stefan K.
    et al.
    Fonteyne, Yannick S.
    Muragijimana, Felicienne
    Palmer, Katie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Kognitiv psykologi. London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, England.
    Murdoch, Ian
    Glaucoma Surgery Outcome in Rwanda2016Ingår i: Journal of glaucoma, ISSN 1057-0829, E-ISSN 1536-481X, Vol. 25, nr 8, 698-703 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To assess long-term intraocular pressure (TOP) outcome after adult trabeculectomy surgery in Central Africa. Patients and Methods: All adult glaucoma patients who underwent trabeculectomy surgery in the Kabgayi Eye Unit, Rwanda between August 2003 and March 2008 were invited for a follow-up visit. Surgical and clinical data were collected from medical records. At the study visit, best-corrected visual acuity was measured and Goldmann applanation tonometry and biomicroscopy were done. Good IOP outcome was defined as both an IOP < 21 mm Hg and achieving >= 30% reduction from the preoperative IOP. Considering first operated eyes, univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to investigate risk factors for failure. Results: Of 163 individuals operated 3 had died, 118 (74%) participated. Preoperatively, the mean IOP was 31 mm Hg (SD = 11; range, 12 to 60). At the time of the follow-up study visit the mean postoperative IOP was 13 mm Hg (SD = 5; range, 4 to 35). Good IOP outcome was achieved in 132 eyes (84%). Univariate analysis suggested a protective effect against failure of use of anti metabolites [odds ratio (OR) = 0.39; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.14-1.11; P = 0.07] and a decrease in success with length of follow-up (OR = 3.57; 95% CI, 1.09-12.50; P = 0.03). The latter remained borderline significant with multivariate analysis. Seven eyes went from previously better vision (at least hand movements) down to perception of light or no perception of light after trabeculectomy. Particularly a flat anterior chamber in the first postoperative week (OR = 0.07; 95% CI, 0.01-0.49; P < 0.001) and late hypotony (OR = 0.04; 95% CI, 0.002-0.99; P = 0.004) were significant risk factors for severe visual loss. Conclusions: Trabeculectomy with antimetabolites is one of the best available options for glaucoma management in Africa. However, the IOP control reduced at a follow-up duration beyond 2 years, highlighting the importance of regular long-term follow-up.

  • 46.
    Del Missier, Fabio
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Kognitiv psykologi. University of Trieste, Italy.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Coni, Valentina
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Kognitiv psykologi.
    Multiple routes from memory to decision making2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    We present two individual-differences investigations, carried out with the aim of identifying the memory correlates of decision-making skills. The investigations were carried out on population-based Swedish samples between 25 and 80 years of age (n > 500). Study 1 showed selective relations between memory processes (i.e., semantic, episodic, and working memory) and diverse aspects of decision-making competence as measured with the A-DMC battery. The age-related declines observed in the more cognitively-demanding decision-making tasks were mediated by the age-related differences in working memory or episodic memory. Study 2 confirmed the findings even when controlling for the influence of processing speed and sensory functioning. Overall, the results showed that different memory processes fulfill different functional roles in diverse judgment and decision-making tasks.

  • 47. Del Missier, Fabio
    et al.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Kognitiv psykologi.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Bruine de Bruin, Wändi
    Parker, Andrew M.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Kognitiv psykologi.
    Predictors of Decision Making Across the Adult Life-Span: An Individual-Differences Study2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Age-related decline in complex cognitive tasks has been explained by changes in sensory functioning, processing speed, and working memory. However, there is still no agreement on the relative importance of these factors, and their relative role in decision making has not been investigated. In an individual-difference study on a population-based Swedish sample of adults (N = 563, age range 30-89), we disentangled the contribution of sensory decline, processing speed, and working memory measures to age-related changes in three cognitively-demanding decision-making tasks of the Adult Decision-Making Competence Battery (Resistance to Framing, Applying Decision Rules, Under/Overconfidence). Structural equation modeling showed that working memory is a significant predictor even when the influence of sensory variables, processing speed, and education (as a control for cohort effects) is taken into account. Moreover, the effects of sensory functioning and processing speed on decision making were mediated by working memory. These findings indicate that the age-related decline in complex decision-making tasks may not be entirely explained by changes in lower-level processes, highlighting the functional role of working memory processes.

  • 48.
    Del Missier, Fabio
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Kognitiv psykologi. Leeds University Business School, UK; University of Trieste, Italy.
    Ranyard, Rob
    Bonini, Nicolao
    Perceived inflation: The role of product accessibility and attitudes towards inflation2016Ingår i: Journal of Economic Psychology, ISSN 0167-4870, E-ISSN 1872-7719, Vol. 56, 97-106 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about the psychological mechanisms underlying judgments of perceived inflation as empirical evidence is sparse. In two studies, we investigated two factors that are expected to play a significant role in global judgments of perceived inflation: product accessibility and attitudes towards inflation. In Study 1 (N = 253), primed participants retrieved five products whose prices had increased (or decreased) in the past year before expressing a judgment of past inflation (versus non-primed participants with no retrieval task). In Study 2 (N = 101) participants were merely exposed to a series of products, and asked to estimate their frequency of purchase, before judging past inflation. In one condition, the prices of the majority of products had actually increased in the last year, while in another condition they had decreased. In both studies, attitudes towards inflation were also measured. Product priming consistently affected inflation judgments in the direction of an assimilation effect. Also, more negative attitudes towards inflation were associated with higher judgments of perceived inflation. Path analysis confirmed that both product accessibility and attitudes are potential bases for judgments of perceived inflation. These findings suggest that multiple psychological influences may underlie global judgments of perceived inflation.

  • 49.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Cohesion, similarity and value in parent-child representations of Albanian and Serbian immigrant and Italian native children2016Ingår i: Psychology. Journal of the Higher School of Economics, ISSN 1813-8918, Vol. 13, nr 1, 192-213 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of parent-child representations across cultures is important in order to obtain a proper understanding of the attributes, size and positioning of such figures as indicators of different interaction patterns across cultures. A thorough base of research evidence for the interpretation of children’s drawings may facilitate work in multicultural educational settings and enhance our understanding of cultural diversity in schools. Italy provides an ideal context for the study of parent-child representations, as the country has witnessed increasing cultural diversity in recent years with the immigration of various ethnic groups. This study examined the extent to which this context influences children’s representations in domains of Cohesion (interpersonal bonding), Similarity (affinity) and Value (spatial relevance) among parent-child figures because these domains inform important representational processes of interpersonal bonding with parents across specific cultures. The Pictorial Assessment of Interpersonal Relationships (PAIR) was used to codify drawings of 326 children with Albanian (n = 59), Serbian (n = 85) and Italian (n = 182) backgrounds. The results showed that in drawings made by Albanian and Serbian children parental figures were drawn similar to and close to the child figure representing their less independent reciprocal stance. The parental figures drawn by Italian children appear bigger and farther apart. Important implications may be derived from the results in facilitating work in multicultural educational settings, by enhancing knowledge regarding cultural diversity in schools.

  • 50.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Ingredients of good PhD supervision: evidence from a student survey at Stockholm University2016Ingår i: Utbildning och Lärande / Education and Learning, ISSN 2001-4554, Vol. 10, nr 1, 40-53 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Doktorandhandledning är en relevant fråga för en pedagogisk forskarutbildning vid univer-sitet vilket har betydande implikationer inom rad sammanhang, såväl inom industrin som för  grupper  av  arbetsgivare,  studentföreningar  och  akademiker.  Denna  studie  undersöker  centrala aspekter av handledning utifrån doktoranders perspektiv vid Stockholms universi-tet baserat på en undersökning med 761 forskarstuderande. En konfirmatorisk faktoranalys genomförd med strukturell ekvationsmodellering visade sig ge stöd åt en endimensionell modell för handledning som exemplifieras av givandet av konstruktiv kritik till studenter, handledarens tillgänglighet, tillräckligt med tid för handledning, möjlighet till självständigt arbete  och  en  kreativ  miljö  för  forskarutbildningen.  Handledningsindikatorerna  var  även  signifikant och positivt korrelerade. Att studera dessa indikatorer spelar stor roll för riktlinjer inom  utbildning  och  metoder  för  undervisning  i  avsikt  att  kunna  förbättra  forskarutbild-ningen. Studenter skulle kunna bli tydligt informerade om viktiga faktorer att överväga när de väljer samt påbörjar sina studier. Universitetsledning och handledare kan upprätthållas i sin roll att säkerställa en fullgod doktorandupplevelse för deras studenter.