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  • 1. Aafjes-van Doorn, Katie
    et al.
    Lilliengren, Peter
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Cooper, Angela
    McDonald, James
    Falkenström, Fredrik
    Patients’ Affective Processes Within Initial Experiential Dynamic Therapy Sessions2017Ingår i: Psychotherapy, ISSN 0033-3204, E-ISSN 1939-1536, Vol. 54, nr 2, 175-183 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has indicated that patients’ in-session experience of previously avoided affects may be important for effective psychotherapy. The aim of this study was to investigate patients’ in-session levels of affect experiencing in relation to their corresponding levels of insight, motivation, and inhibitory affects in initial Experiential Dynamic Therapy (EDT) sessions. Four hundred sixty-six 10-min video segments from 31 initial sessions were rated using the Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale. A series of multilevel growth models, controlling for between-therapist variability, were estimated to predict patients’ adaptive affect experiencing (Activating Affects) across session segments. In line with our expectations, higher within-person levels of Insight and Motivation related to higher levels of Activating Affects per segment. Contrary to expectations, however, lower levels of Inhibition were not associated with higher levels of Activating Affects. Further, using a time-lagged model, we did not find that the levels of Insight, Motivation, or Inhibition during one session segment predicted Activating Affects in the next, possibly indicating that 10-min segments may be suboptimal for testing temporal relationships in affective processes. Our results suggest that, to intensify patients’ immediate affect experiencing in initial EDT sessions, therapists should focus on increasing insight into defensive patterns and, in particular, motivation to give them up. Future research should examine the impact of specific inhibitory affects more closely, as well as between-therapist variability in patients’ in-session adaptive affect experiencing.

  • 2. Abbass, Allan
    et al.
    Town, Joel
    Ogrodniczuk, John
    Joffres, Michel
    Lilliengren, Peter
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy Trial Therapy Effectiveness and Role of Unlocking the Unconscious2017Ingår i: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, ISSN 0022-3018, E-ISSN 1539-736X, Vol. 205, nr 6, 453-457 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the effects of trial therapy interviews using intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy with 500 mixed sample, tertiary center patients. Furthermore, we investigated whether the effect of trial therapy was larger for patients who had a major unlocking of the unconscious during the interview compared with those who did not. Outcome measures were the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP), measured at baseline and at 1-month follow-up. Significant outcome effects were observed for both the BSI and the IIP with small to moderate preeffect/posteffect sizes, Cohen's d = 0.52 and 0.23, respectively. Treatment effects were greater in patientswho had a major unlocking of the unconscious comparedwith thosewho did not. The trial therapy interview appears to be beneficial, and its effects may relate to certain therapeutic processes. Further controlled research is warranted.

  • 3. Abdollahi, Abbas
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Coping Style as a Moderator of Perfectionism and Suicidal Ideation Among Undergraduate Students2017Ingår i: Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, ISSN 0894-9085, E-ISSN 1573-6563, Vol. 35, nr 3, 223-239 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Suicide is a serious and growing public health problem and remains an unnecessary cause of death globally. In Iran, the highest prevalence of acute and chronic suicidal ideation is among young people aged 16-24. This study investigates the relationship between coping style, two types of perfectionism, and suicidal ideation among undergraduates, and examines coping style as a moderator of the relationship between perfectionism and suicidal ideation. Multi-stage cluster random sampling was employed to recruit 547 undergraduate students aged 19-24 years from the Islamic Azad University of Karaj. Structural Equation Modelling indicated that suicidal ideation was negatively associated with adaptive perfectionism and task-focused coping but positively associated with emotion-focused coping, avoidance coping, and maladaptive perfectionism. Coping style (including the three styles of task-focused, emotion-focused, and avoidance coping) was found to moderate the relationship between perfectionism and suicidal ideation. The study advances understanding of the importance of coping style in this context and explains how perfectionism affects suicidal ideation.

  • 4. Abdollahi, Abbas
    et al.
    LeBouthillier, Daniel M.
    Najafi, Mahmoud
    Asmundson, Gordon J. G.
    Hosseinian, Simin
    Shahidi, Shahriar
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Kalhori, Atefeh
    Sadeghi, Hassan
    Jalili, Marzieh
    Effect of exercise augmentation of cognitive behavioural therapy for the treatment of suicidal ideation and depression2017Ingår i: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 219, 58-63 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Suicidal ideation and depression are prevalent and costly conditions that reduce quality of life. This study was designed to determine the efficacy of exercise as an adjunct to cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for suicidal ideation and depression among depressed individuals.

    Methods: In a randomized clinical trial, 54 mildly to moderately depressed patients (54% female, mean age=48.25) were assigned to a combined CBT and exercise group or to a CBT only group. Both groups received one weekly session of therapy for 12 weeks, while the combined group also completed exercise three times weekly over the same period. Self-reported suicidal ideation, depression, and activities of daily living were measured at the beginning and the end of treatment.

    Results: Multilevel modelling revealed greater improvements in suicidal ideation, depression, and activities of daily living in the combined CBT and exercise group, compared to the CBT only group.

    Limitations: No follow-up data were collected, so the long-term effects (i.e., maintenance of gains) is unclear.

    Conclusions: The findings revealed that exercise adjunct to CBT effectively decreases both depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in mildly to moderately depressed individuals.

  • 5.
    Addo, Rebecka N.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Nord, Marie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Olfactory Functions in Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorders2017Ingår i: Perception, ISSN 0301-0066, E-ISSN 1468-4233, Vol. 46, nr 3-4, 530-537 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are often characterized by atypical sensory behavior (hyperor hyporeactivity) although evidence is scarce regarding olfactory abilities in ASD; 16 adults with high-functioning ASD (mean age: 38.2, SD: 9.7) and 14 healthy control subjects (mean age: 42.0 years, SD: 12.5) were assessed in odor threshold, free and cued odor identification, and perceived pleasantness, intensity, and edibility of everyday odors. Although results showed no differences between groups, the Bayes Factors (close to 1) suggested that the evidence for no group differences on the threshold and identification tests was inconclusive. In contrast, there was some evidence for no group differences on perceived edibility (BF01 = 2.69) and perceived intensity (BF01 = 2.80). These results do not provide conclusive evidence for or against differences between ASD and healthy controls on olfactory abilities. However, they suggest that there are no apparent group differences in subjective ratings of odors.

  • 6.
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Johansson, Sven-Erik
    Levander, Maria
    Alm, Per Olof
    Oreland, Lars
    Smoking habits – Associations with personality/behavior, platelet monoamine oxidase activity and plasma thyroid hormone levels2017Ingår i: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 118, 71-76 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective was to outline results from our scientific studies on the associations among childhood behavior, adult personality, and biochemical factors in smoking habits. The studies consisted of: (1) follow-up of young criminals and controls, subdivided into risk for antisocial behavior groups, based on childhood rating levels of a projective test; and adult smoking habit groups; and (2) a large group of young adults examined on the same inventories. Personality in terms of KSP and EPQ-I scale scores, controlled for intelligence, indicated that the high and very high risk groups displayed significantly higher self-rated impulsiveness, anxiety, and nonconformity, as compared to the low risk group. Further, the very high risk group subjects, found to be overrepresented among subjects with heavy smoking habits, displayed lower mean platelet MAO-B activity and higher thyroid hormone levels than the low risk group. Thus, the higher the childhood risk for antisocial behavior, the clearer the adult personality pattern making subjects more disposed for smoking appeared; and the higher smoking habits, the stronger the relationships with biochemical measures. Results are discussed in terms of possible underlying mechanisms influencing personality and smoking habits.

  • 7. Aletta, Francesco
    et al.
    Axelsson, Östen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Kang, Jian
    Dimensions Underlying the Perceived Similarity of Acoustic Environments2017Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, 1162Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Scientific research on how people perceive or experience and/or understand the acoustic environment as a whole (i.e., soundscape) is still in development. In order to predict how people would perceive an acoustic environment, it is central to identify its underlying acoustic properties. This was the purpose of the present study. Three successive experiments were conducted. With the aid of 30 university students, the first experiment mapped the underlying dimensions of perceived similarity among 50 acoustic environments, using a visual sorting task of their spectrograms. Three dimensions were identified: (1) Distinguishable-Indistinguishable sound sources, (2) Background-Foreground sounds, and (3) Intrusive-Smooth sound sources. The second experiment was aimed to validate the results from Experiment 1 by a listening experiment. However, a majority of the 10 expert listeners involved in Experiment 2 used a qualitatively different approach than the 30 university students in Experiment 1. A third experiment was conducted in which 10 more expert listeners performed the same task as per Experiment 2, with spliced audio signals. Nevertheless, Experiment 3 provided a statistically significantly worse result than Experiment 2. These results suggest that information about the meaning of the recorded sounds could be retrieved in the spectrograms, and that the meaning of the sounds may be captured with the aid of holistic features of the acoustic environment, but such features are still unexplored and further in-depth research is needed in this field.

  • 8.
    Almkvist, Ove
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Bosnes, Ole
    Bosnes, Ingunn
    Stordal, Eystein
    Selective impact of disease on short-term and long-term components of self-reported memory: a population-based HUNT study2017Ingår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, nr 5, e013586Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Subjective memory is commonly considered to be a unidimensional measure. However, theories of performance-based memory suggest that subjective memory could be divided into more than one dimension. Objective To divide subjective memory into theoretically related components of memory and explore the relationship to disease. Methods In this study, various aspects of self-reported memory were studied with respect to demographics and diseases in the third wave of the HUNT epidemiological study in middle Norway. The study included all individuals 55 years of age or older, who responded to a nine-item questionnaire on subjective memory and questionnaires on health (n=18 633). Results A principle component analysis of the memory items resulted in two memory components; the criterion used was an eigenvalue above 1, which accounted for 54% of the total variance. The components were interpreted as long-term memory (LTM; the first component; 43% of the total variance) and short-term memory (STM; the second component; 11% of the total variance). Memory impairment was significantly related to all diseases (except Bechterew's disease), most strongly to brain infarction, heart failure, diabetes, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and whiplash. For most diseases, the STM component was more affected than the LTM component; however, in cancer, the opposite pattern was seen. Conclusions Subjective memory impairment as measured in HUNT contained two components, which were differentially associated with diseases.

  • 9.
    Almkvist, Ove
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital at Huddinge, Sweden.
    Rodriguez-Vieitez, Elena
    Thordardottir, Steinunn
    Amberla, Kaarina
    Axelman, Karin
    Basun, Hans
    Kinhult-Ståhlbom, Anne
    Lilius, Lena
    Remes, Anne
    Wahlund, Lars-Olof
    Viitanen, Matti
    Lannfelt, Lars
    Graff, Caroline
    Predicting Cognitive Decline across Four Decades in Mutation Carriers and Non-carriers in Autosomal-Dominant Alzheimer's Disease2017Ingår i: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, ISSN 1355-6177, E-ISSN 1469-7661, Vol. 23, nr 3, 195-203 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate cognitive performance including preclinical and clinical disease course in carriers and non-carriers of autosomal-dominant Alzheimer's disease (adAD) in relation to multiple predictors, that is, linear and non-linear estimates of years to expected clinical onset of disease, years of education and age. Methods: Participants from five families with early-onset autosomal-dominant mutations (Swedish and Arctic APP, PSEN1 M146V, H163Y, and I143T) included 35 carriers (28 without dementia and 7 with) and 44 non-carriers. All participants underwent a comprehensive clinical evaluation, including neuropsychological assessment at the Memory Clinic, Karolinska University Hospital at Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden. The time span of disease course covered four decades of the preclinical and clinical stages of dementia. Neuropsychological tests were used to assess premorbid and current global cognition, verbal and visuospatial functions, short-term and episodic memory, attention, and executive function. Results: In carriers, the time-related curvilinear trajectory of cognitive function across disease stages was best fitted to a formulae with three predictors: years to expected clinical onset (linear and curvilinear components), and years of education. In non-carriers, the change was minimal and best predicted by two predictors: education and age. The trajectories for carriers and non-carriers began to diverge approximately 10 years before the expected clinical onset in episodic memory, executive function, and visuospatial function. Conclusions: The curvilinear trajectory of cognitive functions across disease stages was mimicked by three predictors in carriers. In episodic memory, executive and visuospatial functions, the point of diverging trajectories occurred approximately 10 years ahead of the clinical onset compared to non-carriers.

  • 10. Andersson, G.
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Enduring effects of ICBT2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Numerous randomized controlled trials have been conducted on internet interventions. In addition to the effects observed in these trials immediately after treatment there are several long-term follow-ups. The aim of this talk is to review the long-term effects of internet-delivered CBT (ICBT) with a focus on results at 1-year or later following treatment termination.

    Methods: We were able to locate examples of enduring effects for a range of conditions including mood and anxiety disorders and somatic disorders. The longest follow-up period has been five years.

    Results: Large within-group effects have been documented in most trials, with effects sizes being moderate to large for anxiety and depression studies.

    Discussion: Studies have failed to document how much the treatment is used during the follow-up period and in the case of depression it is unclear if episodes of depression have occured during the period covered. We conclude that the effects of ICBT appear to be enduring but that more research is needed.

  • 11. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Internet-Assisted Cognitive Behavioral Therapy2017Ingår i: Psychiatric Clinics of North America, ISSN 0193-953X, E-ISSN 1558-3147, Vol. 40, nr 4, 689-700 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet, including modern information technology, has had a dramatic impact on many areas of life, including health care and psychological treatment. In particular, cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) has been found to be a form of psychological treatment that has been possible to transfer to other modes of delivery than regular face-to-face and group formats. The Internet is not only useful for providing CBT, but has a significant role in providing information about CBT and conditions that are treated using CBT. In addition, modern information technology also has a major role in assessment procedures, such as online administration of self-report mea- sures. In this article, we focus mainly on Internet-supported treatments, although another emerging format is to use video conferencing systems and conduct real- time face-to-face CBT, CBT training, or supervision.

  • 12. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Hadjistavropoulos, Heather D.
    Internet-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy2017Ingår i: The Science of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy / [ed] Stefan G. Hofmann , Gordon J. G. Asmundson, London: Elsevier, 2017, 531-549 s.Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) is an evidence-based form of CBT. Most programs include text, video, and audio files and are similar to face-to-face CBT in terms of content and duration of treatment. Most often ICBT includes some guidance from a therapist, although automated self-guided ICBT programs also exist. Studies suggest that guided ICBT can be as effective as face-to-face CBT for anxiety and mood disorders as well as for distress associated with certain somatic disorders. Transdiagnostic programs, either relying on presentation of common strategies for, or tailoring of treatment to, disorders have generated strong outcomes in controlled trials. Interventions for problems like procrastination also show promise. Studies on predictors and mediators of outcome are emerging, but there is a need to develop intervention-specific theories in order to better understand change mechanisms. In the future, blending of face-to-face CBT and modern information technology are expected to be more common and attractive to therapists.

  • 13. Ankarberg, Peter
    et al.
    Bergsten, Katja
    Bohman, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Bäck, Malin
    Falkenström, Fredrik
    Klingström, Anders
    Lilliengren, Peter
    Philips, Björn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Werbart, Andrzej
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Socialstyrelsens riktlinjer är partiska och ovetenskapliga!2017Ingår i: Psykoterapi, ISSN 2001-5836, Vol. 26, nr 2, 30-34 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna artikel är ett remissvar med synpunkter på de nationella riktlinjerna för ångest och depression, som vi publicerar i sin helhet i tidskriften. Vi gör det på grund av den ingående kunskap om processerna i riktlinjearbetet som några av författarna har kunnat få genom egen medverkan och närvaro i det arbetet.

  • 14.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Lundberg, Ulf
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Rehabilitering och samordning: Slutrapport: Utvärdering av Rehsams forskningsprogram 2009–20112017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rehabilitering och samordning, Rehsam, var ett forskningsprogram som initierades av regeringen år 2009. Målet var att öka den evidensbaserade kunskapsmassan kring rehabilitering av personer som är sjukskrivna, eller riskerar att bli sjukskrivna, på grund av psykiska eller muskuloskeletala problem. Denna rapport är en sammanfattande utvärdering av Rehsamprogrammet.

    Som en uppföljning av Rehsam-satsningen fick Forte 2014 bland annat i uppdrag att göra en vetenskaplig kvalitetsbedömning av den forskning som genomförts inom Rehsam-satsningen. Detta uppdrag har genomförts i olika etapper, med två delrapporter under 2015. Den här utvärderingen omfattar 21 projekt och är en slutrapport av uppdraget.

    Sammanfattningsvis visar Rehsam-projektens resultat att projekt som omfattar insatser på arbetsplatsen är mer effektiva än de projekt som inte genomfört arbetsplats-interventioner. Tendensen är även att projekt med högre vetenskaplig kvalitet oftare har signifikanta utfall.

  • 15.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Grape, Tom
    Hammarström, Anne
    Hogstedt, Christer
    Marteinsdottir, Ina
    Skoog, Ingmar
    Träskman-Bendz, Lil
    Hall, Charlotte
    A systematic review including meta-analysis of work environment and burnout symptoms2017Ingår i: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 17, nr 1, 264Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Practitioners and decision makers in the medical and insurance systems need knowledge on the relationship between work exposures and burnout. Many burnout studies - original as well as reviews - restricted their analyses to emotional exhaustion or did not report results on cynicism, personal accomplishment or global burnout. To meet this need we carried out this review and meta-analyses with the aim to provide systematically graded evidence for associations between working conditions and near-future development of burnout symptoms.

    METHODS: A wide range of work exposure factors was screened. Inclusion criteria were: 1) Study performed in Europe, North America, Australia and New Zealand 1990-2013. 2) Prospective or comparable case control design. 3) Assessments of exposure (work) and outcome at baseline and at least once again during follow up 1-5 years later. Twenty-five articles met the predefined relevance and quality criteria. The GRADE-system with its 4-grade evidence scale was used.

    RESULTS: Most of the 25 studies focused emotional exhaustion, fewer cynicism and still fewer personal accomplishment. Moderately strong evidence (grade 3) was concluded for the association between job control and reduced emotional exhaustion and between low workplace support and increased emotional exhaustion. Limited evidence (grade 2) was found for the associations between workplace justice, demands, high work load, low reward, low supervisor support, low co-worker support, job insecurity and change in emotional exhaustion. Cynicism was associated with most of these work factors. Reduced personal accomplishment was only associated with low reward. There were few prospective studies with sufficient quality on adverse chemical, biological and physical factors and burnout.

    CONCLUSION: While high levels of job support and workplace justice were protective for emotional exhaustion, high demands, low job control, high work load, low reward and job insecurity increased the risk for developing exhaustion. Our approach with a wide range of work exposure factors analysed in relation to the separate dimensions of burnout expanded the knowledge of associations, evidence as well as research needs. The potential of organizational interventions is illustrated by the findings that burnout symptoms are strongly influenced by structural factors such as job demands, support and the possibility to exert control.

  • 16.
    Arshamian, Artin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Radboud University, The Netherlands.
    Laska, Matthias
    Gordon, Amy R.
    Norberg, Matilda
    Lahger, Christian
    Porada, Danja K.
    Jelvez Serra, Nadia
    Johansson, Emilia
    Schaefer, Martin
    Amundin, Mats
    Melin, Harald
    Olsson, Andreas
    Olsson, Mats J.
    Stensmyr, Marcus
    Lundström, Johan N.
    A mammalian blood odor component serves as an approach-avoidance cue across phylum border - from flies to humans2017Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, 13635Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemosignals are used by predators to localize prey and by prey to avoid predators. These cues vary between species, but the odor of blood seems to be an exception and suggests the presence of an evolutionarily conserved chemosensory cue within the blood odor mixture. A blood odor component, E2D, has been shown to trigger approach responses identical to those triggered by the full blood odor in mammalian carnivores and as such, is a key candidate as a food/alarm cue in blood. Using a multidisciplinary approach, we demonstrate that E2D holds the dual function of affecting both approach and avoidance behavior in a predator-prey predicted manner. E2D evokes approach responses in two taxonomically distant blood-seeking predators, Stable fly and Wolf, while evoking avoidance responses in the prey species Mouse. We extend this by demonstrating that this chemical cue is preserved in humans as well; E2D induces postural avoidance, increases physiological arousal, and enhances visual perception of affective stimuli. This is the first demonstration of a single chemical cue with the dual function of guiding both approach and avoidance in a predator-prey predicted manner across taxonomically distant species, as well as the first known chemosignal that affects both human and non-human animals alike.

  • 17.
    Astvik, Wanja
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi. Mälardalens högskola, Sverige .
    Welander, Jonas
    Isaksson, Kerstin
    Sorti, tystnad och lojalitet bland medarbetare och chefer i socialtjänsten2017Ingår i: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 23, nr 3, 41-61 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Personalsituationen i socialtjänsten framstår som alltmer problematisk med omfattande personalomsättning och rekryteringssvårigheter. Baserat på en nationell enkätstudie undersöks betydelsen av arbetsvillkor och organisatoriska faktorer för handlingsalternativen sorti, tystnad och lojalitet bland medarbetare och chefer inom socialtjänsten. Resultaten visar bland annat att styrningen inom socialtjänsten behöver utvecklas i riktning mot färre motstridiga krav och för en öppenhet som tillåter dialog och kritisk reflektion för att behålla och på sikt attrahera nya medarbetare.

  • 18. Augustsson, Hanna
    et al.
    Richter, Anne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden..
    Hasson, Henna
    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden..
    The Need for Dual Openness to Change: A Longitudinal Study Evaluating the Impact of Employees' Openness to Organizational Change Content and Process on Intervention Outcomes2017Ingår i: Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, ISSN 0021-8863, E-ISSN 1552-6879, Vol. 53, nr 3, 349-368 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates how individual- and group-level openness to organizational change, concerning change content and process, affects intervention outcomes. The intervention aimed to improve primary health care employees' competence in and use of information and communication technologies (ICT). Employees' (n = 1,042) ratings of their openness to the change content and process as well as of their workgroup's openness to the change content before the intervention were used to predict ICT competence and its use 18 months later. Openness to the change process predicted both ICT competence and use of competence, while openness to the change content and group openness predicted use of competence only. These results show that individual- and group-level openness to organizational change are important predictors of successful outcomes. Furthermore, employees should be open both to the content of the change and to the process by which the intervention is implemented in order to maximize outcomes.

  • 19. Barnevik Olsson, Martina
    et al.
    Holm, Anette
    Westerlund, Joakim
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Lundholm Hedvall, Åsa
    Gillberg, Christopher
    Fernell, Elisabeth
    Children with borderline intellectual functioning and autism spectrum disorder: developmental trajectories from 4 to 11 years of age2017Ingår i: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, ISSN 1176-6328, E-ISSN 1178-2021, Vol. 13, 2519-2526 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Studies on autism have tended to focus either on those with intellectual disability (ie, those with intellectual quotient [IQ] under 70) or on the group that is referred to as high-functioning, that is, those with borderline, average or above average IQ. The literature on cognition and daily functioning in autism spectrum disorder combined specifically with borderline intellectual functioning (IQ 70-84) is limited. Methods: From a representative group of 208 preschool children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, those 50 children in the group with borderline intellectual functioning at ages 4.5-6.5 years were targeted for follow-up at a median age of 10 years. A new cognitive test was carried out in 30 children. Parents were interviewed with a semi-structured interview together with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (n=41) and the Autism-Tics, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) and other comorbidities inventory (A-TAC) (n=36). Results: Most children of interviewed parents presented problems within several developmental areas. According to A-TAC and the clinical interview, there were high rates of attention deficits and difficulties with regulating activity level and impulsivity. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales composite scores showed that at school age, a majority of the children had declined since the previous assessment at ages between 4.5 and 6.5 years. Almost half the tested group had shifted in their IQ level, to below 70 or above 84. Conclusion: None of the children assessed was without developmental/neuropsychiatric problems at school-age follow-up. The results support the need for comprehensive follow-up of educational, medical and developmental/neuropsychiatric needs, including a retesting of cognitive functions. There is also a need for continuing parent/family follow-up and support.

  • 20. Bas-Hoogendam, Janna Marie
    et al.
    van Steenbergen, Henk
    Pannekoek, J. Nienke
    Fouche, Jean-Paul
    Lochner, Christine
    Hattingh, Coenraad J.
    Cremers, Henk R.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Månsson, Kristoffer N.T.
    Frick, Andreas
    Engman, Jonas
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Sample Size Matters: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Multi-Center Mega-Analysis of Gray Matter Volume in Social Anxiety Disorder2017Ingår i: Biological Psychiatry, ISSN 0006-3223, E-ISSN 1873-2402, Vol. 81, nr 10, S7-S8 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is a disabling psychiatric disorder, associated with high co-morbidity. Previous research on structural brain alterations associated with SAD has yielded inconsistent results concerning changes in gray matter (GM) in various brain regions, as well as on the relationship between GM and SAD-symptomatology. These heterogeneous findings are possibly due to limited sample sizes. Multi-site imaging offers new possibilities to investigate SAD-related GM changes in larger samples.

    Methods: An international multi-center mega-analysis on the largest database of SAD brain scans to date was performed to compare GM volumes of SAD-patients (n=174) and healthy participants (n=213) using voxel-based morphometry. A hypothesis-driven region of interest (ROI) approach was used, focusing on the basal ganglia, amygdala-hippocampal complex, prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex.

    Results: SAD-patients had larger GM volume in the dorsal striatum when compared to healthy participants. This increase correlated positively with the level of social anxiety symptoms. No SAD-related differences in GM volume were present in the other ROIs.

    Conclusions: The results suggest a role for the dorsal striatum in SAD, but previously reported SAD-related changes in GM in the amygdala, hippocampus, precuneus, prefrontal cortex and parietal regions were not replicated. Thereby, our findings indicate that sample size matters and stress the need for meta-analyses like those performed by the Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium and its working groups. Actually, the collaborative effort for this work has resulted in the start of the ENIGMA-Anxiety workgroup.

  • 21. Bas-Hoogendam, Janna Marie
    et al.
    van Steenbergen, Henk
    Pannekoek, J. Nienke
    Fouche, Jean-Paul
    Lochner, Christine
    Hattingh, Coenraad J.
    Cremers, Henk R.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Månsson, Kristoffer N.T.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi. Uppsala University, Sweden; Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Frick, Andreas
    Engman, Jonas
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Straube, Thomas
    Peterburs, Jutta
    Klumpp, Heide
    Phan, K. Luan
    Roelofs, Karin
    Veltman, Dick J.
    van Tol, Marie-José
    Stein, Dan J.
    van der Wee, Nic J. A.
    Voxel-based morphometry multi-center mega-analysis of brain structure in social anxiety disorder2017Ingår i: NeuroImage: Clinical, ISSN 0353-8842, E-ISSN 2213-1582, Vol. 16, 678-688 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a prevalent and disabling mental disorder, associated with significant psychiatric co-morbidity. Previous research on structural brain alterations associated with SAD has yielded inconsistent results concerning the direction of the changes in gray matter (GM) in various brain regions, as well as on the relationship between brain structure and SAD-symptomatology. These heterogeneous findings are possibly due to limited sample sizes. Multi-site imaging offers new opportunities to investigate SAD-related alterations in brain structure in larger samples.

    An international multi-center mega-analysis on the largest database of SAD structural T1-weighted 3T MRI scans to date was performed to compare GM volume of SAD-patients (n = 174) and healthy control (HC)-participants (n = 213) using voxel-based morphometry. A hypothesis-driven region of interest (ROI) approach was used, focusing on the basal ganglia, the amygdala-hippocampal complex, the prefrontal cortex, and the parietal cortex. SAD-patients had larger GM volume in the dorsal striatum when compared to HC-participants. This increase correlated positively with the severity of self-reported social anxiety symptoms. No SAD-related differences in GM volume were present in the other ROIs. Thereby, the results of this mega-analysis suggest a role for the dorsal striatum in SAD, but previously reported SAD-related changes in GM in the amygdala, hippocampus, precuneus, prefrontal cortex and parietal regions were not replicated. Our findings emphasize the importance of large sample imaging studies and the need for meta-analyses like those performed by the Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium.

  • 22. Bergman Nordgren, L.
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Andersson, G.
    Tailoring CBT-treatments delivered via the internet: Some examples from a Swedish context2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: In mental health comorbidity is common, both physical and psychiatric. Normally studies on cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) protocols do not exclude comorbid patients but leave the comorbidity to improve without being addressed, or remain unchanged without being identified. since most cognitive behavior treatment protocols are diagnosis-specific. Based on the idea that several problems can be targeted at once, individually tailored CBT protocols have developed. Including patients’ specific symptom profile and preferences, and the knowledge from established disorder-specific programs these protocols opens for individualization both before and during treatment based on individual progress. Tailoring can also be done to target different age groups and include for example the interface of the treatment program and the clinical examples used.

    Methods: Most programs have been tested in randomized controlled trials against active waitlist conditions. Specific symptom measures served as primary outcome measures and measures of life quality as secondary. Some studies also included economic evaluations of cost- effectiveness and ratings of therapeutic alliance. Our samples have been both self-recruited and referred by health care professionals. Most of the studies have measure-points not only directly at post treatment, but also at one- and two-year follow-up.

    Results: Taken together the tailored programs show, on average, a medium to large effect size (Cohen’s d) on primary outcome measures regarding both anxiety and depressive symptoms, and small effect sizes on life quality measures. Effects were sustained at follow-up. The tailored treatment proved to be cost-effective administered in regular care. We also found patient ratings of therapeutic alliance to correlate with outcome.

    Discussion: Individually tailored internet-administered CBT show promising results. Based on the available data, it might be a feasible approach in treating anxiety and depression. Acceptability, for whom it is most beneficial, and if some components are more powerful than others, are questions left to be answered.

  • 23.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    De Cuyper, Nele
    Murphy, Megan
    Connelly, Catherine E.
    How Do We Feel and Behave When We’re Not Permanent Full-Time Employees? The Case of the Diverse Forms of Non-Standard Work2017Ingår i: An Introduction to Work and Organizational Psychology: An International Perspective / [ed] Nik Chmiel, Franco Fraccaroli, Magnus Sverke, Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2017, 3, 258-275 s.Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter discusses how it feels to work in non-standard employment that deviates from the traditional full-time permanent arrangement. Non-standard employmentis frequently used by organizations today and often tailored to organizational needs. Therefore, a diversity of arrangements has developed, which means that employment and working conditions and their consequences for the individual and the organization may vary a lot. The chapter first provides a typology of most commonly used non-standard contracts and discusses their comparability across national employment protection legislation and labour markets. It further illustrates that workers may view alternative employment differently, depending on organizational or labour market structures that create working conditions for specific contracts, and individual perspectives that are shaped by different needs and perceptions of the employment. These structural issues and individual perceptions may well explain the variety of consequences, positive as well as negative, which are discussed in this chapter in terms of work attitudes, organizational behaviour, individual health and well-being and career development.

  • 24.
    Blom, Victoria
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; The Swedish School of Sport and Health Science, Sweden.
    Svedberg, Pia
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Mather, Lisa
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Stress in paid and unpaid work as related to cortisol and subjective health complaints in women working in the public health care sector2017Ingår i: International Journal of Workplace Health Management, ISSN 1753-8351, E-ISSN 1753-836X, Vol. 10, nr 4, 286-299 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Focusing on 420 women employed within the woman-dominated health care sector, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how any variation in their total workload (TWL) in terms of paid and unpaid work relate to various subjective health complaints (SHC) (n=420) and the neuroendocrine stress marker cortisol (n=68).

    Design/methodology/approach: The authors explored how any variation in their TWL in terms of paid and unpaid work related cross-sectionally to SHC (n=420), and the neuroendocrine stress marker cortisol (n=68).

    Findings: Hierarchical regression analyses showed that stress of unpaid work was most strongly related to diurnal variations in cortisol. Both stress of paid and unpaid work as well as TWL stress, but not hours spent on TWL, were related to SHC.

    Practical implications: Taken together, objective measures of hours spent on various TWL domains were unrelated to outcome measures while perceptions of having too much TWL and TWL stress were linked to both cortisol and SHC, i.e. how individuals perceive a situation seem to be more important for health than the actual situation, which has implications for research and efforts to reduce individual TWL.

    Originality/value: This study is unique in showing that unpaid work and perceptions having too much TWL relate to stress markers in women working in the public health care sector.

  • 25. Boettcher, Johanna
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Warnock-Parkes, Emma
    Willutzki, Ulrike
    Innovations in the Treatment of Social Anxiety Disorder2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a very common and disabling mental disorder. Cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) is first-line treatment and has a strong empirical basis. However, not all patients benefit from CBT. About one third of the treated patients do not respond to a sufficient degree (Rodebaugh, Holaway, & Heimberg, 2004). Additionally, access to CBT is often limited. Only a small minority of patients with SAD receives adequate, evidence-based treatment (e.g. Issakidis & Andrews, 2002). Hence, there is a pressing need to optimize existing treatment approaches and to lower treatment barriers. The planned symposium will present different approaches on how to make CBT more efficient and more available for patients with SAD. Treatments that are facilitated via the Internet have the potential to reach patients who are otherwise unlikely to receive adequate treatment (e.g. patients in remote areas, patients fearing stigmatization, patients too shy to initiate face-to-face contact). At the same time, technology-based interventions also help to bring important therapeutic techniques into practice. The first two talks will therefore focus on innovations in the field of Internet-based CBT for SAD and will present strategies to facilitate exposure exercises. Johanna Boettcher will present two studies on a newly developed app for SAD. In a gamified approach, the app guides and motivates patients to conduct exposure exercises in their natural environment. The second presentation will introduce virtual reality (VR) exposure therapy for social fears. Per Carlbring will present data on a RCT, evaluating the impact of a three-hour VR exposure session on public speaking anxiety.  The third talk will present a different angle on how to improve treatment outcomes. Emma Warnock- Parks will outline how video-feedback can be optimized in the treatment of socially anxious patients  in order to increase its impact on patients’ symptomatology. She will present data on the beneficial effect of video feedback on patients’ distorted self-images and will show ways how to make this technique even more powerful. Optimizing intervention techniques and contexts is one way to improve treatment of SAD. It is also important to consider external factors that may influence treatment adherence or outcome. In the last talk, Ulrike Willutzki will present data on a long-time neglected topic in SAD. She will demonstrate how the well-meant support of patients’ spouses can contribute to the maintenance of the disorder. She will discuss how partners can be educated and become involved in treatment helping the patient to overcome anxiety in difficult social situations.  The planned symposium will offer four different strategies that can be implemented to improve cognitive-behavioural treatment techniques and to further the access to CBT. The symposium therefore contributes to a better understanding on how CBT for SAD can become more efficient in alleviating patients’ suffering.

  • 26. Bosnes, Ingunn
    et al.
    Almkvist, Ove
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Bosnes, Ole
    Stordal, Eystein
    Romild, Ulla
    Nordahl, Hans M.
    Prevalence and correlates of successful aging in a population-based sample of older adults: the HUNT study2017Ingår i: International psychogeriatrics, ISSN 1041-6102, E-ISSN 1741-203X, Vol. 29, nr 3, 431-440 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The factors influencing successful aging (SA) are of great interest in an aging society. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of SA, the relative importance across age of the three components used to define it (absence of disease and disability, high cognitive and physical function, and active engagement with life), and its correlates. Data were extracted from the population-based cross-sectional Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT3 2006–2008). Individuals aged 70–89 years with complete datasets for the three components were included (N = 5773 of 8,040, 71.8%). Of the respondents, 54.6% were women. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to analyze possible correlates of SA. Overall, 35.6% of the sample met one of the three criteria, 34.1% met combinations, and 14.5% met all of the three criteria. The most demanding criterion was high function, closely followed by absence of disease, while approximately two-thirds were actively engaged in life. The relative change with age was largest for the high cognitive and physical function component and smallest for active engagement with life. The significant correlates of SA were younger age, female gender, higher education, weekly exercise, more satisfaction with life, non-smoking, and alcohol consumption, whereas marital status was not related to SA. The prevalence of SA in this study (14.5%) is comparable to previous studies. It may be possible to increase the prevalence by intervention directed toward more exercise, non-smoking, and better satisfaction with life.

  • 27.
    Bujacz, Aleksandra
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Rigotti, Thomas
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Psychosocial Working Conditions Among High-Skilled Workers: A Latent Transition Analysis.2017Ingår i: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, ISSN 1076-8998, E-ISSN 1939-1307Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Theories of psychosocial working conditions assume an interaction of different work environment characteristics. Most studies detail various aspects of such interactions, while fewer investigate the comprehensive patterns of interrelated variables. This exploratory study distinguishes patterns of psychosocial working conditions, describes their characteristics, and investigates their change over 6 years. The working conditions of 1,744 high-skilled workers in Sweden, of a representative sample of the working population, were empirically classified into 4 distinct patterns: (a) the Supporting pattern with a very low workload, very low time pressure, medium learning opportunities, high creativity requirements, and very high autonomy; (b) the Constraining pattern with a very low workload, very low time pressure, low learning opportunities, medium creativity requirements, and very low autonomy; (c) the Demanding pattern with a high workload, high time pressure, medium learning opportunities, high creativity requirements, and very low autonomy; and (d) the Challenging pattern with a high workload, high time pressure, very high learning opportunities, very high creativity requirements, and very high autonomy. Importantly, these patterns were associated with significant differences in worker well-being. From an individual perspective, working conditions most often changed from patterns with a high workload and time pressure to patterns with lower levels of these demands. Over time, the prevalence of the Constraining pattern increased while that of the Challenging pattern decreased. To conclude, a person-centered approach broadens the understanding of the complex interplay between psychosocial working conditions and their longitudinal change, which can improve the tailoring of occupational health interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record

  • 28. Böttcher, Johanna
    et al.
    Magnusson, Kristoffer
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Marklund, Arvid
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Challenger: eine "smarte" Erweiterung der internet-basierten Behandlung sozialer Ängste2017Ingår i: 10. Workshopkongress für Klinische Psychologie und Psychotherapie und 35. Symposium der Fachgruppe: Symposium S-22 Online-Therapie, Web- und smartphonebasierte Methoden in der Psychotherapie, 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [de]

    Hintergrund: Online-Behandlungen für soziale Angststörungen (SAS) sind bereits gut untersucht. Ein nächster Schritt ist die Erprobung von Smartphone Anwendungen. Diese bieten zahlreiche Möglichkeiten, die Umsetzung einzelner Behandlungselemente im Alltag zu vereinfachen. „Challenger“ ist eine jüngst entwickelte App, die die Durchführung von Expositionsübungen unterstützt. Spielerisch bietet sie den Nutzer*innen Übungen an, die auf die individuellen Bedürfnisse der Betroffenen, sowie auf aktuelle räumliche und situationale Merkmale abgestimmt sind. Die vorliegende Studie untersucht, welchen zusätzlichen Nutzen Challenger zur internet-basierten Behandlung sozialer Ängste beiträgt.Methode: 209 Patient*innen mit SAS wurden zufällig drei Gruppen zugeteilt. Die erste Gruppe erhielt ein unbegleitetes Selbsthilfeprogramm mit zusätzlichem Zugang zur App, die zweite Gruppe erhielt ausschließlich das Selbsthilfeprogramm und die dritte Gruppe war eine Warteliste-Kontrollgruppe. Die Teilnehmer*innen füllten vor, nach und 12 Monate nach Ende der Behandlung Fragebögen zu sozialen Ängsten und sekundären Maßen aus.Ergebnisse: Beide aktive Gruppen zeigten bedeutsame Verbesserungen der sozialen Ängste. Patient*innen, die zusätzlich mit der App trainierten, waren der aktiven Vergleichsgruppe leicht überlegen (kontrolliertes d=0,25). Die Therapieerfolge waren über 12 Monate stabil. Diskussion: Die untersuchte Kombination der Challenger App mit internet-basierter Selbsthilfe war für Patient*innen mit SAS wirksam. Da die ungeleitete App keine personellen Ressourcen fordert und gleichzeitig einen neuartigen, spielerischen Zugang zu Expositionsübungen bietet, empfiehlt sich ihre weitere Erforschung in anderen Behandlungskontexten.

  • 29. Campanella, Fabio
    et al.
    Palese, Alvisa
    Del Missier, Fabio
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Kognitiv psykologi. University of Trieste, Italy.
    Moreale, Renzo
    Ius, Tamara
    Shallice, Tim
    Fabbro, Franco
    Skrap, Miran
    Long-Term Cognitive Functioning and Psychological Well-Being in Surgically Treated Patients with Low-Grade Glioma2017Ingår i: World Neurosurgery, ISSN 1878-8750, E-ISSN 1878-8769, Vol. 103, 799-808.e9 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this work is to provide an in-depth investigation of the impact of low-grade gliomas (LGG) and their surgery on patients' cognitive and emotional functioning and well-being, carried out via a comprehensive and multiple-measure psychological and neuropsychological assessment.

    Patients and Methods: Fifty surgically treated patients with LGG were evaluated 40 months after surgery on their functioning over 6 different cognitive domains, 3 core affective/emotional aspects, and 3 different psychological well-being measures to obtain a clearer picture of the long-term impact of illness and surgery on their psychological and relational world. Close relatives were also involved to obtain an independent measure of the psychological dimensions investigated.

    Results: Cognitive status was satisfactory, with only mild short-term memory difficulties. The affective and well-being profile was characterized by mild signs of depression, good satisfaction with life and psychological well-being, and good personality development, with patients perceiving themselves as stronger and better persons after illness. However, patients showed higher emotional reactivity, and psychological well-being measures were negatively affected by epileptic burden. Well-being was related to positive affective/emotional functioning and unrelated to cognitive functioning. Good agreement between patients and relatives was found.

    Conclusions: In the long-term, patients operated on for LGG showed good cognitive functioning, with no significant long-term cognitive sequelae for the extensive surgical approach. Psychologically, patients appear to experience a deep psychological change and maturation, closely resembling that of so-called posttraumatic growth, which, to our knowledge, is for the first time described and quantified in patients with LGG.

  • 30. Canivet, Catarina
    et al.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Moghaddassi, Mahnaz
    Stengård, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Östergren, Per-Olof
    The negative effects on mental health of being in a non-desired occupation in an increasingly precarious labour market2017Ingår i: SSM - Population Health, ISSN 2352-8273, Vol. 3, 516-524 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Precarious employment has been associated with poor mental health. Moreover, increasing labour market precariousness may cause individuals to feel ‘locked-in’, in non-desired workplaces or occupations, out of fear of not finding a new employment. This could be experienced as a ‘loss of control’, with similar negative health consequences. It is plausible that the extent to which being in a non-desired occupation (NDO) or being in precarious employment (PE) has a negative impact on mental health differs according to age group. We tested this hypothesis using data from 2331 persons, 18–34, 35–44, and 45–54 years old, who answered questionnaires in 1999/2000, 2005, and 2010. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were calculated for poor mental health (GHQ-12) in 2010, after exposure to NDO and PE in 1999/2000 or 2005. NDO and PE were more common in the youngest age group, and they were both associated with poor mental health. In the middle age group the impact of NDO was null, while in contrast the IRR for PE was 1.7 (95% CI: 1.3–2.3) after full adjustment. The pattern was completely the opposite in the oldest age group (adjusted IRR for NDO 1.6 (1.1–2.4) and for PE 0.9 (0.6–1.4)). The population attributable fraction of poor mental health was 14.2% and 11.6%, respectively, for NDO in the youngest and oldest age group, and 17.2% for PE in the middle age group. While the consequences of PE have been widely discussed, those of NDO have not received attention. Interventions aimed at adapting work situations for older individuals and facilitating conditions of job change in such a way as to avoid risking unemployment or precarious employment situations may lead to improved mental health in this age group.

  • 31.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Internet-based CBT Interventions2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) has a relatively short history, with the first trials being conducted in the late 1990s. Since then well above 150 randomized controlled trials suggest that ICBT can be effective. Effect sizes for ICBT have been well within the range of face-to-face CBT with the exception of unguided programs (e.g., not even minimal therapist contact), which usually, but not always, result in smaller effects.

    So, the evidence is there but how is it done? In this workshop two pioneers in the field will present some recent research findings, but primarily share their experiences of how to become a true expert internet therapist. It is clear that therapist guidance generally is important for good outcome – but how much, how often and when should you do it? And most importantly, what should you write in your feedback? Based on their own research from analyzing the written content of email messages, sent from both the client and the therapist, clear suggestions will be shared and also practiced during the workshop.

    In the workshop clinical case examples will be provided together with screenshots and demonstration of treatment systems including the Swedish web platform as well as a gamified virtual reality exposure therapy intervention. Furthermore, a recently tested smartphone application will also be briefly presented.

    Finally, you will learn about the risk of negative effects of Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy and how to measure the occurrence of symptom deterioration, adverse and unwanted events, and their relationship with long term treatment outcome.

  • 32.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Single-session Gamified Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Spider Phobia vs. Traditional Exposure Therapy: A Randomized-controlled Non-inferiority Trial with 12-month Follow-up2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: This is the first large randomized-controlled trial to evaluate whether commercially available VR hardware and software can be used for exposure therapy. The aim of this study was to compare gold-standard One Session Therapy (OST) for reduction of spider phobia symptoms and avoidance behavior using in vivo spiders and a human therapist, to a newly developed single-session gamified Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET) application with modern, consumer-available VR hardware, virtual spiders, and a virtual therapist. Method: Subjects (N=100) with spider phobia, diagnosed, and meeting inclusion criteria were recruited from the general population and randomized to 2 treatment arms. In 1-week intervals, pre-measurement, 3-hr treatment and post-measurement were completed with an in-vivo behavioral approach test (BAT) serving as the primary outcome measure for both groups. This study was powered to detect a non-inferiority margin of a 2-point between-group difference on the BAT, with a standard deviation of 4 (at 80% power). Results: 98 patients commenced treatment and 97 patients completed post-measurement. Per protocol analysis indicated VR was not non-inferior to OST. Repeated-measures ANOVA identified a significant main effect of time (p<.001) and time x group effect (p<.05). Both OST and VR participants experienced large BAT within-group effect sizes (d=2.28 and d=1.45, respectively). By the time of the conference there will be 12-month follow-up data including prediction analysis and the effect of treatment credibility, preference and working alliance. Conclusion: OST is the superior treatment option for spider phobia. VRET is an effective alternative if OST cannot be provided, as pure self-help, as the initial intervention in a stepped-care model, or as a possible post-OST booster.

  • 33.
    Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Cuijpers, Pim
    Riper, Heleen
    Hedman, Erik
    Internet-based vs. face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy for psychiatric and somatic disorders: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis2017Ingår i: Abstracts from the 9th Swedish Congress on internet interventions (SWEsrii), Linköping: Linköping University Press , 2017, 16-17 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last two decades, Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) has been tested in hundreds of randomized controlled trials, often with promising results. However, the control groups were often waitlist, care-as-usual or attention control. Hence, little is known about the relative efficacy of ICBT as compared to face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). In the present systematic review and meta-analysis, which included 1418 participants, guided ICBT for psychiatric and somatic conditions were directly compared to face-to-face CBT within the same trial. Out of the 2078 articles screened, a total of 20 studies met all inclusion criteria. These included three studies on social anxiety disorder, three on panic disorder, four on depression, two on body dissatisfaction, two on insomnia, two on tinnitus, one on male sexual dysfunction, one on spider phobia, one on snake phobia, and one on fibromyalgia. Half of the face-to-face CBT treatments were administered in an individual format, and the other half were administered in a group format. Results showed a pooled effect size at post-treatment of Hedges g = 0.05 (95% CI, -0.09 to 0.20), indicating that ICBT and face-to-face treatment produced equivalent overall effects. Study quality did not affect outcomes. While the overall results indicate equivalence, there have been few studies of the individual psychiatric and somatic conditions so far, and for the majority, guided ICBT has not been compared against face-to-face treatment. Thus, more research, preferably with larger sample sizes, is needed to establish the general equivalence of the two treatment formats.

  • 34.
    Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Lindner, P.
    Miloff, Alexander
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Fagernäs, S.
    Andersen, J.
    Sigeman, M.
    Furmark, T.
    Andersson, G.
    In session virtual reality use for public speaking anxiety: A randomized controlled trial2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fear of public speaking is common and for some individuals this interferes significantly with the person's life and causes marked distress. We wanted to test a newly developed virtual reality assisted 1-session in-person treatment (3 hours). The therapist guided session consisted of a series of behavioral experiments based on the expectancy violation principle. This was followed by a 4-week booster intervention delivered via the internet. Following a diagnostic interview a total of 50 individuals with a score of ≥ 60 on the Personal Report of Public Speaking Anxiety questionnaire were randomized to a treatment or a control condition. A total of 78% also met criteria for social anxiety disorder. Considering only having had one treatment session in-person the preliminary results were promising with a between group effect size on the primary outcome (Public Speaking Anxiety Scale) of Cohen’s d=1.32 before commencing the internet-based booster program. Four weeks later the between-group effect size was d=1.90. However, on the secondary outcome measures the effect sizes were more often moderate than large. At the time of the conference 6-month follow-up data will be available in addition to the already collected post-assessment data (analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle).

  • 35.
    Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Lindner, Philip
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Miloff, Alexander
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Fagernäs, S.
    Andersen, J.
    Sigeman, M.
    Furmark, T.
    Andersson, G.
    The efficacy of internet-based virtual reality exposure therapy for public speaking anxiety: A randomized controlled trial2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fear of public speaking is common and for some individuals this interferes significantly with the person's life and causes marked distress. We wanted to test a newly developed virtual reality assisted 1-session in-person treatment (3 hours). The therapist guided session consisted of a series of behavioral experiments based on the expectancy violation principle. This was followed by a 4-week booster intervention delivered via the internet. Following a diagnostic interview a total of 50 individuals with a score of ≥ 60 on the Personal Report of Public Speaking Anxiety questionnaire were randomized to a treatment or a control condition. A total of 78% also met criteria for social anxiety disorder. Considering only having had one treatment session in-person the preliminary results were promising with a between group effect size on the primary outcome (Public Speaking Anxiety Scale) of Cohen’s d=1.32 before commencing the internet-based booster program. Four weeks later the between-group effect size was d=1.90. However, on the secondary outcome measures the effect sizes were more often moderate than large. At the time of the conference 6-month follow-up data will be available in addition to the already collected post-assessment data (analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle).

  • 36.
    Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Miloff, Alexander
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Lindner, Philip
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Reuterskiöld, Lena
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Hamilton, William
    Andersson, Gerhard
    ITSY: A gamified one-session virtual reality app with 12-month follow-up data2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: This is the first large randomized-controlled trial to evaluate whether commercially available VR hardware and software can be used for exposure therapy. The aim of this study was to compare gold-standard One Session Therapy (OST) for reduction of spider phobia symptoms and avoidance behavior using in vivo spiders and a human therapist, to a newly developed single-session gamified Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET) application with modern, consumer-available VR hardware, virtual spiders, and a virtual therapist. Method: Subjects (N=100) with spider phobia, diagnosed, and meeting inclusion criteria were recruited from the general population and randomized to 2 treatment arms. In 1-week intervals, pre-measurement, 3-hr treatment and post-measurement were completed with an in-vivo behavioral approach test (BAT) serving as the primary outcome measure for both groups. This study was powered to detect a non-inferiority margin of a 2-point between-group difference on the BAT, with a standard deviation of 4 (at 80% power). Results: 98 patients commenced treatment and 97 patients completed post-measurement. Per protocol analysis indicated VR was not non-inferior to OST. Repeated-measures ANOVA identified a significant main effect of time.

  • 37.
    Cavazzana, Annachiara
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. University of Padova, Italy; Technische Universität Dresden, Germany.
    Begliomini, Chiara
    Bisiacchi, Patrizia Silvia
    Intentional binding as a marker of agency across the lifespan2017Ingår i: Consciousness and Cognition, ISSN 1053-8100, E-ISSN 1090-2376, Vol. 52, 104-114 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The feeling of control over actions and their external effects is known as Sense of Agency (SoAg). People usually have a distinctive SoAg for events caused by their own actions. However, if the agent is a child or an older person, this feeling of being responsible for the consequences of an action may differ from what an adult would feel. The idea would be that children and elderly may have a reduced SoAg since their frontal lobes are developing or have started to loose their efficiency. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether the SoAg changes across lifespan, using the Intentional Binding (i.e., the temporal attraction between a voluntary action and its sensory consequence) as implicit measure. Data show that children and elderly are characterized by a reduced SoAg as compared to adults. These findings provide a fundamental step in the characterization of SoAg dynamics throughout individuals' lifetime.

  • 38.
    Cavazzana, Annachiara
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Technische Universität Dresden, Germany.
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Hoffmann, Eileen
    Hummel, Thomas
    Haehner, Antje
    The vessel's shape influences the smell and taste of cola2017Ingår i: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 59, 8-13 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    People's smell and taste perception is affected by different features of the vessel in which the beverage is served. In this study we focused on the container's shape and we investigated its impact on participants' olfactory and tasting ratings regarding a popular beverage, i.e., cola. We tested 100 healthy participants who evaluated both cola and sparkling water. These two beverages were presented in three different containers: a cola glass, a water glass and a plastic bottle. The results showed the presence of multisensory interactions between the smell and taste of the drinks and the type of vessel in which they were presented. Cola was perceived as more pleasant and intense when served in a typical coca-cola glass as compared to when it was presented in an incongruent container (i.e., water glass or plastic bottle). These results further support the view that our perception is modulated by the shape of the container in which the liquid is presented, strongly influencing the consumer's drinking experience.

  • 39. Cernvall, Martin
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Wikman, Anna
    Ljungman, Lisa
    Ljungman, Gustaf
    von Essen, Louise
    Twelve-Month Follow-Up of a Randomized Controlled Trial of Internet-Based Guided Self-Help for Parents of Children on Cancer Treatment2017Ingår i: Journal of Medical Internet Research, ISSN 1438-8871, E-ISSN 1438-8871, Vol. 19, nr 7, e273Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A substantial proportion of parents of children on cancer treatment report psychological distress such as symptoms of post-traumatic stress (PTSS), depression, and anxiety. During their child’s treatment many parents also experience an economic burden.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term efficacy of Internet-based guided self-help for parents of children on cancer treatment.

    Methods: This study was a parallel randomized controlled trial comparing a 10-week Internet-based guided self-help program, including weekly support from a therapist via encrypted email, with a wait-list control condition. The intervention was based on cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and focused on psychoeducation and skills to cope with difficult thoughts and feelings. Primary outcome was self-reported PTSS. Secondary outcomes were self-reported symptoms of depression, anxiety, health care consumption, and sick leave during the past month. Outcomes were assessed pre- and postintervention and at 12-month follow-up. Parents of children on cancer treatment were invited by health care personnel at pediatric oncology centers, and parents meeting the modified symptom criteria on the PCL-C were included in the study. Self-report assessments were provided on the Web.

    Results: A total of 58 parents of children on cancer treatment (median months since diagnosis=3) were included in the study (intervention n=31 and control n=27). A total of 18 participants completed the intervention, and 16 participants in each group participated in the 12-month follow-up. Intention-to-treat analyses revealed significant effects in favor of the intervention on the primary outcome PTSS, with large between-group effect sizes at postassessment (d=0.89; 95% CI 0.35-1.43) and at 12-month follow-up (d=0.78; 95% CI 0.25-1.32). Significant effects in favor of the intervention on the secondary outcomes depression and anxiety were also observed. However, there was no evidence for intervention efficacy on health care consumption or sick leave.

    Conclusions: Using the Internet to provide psychological interventions shows promise as an effective mode of delivery for parents reporting an increased level of PTSS and who consider Internet-based interventions as a viable option. Future research should corroborate these findings and also develop and evaluate interventions and policies that may help ameliorate the economic burden that parents may face during their child’s treatment for cancer.

  • 40. Chmiel, Nik
    et al.
    Fraccaroli, FrancoSverke, MagnusStockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    An Introduction to Work and Organizational Psychology: An international perspective2017Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The latest edition of this classic text provides a comprehensive and internationally relevant introduction to work and organizational psychology, exploring the depth and diversity of the field in an accessible way without obscuring the complexities of the subject.

    • Third edition of a classic textbook offering a complete introduction to work and organizational psychology for undergraduate and graduate students with no prior knowledge of the field
    • An innovative new six part structure with two-colour presentation focuses the core material around issues that are either Job-Focused, Organization-Focused, or People-Focused
    • Each chapter title is a question designed to engage readers in understanding work and organizational psychology whilst simultaneously inviting discussion of key topics in the field
    • The third edition introduces two new co-editors in Franco Fraccaroli from Italy and Magnus Sverke, who join Nik Chmiel and will increase relevance and appeal for European students.
  • 41. Chmiel, Nik
    et al.
    Fraccaroli, Franco
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Introduction2017Ingår i: An Introduction to Work and Organizational Psychology: An International Perspective / [ed] Nik Chmiel, Franco Fraccaroli, Magnus Sverke, Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2017, 3, xxi-xxiv s.Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 42.
    Cortes, Diana S.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Kognitiv psykologi.
    Asperholm, M.
    Fredborg, W.
    Döllinger, Lillian
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Xiao, Shanshan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Högman, Lennart
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Dang, J.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Intranasal Oxytocin and Response Inhibition in Young and Older Adults2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In normal aging, people are confronted with impairment in both socioemotional and cognitive abilities. Specifically, there are age-related declines in inhibitory processes that regulate attention towards irrelevant material. In last years, the intranasal administration of the neuropeptide oxytocin has mainly been related to improvements in several domains such as emotion recognition and memory, but to date the effects of oxytocin in aging remain largely unknown. In a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled, within-subjects study design, we investigated whether oxytocin facilitates inhibitory processing in older adults compared to younger adults. In total, 41 older adults (51% women; age range 65-75 years) and 37 younger adults (49% women; age range 20-30 years) participated in this study two times, receiving a single intranasal dose of 40 IU of placebo and oxytocin in randomized order 45 minutes before engaging in the task. Participants were tested approximately a month apart and mostly at the same hour during both occasions. Inhibition was measured with a Go/NoGo task which included happy and neutral faces as targets (Go stimuli) and distractors (NoGo stimuli) shown on a computer screen. Participants were instructed to press a button any time they saw a target and remain passive when encountering a distractor. Preliminary results indicate effects for happy and neutral faces, but only in the distractor condition. For happy distractors, women rejected correctly happy faces more accurately than men did, both in the placebo and oxytocin conditions. A main effect of age was observed for the neutral distractors, where older adults were more successful in inhibiting responses than younger adults during oxytocin and placebo treatments. We did not observe effects of oxytocin in the different tasks. The role of oxytocin was not clear distinguished in the tasks. In sum, our findings showed that age and gender can influence inhibition but their effects depend on the displayed emotions. This suggests that the ability to inhibit interfering distractors may remain intact despite of age and that deficits in inhibition may be selective. The role of oxytocin in inhibition needs to be further investigated since it is possible that it is context dependent.

  • 43.
    Cortes, Diana S.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Kognitiv psykologi.
    Lindahl, Christina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Kognitiv psykologi.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Memory for faces and voices varies as a function of sex and expressed emotion2017Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 6, e0178423Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated how memory for faces and voices (presented separately and in combination) varies as a function of sex and emotional expression (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and neutral). At encoding, participants judged the expressed emotion of items in forced-choice tasks, followed by incidental Remember/Know recognition tasks. Results from 600 participants showed that accuracy (hits minus false alarms) was consistently higher for neutral compared to emotional items, whereas accuracy for specific emotions varied across the presentation modalities (i.e., faces, voices, and face-voice combinations). For the subjective sense of recollection (“remember” hits), neutral items received the highest hit rates only for faces, whereas for voices and face-voice combinations anger and fear expressions instead received the highest recollection rates. We also observed better accuracy for items by female expressers, and own-sex bias where female participants displayed memory advantage for female faces and face-voice combinations. Results further suggest that own-sex bias can be explained by recollection, rather than familiarity, rates. Overall, results show that memory for faces and voices may be influenced by the expressions that they carry, as well as by the sex of both items and participants. Emotion expressions may also enhance the subjective sense of recollection without enhancing memory accuracy.

  • 44.
    Del Missier, Fabio
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Kognitiv psykologi. University of Trieste, Italy.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Parker, Andrew M.
    Bruine de Bruin, Wändi
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Kognitiv psykologi. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Kognitiv psykologi.
    Unraveling the Aging Skein: Disentangling Sensory and Cognitive Predictors of Age-related Differences in Decision Making2017Ingår i: Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, ISSN 0894-3257, E-ISSN 1099-0771, Vol. 30, nr 1, 123-139 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Age-related differences in sensory functioning, processing speed, and working memory have been identified as three significant predictors of the age-related performance decline observed in complex cognitive tasks. Yet, the assessment of their relative predictive capacity and interrelations is still an open issue in decision making and cognitive aging research. Indeed, no previous investigation has examined the relationships of all these three predictors with decision making. In an individual-differences study, we therefore disentangled the relative contribution of sensory functioning, processing speed, and working memory to the prediction of the age-related decline in cognitively demanding judgment and decision-making tasks. Structural equation modeling showed that the age-related decline in working memory plays an important predictive role, even when controlling for sensory functioning, processing speed, and education. Implications for research on decision making and cognitive aging are discussed.

  • 45.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Hiroshima University, Japan.
    Chasiotis, Athanasios
    Bender, Michael
    van de Vijver, Fons J. R.
    Identity and well-LEbeing of ethnic minority and mainstream adolescents in Bulgaria2017Ingår i: Current Issues in Personality Psychology, ISSN 2353-4192, Vol. 5, nr 1, 41-52 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    We study identity in the context of long-term sedentary groups in Eastern Europe in contrast to the frequently studied short-term immigrants in typical Western European or US American contexts. This paper provides a novel approach to youth identity in an Eastern European post-communist context for minority groups that are quite distinct from the mainstream group to advance the study of identity. Turkish-Bulgarians and Muslim-Bulgarians have been subjected to extensive assimilation campaigns, which prompted them to carefully negotiate their ethnic identity and sense of belonging.

    Participants and procedure

    Participants were 366 adolescents aged 16 to 18 years (M = 16.72, SD = 0.71) from South Central and South Western regions of Bulgaria. This sample included Turkish-Bulgarian (n = 145), Muslim-Bulgarian (n = 85), and (mainstream) Bulgarian (n = 136) youth who provided data on personal, ethnic, familial, and religious identity as well as psychological well-being.

    Results

    Turkish-Bulgarian youth scored higher on achievement, diffusion, and foreclosure but lower on moratorium and Bulgarian ethnic and familial identity than Muslim-Bulgarian and Bulgarian youth. Bulgarian mainstreamers scored significantly lower on religious identity compared to their Turkish-Bulgarian and Muslim-Bulgarian peers. Finally, Bulgarian mainstream identity significantly predicted well-being of youth from all groups, independent of their ethnic background.

    Conclusions

    A strong ethnic and familial identity results in beneficial psychological outcomes for youth, even in the face of adversity and assimilation.

  • 46.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    del Carmen Domínguez Espinosa, Alejandra
    Factorial structure and measurement invariance of the Four Basic Dimensions of Religiousness Scale among Mexican males and females2017Ingår i: Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, ISSN 1941-1022, E-ISSN 1943-1562, Vol. 9, nr 2, 231-238 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Four Basic Dimensions of Religiousness Scale (4-BDRS) is a newly developed instrument based on 4 components of religion: believing (beliefs relative to external transcendence), bonding (rituals and emotions), behaving (adherence to norms and moral arguments), and belonging (community and social group cohesion; Saroglou, 2011). This paper provides empirical evidence to support the factorial structure and measurement invariance assumptions of 4-BDRS among 1,982 adults (mean age of 29.27 years) from Mexico, a country among the top 10 nations in the world for religious involvement. The fit indices indicate similar patterns and strengths in factor loadings, means, and intercepts across males and females. Gender comparisons showed that females score significantly higher on all 4 religiousness dimensions than males. We conclude that the 4-BDRS is a brief and valid measure of religiousness that is suitable for use in Mexican samples.

  • 47.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Positive Youth Development of Roma Ethnic Minority Across Europe2017Ingår i: Handbook on Positive Development of Minority Children and Youth / [ed] Natasha J. Cabrera, Birgit Leyendecker, Springer, 2017, 307-320 s.Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Roma are one of Europe’s largest and most vulnerable ethnic minority groups, currently making up nearly 12 million people, and have historically experienced severe marginalization and discrimination. Roma children and youth in particular are globally recognized to be in need of support and their successful adaptation and optimal outcomes are of major interest to practitioners and policy makers. This chapter addresses resources within proximal contexts, such as peers and family contexts that have the potential to foster positive youth development in Roma ethnic minority populations in Europe. Roma are mainly a sedentary indigenous ethnic minority group characterized by strong family, community and peer bonds, thereby creating a unique and underrepresented context to study PYD. In this chapter, we provide a brief historical overview, current research and empirical findings on Roma children and youth within peer and family contexts. We draw on core theoretical models of PYD as well as selected developmental theories of normative development to highlight the applicability of these traditional frameworks to Roma ethnic minority groups. In so doing, we pay careful attention to the cultural, ethnic, and economic characteristics of Roma youth and their family context. In the conclusion, we explored the implications of the reviewed evidence to the development of resource-oriented policy and practice for Roma youth.

  • 48.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta