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  • 1.
    Magnusson, Charlotta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Nermo, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    40 Years of Gender Inequality among Men and Women in High-Prestige occupations – Does the Story Differ among the Young?2019In: Gender, Age and Inequality in the Professions: Exploring the Disordering, Disruptive and Chaotic Properties of Communication / [ed] Marta Choroszewicz, Tracey L. Adams, Routledge, 2019Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Morosow, Kathrin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    A Family Leave Length Trade-off? Women’s Labour Force Status in Comparative Perspective2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A frequently cited aim of parental leave policies is to provide parents with the opportunity to combine work and family. The availability of additional childcare leaves prolongs mothers’ time out of the labour market, however, and thus may counteract women’s labour market participation. This study is the first to differentiate between the whole range of labour force status outcomes: employment, unemployment and inactivity. Using data for 20 countries from the Luxembourg Income Study, this study examines the relationship between paid family leave length and mothers’ labour market status. Calling on multinomial logistic regression with country fixed effects, this study finds that the provision of comparatively long paid family leave is associated with increased unemployment risks among mothers of 0 to 15-year olds. A slight peak when children are 4 to 6 years old and when leave is longer than two years suggests that mothers are most vulnerable when they re-enter the labour market after a longer leave. These results are in line with prominent theories of human capital depreciation, signalling or statistical discrimination. Leaves of over one year, on the other hand, are associated with reduced inactivity amongst mothers. Hence, results indicate a trade-off when it comes to leave length. Shorter leaves are associated with mothers dropping out of the labour market, especially when children are young, while longer family leaves are associated with increased unemployment risks.

  • 3.
    Vogiazides, Louisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Mondani, Hernan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    A geographical path to integration? Exploring the interplay between regional context and labour market integration among refugees in Sweden2019In: Journal of ethnic and migration studies, ISSN 1369-183X, E-ISSN 1469-9451Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Migrant integration is an issue at the forefront of political debates in many immigrant-receiving countries. Within academia, a rich body of neighbourhood effects literature examines the significance of the residential environment for the socioeconomic integration of international migrants. Another strand of research explores the associations between immigrants’ initial region of residence and their subsequent socioeconomic integration. Existing research focuses on a single dimension of geographical context and on the neighbourhood scale. Using Swedish longitudinal register data, we estimate discrete-time event history models to assess how regional and neighbourhood contexts influence refugees’ entry into employment. Our study includes all refugees who arrived in Sweden between 2000 and 2009, distinguishing between three categories of refugees: refugees with assigned housing, refugees with self-arranged housing and quota refugees. Our results reveal a clear pattern where the most advantageous regions for finding a first employment are those at the extremes of the population density distribution: the Stockholm region and small city/rural regions. Refugees residing in Malmö have the lowest probability of entering the labour market. Our study also reiterates existing concerns regarding the negative effects of ethnic segregation at the neighbourhood level on labour market participation.

  • 4.
    Sandström, Glenn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Umeå University, Sweden.
    Marklund, Emil
    A prelude to the dual provider family - The changing role of female labor force participation and occupational field on fertility outcomes during the baby boom in Sweden 1900-602019In: The History of the Family, ISSN 1081-602X, E-ISSN 1873-5398, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 149-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By investigating changes in the association between women's socioeconomic status, labor market activity and fertility outcomes during the Swedish baby boom 1900-60 this study reaches three main conclusions. First, the results show that a convergence of fertility behavior occurred across female socioeconomic strata during the peak baby boom period in the 1940s and 1950s in terms of a strong two child norm. Second, the negative socio-economic gradient of fertility found in Sweden before the baby boom declined sharply among women who came of age during the 1940s and 1950s, as white-collar women increased their fertility more than all the other strata. Third, this was especially the case for women engaged in the so called 'caring professions' that exhibit the largest changes in behavior. The pattern found in contemporary Western contexts where women in healthcare and education have a substantially higher fertility was thus formed in Sweden already during the 1940s and 1950s. The empirical finding fit with the interpretation that middle-class women employed in the public sector experienced stronger reductions in constraints to family formation compared to women employed in the private sector. We propose that the pronatalist polices implemented in the 1930s and 1940s, especially the extensive improvements in employment protection implemented for women who got married or became pregnant in the late 1930s in Sweden, is one important factor to consider when we try to understand why especially women employed in the public sector in education and healthcare increased their fertility more than other groups.

  • 5. Guillot, Michel
    et al.
    Khlat, Myriam
    Wallace, Matthew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Adult mortality among second-generation immigrants in France: Results from a nationally representative record linkage study2019In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 40, p. 1603-1644, article id 54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND France has a large population of second-generation immigrants (i.e., native-born children of immigrants) who are known to experience important socioeconomic disparities by country of origin. The extent to which they also experience disparities in mortality, however, has not been previously examined. METHODS We used a nationally representative sample of individuals 18 to 64 years old in 1999 with mortality follow-up via linked death records until 2010. We compared mortality levels for second-generation immigrants with their first-generation counterparts and with the reference (neither first- nor second-generation) population using mortality hazard ratios as well as probabilities of dying between age 18 and 65. We also adjusted hazard ratios using educational attainment reported at baseline. RESULTS We found a large amount of excess mortality among second-generation males of North African origin compared to the reference population with no migrant background. This excess mortality was not present among second-generation males of southern European origin, for whom we instead found a mortality advantage, nor among North African- origin males of the first-generation. This excess mortality remained large and significant after adjusting for educational attainment. CONTRIBUTION In these first estimates of mortality among second-generation immigrants in France, males of North African origin stood out as a subgroup experiencing a large amount of excess mortality. This finding adds a public health dimension to the various disadvantages already documented for this subgroup. Overall, our results highlight the importance of second-generation status as a significant and previously unknown source of health disparity in France.

  • 6. Comolli, Chiara Ludovica
    et al.
    Neyer, Gerda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Dommermuth, Lars
    Fallesen, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). ROCKWOOL Foundation, Denmark .
    Jalovaara, Marika
    Jónsson, Ari
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Kolk, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Lappegård, Trude
    Beyond the Economic Gaze: Childbearing during and after recessions in the Nordic countries2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates fertility responses to the business cycle in the Nordic countries by comparing period variation in women’s childbearing propensity. We harmonize register data from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden to compare childbearing in the aftermath of the two most recent crises that hit those economies: the 1990s and 2010s. We use event-history techniques to present parity-specific fertility, by calendar year, relative to a defined pre-recession year. We further examine any possible impact of the two recessions by women’s age and education. Results show a large heterogeneity across the five Nordic countries in the childbearing developments after 1990. This variation largely disappears after 2008 when period trends in birth hazards become more similar across countries. Likewise, the educational differences that characterized the variation in childbearing relative risk after 1990 considerably diminish in the years after 2010, especially for first and second births. Economic theories do not suffice to explain this reversal from the heterogeneity of the 1990s to the homogeneity of the 2010s in the childbearing response to recession episodes across countries and socioeconomic groups. Our findings suggest the need to expand the theoretical framework explaining the cyclicality of fertility towards the perception of economic and welfare uncertainty.

  • 7.
    Weber, Rosa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Saarela, Jan
    Circular migration in a context of free mobility: Evidence from linked population register data from Finland and Sweden2019In: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 25, no 4, article id e2230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Circular migration in settings of free mobility has received increasing policy attention. However, due to data constraints, little is known about the mechanisms underlying it. Using linked Finnish and Swedish register data that allow us to follow Finnish migrants across national borders, we analyse whether the determinants of circular migration differ from those of the first and return move. People move freely between Sweden and Finland, as they are in the common Nordic labour market. Event history analysis shows that many moves are temporary and short term. Moreover, the patterns of circular migration reflect those of the first emigration and first return, respectively. Swedish speakers and individuals who are not married are more prone to emigrate for the first and second time, whereas Finnish speakers and married individuals have a higher risk of return migration. This implies that circular migration may amplify demographic features related to emigration and return migration.

  • 8. Lim, Seunghoo
    et al.
    Nakazato, Hiromi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Meiji University, Japan; Södertörn University, Sweden.
    Co-evolving supportive networks and perceived community resilience across disaster-damaged areas after the Great East Japan Earthquake: Selection, influence, or both?2019In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 116-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami in March 2011, the new community currency experiment for supporting disaster recovery, Fukkou Ouen Chiiki Tsuka, was introduced by community-based organizations in these earthquake-damaged areas. However, little is known about how perceived community resilience coevolves with interactions in the disaster recovery process. Using Simultaneous Investigation for Empirical Network Analysis techniques, this study shows the coevolutionary dynamics between perceptions of community resilience and the formation of supportive links among residents through a community currency (Domo) in Kamaishi. This study also provides policy implications for how mutual reinforcement between community residents' engagement in network establishments and building a sense of community resilience among those affected functions as a potential mechanism for facilitating disaster recovery.

  • 9.
    Kolk, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for Cultural Evolution. Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Barclay, Kieron
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Germany; London School of Economics and Political Science, UK.
    Cognitive ability and fertility among Swedish men born 1951–1967: evidence from military conscription registers2019In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 286, no 1902, article id 20190359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the relationship between cognitive ability and childbearing patterns in contemporary Sweden using administrative register data. The topic has a long history in the social sciences and has been the topic of a large number of studies, many reporting a negative gradient between intelligence and fertility. We link fertility histories to military conscription tests with intelligence scores for all Swedish men born 1951 to 1967. We find a positive relationship between intelligence scores and fertility, and this pattern is consistent across the cohorts we study. The relationship is most pronounced for the transition to a first child, and men with the lowest categories of IQ-scores have the fewest children. Using fixed effects models we additionally control for all factors that are shared by siblings, and after such adjustments we find a stronger positive relationship between IQ and fertility. Furthermore, we find a positive gradient within groups at different levels of education. Compositional differences of this kind are therefore not responsible for the positive gradient we observe - instead the relationship is even stronger after controlling for both educational careers and parental background factors. In our models where we compare brothers to one another we find that, relative to men with IQ 100, the group with the lowest category of cognitive ability have 0.56 fewer children, and men with the highest category have 0.09 more children. 

  • 10.
    Svallfors, Signe
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Billingsley, Sunnee
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Conflict and Contraception in Colombia2019In: Studies in family planning, ISSN 0039-3665, E-ISSN 1728-4465, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 87-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores how armed conflict relates to contraceptive use in Colombia, combining data from the Uppsala Conflict Data Program and Demographic and Health Surveys 1990-2016. Our study is the first systematic effort to investigate whether and how violent conflict influences women's contraceptive use, using nationally representative data across all stages of women's reproductive careers. With fixed effects linear probability models, we adjust for location-specific cultural, social, and economic differences. The results show that although modern contraceptive use increased over time, it declined according to conflict intensity across location and time. We find no evidence that this relationship varied across socioeconomic groups. Increased fertility demand appears to explain a small portion of this relationship, potentially reflecting uncertainty about losing a partner, but conflict may also result in lack of access to contraceptive goods and services.

  • 11. Arnalds, Asdis A.
    et al.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Eydal, Gudny Björk
    Gislason, Ingolfur V.
    Constructing parenthood in times of crisis2019In: Journal of Family Studies, ISSN 1322-9400, E-ISSN 1839-3543Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Iceland was hit by a financial crisis in October 2008 and in the following year the ceiling on parental leave benefits was significantly lowered. The subsequent drop in fathers' uptake of parental leave raises questions on whether the crisis endangered gender equality when it comes to how parents arranged care for their new-born. The article explores changes in how parents arrange childcare with the use of paid parental leave and unpaid time off work by comparing findings from surveys among parents of firstborn children in 2003 and 2009. The results show that mothers of children born during the crisis were more likely to lengthen their time at home with the child, than those who had a child during an economic boom. This they did either by using the leave part-time, use vacation days or unpaid leave. It is argued that this could be a result of the fall in fathers' leave use during the crisis.

  • 12.
    Mussino, Eleonora
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Tervola, Jussi
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Decomposing the determinants of fathers' parental leave use: Evidence from migration between Finland and Sweden2019In: Journal of European Social Policy, ISSN 0958-9287, E-ISSN 1461-7269, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 197-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of parental leave by fathers varies notably between countries. However, the underlying reasons for cross-country differences have not been explicitly studied. We use migration between Finland and Sweden as an instrument to decompose the roles of policy design and social norms in the differences in take-up rates between these two countries. First, we inferred the role of policy by looking at fathers from the same country of origin in various policy contexts. Second, we deduced the role of norms by examining fathers who migrated at different ages and fathers with spouses of different origins. We find that the large cross-country differences in fathers' use of parental leave between Finland and Sweden mainly stem from differences in policy design. Norms seem to play a smaller but still significant role.

  • 13.
    Coppolino Perfumi, Serena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. University of Florence, Italy.
    Bagnoli, Franco
    Caudek, Corrado
    Guazzini, Andrea
    Deindividuation effects on normative and informational social influence within computer-mediated-communication2019In: Computers in human behavior, ISSN 0747-5632, E-ISSN 1873-7692, Vol. 92, p. 230-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on social influence shows that different patterns take place when this phenomenon happens within computer-mediated-communication (CMC), if compared to face-to-face interaction. Informational social influence can still easily take place also by means of CMC, however normative influence seems to be more affected by the environmental characteristics. Different authors have theorized that deindividuation nullifies the effects of normative influence, but the Social Identity Model of Deindividuation Effects theorizes that users will conform even when deindividuated, but only if social identity is made salient. The two typologies of social influence have never been studied in comparison, therefore in our work, we decided to create an online experiment to observe how the same variables affect them, and in particular how deindividuation works in both cases. The 181 experimental subjects that took part, performed 3 tasks: one aiming to elicit normative influence, and two semantic tasks created to test informational influence. Entropy has been used as a mathematical assessment of information availability. Our results show that normative influence becomes almost ineffective within CMC (1.4% of conformity) when subjects are deindividuated. Informational influence is generally more effective than normative influence within CMC (15-29% of conformity), but similarly to normative influence, it is inhibited by deindividuation.

  • 14. Eklund, Lina
    et al.
    Roman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Digital Gaming and Young People's Friendships: A Mixed Methods Study of Time Use and Gaming in School2019In: Young - Nordic Journal of Youth Research, ISSN 1103-3088, E-ISSN 1741-3222, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 32-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this mixed methods study, we investigate the impact of digital gaming on school social life among young people (17-19 year old) by combining over-time data investigating friendships as they form, with subjective experiences of friendships. We draw on one full cohort of Swedish pupils surveyed on three occasions during their first year in upper-secondary school (n = 115) and one interview sample of 10 game users. Results indicate that how much time young people spend on gaming is not a significant factor for friendship formation in the studied sample. Moreover, high-use did not make game users socially isolated or less popular in school. We discuss how young people adhere to ideals of responsible leisure in order to become adults; practising time-management strategies to make place for time-consuming leisure while not letting it impact personal relationships.

  • 15.
    Morosow, Kathrin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Jalovaara, Marika
    Disadvantaging Single Parents? Effects of Long Family Leaves on Single and Partnered Mothers’ Labour Market Outcomes in Finland2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One aim of family leaves is to help mothers combine paid work and childcare, yet longer leaves have been shown to weaken women's labour market positions. Moreover, longer leaves can have differential effects across population groups. This study compares the consequences of longer family leaves for single and partnered mothers’ labour market outcomes as measured by unemployment and earnings. We use Finnish register data for 1989 to 2014 to interact mothers’ partnership status with the accumulated family leave length. To consider selection into being a single mother, we compare estimates from OLS and FE models. The results indicate that longer leaves are positively associated with post-leave unemployment in both groups but more strongly among single mothers. Longer leaves are linked to similar lower annual earnings among both single and partnered mothers. We conclude that longer family leaves disproportionately disadvantage single mothers’ employment chances, highlighting the heterogeneity of consequences. These disadvantages are not due to selection into single motherhood, suggesting potential discrimination or work-family reconciliation problems.

  • 16.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Johansson, Mats
    Does Fathers' Care Spill Over? Evaluating Reforms in the Swedish Parental Leave Program2019In: Feminist Economics, ISSN 1354-5701, E-ISSN 1466-4372, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 67-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of reserving months for fathers in the Swedish parental leave system was to increase fathers' use of leave as well as encourage gender equality in the home and labor market. Using data from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency, this study investigates the effects of the reform - reserving one month of leave for fathers in 1995 and a second month in 2002 - on gender equality in the home. The study uses the take up of the parental benefit for the care for sick children (CFSC) as a proxy for gender equality and follows parents' use of CFSC for twelve years for the first reform and ten years for the second reform. Results indicate the first reform led to more equal leave sharing, mainly because use of the benefit decreased among mothers with low education, and at least in part fulfilled the aim of increasing gender equality in the home.

  • 17. Hellum, Merete
    et al.
    Oláh, Livia Sz.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Doing gender and gender equality’ through emotional expressions during a research interview. Views of highly educated Swedish young adults2019In: Journal of Gender Studies, ISSN 0958-9236, E-ISSN 1465-3869, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 304-317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to contribute to the knowledge on how concepts of gender and gender equality are constructed within research interviews, deepening our understanding of the underlying gender system in society. We focus on emotions and emotional processes expressed during interviews on work and family when specific questions originating in the World Value Survey were asked. Our study is based on interviews with highly educated women and men, in two metropolitan areas of Sweden. In this article we seek to shed more light on how incorporating emotional expressions and the evaluation of these emotions can grasp the construction of gender and gender equality. We highlight the range of emotional expressions that appear during the interviews, differences in their usage by women and men and the links to the construction of gender and gender equality. We explore how the specific situation of the interview influences ‘doing gender and gender equality’ through emotions. Our results reveal that men and women use similar but also different emotional expressions in conforming to the gender equality norm. Men and women, interviewers and interviewees agreed on this norm, but the ways they ’performed’ the norm are gender based.

  • 18. Jalovaara, Marika
    et al.
    Neyer, Gerda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Dahlberg, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Dommermuth, Lars
    Fallesen, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). ROCKWOOL Foundation, Denmark.
    Lappegård, Trude
    Education, Gender, and Cohort Fertility in the Nordic Countries2019In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 563-586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Systematic comparisons of fertility developments based on education, gender and country context are rare. Using harmonized register data, we compare cohort total fertility and ultimate childlessness by gender and educational attainment for cohorts born beginning in 1940 in four Nordic countries. Cohort fertility (CTF) initially declined in all four countries, although for cohorts born in the 1950s and later, the CTF remained stable or declined only modestly. Childlessness, which had been increasing, has plateaued in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Women’s negative educational gradient in relation to total fertility has vanished, except in Finland, while men’s positive gradient has persisted. The highest level of men’s childlessness appears among the least educated. In the oldest female cohorts, childlessness was highest among the highly educated, but these patterns have changed over the cohorts as childlessness has increased among the low educated and remained relatively stable among higher educated women. In Denmark, Norway and Sweden, childlessness is now highest among the least educated women. We witness both a new gender similarity and persistent (among men) and new (among women) educational disparities in childbearing outcomes in the Nordic region. Overall, the number of low educated has decreased remarkably over time. These population segments face increasing social and economic disadvantages that are reflected as well in their patterns of family formation.

  • 19.
    Fredriksson, Daniel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Enabling employment?: Drivers and outcomes of active labour market policies in comparative perspective2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis includes three empirical studies that analyse driving forces and outcomes of active labour market policies (ALMP) in comparative perspective. Whereas previous comparative research has largely relied on broad conceptualisations of ALMP, often considering policies such as public employment services and training programs as one single type of intervention, the studies in this thesis instead analyse more fine-grained categories and classifications of ALMP. By doing so, the studies contribute with nuance to the discussion of what has shaped labour market policies, and how these influence labour market outcomes.

    Study I: This study focuses on determinants of spending on public employment services (PES). Contrary to common assumptions, which state that PES is largely determined by structural factors, the main hypothesis is that partisan politics is a relevant predictor of PES spending. The analysis includes 17 welfare states between 1985 and 2011. The results indicate that partisan politics and electoral competition are related to the development of PES spending, but that the turn to activation in many welfare states in the late 1990s reduced the salience of partisan politics.

    Study II: This study analyses whether different types of active labour market policies are related to reduced unemployment, and especially if there is evidence for interdependencies between policies. The study distinguishes between public employment services (PES), training, and job creation programs. PES is singled out as a crucial factor that mediates the effects of other labour market policies, both active and passive. The study examines 19 welfare states between 1985 and 2012 and the results indicate that training programs reduce unemployment in the short run, whereas long-term effects are less apparent for all policy types. Increased investment in PES is found to strengthen the impact of training and job creation programs.

    Study III: This study examines the link between active labour market policies and transitions to employment from unemployment and inactivity across the European Union between 2003 and 2013. The study distinguishes between three types of interventions: core programs, directed towards the registered unemployed; peripheral programs, targeting the inactive part of the working age population; and mixed programs, targeting both groups. The results indicate that ALMP have beneficial effects on employment transitions among both the unemployed and the inactive, but that effects differ depending on the type of intervention. Unemployed seem to benefit from increased efforts on ALMP regardless of the type of intervention, whereas the inactive seem to have increased chances to transition into employment if programs target both groups, but not if interventions solely target the inactive.

  • 20.
    Andersson, Linus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Essays on Family Dynamics: Partnering, Fertility and Divorce in Sweden2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Diversity in household and family structures poses interesting questions for scientific inquiry. What accounts for patterns of reproduction, partnering, household formation and household dissolution? This dissertation investigates facets of this question in the context of modern Sweden from a longitudinal and individual level perspective. It consists of three empirical studies using data from administrative registers and panel survey data. The first study begins with noting a rapid expansion in online education and analyzes whether this development leads to higher fertility in student populations. The second study asks whether individuals’ predispositions towards divorce change after exposure to the experience of parenthood, union formation and union dissolution. The third study builds on the literature on assortative mating and investigates what drives underlying preferences for this behavior. 

  • 21.
    Brandén, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Birkelund, Gunn Elisabeth
    Szulkin, Ryszard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Ethnic Composition of Schools and Students' Educational Outcomes: Evidence from Sweden2019In: The international migration review, ISSN 0197-9183, E-ISSN 1747-7379, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 486-517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the impact of ethnic school composition on students' educational outcomes using Swedish population register data. We add to the literature on the consequences of ethnic school segregation for native and immigrant students by distinguishing social interaction effects from selection and environmental effects through one- and two-way fixed effects models. Our findings demonstrate that native and immigrant students' grades are relatively unaffected by social interaction effects stemming from the proportion of immigrant schoolmates. However, we find nontrivial effects on their eligibility for upper secondary school. Immigrants' educational outcomes are weakly positively affected by the proportion of co-ethnics in school.

  • 22.
    Winter, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Everybody knows?: Conversational coproduction in communication of addiction expertise2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The coproduction idiom within Science and Technology Studies (STS) centers on how science and society produce knowledge together. The current thesis explores expert communication – which is immersed in the relationship between science and society – as a case for understanding such coproducing processes. Expert communication is often characterized as a democratic initiative of knowledge enlightenment. But we know less about the consequences that communication initiatives bring. For instance, while groups of publics and experts are large and heterogeneous, expert communication often involves simplified and dichotomized relationships between these groups. The aim of this thesis is to understand the practice of expert communication in terms of how expertise is communicated and received. Who gets to represent experts and publics, in what ways and in which situations, and how do they engage with expertise?

    Expert communication takes place in all kinds of fields. The focus of this thesis is communication of addiction expertise. The addiction field makes a suitable case for studying co-constitutive practices of communication, as it is broad and disparate, and filled with different contradictory perspectives, actors and relations. The current study explores communication of addiction expertise through three cases that involve different types of experts and publics, as well as different dimensions of the expert/public relationships and of communication as a process of coproduction: Newspaper readers’ interpretations of media representations of biomedical addiction expertise, conference participants’ collaboration within a conference on codependency, and civil servants’ and politicians’ interaction within county council committee meetings. Drawing on STS approaches of coproduction of knowledge and classical sociological conversation analysis, the thesis explores questions of how, what, and whose knowledge is communicated and received, and what activities and actors are involved in these processes. A specific focus is put on how sociability in the form of conversational routines is productive, as sociability carries expertise and establishes relations between actors involved in coproducing processes of communication.

    Publics are not only recipients of expertise but also active enablers of how expertise comes into being in the everyday society, as publics engage with expertise through filtering and intertwining expertise through and with their personal experiences. Expertise, at least regarding human and social activities such as addiction, is thus bound to everyday experiences and lives. It is also shown how certain expertise, certain experiences, and certain actors and victims of addiction related problems are included while others are excluded. For example, biomedical explanations such as the reward system and the brain disease model seem to co-exist well with peoples’ personal experiences in contrast to social scientific explanations. Moreover, certain actors manage to draw on personal experiences in multiple roles as both experts and publics. Introducing the concept of conversational coproduction, the studies also highlight the sociability and conversational routines involved in expert communication as crucial for (de)establishing relations and making expertise flow or freeze in local coproducing processes as well as for understanding consequences of expert communication and its relation to public participation and democracy.

  • 23. Sturup, Joakim
    et al.
    Gerell, Manne
    Rostami, Amir
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Institute for Future Studies, Sweden.
    Explosive violence: A near-repeat study of hand grenade detonations and shootings in urban Sweden2019In: European Journal of Criminology, ISSN 1477-3708, E-ISSN 1741-2609Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hand grenade attacks have increasingly been reported in Sweden. However, to date no research on the topic exists. The present study aims to describe the illegal use of hand grenades and to test its spatio-temporal relationship with gun violence to explore whether the two forms of violence are connected. Data were collected for the years 2011 to 2016 from the Swedish police and from open sources about hand grenade detonations, which were considered alongside shootings as two types of violence commonly attributed to criminal groups. Descriptive data and trends are presented and spatio-temporal analysis of near-repeat patterns was performed using a near-repeat calculator. All in all, there were 77 incidents of detonated hand grenades in Sweden during the six-year observation period, in which nine individuals were injured and one killed. The number of incidents increased, with about half of the them occurring during the last year. A near-repeat analysis was performed on shootings (N = 1048) and hand grenades (N = 55) in Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmo. The shootings exhibit a strong component of near-repeat patterns, but adding hand grenades to the analysis did not strengthen the patterns, suggesting that the two types of violence only partially share spatio-temporal patterns. The study confirms an increase in the use of hand grenades in Sweden, although the reason for the increase is unknown. The increase does fit with the overall changing pattern in violence in urban areas in Sweden, which broadly tends to be attributed to criminal groups in disadvantaged neighbourhoods.

  • 24.
    Fellesen, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). ROCKWOOL Foundation, Denmark .
    Gähler, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Family type and parents’ time with children: Longitudinal evidence for Denmark2019In: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parental time with children is important for children’s developmental outcomes. Family type may affect the amount of time parents can and will invest in children. Using time-use panel data obtained from two waves of the Danish Time Use Survey, linked with administrative records, the study shows that parental family type had a substantial impact on the time parents spent with children. When controlling for constant unobserved individual traits, likely to affect both time-use and family type, differences in time-use increase, indicating positive selection into non-intact family types. Single parents and parents in reconstituted families spent less time on developmental activities, such as talking, reading and playing with the child, whereas parents living in reconstituted families also spent less time on non-developmental activities, such as transporting the child or performing basic childcare. Based on our findings, there are indications that cross-sectional results showing little difference in parents’ involvement in children across family types partly emanate from differential selection in family types.

  • 25.
    Ma, Li
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Evertsson, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Fathers’ Uptake of Parental Leave: Forerunners and Laggards in Sweden, 1993-20102019In: Journal of Social Policy, ISSN 0047-2794, E-ISSN 1469-7823Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is often considered a forerunner in family change and developments towards less gendered family production patterns. In this study, we focus on recent developments towards more gender-equal sharing of parental leave in Sweden. We explore how fathers’ use of parental leave has changed over time before and since the turn of the century. As the parental leave benefit is individual and earnings-based, we examine how fathers’ individual socio-economic and demographic characteristics are associated with their parental leave uptake over time, to determine whether there are forerunners and laggards in recent family change. Multinomial logistic regression models were applied to data from national registers. Our study demonstrates a bifurcation in trends in recent decades. This is associated with the extension of reforms that reserve part of the leave for fathers, the so-called “daddy months”, but stretches beyond the impact of any such reforms. Taking a long leave of over two months was pioneered by better-educated residents of metropolitan areas and surrounding suburbs, as well as Swedish-born fathers. Young fathers, low-income earners and foreign-born fathers lagged behind in these developments. We regard the unstable labour market situation of the latter as a contributing factor in widening social inequalities in family-related behaviour.

  • 26.
    Dahlberg, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Fecundity and human birth seasonality in Sweden: a register-based study2019In: Reproductive Health, ISSN 1742-4755, E-ISSN 1742-4755, Vol. 16, article id 87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It is well-established that couples' fecundities vary widely. Each couple has a relatively constant monthly probability of conceiving, which can vary from zero to quite high. This underlying probability is usually expressed as the time (number of menstrual cycles) the couple requires to conceive. Couples with high fecundity will, on average, need fewer cycles than couples with low fecundity. It is also well-documented that almost all human populations exhibit seasonal variation in births. Most European countries show seasonal variation that usually peak in the spring and are the lowest during the last quarter of the year. The increasingly strong pattern of depressed birth rates in November and December is likely explained by the December-January cut-off threshold for Swedish pupils' school entry and their parents increasing awareness of the negative effects on school outcomes for children who are juniors in the school-entry cohort they belong to. To actively plan births for a specific time of the year, couples need to have some knowledge of the time required for them to conceive.

    Methods: We use the duration between marriage of childless couples and first birth as a proxy measure of couples' fecundity. Based on this time-to-pregnancy measure we study to what extent couples' capacity to conceive affects the seasonality of their second births. We hypothesize that in a society with highly controlled fertility and a strong norm of having at least two children, sub-fertile couples will on average show less seasonal variation in second births. Sub-fertile couples, requiring more time to conceive the first time, will be less likely to try to target a desired birth month for their second child because doing so could jeopardize fulfilling their desired family size. We apply multinomial logistic regressions on 81,998 Swedish couples who married while being childless and subsequently gave birth to at least two children between 1990 and 2012, to investigate fecundity's role in seasonal variation in second births.

    Results: We found that seasonal variation in second births was strongly associated with couples' observed fecundity, measured as the duration between marriage formation and first birth. Our results support the hypothesis that sub-fertile couples, requiring more time to conceive the first time, show less seasonal variation in second births. The seasonal variations in second order births among couples with normal fecundity shows some similarities to traditional patterns as seen in agricultural and industrial societies of the past, with high numbers of births during the spring, and low numbers during the last quarter of the year. However, two important differences are notable. The characteristic Christmas peak in September has vanished, and the low birth rates in November and December come out much stronger than in the past.

    Conclusions: The birth seasonality among couples with normal fecundity are what we would expect if couples actively plan their births according to the cut-off date for Swedish pupils' school entry. We argue that our findings support the notion that scheduled childbirth is a reality in contemporary sociality.

  • 27. Aarskaug Wiik, Kenneth
    et al.
    Bernhardt, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Gendered expectations: expected consequences of union formation across Europe2019In: Journal of Family Studies, ISSN 1322-9400, E-ISSN 1839-3543, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 214-231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using comparable survey data from eight European countries this study investigated expected consequences of forming a co-residential relationship among non-partnered individuals aged 22-35 (N = 8443). Results showed that respondents expected improvements in their financial situation when moving in with a partner, though in all countries women held more positive expectations toward their post union formation economic situation than men. This result likely reflects the lingering traditional gender structure of the society, with men faced with the responsibility of being the main breadwinner in the family. Such an interpretation would seem to be supported by the fact that this gender gap was smallest in Sweden, France and Belgium, the countries in the current sample with the most egalitarian gender structure. Potential restrictions in personal freedom by forming a co-residential relationship, on the other hand, seem to be less important, particularly among women.

  • 28.
    Beckley, Amber L.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Duke University, USA .
    Palmer, Rohan H.
    Rocque, Michael
    Whitfield, Keith E.
    Health and criminal justice system involvement among African American siblings2019In: SSM - Population Health, ISSN 2352-8273, Vol. 7, article id 100359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Importance

    Health disparities between African Americans and Whites have persisted in the United States. Researchers have recently hypothesized that the relatively poor health of African Americans may be caused, in part, by African American overrepresentation in the criminal justice system.

    Objectives

    To test the hypothesis that criminal justice system involvement is associated with poor health and greater health risk when controlling for unobserved family factors through a discordant sibling design.

    Methods

    Subjects were drawn from the Carolina African American Twin Study of Aging (CAATSA). Criminal conviction records were extracted from North Carolina’s Department of Public Safety. Six measures of health and one measure of health risk were analyzed. The health of convicted respondents was compared to that of unrelated non-convicted respondents matched on childhood and demographic factors (“matched sample”). Convicted respondents were also compared to non-convicted siblings (“discordant sibling sample”).

    Results

    The matched sample included 134 CAATSA respondents. On average, convicted CAATSA respondents, compared to matched non-convicted respondents, were in worse health. Convicted respondents had worse mean self-reported health, worse lung function, more depressive symptoms, and smoked more. The discordant sibling sample included 74 respondents. Convicted siblings and non-convicted siblings had similar self-reported health, depressive symptoms, and smoking. In general, non-convicted siblings were in worse health than non-convicted respondents from the matched sample, implying that poor health runs in families.

    Conclusions

    This study provided preliminary evidence that some of the association between a criminal record and poor health is confounded by family factors. Though more research is needed to support these results, the study suggests that criminal involvement may not be associated with the surfeit of health problems observed among African Americans. The criminal justice system, nonetheless, could be used to decrease the health disparity.

  • 29.
    Lund, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    ‘I feel sorry for them and I should do something, but I don't’: Spatial imaginaries and resistance to feminist change in the dramatic arts2019In: Emotion, Space and Society, ISSN 1755-4586, E-ISSN 1878-0040, Vol. 30, p. 27-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article engages with how emotions play a significant role in keeping, and changing, social structures and cultural beliefs when a heteronormative gender order is problematized. The stage is university level programs in performer training and their work to integrate theoretical knowledge on gender into students' creative and pedagogical practice. The results show that changes in space, new spatial imaginaries, bring about a power disturbance and status relations that require a re-monitoring of who we are in the eyes of others. The article illustrates how fear can reveal where individuals’ and groups interests lie and orient them toward what must be done to preserve or develop these interests in a desirable direction. The reason feelings of fear, anger and shame emerge in reaction to changing power and status relations is that a decline in status and power entails a loss of agency as well as emotional and economic security, and in a deeper sense existential meaning and identity.

  • 30. Sundstrom, Christopher
    et al.
    Petersen, Elisabeth
    Sinadinovic, Kristina
    Gustafsson, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Berman, Anne H.
    Identification and management of alcohol use and illicit substance use in outpatient psychiatric clinics in Sweden: a national survey of clinic directors and staff2019In: Addiction science & clinical practice, ISSN 1940-0632, E-ISSN 1940-0640, Vol. 14, article id 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Swedish national guidelines recommend that all health care settings systematically screen patients for alcohol use and illicit substance use. When hazardous use is identified, it should immediately be addressed, preferably through brief interventions (BI). It is well known that the prevalence of alcohol use and illicit substance use among psychiatric patients is high, but it is not known to what extent screening and BI are routinely carried out in such clinics. Methods: Two online surveys investigating the use of screening and BI for alcohol and illicit substances were constructed; one for psychiatric outpatient clinic directors and one for staff at these clinics. The main analyses were calculated as simple frequencies. In secondary analyses, we investigated the associations between substance abuse training, type of clinic and screening/BI delivery. For these analyses, the Chi square test was used. Results: Most clinic directors reported that they have guidelines to screen for alcohol (93.1%) and illicit substance use (78.9%) at initial assessment. Fifty percent reported having guidelines for delivering BI when identifying hazardous alcohol use (35.9% for hazardous illicit substance use). Among staff, 66.6% reported always screening for alcohol use and 57.8% reported always screening for illicit substance use at initial assessment. Further, 36.7% reported that they usually deliver BI when identifying hazardous alcohol use (35.7% for hazardous illicit substance use). Secondary analyses indicated that staff with substance abuse training were significantly more likely to screen for alcohol use than staff without such training. Further, staff at psychosis clinics were significantly less likely to screen for both alcohol and substance use than staff at both general and specialist psychiatric clinics. Conclusions: Most clinic directors reported having clear guidelines for staff to screen for alcohol use and illicit substance use, but fewer staff members than expected indicated that these guidelines were adhered to. Providing training about substance use disorders for staff may increase use of screening for alcohol use, and psychosis clinics may need to improve their screening routines.

  • 31. Naci, Huseyin
    et al.
    Salcher-Konrad, Maximilian
    Mcguire, Alistair
    Berger, Felix
    Kuehne, Titus
    Goubergrits, Leonid
    Muthurangu, Vivek
    Wilson, Ben
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. London School of Economics and Political Science, UK.
    Kelm, Marcus
    Impact of predictive medicine on therapeutic decision making: a randomized controlled trial in congenital heart disease2019In: Npj Digital Medicine, ISSN 2398-6352, Vol. 2, article id 17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computational modelling has made significant progress towards clinical application in recent years. In addition to providing detailed diagnostic data, these methods have the potential to simulate patient-specific interventions and to predict their outcome. Our objective was to evaluate to which extent patient-specific modelling influences treatment decisions in coarctation of the aorta (CoA), a common congenital heart disease. We selected three cases with CoA, two of which had borderline indications for intervention according to current clinical guidelines. The third case was not indicated for intervention according to guidelines. For each case, we generated two separate datasets. First dataset included conventional diagnostic parameters (echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging). In the second, we added modelled parameters (pressure fields). For the two cases with borderline indications for intervention, the second dataset also included pressure fields after virtual stenting simulations. All parameters were computed by modelling methods that were previously validated. In an online-administered, invitation-only survey, we randomized 178 paediatric cardiologists to view either conventional (control) or add-on modelling (experimental) datasets. Primary endpoint was the proportion of participants recommending different therapeutic options: (1) surgery or catheter lab (collectively, intervention) or (2) no intervention (follow-up with or without medication). Availability of data from computational predictive modelling influenced therapeutic decision making in two of three cases. There was a statistically significant association between group assignment and the recommendation of an intervention for one borderline case and one non-borderline case: 94.3% vs. 72.2% (RR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.14-1.50, p = 0.00) and 18.8% vs. 5.1% (RR: 3.09, 95% CI: 1.17-8.18, p = 0.01) of participants in the experimental and control groups respectively recommended an intervention. For the remaining case, there was no difference between the experimental and control group and the majority of participants recommended intervention. In sub-group analyses, findings were not affected by the experience level of participating cardiologists. Despite existing clinical guidelines, the therapy recommendations of the participating physicians were heterogeneous. Validated patient-specific computational modelling has the potential to influence treatment decisions. Future studies in broader areas are needed to evaluate whether differences in decisions result in improved outcomes.

  • 32.
    Sohlberg, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    In favor of tobacco control? Former smokers´support for tobacco policies2019In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Tobacco control (TC) in Sweden is being continuously strengthened.

    Aims:

    The study aimed to examine attitudes towards different TC policies among former smokers, the difference between nicotine-free former smokers and those who use nicotine in the form of snus or nicotine replacement therapies (NRTs), and whether different TC strategies tend to become more acceptable over time.

    Methods:

    Respondents are part of a seven-year follow-up of former smokers in Sweden. Initially, 1400 respondents were contacted regarding participation and 705 answered a survey (response rate 50%). The present study used cross-sectional data on attitudes towards different TC policies and respondent’s level of support were measured on a 4-point scale. Analyses consist of percentage distribution of level of agreement, in total and between nicotine-free individuals and users of nicotine in the form of snus or NRTs, as well as logistic regressions in order to predict the odds for supporting the different policies. In addition, a percentage distribution of support for different policies introduced during different time-periods is shown.

    Results:

    There is an overall support for smoke-free environments. Nicotine users are, however, overall slightly more opposed, especially to policies aiming at denormalising smoking. Public support is important for successful implementation but resistance can pass, and interventions tend to become more acceptable over time.

    Conclusion:

    While smoke-free indoor environments can be justified by scientific evidence of harm to others, bans against smoking outdoors might be experienced as intrusive. Policies need to rest on scientific arguments and be seen as appropriate actions, underlining the importance of information for successful implementations.

  • 33.
    Billingsley, Sunnee
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Intragenerational social mobility and cause-specific premature mortality2019In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 2, article id e0211977Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores whether there is a short-term relationship between intragenerational social mobility and mortality while individuals are working and whether it is widespread across different causes of death. Net of accumulated advantages and disadvantages, social mobility may influence mortality through health selection or changes in well-being. Men and women working in 1996 up to age 65 are observed annually until 2012 in Swedish register data. Time-varying covariates and origin and destination status are controlled for in discrete time event-history analyses. Results show that when men were upwardly mobile, mortality was lower due to cancer, CVD, IHD, and suicide. Upward mobility was only associated with lower odds of suicide for women. When downwardly mobile, cancer mortality was higher for both men and women and smoking-related cancer mortality was higher for men. Social mobility was not linked to deaths related to accidents and poisoning or alcohol-related mortality. The results may support a relationship between social mobility and mortality characterized by health selection: Only in the case of a chronic illness (cancer) was downward mobility associated with higher mortality. The widespread relationship between upward mobility and lower mortality for men may also indicate positive health selection into attaining a higher class and that individuals with poor health may be less likely to search for better positions or receive promotions.

  • 34. Busetta, Annalisa
    et al.
    Mendola, Daria
    Wilson, Ben
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. London School of Economics, UK.
    Cetorelli, Valeria
    Measuring vulnerability of asylum seekers and refugees in Italy2019In: Journal of ethnic and migration studies, ISSN 1369-183X, E-ISSN 1469-9451Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, a growing number of forced migrants have travelled to Italy across the Mediterranean Sea. While the number of new arrivals has diminished since 2017, the Italian reception system still struggles to process the high number of applications for international protection. A significant proportion of forced migrants who arrive in Italy end up living in informal settlements, such as occupied buildings, shacks, containers and tented camps. In this study, we assess the vulnerability of asylum seekers and refugees living in informal settlements in Italy, using data from the first nationally representative survey of this population. We compare a count measure of vulnerability with a new approach based on latent trait analysis, which accounts for measurement error and correlation between indicators. This analysis shows that forced migrants from Asia are more vulnerable than those from Africa, and that vulnerability is consistently lower in informal settlements in the regions of Lazio and Piedmont, and consistently higher in Apulia. However, other factors predicting vulnerability often change depending upon the way in which vulnerability is measured. Our findings have implications for the design of social protection and inclusion policies, as well as future research that measures vulnerability.

  • 35.
    Lund, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Mette Andersson: Kampen om vitenskapeligheten: Forskningskommunikasjon i et politisk betent felt2019In: Norsk sosiologisk tidsskrift, ISSN 1590-7929, E-ISSN 1936-4660, Vol. 3, no 2Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 36.
    Wallace, Matthew
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Khlat, Myriam
    Guillot, Michel
    Mortality advantage among migrants according to duration of stay in France, 2004-20142019In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 19, article id 327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The migrant mortality advantage is generally interpreted as reflecting the selection of atypically healthy individuals from the country of origin followed by the wearing off of selection effects over time, a process theorised to be accelerated by progressive and negative acculturation in the host country. However, studies examining how migrant mortality evolves over duration of stay, which could provide insight into these two processes, are relatively scarce. Additionally, they have paid little attention to gender-specific patterns and the confounding effect of age. In this study, we analyze all-cause mortality according to duration of stay among male and female migrants in France, with a particular focus on the role of age in explaining duration of stay effects.

    Methods: We use the Echantillon Demographique Permanent (Permanent Demographic Sample; EDP), France's largest socio-demographic panel and a representative 1% sample of its population. Mortality was followed-up from 2004 to 2014, and parametric survival models were fitted for males and females to study variation in all-cause mortality among migrants over duration of stay. Estimates were adjusted for age, duration of stay, year, education level and marital status. Duration of stay patterns were examined for both open-ended and fixed age groups.

    Results: We observe a migrant mortality advantage, which is most pronounced among recent arrivals and converges towards the mortality level of natives with duration of stay. We show this pattern to be robust to the confounding effect of age and find the pattern to be consistent among males and females.

    Conclusions: Our novel findings show an intrinsic pattern of convergence of migrant mortality towards native-born mortality over time spent in France, independent from the ages at which mortality is measured. The consistent pattern in both genders suggests that males and females experience the same processes associated with generating the migrant mortality advantage. These patterns adhere to the selection-acculturation hypothesis and raise serious concerns about the erosion of migrant health capital with increasing exposure to conditions in France.

  • 37.
    Rostami, Amir
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Mondani, Hernan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Organizing on two wheels: uncovering the organizational patterns of Hells Angels MC in Sweden2019In: Trends in Organized Crime, ISSN 1084-4791, E-ISSN 1936-4830, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 34-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades, Outlaw Motorcycle Clubs (OMCs) have become a concern for crime prevention and law enforcement agencies. The general perception of OMCs is ambiguous. They are seen either as highly structured criminal organizations whose members use their motorcycle clubs for conducting sophisticated criminal enterprises, or as clubs built around the camaraderie of freedom-seeking bikers. Using unique Swedish longitudinal data on gang membership and co-offending patterns, we study the organizational dynamics of Hells Angels MC Sweden and its sub-organizations Red & White Crew and Red Devils MC. Our results reveal a complex picture. Co-offending network patterns and offense type distributions vary for each sub-organization, indicating potential differences in organizational dynamics. Red & White Crew has features that are more similar to street gangs than OMCs, and Red Devils MC has a more decentralized and chapter-based pattern of criminal collaboration than Hells Angels MC. Besides increasing our understanding of OMC collaboration structure, our results have implications for crime prevention strategies. We suggest that social responses and law enforcement efforts should take into account the heterogeneity of OMCs in order to avoid counterproductive consequences in terms of increased group cohesiveness.

  • 38.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Lappegård, Trude
    Andersen, Synøve N.
    Garðarsdóttir, Ólöf
    Neyer, Gerda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Viklund, Ida
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Parental leave policies and continued childbearing in Iceland, Norway, and Sweden2019In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 40, p. 1501-1528Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND

    Demographic theories maintain that family policies that support gender equality may lead to higher fertility levels in postindustrial societies. This phenomenon is often exemplified by the situation in the Nordic countries. These countries have parental leave policies that promote a gender-equal work-care balance for both parents, and these countries have comparatively high fertility levels. However, very little is known about the association between these policies and childbearing at the individual level.

    OBJECTIVE

    We explore how fathers' parental leave use is related to subsequent childbearing in Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, and we examine whether differences exist in childbearing outcomes among fathers who use no leave, those who use only the leave allocated to them by the policy, and those who use more than that amount of leave.

    METHODS

    The study is based on 15 years of administrative register data on parental leave use in Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Event history analysis is used to follow parental couples from the end of the parental leave use for their first or second child until a new birth takes place.

    RESULTS

    There is a positive association between fathers' leave use and second births in all three countries, while there is a negative association between fathers' parental leave use and third births in Norway and Sweden. Taking more than the 'father's quota' does not consistently increase the second-birth intensities.

    CONCLUSIONS

    The two-child norm is closely connected to the norm of fathers being engaged in child rearing, while only a select group of fathers continue with a third child.

    CONTRIBUTION

    The study shows that the association between gender equality and fertility differs between countries and by the parity of the child. It also shows the need to differentiate between policy-induced gender-equal behavior and gender-egalitarian parenting.

  • 39.
    Barclay, Kieron
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Germany; London School of Economics and Political Science, UK.
    Kolk, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Cultural Evolution. Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Parity and Mortality: An Examination of Different Explanatory Mechanisms Using Data on Biological and Adoptive Parents2019In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 63-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing literature has demonstrated a relationship between parity and mortality, but the explanation for that relationship remains unclear. This study aims to pick apart physiological and social explanations for the parity-mortality relationship by examining the mortality of parents who adopt children, but who have no biological children, in comparison with the mortality of parents with biological children. Using Swedish register data, we study post-reproductive mortality amongst women and men from cohorts born between 1915 and 1960, over ages 45-97. Our results show the relative risks of mortality for adoptive parents are always lower than those of parents with biological children. Mortality amongst adoptive parents is lower for those who adopt more than one child, while for parents with biological children we observe a U-shaped relationship, where parity-two parents have the lowest mortality. Our discussion considers the relative importance of physiological and social depletion effects, and selection processes.

  • 40.
    Lund, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Preparedness as a counter-memory. School desegregation, social chances and life chances2019In: Ethnic and Racial Studies, ISSN 0141-9870, E-ISSN 1466-4356, Vol. 42, no 13, p. 2318-2325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How should we understand the conundrum of love for the segregated school – a system built to keep you in your place? In Gone Home. Race and Roots through Appalachia, Karida L. Brown looks at African American teacher’s work in segregated schools and shows how desegregation could be felt in both gains and losses in the black community. Those teachers prepared their students for a world of integration without freedom. This essay proposes a counter- memory of segregation, a relational agency of teachers past that remains to this day. Former students’ commemoration of teachers, principals, and schools dating from the time of institutionalized racial exclusion works as a symbolic reminder in a still-racist world, representing not only the need to be prepared, but also to stay prepared.

  • 41. Rocque, Michael
    et al.
    Beckley, Amber L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Piquero, Alex R.
    Psychosocial Maturation, Race, and Desistance from Crime2019In: Journal of Youth and Adolescence, ISSN 0047-2891, E-ISSN 1573-6601, Vol. 48, no 7, p. 1403-1417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on maturation and its relation to antisocial behavior has progressed appreciably in recent years. Psychosocial maturation is a relatively recent concept of development that scholarship has linked to risky behavior. Psychosocial maturation appears to be a promising explanation of the process of exiting criminal behavior, known as desistance from crime. However, to date, research has not examined whether psychosocial maturation is related to desistance in similar ways across race/ethnicity. Using the Pathways to Desistance Study which followed a mixed-race/ethnicity group of serious adolescent offenders for 7 years, this research tested growth in psychosocial maturation across race/ethnic groups. The sample (14.46% female, average age 15.97 at baseline) was composed of white (n = 250), black (n = 463), and Hispanic (n = 414) individuals. The results showed variation in trajectories of psychosocial maturation with blacks having higher initial levels but slower growth in maturation over time compared to whites. Psychosocial maturation was negatively related to crime across all racial/ethnic groups. Across all racial/ethnic groups, differences in the magnitude of the association between psychosocial maturation and desistance were small. Rather than needing distinct theories for specific groups, psychosocial maturation appears to be a general theoretical perspective for understanding desistance from crime across races/ethnicities. Policy formulation based on psychosocial maturation would, therefore, be applicable across racial/ethnic groups.

  • 42. Goldstone, Jack
    et al.
    Ritter, Daniel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Revolutions and Social Movements2019In: The Wiley Blackwell Companion to Social Movements / [ed] David A. Snow, Sarah A. Soule, Hanspeter Kriesi, Holly J. McCammon, Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Inc., 2019, 2, p. 682-697Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Hällsten, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Edling, Christofer
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    School's out forever? Heavy metal preferences and higher education2019In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 3, article id e0213716Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    Cultural behaviors are theoretically linked to future life chances but empirical literature is scant. We use heavy metal as an example of cultural identities due to its high salience. We first assess the social morphology of metal preferences in terms of socio-economic and socio-structural positions, and then asses the short term outcomes of being a heavy metal fan on education and health behaviors.

    Methods

    The analysis was based on a representative random stratified sample of 23-year-olds of native Swedish, Iranian, and Yugoslavian background in contemporary Sweden (n = 2,232). Linear probability models with multiple imputation were used to calculate preferences for metal music and the association of metal preferences with subsequent outcomes.

    Results

    In contrast to many prior studies, we find that the preference for heavy metal is not structured by social background or neighborhood context in Swedish adolescents. Poor school grades tend to make them more prone to like metal, but net of previous grades, social background, personality, personal network, and neighborhood characteristics, metal fans have substantially lower transition rates into higher education.

    Discussion

    The study suggest that metal preferences appears rather unsystematically with few important predictors, and is linked to lower education attainments in the short run. While these findings are specific to heavy metal as a certain type of culture and to Swedish adolescents, we suggest that they are indicative of how cultural consumption may play a role for life-chances.

  • 44.
    Mondani, Hernan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Sector, industry and inter-organizational movement statistics in the Stockholm Region: informing organizational growth models2019In: Quality and quantity, ISSN 0033-5177, E-ISSN 1573-7845, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 735-755Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational growth processes exhibit interesting statistical regularities, chiefly the heavy-tailed pattern of the size and growth-rate (i.e. yearly change in size) distributions. In spite of its ubiquity, empirical studies of growth are often limited to private activities and specific sectors, and generative models on the other hand are built on simplified assumptions and only aim at reproducing stylized facts. In this study, we use a unique Swedish longitudinal database on employment in the Stockholm Region, to analyze the interplay between organizational growth statistics by ownership sector, industrial activity and inter-organizational employee movements during a period of 14 years. We fit distributions for organizational size and growth rates. We find that the body of the aggregate growth-rate distribution is dominated by public sector growth, while the private sector dominates the tails. Industries with mostly public organizations tend to have a lognormal size distribution, while privately-owned industries are better fitted by a truncated power law. Growth-rate distributions are fitted to an exponential power (Subbotin) distribution. We decompose the change in size into incoming and outgoing employee movements, and find that the distribution of aggregated movements is well approximated by a lognormal distribution. Most organizations that do not grow have however in- and outgoing movements, but these mostly cancel each other out.

  • 45. Oksuzyan, Anna
    et al.
    Mussino, Eleonora
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Drefahl, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Sex differences in mortality in migrants and the Swedish-born population: Is there a double survival advantage for immigrant women?2019In: International Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1661-8556, E-ISSN 1661-8564, Vol. 64, no 3, p. 377-386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ObjectivesIn the present study, we examine whether the relationships between country of origin or reason for migration and mortality differ between men and women.MethodsWe apply hazard regression models on high-quality Swedish register data with nationwide coverage.ResultsRelative to their Swedish counterparts, migrants from Nordic and East European (EU) countries and former Yugoslavia have higher mortality. This excess mortality among migrants relative to Swedes is more pronounced in men than in women. Migrants from Western and Southern European countries; Iran, Iraq, and Turkey; Central and South America; and Asia, have lower mortality than Swedes, and the size of the mortality reduction is similar in both sexes. The predictive effects of the reason for migration for mortality are also similar in migrant men and women.ConclusionsThis study provides little support for the hypothesis of a double survival advantage among immigrant women in Sweden. However, it does show that the excess mortality in migrants from Nordic and EU countries and former Yugoslavia relative to the Swedish-born population is more pronounced in men than in women.

  • 46.
    von Greiff, Ninive
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Skogens, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Berlin, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. The National Board of Health and Welfare, Sweden.
    Social inclusion of clients treated for substance abuse in Sweden in the 1980s: A 27-year follow-up2019In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 314-329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To investigate social inclusion/exclusion in terms of criminality, substance abuse and participation in the labour market in clients treated for substance abuse in Sweden in the 1980s during a follow-up period of 27 years.

    Method: SWEDATE data are used for background information on the clients. The data were collected through interviews with clients registered for treatment in 31 in-patient treatment units in 1982 and 1983. Data on labour market status, education and medication related to drugs were collected from public registers. The study population consisted of 1132 individuals, who were followed from the year after exiting from treatment (Year 1) until the end of the follow-up (December 2013).

    Results: Among those who survived, the women seem to have succeeded better in terms of social inclusion both at an aggregated level and when the individual pathways were followed during the follow-up period. When comparing pathways between adverse and non-adverse groups during the follow-up period the results show movements from being adverse to non-adverse but also the opposite. In the last follow-up in 2013, the majority of the clients defined as non-adverse for the last nine years were in some way established in the labour market (including studies). In total, about two fifths of the group were in some way established in the labour market.

    Conclusions: The fairly high proportion of clients moving between being adverse and non-adverse during the follow-up might support the perspective suggesting that dependence should not be considered as chronic.

  • 47.
    Eriksson, Helen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Taking Turns or Halving It All: Care Trajectories of Dual-Caring Couples2019In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 191-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interview and observational studies document that dual-caring is characterized by temporality. Two ‘ideal-typical’ trajectories are identified: ‘halving it all’ in which couples divide care equally on a daily or weekly basis and ‘taking turns’ in which parents take month- or year-long turns in serving as primary caregivers to the child. This study utilizes a new source of couple-level longitudinal information on parental leave to investigate dual-caring trajectories in contemporary Sweden. Results show that while care trajectories in which only one parent serves as the primary caregiver can be captured without longitudinal information, the dominant dual-caring trajectory cannot. In fact, despite a uniquely flexible parental leave system that allows egalitarian couples to share care on a daily basis, most couples do not share care in every point in time, but ‘take turns’ in serving as the primary caregiver to the child, with the mother’s ‘turn’ preceding the father’s. The results demonstrate that cross-sectional and aggregate measures of child care may fail to detect emerging trends in dual-caring.

  • 48.
    Sandström, Glenn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Umeå University, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Umeå University, Sweden.
    The educational gradient of living alone: A comparison among the working-age population in Europe2019In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 40, p. 1645-1670, article id 55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND In recent decades, the proportion of individuals in Western countries living in a one-person household has increased. Previous research has mainly focused on the increase among the elderly and younger segments of the population, and there is a lack of research regarding the characteristics of individuals living alone among the working-age population. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study is to examine the educational gradient of living alone in the working-age population (aged 30-64 years) in a comparative perspective and to assess if the differences in the educational gradient are related to the level of gender equality in different European societies. METHODS Using data on 12 European countries from the Generations and Gender Surveys, the estimated probabilities of living alone for men and women with different levels of education were calculated using logistic regression models while controlling for parental status and differences in the age distribution across different populations. RESULTS In the more gender equal countries, we found a negative educational gradient of living alone, especially for men, with decreasing gender differences in the probability of living alone as education increases. In the less gender equal countries, women tend to live alone to a higher extent than men regardless of their educational level. In the least gender equal countries, we found a positive educational gradient of living alone most markedly among women. Here we found the lowest probability of living alone among those who had received only a primary education and the highest levels among men and women with university degrees. Thus, we found a shift in the educational gradient of living alone from a negative gradient in the most gender equal countries in Northern Europe to a positive gradient in the least gender equal countries in the South and in Eastern Europe. CONTRIBUTIONS This study highlights differences in living alone for men and women in the working-age population in Europe across different levels of education.

  • 49. Ichou, Mathieu
    et al.