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  • 1.
    Vogiazides, Louisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Mondani, Hernan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    A geographical path to integration?: Exploring the interplay between regional context and labour market integration among refugees in Sweden2019In: Journal of ethnic and migration studies, ISSN 1369-183X, E-ISSN 1469-9451Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Migrant integration is an issue at the forefront of political debates in many immigrant-receiving countries. Within academia, a rich body of neighbourhood effects literature examines the significance of the residential environment for the socioeconomic integration of international migrants. Another strand of research explores the associations between immigrants’ initial region of residence and their subsequent socioeconomic integration. Existing research focuses on a single dimension of geographical context and on the neighbourhood scale. Using Swedish longitudinal register data, we estimate discrete-time event history models to assess how regional and neighbourhood contexts influence refugees’ entry into employment. Our study includes all refugees who arrived in Sweden between 2000 and 2009, distinguishing between three categories of refugees: refugees with assigned housing, refugees with self-arranged housing and quota refugees. Our results reveal a clear pattern where the most advantageous regions for finding a first employment are those at the extremes of the population density distribution: the Stockholm region and small city/rural regions. Refugees residing in Malmö have the lowest probability of entering the labour market. Our study also reiterates existing concerns regarding the negative effects of ethnic segregation at the neighbourhood level on labour market participation.

  • 2.
    Coppolino Perfumi, Serena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. University of Florence, Italy.
    Bagnoli, Franco
    Caudek, Corrado
    Guazzini, Andrea
    Deindividuation effects on normative and informational social influence within computer-mediated-communication2019In: Computers in human behavior, ISSN 0747-5632, E-ISSN 1873-7692, Vol. 92, p. 230-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on social influence shows that different patterns take place when this phenomenon happens within computer-mediated-communication (CMC), if compared to face-to-face interaction. Informational social influence can still easily take place also by means of CMC, however normative influence seems to be more affected by the environmental characteristics. Different authors have theorized that deindividuation nullifies the effects of normative influence, but the Social Identity Model of Deindividuation Effects theorizes that users will conform even when deindividuated, but only if social identity is made salient. The two typologies of social influence have never been studied in comparison, therefore in our work, we decided to create an online experiment to observe how the same variables affect them, and in particular how deindividuation works in both cases. The 181 experimental subjects that took part, performed 3 tasks: one aiming to elicit normative influence, and two semantic tasks created to test informational influence. Entropy has been used as a mathematical assessment of information availability. Our results show that normative influence becomes almost ineffective within CMC (1.4% of conformity) when subjects are deindividuated. Informational influence is generally more effective than normative influence within CMC (15-29% of conformity), but similarly to normative influence, it is inhibited by deindividuation.

  • 3. Eklund, Lina
    et al.
    Roman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Digital Gaming and Young People's Friendships: A Mixed Methods Study of Time Use and Gaming in School2019In: Young - Nordic Journal of Youth Research, ISSN 1103-3088, E-ISSN 1741-3222, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 32-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this mixed methods study, we investigate the impact of digital gaming on school social life among young people (17-19 year old) by combining over-time data investigating friendships as they form, with subjective experiences of friendships. We draw on one full cohort of Swedish pupils surveyed on three occasions during their first year in upper-secondary school (n = 115) and one interview sample of 10 game users. Results indicate that how much time young people spend on gaming is not a significant factor for friendship formation in the studied sample. Moreover, high-use did not make game users socially isolated or less popular in school. We discuss how young people adhere to ideals of responsible leisure in order to become adults; practising time-management strategies to make place for time-consuming leisure while not letting it impact personal relationships.

  • 4. Hellum, Merete
    et al.
    Oláh, Livia Sz.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Doing gender and gender equality’ through emotional expressions during a research interview. Views of highly educated Swedish young adults2019In: Journal of Gender Studies, ISSN 0958-9236, E-ISSN 1465-3869, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 304-317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to contribute to the knowledge on how concepts of gender and gender equality are constructed within research interviews, deepening our understanding of the underlying gender system in society. We focus on emotions and emotional processes expressed during interviews on work and family when specific questions originating in the World Value Survey were asked. Our study is based on interviews with highly educated women and men, in two metropolitan areas of Sweden. In this article we seek to shed more light on how incorporating emotional expressions and the evaluation of these emotions can grasp the construction of gender and gender equality. We highlight the range of emotional expressions that appear during the interviews, differences in their usage by women and men and the links to the construction of gender and gender equality. We explore how the specific situation of the interview influences ‘doing gender and gender equality’ through emotions. Our results reveal that men and women use similar but also different emotional expressions in conforming to the gender equality norm. Men and women, interviewers and interviewees agreed on this norm, but the ways they ’performed’ the norm are gender based.

  • 5.
    Fredriksson, Daniel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Enabling employment?: Drivers and outcomes of active labour market policies in comparative perspective2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis includes three empirical studies that analyse driving forces and outcomes of active labour market policies (ALMP) in comparative perspective. Whereas previous comparative research has largely relied on broad conceptualisations of ALMP, often considering policies such as public employment services and training programs as one single type of intervention, the studies in this thesis instead analyse more fine-grained categories and classifications of ALMP. By doing so, the studies contribute with nuance to the discussion of what has shaped labour market policies, and how these influence labour market outcomes.

    Study I: This study focuses on determinants of spending on public employment services (PES). Contrary to common assumptions, which state that PES is largely determined by structural factors, the main hypothesis is that partisan politics is a relevant predictor of PES spending. The analysis includes 17 welfare states between 1985 and 2011. The results indicate that partisan politics and electoral competition are related to the development of PES spending, but that the turn to activation in many welfare states in the late 1990s reduced the salience of partisan politics.

    Study II: This study analyses whether different types of active labour market policies are related to reduced unemployment, and especially if there is evidence for interdependencies between policies. The study distinguishes between public employment services (PES), training, and job creation programs. PES is singled out as a crucial factor that mediates the effects of other labour market policies, both active and passive. The study examines 19 welfare states between 1985 and 2012 and the results indicate that training programs reduce unemployment in the short run, whereas long-term effects are less apparent for all policy types. Increased investment in PES is found to strengthen the impact of training and job creation programs.

    Study III: This study examines the link between active labour market policies and transitions to employment from unemployment and inactivity across the European Union between 2003 and 2013. The study distinguishes between three types of interventions: core programs, directed towards the registered unemployed; peripheral programs, targeting the inactive part of the working age population; and mixed programs, targeting both groups. The results indicate that ALMP have beneficial effects on employment transitions among both the unemployed and the inactive, but that effects differ depending on the type of intervention. Unemployed seem to benefit from increased efforts on ALMP regardless of the type of intervention, whereas the inactive seem to have increased chances to transition into employment if programs target both groups, but not if interventions solely target the inactive.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Linus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Essays on Family Dynamics: Partnering, Fertility and Divorce in Sweden2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Diversity in household and family structures poses interesting questions for scientific inquiry. What accounts for patterns of reproduction, partnering, household formation and household dissolution? This dissertation investigates facets of this question in the context of modern Sweden from a longitudinal and individual level perspective. It consists of three empirical studies using data from administrative registers and panel survey data. The first study begins with noting a rapid expansion in online education and analyzes whether this development leads to higher fertility in student populations. The second study asks whether individuals’ predispositions towards divorce change after exposure to the experience of parenthood, union formation and union dissolution. The third study builds on the literature on assortative mating and investigates what drives underlying preferences for this behavior. 

  • 7. Sturup, Joakim
    et al.
    Gerell, Manne
    Rostami, Amir
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Institute for Future Studies, Sweden.
    Explosive violence: A near-repeat study of hand grenade detonations and shootings in urban Sweden2019In: European Journal of Criminology, ISSN 1477-3708, E-ISSN 1741-2609Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hand grenade attacks have increasingly been reported in Sweden. However, to date no research on the topic exists. The present study aims to describe the illegal use of hand grenades and to test its spatio-temporal relationship with gun violence to explore whether the two forms of violence are connected. Data were collected for the years 2011 to 2016 from the Swedish police and from open sources about hand grenade detonations, which were considered alongside shootings as two types of violence commonly attributed to criminal groups. Descriptive data and trends are presented and spatio-temporal analysis of near-repeat patterns was performed using a near-repeat calculator. All in all, there were 77 incidents of detonated hand grenades in Sweden during the six-year observation period, in which nine individuals were injured and one killed. The number of incidents increased, with about half of the them occurring during the last year. A near-repeat analysis was performed on shootings (N = 1048) and hand grenades (N = 55) in Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmo. The shootings exhibit a strong component of near-repeat patterns, but adding hand grenades to the analysis did not strengthen the patterns, suggesting that the two types of violence only partially share spatio-temporal patterns. The study confirms an increase in the use of hand grenades in Sweden, although the reason for the increase is unknown. The increase does fit with the overall changing pattern in violence in urban areas in Sweden, which broadly tends to be attributed to criminal groups in disadvantaged neighbourhoods.

  • 8. Aarskaug Wiik, Kenneth
    et al.
    Bernhardt, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Gendered expectations: expected consequences of union formation across Europe2019In: Journal of Family Studies, ISSN 1322-9400, E-ISSN 1839-3543, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 214-231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using comparable survey data from eight European countries this study investigated expected consequences of forming a co-residential relationship among non-partnered individuals aged 22-35 (N = 8443). Results showed that respondents expected improvements in their financial situation when moving in with a partner, though in all countries women held more positive expectations toward their post union formation economic situation than men. This result likely reflects the lingering traditional gender structure of the society, with men faced with the responsibility of being the main breadwinner in the family. Such an interpretation would seem to be supported by the fact that this gender gap was smallest in Sweden, France and Belgium, the countries in the current sample with the most egalitarian gender structure. Potential restrictions in personal freedom by forming a co-residential relationship, on the other hand, seem to be less important, particularly among women.

  • 9.
    Lund, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    ‘I feel sorry for them and I should do something, but I don't’: Spatial imaginaries and resistance to feminist change in the dramatic arts2019In: Emotion, Space and Society, ISSN 1755-4586, E-ISSN 1878-0040, Vol. 30, p. 27-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article engages with how emotions play a significant role in keeping, and changing, social structures and cultural beliefs when a heteronormative gender order is problematized. The stage is university level programs in performer training and their work to integrate theoretical knowledge on gender into students' creative and pedagogical practice. The results show that changes in space, new spatial imaginaries, bring about a power disturbance and status relations that require a re-monitoring of who we are in the eyes of others. The article illustrates how fear can reveal where individuals’ and groups interests lie and orient them toward what must be done to preserve or develop these interests in a desirable direction. The reason feelings of fear, anger and shame emerge in reaction to changing power and status relations is that a decline in status and power entails a loss of agency as well as emotional and economic security, and in a deeper sense existential meaning and identity.

  • 10. Sundstrom, Christopher
    et al.
    Petersen, Elisabeth
    Sinadinovic, Kristina
    Gustafsson, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Berman, Anne H.
    Identification and management of alcohol use and illicit substance use in outpatient psychiatric clinics in Sweden: a national survey of clinic directors and staff2019In: Addiction science & clinical practice, ISSN 1940-0632, E-ISSN 1940-0640, Vol. 14, article id 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Swedish national guidelines recommend that all health care settings systematically screen patients for alcohol use and illicit substance use. When hazardous use is identified, it should immediately be addressed, preferably through brief interventions (BI). It is well known that the prevalence of alcohol use and illicit substance use among psychiatric patients is high, but it is not known to what extent screening and BI are routinely carried out in such clinics. Methods: Two online surveys investigating the use of screening and BI for alcohol and illicit substances were constructed; one for psychiatric outpatient clinic directors and one for staff at these clinics. The main analyses were calculated as simple frequencies. In secondary analyses, we investigated the associations between substance abuse training, type of clinic and screening/BI delivery. For these analyses, the Chi square test was used. Results: Most clinic directors reported that they have guidelines to screen for alcohol (93.1%) and illicit substance use (78.9%) at initial assessment. Fifty percent reported having guidelines for delivering BI when identifying hazardous alcohol use (35.9% for hazardous illicit substance use). Among staff, 66.6% reported always screening for alcohol use and 57.8% reported always screening for illicit substance use at initial assessment. Further, 36.7% reported that they usually deliver BI when identifying hazardous alcohol use (35.7% for hazardous illicit substance use). Secondary analyses indicated that staff with substance abuse training were significantly more likely to screen for alcohol use than staff without such training. Further, staff at psychosis clinics were significantly less likely to screen for both alcohol and substance use than staff at both general and specialist psychiatric clinics. Conclusions: Most clinic directors reported having clear guidelines for staff to screen for alcohol use and illicit substance use, but fewer staff members than expected indicated that these guidelines were adhered to. Providing training about substance use disorders for staff may increase use of screening for alcohol use, and psychosis clinics may need to improve their screening routines.

  • 11.
    Billingsley, Sunnee
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Intragenerational social mobility and cause-specific premature mortality2019In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 2, article id e0211977Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores whether there is a short-term relationship between intragenerational social mobility and mortality while individuals are working and whether it is widespread across different causes of death. Net of accumulated advantages and disadvantages, social mobility may influence mortality through health selection or changes in well-being. Men and women working in 1996 up to age 65 are observed annually until 2012 in Swedish register data. Time-varying covariates and origin and destination status are controlled for in discrete time event-history analyses. Results show that when men were upwardly mobile, mortality was lower due to cancer, CVD, IHD, and suicide. Upward mobility was only associated with lower odds of suicide for women. When downwardly mobile, cancer mortality was higher for both men and women and smoking-related cancer mortality was higher for men. Social mobility was not linked to deaths related to accidents and poisoning or alcohol-related mortality. The results may support a relationship between social mobility and mortality characterized by health selection: Only in the case of a chronic illness (cancer) was downward mobility associated with higher mortality. The widespread relationship between upward mobility and lower mortality for men may also indicate positive health selection into attaining a higher class and that individuals with poor health may be less likely to search for better positions or receive promotions.

  • 12.
    Rostami, Amir
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Mondani, Hernan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Organizing on two wheels: uncovering the organizational patterns of Hells Angels MC in Sweden2019In: Trends in Organized Crime, ISSN 1084-4791, E-ISSN 1936-4830, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 34-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades, Outlaw Motorcycle Clubs (OMCs) have become a concern for crime prevention and law enforcement agencies. The general perception of OMCs is ambiguous. They are seen either as highly structured criminal organizations whose members use their motorcycle clubs for conducting sophisticated criminal enterprises, or as clubs built around the camaraderie of freedom-seeking bikers. Using unique Swedish longitudinal data on gang membership and co-offending patterns, we study the organizational dynamics of Hells Angels MC Sweden and its sub-organizations Red & White Crew and Red Devils MC. Our results reveal a complex picture. Co-offending network patterns and offense type distributions vary for each sub-organization, indicating potential differences in organizational dynamics. Red & White Crew has features that are more similar to street gangs than OMCs, and Red Devils MC has a more decentralized and chapter-based pattern of criminal collaboration than Hells Angels MC. Besides increasing our understanding of OMC collaboration structure, our results have implications for crime prevention strategies. We suggest that social responses and law enforcement efforts should take into account the heterogeneity of OMCs in order to avoid counterproductive consequences in terms of increased group cohesiveness.

  • 13.
    Barclay, Kieron
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Germany; London School of Economics and Political Science, UK.
    Kolk, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Cultural Evolution. Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Parity and Mortality: An Examination of Different Explanatory Mechanisms Using Data on Biological and Adoptive Parents2019In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 63-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing literature has demonstrated a relationship between parity and mortality, but the explanation for that relationship remains unclear. This study aims to pick apart physiological and social explanations for the parity-mortality relationship by examining the mortality of parents who adopt children, but who have no biological children, in comparison with the mortality of parents with biological children. Using Swedish register data, we study post-reproductive mortality amongst women and men from cohorts born between 1915 and 1960, over ages 45-97. Our results show the relative risks of mortality for adoptive parents are always lower than those of parents with biological children. Mortality amongst adoptive parents is lower for those who adopt more than one child, while for parents with biological children we observe a U-shaped relationship, where parity-two parents have the lowest mortality. Our discussion considers the relative importance of physiological and social depletion effects, and selection processes.

  • 14.
    Ritter, Daniel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Revolutions and Social Movements2019In: The Blackwell Companion to Social Movements / [ed] David A. Snow, Sarah A. Soule, Hanspeter Kriesi, Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Inc., 2019, 2, p. 682-697Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Mondani, Hernan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Sector, industry and inter-organizational movement statistics in the Stockholm Region: informing organizational growth models2019In: Quality and quantity, ISSN 0033-5177, E-ISSN 1573-7845, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 735-755Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational growth processes exhibit interesting statistical regularities, chiefly the heavy-tailed pattern of the size and growth-rate (i.e. yearly change in size) distributions. In spite of its ubiquity, empirical studies of growth are often limited to private activities and specific sectors, and generative models on the other hand are built on simplified assumptions and only aim at reproducing stylized facts. In this study, we use a unique Swedish longitudinal database on employment in the Stockholm Region, to analyze the interplay between organizational growth statistics by ownership sector, industrial activity and inter-organizational employee movements during a period of 14 years. We fit distributions for organizational size and growth rates. We find that the body of the aggregate growth-rate distribution is dominated by public sector growth, while the private sector dominates the tails. Industries with mostly public organizations tend to have a lognormal size distribution, while privately-owned industries are better fitted by a truncated power law. Growth-rate distributions are fitted to an exponential power (Subbotin) distribution. We decompose the change in size into incoming and outgoing employee movements, and find that the distribution of aggregated movements is well approximated by a lognormal distribution. Most organizations that do not grow have however in- and outgoing movements, but these mostly cancel each other out.

  • 16.
    von Greiff, Ninive
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Skogens, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Berlin, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. The National Board of Health and Welfare, Sweden.
    Social inclusion of clients treated for substance abuse in Sweden in the 1980s: A 27-year follow-up2019In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To investigate social inclusion/exclusion in terms of criminality, substance abuse and participation in the labour market in clients treated for substance abuse in Sweden in the 1980s during a follow-up period of 27 years.

    Method: SWEDATE data are used for background information on the clients. The data were collected through interviews with clients registered for treatment in 31 in-patient treatment units in 1982 and 1983. Data on labour market status, education and medication related to drugs were collected from public registers. The study population consisted of 1132 individuals, who were followed from the year after exiting from treatment (Year 1) until the end of the follow-up (December 2013).

    Results: Among those who survived, the women seem to have succeeded better in terms of social inclusion both at an aggregated level and when the individual pathways were followed during the follow-up period. When comparing pathways between adverse and non-adverse groups during the follow-up period the results show movements from being adverse to non-adverse but also the opposite. In the last follow-up in 2013, the majority of the clients defined as non-adverse for the last nine years were in some way established in the labour market (including studies). In total, about two fifths of the group were in some way established in the labour market.

    Conclusions: The fairly high proportion of clients moving between being adverse and non-adverse during the follow-up might support the perspective suggesting that dependence should not be considered as chronic.

  • 17.
    Eriksson, Helen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Taking Turns or Halving It All: Care Trajectories of Dual-Caring Couples2019In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 191-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interview and observational studies document that dual-caring is characterized by temporality. Two ‘ideal-typical’ trajectories are identified: ‘halving it all’ in which couples divide care equally on a daily or weekly basis and ‘taking turns’ in which parents take month- or year-long turns in serving as primary caregivers to the child. This study utilizes a new source of couple-level longitudinal information on parental leave to investigate dual-caring trajectories in contemporary Sweden. Results show that while care trajectories in which only one parent serves as the primary caregiver can be captured without longitudinal information, the dominant dual-caring trajectory cannot. In fact, despite a uniquely flexible parental leave system that allows egalitarian couples to share care on a daily basis, most couples do not share care in every point in time, but ‘take turns’ in serving as the primary caregiver to the child, with the mother’s ‘turn’ preceding the father’s. The results demonstrate that cross-sectional and aggregate measures of child care may fail to detect emerging trends in dual-caring.

  • 18. Ichou, Mathieu
    et al.
    Wallace, Matthew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Institut National d’Études Démographiques, France.
    The Healthy Immigrant Effect: The role of educational selectivity in the good health of migrants2019In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 40, p. 61-93, article id 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND

    The Healthy Immigrant Effect (HIE) refers to the fact that recent migrants are in better health than the nonmigrant population in the host country. Central to explaining the HIE is the idea that migrants are positively selected in terms of their socioeconomic and health characteristics when compared to nonmigrants in their country of origin. However, due to a lack of reliable and comparable data, most existing studies rely on socioeconomic and health measures as collected in the host country after migration and do not actually measure selection.

    OBJECTIVE

    We directly test selection as an explanation of the HIE among migrants living in France.

    METHODS

    Using the French Trajectories and Origins (TeO) survey and Barro-Lee dataset, we construct a direct measure of migrants' educational selectivity. We then test its effect on health differences between migrants and nonmigrants using measures self-rated health, health limitations, and chronic illnesses, by fitting logistic regression and Karlson-Holm-Breen (KHB) decompositions.

    RESULTS

    After demonstrating that migrants in France experience an HIE, especially males, we also show that educational level as measured in the host country cannot account for the HIE. By contrast, we provide important evidence that educational selectivity constitutes a significant factor in explaining health disparities between migrant and nonmigrant populations.

    CONTRIBUTION

    Capitalizing on a novel measure of migrants' educational selectivity, we give credit to the oft-cited but rarely tested theory that the HIE is a consequence of migrants' positive selection.

  • 19.
    Ritter, Daniel P.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    The Missing Unarmed Revolution: Why Civil Resistance Did Not Work in Bahrain2019In: Social movements, Nonviolent Resistance, and the State / [ed] Hank Johnston, Routledge, 2019Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Leiva, Alejandro
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Three Faces of Diversity Rhetoric: Managerialization, marketing and ambiguity2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past decades, the language of diversity management has spread from the US to many parts of the world, including Sweden, where it emerged in the mid 1990’s. Consisting of three papers, this thesis contributes to the field of critical diversity studies by examining the multifaceted character of diversity rhetoric among Swedish diversity consultants. A central point of debate in previous research has been the relationship between, on one hand, diversity management rhetoric, and on the other hand, equal opportunities and antidiscrimination law. Scholars suggest that Scandinavian and Swedish “diversity” are strongly associated with ideals of equality, antidiscrimination and corporate social responsibility. This thesis gives nuance to this picture by focusing on the views of consultants.

    Paper 1 tries to answer this question: Do Swedish diversity consultants managerialize antidiscrimination law? Research on the US and the UK asserts a conflict between legal equality and the instrumental rhetoric of diversity management. However, studies on continental Europe and Scandinavia tend to posit diversity rhetoric as linked to ethnicity and tempered by legal and social equality. Building on interviews with diversity consultants, this paper shows that their diversity constructions conform to the managerialization thesis. 

    Paper 2 argues that diversity’s three common rhetorical moves—its broad scope, its business case, and its dissociation from legal frames—are more open to interpretation than typically portrayed in the critical diversity research. While scholars tend to interpret this rhetoric as managerial dilution of legal and equality ideals, findings indicate that consultants may use the same rhetorical moves to incorporate an equality logic and extend legal ideas beyond the limits of the law. These interpretative discrepancies are conceptualized as ambiguity—i.e., the same rhetorical moves may support more than one interpretation.

    Paper 3 examines the ongoing institutional work of diversity consultants as they rhetorically try to build a business case for “ethnic marketing” in Sweden. Extant literature suggests that ethnic marketing relies on making differences between “them” (ethnic minority consumers) and “us” (majority consumers). This paper asserts that while making differences is crucial when creating “ethnic” consumers (“different from us”), another rhetorical strategy, “making similarities,” is used to construct already otherized people as “consumers” (“similar to us”). Further, findings show that Sweden’s lack of official statistics on ethnicity and general reluctance towards highlighting ethnicity may function as institutional obstacles that hamper the legitimacy and spread of ethnic marketing.

  • 21.
    Haandrikman, Karen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Webster, Natasha
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Understanding Local Variations in Gender Relations Using Gender Contract Theory2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite Sweden’s family policy existing at the national level, usage of these policies can vary substantially across regions and by gender suggesting a need for closer examination of local variance in these usages. The concept of ‘gender contract’, describes the systematic organization of a gender system that is constructed, controlled and reinforced by relations between men and women and articulated into daily activities such as childcare. This study demonstrates the importance of spatial variation in gender contracts and identifies gender contracts from the gendered use of parental leave in Sweden. Using register data, we create individualized neighbourhoods with fixed population size, based on the location of the residence of individuals. By using a multiscalar approach, we show that local gender contracts vary substantially, and that no dominant regional gender contracts appear instead highlighting local variance of gender contracts. The spatial analyses show the ways in which individuals engage with both structure and society in their daily life. Uncovering gender contracts highlights the ways in which national policies are interpreted locally by users and test the operationalisation of a so far mainly theoretical concept.

  • 22.
    Kolk, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for Cultural Evolution. Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Weak support for a U-shaped pattern between societal gender equality and fertility when comparing societies across time2019In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 40, p. 27-48, article id 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND

    A number of recent theories in demography suggest a U-shaped relationship between gender equality and fertility. Fertility is theorized to be high in societies with low levels of gender equality, as well as in societies with high gender equality, with lower fertility in a transition phase.

    OBJECTIVE

    This study estimates the relationship between gender equality (as operationalized through female political empowerment) and fertility within societies over time, using yearly information on gender equality and fertility for 35 countries.

    RESULTS

    When examining societies across time there is no evidence of a U-shaped relationship between gender equality and fertility. In cross-sectional analyses across countries for recent periods, such a U-shaped relationship can be observed. For within-society analyses a negative relationship is clear at lower levels of gender equality, while no pattern can be observed in societies with high gender equality.

    CONTRIBUTION

    Theories that fertility would increase following increasing gender equality are not supported for changes over time within countries. Implications and robustness of the findings are discussed.

  • 23.
    Miething, Alexander
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    3.2-O2 Lacking occupational network contacts: an explanation for the ethnic variation of depressive symptoms in young adults in Sweden2018In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 48-48Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 24. Busetta, Annalisa
    et al.
    Cetorelli, Valeria
    Wilson, Ben
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. London School of Economics, UK.
    A Universal Health Care System? Unmet Need for Medical Care Among Regular and Irregular Immigrants in Italy2018In: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, ISSN 1557-1912, E-ISSN 1557-1920, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 416-421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Italy has a universal health care system that covers, in principle, the whole resident population, irrespective of citizenship and legal status. This study calculates the prevalence of unmet need for medical care among Italian citizens, regular and irregular immigrants and estimates logistic regression models to assess whether differences by citizenship and legal status hold true once adjusting for potential confounders. The analysis is based on two Surveys on Income and Living Conditions of Italian households and households with foreigners. Controlling for various factors, the odds of experiencing unmet need for medical care are 27% higher for regular immigrants than for Italian citizens and 59% higher for irregular immigrants. The gaps by citizenship and legal status are even more striking among those with chronic illnesses. These results reveal the high vulnerability of immigrants in Italy and the need to develop more effective policies to achieve health care access for all residents.

  • 25. Van Rooij, Antonius J.
    et al.
    Ferguson, Christopher J.
    Colder Carras, Michelle
    Kardefelt-Winther, Daniel
    Shi, Jing
    Aarseth, Espen
    Bean, Anthony M.
    Helmersson Bergmark, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Brus, Anne
    Coulson, Mark
    Deleuze, Jory
    Dullur, Pravin
    Dunkels, Elza
    Edman, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Elson, Malte
    Etchells, Peter J.
    Fiskaali, Anne
    Granic, Isabela
    Jansz, Jeroen
    Karlsen, Faltin
    Kaye, Linda K.
    Kirsh, Bonnie
    Lieberoth, Andreas
    Markey, Patrick
    Mills, Kathryn L.
    Lundedal Nielsen, Rune Kristian
    Orben, Amy
    Poulsen, Arne
    Prause, Nicole
    Prax, Patrick
    Quandt, Thorsten
    Schimmenti, Adriano
    Starcevic, Vladan
    Stutman, Gabrielle
    Turner, Nigel E.
    Van Looy, Jan
    Przybylski, Andrew K.
    A weak scientific basis for gaming disorder: Let us err on the side of caution2018In: Journal of Behavioral Addictions, ISSN 2062-5871, E-ISSN 2063-5303, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We greatly appreciate the care and thought that is evident in the 10 commentaries that discuss our debate paper, the majority of which argued in favor of a formalized ICD-11 gaming disorder. We agree that there are some people whose play of video games is related to life problems. We believe that understanding this population and the nature and severity of the problems they experience should be a focus area for future research. However, moving from research construct to formal disorder requires a much stronger evidence base than we currently have. The burden of evidence and the clinical utility should be extremely high, because there is a genuine risk of abuse of diagnoses. We provide suggestions about the level of evidence that might be required: transparent and preregistered studies, a better demarcation of the subject area that includes a rationale for focusing on gaming particularly versus a more general behavioral addictions concept, the exploration of non-addiction approaches, and the unbiased exploration of clinical approaches that treat potentially underlying issues, such as depressive mood or social anxiety first. We acknowledge there could be benefits to formalizing gaming disorder, many of which were highlighted by colleagues in their commentaries, but we think they do not yet outweigh the wider societal and public health risks involved. Given the gravity of diagnostic classification and its wider societal impact, we urge our colleagues at the WHO to err on the side of caution for now and postpone the formalization.

  • 26.
    Juárez, Sol P.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Drefahl, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Dunlavy, Andrea
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    All-cause mortality, age at arrival, and duration of residence among adult migrants in Sweden: A population-based longitudinal study2018In: SSM - Population Health, ISSN 2352-8273, Vol. 6, p. 16-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A mortality advantage has been observed among recently arrived immigrants in multiple national contexts, even though many immigrants experience more social disadvantage compared to natives. This is the first study to investigate the combined influence of duration of residence and age at arrival on the association between region of origin and all-cause mortality among the adult immigrant population in Sweden.

    Methods: Using population-based registers, we conducted a follow-up study of 1,363,429 individuals aged 25-64 years from 1990 to 2008. Gompertz parametric survival models were fitted to derive hazard ratios (HR) for all-cause mortality.

    Results: Compared to native Swedes, we observed a health advantage in all group of immigrants, with the exception of individuals from Finland. However, when information on age at arrival and duration of residence was combined, an excess mortality risk was found among immigrants who arrived before age 18, which largely disappeared after 15 years of residence in Sweden. Non-European immigrants over age 18 showed similar or lower mortality risks than natives in all categories of age at arrival, regardless of duration of residence.

    Conclusions: The findings suggest that the mortality advantage commonly observed among immigrants is not universal. Combined information on age at arrival and duration of residence can be used to identify sensitive periods and to identify possible selection bias. The study also suggests that young immigrants are a vulnerable subpopulation. Given the increased number of unaccompanied minors arriving in Europe, targeted health or integration policies should be developed or reviewed.

  • 27.
    Billingsley, Sunnee
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Drefahl, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Ghilagaber, Gebrenegus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    An application of diagonal reference models and time-varying covariates in social mobility research on mortality and fertility2018In: Social Science Research, ISSN 0049-089X, E-ISSN 1096-0317, Vol. 75, p. 73-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In social mobility research, the diagonal reference model (DRM) is argued to best isolate the effect of social mobility from origin and destination status effects. In demographic research, standard analyses of the duration until an event occurs rely heavily on the appropriate use of covariates that change over time. We apply these best-practice methods to the study of social mobility and demographic outcomes in Sweden using register data that covers the years 1996–2012. The mortality analysis includes 1,024,142 women and 747,532 men and the fertility analysis includes 191,142 women and 164,368 men. We identify the challenges inherent in this combination and present strategies with an application to how social mobility is related to both fertility and mortality. Our application is successful at incorporating all requirements related to these methods. Our findings suggest, however, that certain data characteristics, such as a relatively high share of missing data, can be problematic. We also find that controlling for origin and destination status generally provides acceptable estimates of the mobility association in the specific case of Sweden and the relationship between social mobility and both fertility and mortality.

  • 28.
    Uggla, Caroline
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. University of Bristol, UK.
    Gurmu, Eshetu
    Gibson, Mhairi A.
    Are wives and daughters disadvantaged in polygynous households? A case study of the Arsi Oromo of Ethiopia2018In: Evolution and human behavior, ISSN 1090-5138, E-ISSN 1879-0607, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 160-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whether polygyny is harmful for women and their children is a long-standing question in anthropology. Few studies, however, have explored whether the effect of polygyny varies for women of different wife order, and whether there are different outcomes for their sons and daughters. Because males have higher reproductive variance, especially when they are allowed to take multiple wives, parents may have higher fitness returns from investing in sons over daughters in polygynous households. Moreover, previous studies have found that first wives and their children are advantaged over monogamous and second order wives (who marry into unions later). Here we test the predictions that children of first wives will have an advantage over children to monogamous or second wives, and that sex-biased investment will be strongest among first wives. Using data from the Arsi Oromo of Ethiopia (n-6200 children) we test whether associations with mother's wife order extend beyond childhood into adulthood by examining simultaneously child survival, education and age at marriage. We find that polygynous first wives have no child survival disadvantage, first wives' sons benefit in terms of longer education and daughters have an earlier age at marriage than daughters of monogamous women. Second wives have lower child survival than monogamous women, but surviving children experience advantages in later life outcomes, particularly marriage. These findings challenge the view that polygynous women are always doing the 'best of a bad job'. Rather, our results suggest that via their surviving sons and daughters there may be long-term benefits for some polygynous women.

  • 29.
    Beckley, Amber L.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Duke University, North Carolina.
    Caspi, Avshalom
    Broadbent, Jonathan
    Harrington, Honalee
    Houts, Renate M.
    Poulton, Richie
    Ramrakha, Sandhya
    Reuben, Aaron
    Moffitt, Terrie E.
    Association of Childhood Blood Lead Levels With Criminal Offending2018In: JAMA pediatrics, ISSN 2168-6203, E-ISSN 2168-6211, Vol. 172, no 2, p. 166-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Importance  Lead is a neurotoxin with well-documented effects on health. Research suggests that lead may be associated with criminal behavior. This association is difficult to disentangle from low socioeconomic status, a factor in both lead exposure and criminal offending.

    Objective  To test the hypothesis that a higher childhood blood lead level (BLL) is associated with greater risk of criminal conviction, recidivism (repeat conviction), conviction for violent offenses, and variety of self-reported criminal offending in a setting where BLL was not associated with low socioeconomic status.

    Design, Setting, and Participants  A total of 553 individuals participated in a prospective study based on a population-representative cohort born between April 1, 1972, and March 31, 1973, from New Zealand; the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study observed participants to age 38 years (December 2012). Statistical analysis was performed from November 10, 2016, to September 5, 2017.

    Exposures  Blood lead level measured at age 11 years.

    Main Outcomes and Measures  Official criminal conviction cumulative to age 38 years (data collected in 2013), single conviction or recidivism, conviction for nonviolent or violent crime, and self-reported variety of crime types at ages 15, 18, 21, 26, 32, and 38 years.

    Results  Participants included 553 individuals (255 female and 298 male participants) who had their blood tested for lead at age 11 years. The mean (SD) BLL at age 11 years was 11.01 (4.62) μg/dL. A total of 154 participants (27.8%) had a criminal conviction, 86 (15.6%) had recidivated, and 53 (9.6%) had a violent offense conviction. Variety scores for self-reported offending ranged from 0 to 10 offense types at each assessment; higher numbers indicated greater crime involvement. Self-reported offending followed the well-established age-crime curve (ie, the mean [SD] variety of self-reported offending increased from 1.99 [2.82] at age 15 years to its peak of 4.24 [3.15] at age 18 years and 4.22 [3.02] at age 21 years and declined thereafter to 1.10 [1.59] at age 38 years). Blood lead level was a poor discriminator between no conviction and conviction (area under the curve, 0.58). Overall, associations between BLL and conviction outcomes were weak. The estimated effect of BLL was lower for recidivism than for single convictions and lower for violent offending than for nonviolent offending. Sex-adjusted associations between BLL reached statistical significance for only 1 of the 6 self-reported offending outcomes at age 15 years (r = 0.10; 95% CI, 0.01-0.18; P = .02).

    Conclusions and Relevance  This study overcomes past limitations of studies of BLL and crime by studying the association in a place and time where the correlation was not confounded by childhood socioeconomic status. Findings failed to support a dose-response association between BLL and consequential criminal offending.

  • 30. Koslowski, Alison
    et al.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Basic Income: The Potential for Gendered Empowerment?2018In: Social Inclusion, ISSN 2183-2803, E-ISSN 2183-2803, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 8-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Basic income is likely to gain momentum as the next social welfare trend to sweep over the world with ideas of how to improve the fairness and efficiency of distributing money. Other earlier movements with similar ambitions to transform societies, ranging across the political spectrum from socialism to neo-liberalism, have led to very different consequences for strata of citizens, but have in common that they have de-prioritised gender equality in favour of other interests. Advocates of basic income suggest that in addition to pragmatic gains, such as a more efficient state administration, primarily a basic income will empower citizens, leading to the potential for greater human flourishing. Our question is whether this empowerment will be gendered and if so, how? So far, the basic income debate addresses gender only in so far as it would raise the income of the poorest, of whom a larger proportion are women. However, it is less clear how it might contribute to a transformation of gendered behaviour, making possible divergent shapes of life where binary and set notions of gender are not a restriction. We discuss the idea of basic income from a perspective of gender equality in the Swedish context.

  • 31.
    Helmersson Bergmark, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Behavioral addictions - a social science perspective2018In: General Internal Medicine and Clinical Innovations, E-ISSN 2397-5237, Vol. 3, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This conceptual review and analysis discusses the development of the addiction concept, a development that entails a marked expansion of what is considered to constitute an addiction. During the last decade, following the introduction of DSM-5 (the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, APA 2013) [1] and the opening up of new terrains, many bad habits and behavioral problems are in the process of being transferred to and renamed as addictions, endorsing a continued or rather reinforced medicalization of social problems. In this paper a social science viewpoint is suggested as a more appropriate perspective on these matters.

  • 32.
    Juárez, Sol
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Mussino, Eleonora
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Being a refugee or having a refugee status? Birthweight and gestational age outcomes among offspring of immigrant mothers in Sweden2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: to evaluate whether the information on refugee status based on the residence permit is a useful source of information for perinatal health surveillance. Methods: using the Swedish population registers (1997-2012), we use multinomial regression models to assess the associations between migration status (refugee and non-refugee) and birth outcomes derived from birthweight and gestational age: low birthweight (lBW) (<2500 g), macrosomia (≥4000 g); preterm: (<37 w) and post-term (≥42 w). The Swedish-born population was used as a reference group. Results: Compared to the Swedish-born population, an increased OR (odds ratio) of lBW and post-term was found among migrants with and without refugee status (respectively: OR for refugees: 1.47 [95% CI: 1.33-1.63] and non-refugees:1.27 [95% CI: 1.18-1.38], for refugees: 1.41 [95% CI: 1.35-1.49] and non-refugees:1.04 [95% CI: 1.00-1.08]) with statistically significant differences between these two migrant categories. However, when looking at specific regions of origin, few regions show differences by refugee status. Compared to Swedes, lower or equal ORs of preterm and macrosomia are observed regardless of migratory status. Conclusions: Small or no differences were observed in birth outcomes among offspring of women coming from the same origin with different migratory status, compared to their Swedish counterparts. This suggests that information on migration status is not a relevant piece of information to identify immigrant women at higher risk of experiencing adverse reproductive outcomes. Our results however might be explained by the large proportion of women coming to Sweden for family reunification who are classified as non-refugee migrants.

  • 33.
    Barclay, Kieron J.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. London School of Economics and Political Science, UK; Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research Germany.
    Kolk, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for Cultural Evolution. Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Birth Intervals and Health in Adulthood: A Comparison of Siblings Using Swedish Register Data2018In: Demography, ISSN 0070-3370, E-ISSN 1533-7790, Vol. 55, no 3, p. 929-955Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing body of research has examined whether birth intervals influence perinatal outcomes and child health as well as long-term educational and socioeconomic outcomes. To date, however, very little research has examined whether birth spacing influences long-term health. We use contemporary Swedish population register data to examine the relationship between birth-to-birth intervals and a variety of health outcomes in adulthood: for men, height, physical fitness, and the probability of falling into different body mass index categories; and for men and women, mortality. In models that do not adjust carefully for family background, we find that short and long birth intervals are clearly associated with height, physical fitness, being overweight or obese, and mortality. However, after carefully adjusting for family background using a within-family sibling comparison design, we find that birth spacing is generally not associated with long-term health, although we find that men born after very long birth intervals have a higher probability of being overweight or obese in early adulthood. Overall, we conclude that birth intervals have little independent effect on long-term health outcomes.

  • 34.
    Brandén, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Bygren, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Linköping University, Sweden; Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Gähler, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Can the trailing spouse phenomenon be explained by employer recruitment choices?2018In: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 24, no 6, article id e2141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that couples tend to relocate for the sake of the man's career rather than the woman's, also known as the “trailing spouse phenomenon.” The role of employer choices in this process is unknown however. If employers are hesitant to make job offers to women who live a long way from the workplace (e.g., because of work–family balance concerns or a perceived risk that they will not follow through on their applications, or stay hired if employed), this tendency might constitute an underlying mechanism behind the moving premium of partnered men. Ours is the first study to empirically test whether employers prefer geographically distant men over geographically distant women. We sent applications for 1,410 job openings in the Swedish labour market, randomly assigning gender and parental status to otherwise equivalent applications from cohabiting or married women and men and recorded employer callbacks to these. The results indicate that employers in general tend to disfavour job applicants who live a long way from the employer's workplace. This tendency is stronger for women, both for mothers and for women with no children. Our estimated effects are imprecise but clearly suggest that employer recruitment choices contribute to the trailing spouse phenomenon by offering men a larger pool of geographically distant jobs. We call for more research on this hitherto ignored mechanism behind the trailing spouse phenomenon.

  • 35.
    Dahlberg, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Changing seasonal variation in births by sociodemographic factors: a population-based register study2018In: Human Reproduction Open, ISSN 2399-3529, no 4, article id hoy015Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    STUDY QUESTION: Have seasonal variations in births by factors related to maternal education, age, parity and re-partnering changedover a 72-year period? SUMMARY ANSWER: Seasonal variation in births has been reduced overall but also changed its pattern over the last seven decades. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The number of births varies markedly by season, but the causes of this variation are not fully understood.Seasonality of births is, in some populations, strongly influenced by sociodemographic factors. STUDY DESIGN SIZE, DURATION: A longitudinal study design was used by analysing the seasonal variation in live births between 1940and 2012, and relating it to mothers’ sociodemographic characteristics at the time of childbirth (maternal education, age, parity and repartnering). PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Register data on 6 768 810 live births in Sweden between 1940 and 2012were used. Information on biological parents are available for more than 95% of all births. Multinomial logistic regressions were used to calculatepredicted probabilities of giving birth for each calendar month. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Between 1940 and 1999, Swedish birth rates showed the typical seasonal variationwith high numbers of births during the spring, and low numbers of births during the last quarter of the year. However, during the 21st century,the seasonal variation in fertility declined so that only minor variation in birth rates between February and September now remains. Still, thepattern of low birth rates at the end of the year remains and has even become more pronounced from the 1980s onwards. The characteristic‘Christmas effect’ that used to be visible in September has vanished over the last 30 years. The roles in seasonal variation of maternal education,the mother’s age, parity and instances where the mother has re-partnered between subsequent births changed during the second half ofthe 20th century. From 1980s onwards, the decline in birth rates during the last quarter of the year became particularly pronounced amonghighly educated mothers. Over the 72 years studied, the seasonal variation among first-time mothers declined steadily and has almost disappearedat the end of the study period. Using data that cover ~180 000 births in each month, all meaningful results are statistically significant. LIMITATIONS REASONS FOR CAUTION: The study uses data from one Nordic country only, making it difficult to draw conclusionsthat may hold for other countries. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: The typical seasonal variation reported for Sweden between 1940 and 1999, with highnumbers of births during the spring and low numbers of births during the last quarter of the year, is in line with results from most otherEuropean countries during the same time period. However, the significant decline in seasonal variation in the early 21st century is a noveldevelopment. The study underlines that in a society with low fertility and efficient birth control, active choices and behaviours associated withan individual’s sociodemographic characteristics tend to matter more for the seasonal timing of childbearing than environmental factorsrelated to the physiological ability to reproduce and cultural–behavioural factors related to the frequency of intercourse.

  • 36. Sánchez-Domínguez, María
    et al.
    Fahlén, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Changing sector? Social mobility among female migrants in care and cleaning sector in Spain and Sweden2018In: Migration Studies, ISSN 2049-5838, E-ISSN 2049-5846, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 367-399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses female migrant worker's labour mobility in Spain and Sweden by using data from the Spanish National Immigrant Survey 2007 (NIS) and the Swedish Level of Living Survey for foreign-born and their children 2010 (LNU-UFB). We examine to what extent the different institutional contexts promote or obstruct the labour mobility of immigrant women in the two countries with different migration and employment regimes. First, to identify different patterns of economic integration, we analyse the labour market entry among women who started in the care and cleaning sector, in which female migrants have acquired a special role in both countries. Secondly, we investigate what factors influences sector mobility among female migrants who started in care/cleaning jobs, and the mobility into this sector. The results show that the entry into the labour market is faster in Spain than in Sweden, and that the ethnic niche of the care/cleaning sector is more evident in Spain. The results also suggest that upward mobility (from care/cleaning job sector into professional/clerk jobs) is more feasible for migrant women in Sweden, especially if they have required country-specific human capital, and that migrant women in Spain are more likely to move into the care/cleaning job sector (regardless of education and region of origin), which reflect the higher demand for care/cleaning workers in Spain. We conclude that the two institutional contexts shape opportunities for upward and lateral mobility differently for migrant women depending on their educational level and region of origin.

  • 37.
    Forsberg Kankkunen, Tina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Björk, Lisa
    Bejerot, Eva
    Härenstam, Annika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Chef i kommunen: Krav och förutsättningar ur ett genusperspektiv2018In: Att leda i en komplex organisation: Utmaningar och nya perspektiv för chefer i offentlig verksamhet / [ed] Anna Cregård, Erik Berntson, Stefan Tengblad, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2018, p. 58-70Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Rostami, Amir
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Mondani, Hernan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Liljeros, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Edling, Christofer
    Criminal organizing applying the theory of partial organization to four cases of organized crime2018In: Trends in Organized Crime, ISSN 1084-4791, E-ISSN 1936-4830, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 315-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We explore how the idea of partial organization can provide insights in the study of organized crime. Studying criminal organizing with a theoretical framework used for other social organizing phenomena can help us see the interplay between different forms of criminal collaboration under a single analytical lens, and start a discussion on whether criminal organizing is intrinsically different from other types of social organizing. We analyze four cases of criminal collaboration in Sweden between 1990 and 2015: the Syriac mafia, the Hells Angels Mc Sweden, the street gang Werewolf Legion, and the Hallunda robbery. While the outlaw motorcycle gang, and to a certain extent the street gang, are complete organizations, the mafia is based around and heavily parasitic on other institutions. We have also shown that time-bounded projects are found in the criminal context, with these emerging from strong network relations. Our results show that most of the elements of criminal organizing are not formalized and that partial organization is at least as important and powerful as complete organization.

  • 39.
    Dahlberg, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Death Is Not the End: A Register-Based Study of the Effect of Parental Death on Adult Children’s Childbearing Behavior in Sweden2018In: Omega, ISSN 0030-2228, E-ISSN 1541-3764Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Macro-level studies have shown that rapid increases in mortality can affect fertility rates. Parental death has also been linked to negative psychological and physical outcomes, reduced relationship quality, and making bereaved children attach more importance to their families. No prior study has examined whether parental death influences adult children’s fertility at the microlevel. This study applies event history techniques to Swedish multigeneration registers listing 1.5 million individuals with micro data on mortality and fertility to investigate short-term (first birth risk) and long-term (childlessness at age 45) effects of parental death on adult children’s fertility. The principal finding is that parental death during reproductive age affects children’s fertility and this effect is mainly short term. The effects differ to some degree between men and women and depend on the stage of the life course in which the bereavement occurs. Younger individuals experiencing a parental death have a significantly higher first birth risk after the parental death compared with peers who did not experience a parental death. Individuals older than 23 who experience a parental death have no or lower first birth risk after the parental death compared with baseline. Men, compared with women, are more likely to end childless if they experience a parental death.

  • 40.
    Berlin, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. National Board of Health and Welfare (Socialstyrelsen), Sweden.
    Mensah, Tita
    Lundgren, Frida
    Klingberg, Gunilla
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Vinnerljung, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Cederlund, Andreas
    Dental healthcare utilisation among young adults who were in societal out-of-home care as children: A Swedish National Cohort Study2018In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 325-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We used Swedish national registers to analyse dental health care among young adults with childhood experience of out-of-home care (OHC), in Cox regression analyses. All 1.7 million Swedish residents born in 1980-1994 were included, of whom 4% had been in OHC. The population was followed up in the Dental Health Register from age 20 to 29, during the period 2009-2014. We found that persons with short or long OHC experience made emergency dental care visits more often than their majority-population peers: 17-23% versus 9-10%, (adjusted Hazard ratios [HR:s] 1.60-2.02); they more often had tooth extractions, 9-12% versus 3% (HR:s 2.33-3.03); but less regularly visited a dentist for planned check-ups, 61-77% versus 80-87% (HR:s 0.76-0.78). Since dental health in young adulthood reflects dental health and dental care in childhood, the findings of this study call for improved preventive dental health care for children in OHC.

  • 41. Jalovaara, Marika
    et al.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Disparities in Children's Family Experiences by Mother's Socioeconomic Status: The Case of Finland2018In: Population: Research and Policy Review, ISSN 0167-5923, E-ISSN 1573-7829, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 751-768Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A well-known argument claims that socioeconomic differentials in children's family structures have become increasingly important in shaping child outcomes and the resources available to children in developed societies. One assumption is that differentials are comparatively small in Nordic welfare states. Our study examines how children's experiences of family structures and family dynamics vary by their mother's educational attainment in Finland. Based on register data on the childbearing and union histories of women in Finland born from 1969 onwards, we provide life-table estimates of children's (N = 64,162) experiences of family dissolution, family formation, and family structure from ages 0-15 years, stratified by mother's education level at the child's birth. We find huge socioeconomic disparities in children's experiences of family structures and transitions. Compared to children of highly educated mothers, children of mothers with low levels of education are almost twice as likely to be born in cohabitation and four times as likely to be born to a lone mother. They are also much more likely to experience further changes in family structure-particularly parental separation. On average, children of low-educated mothers spend just half of their childhood years living with both their parents, whereas those of high-educated mothers spend four-fifths of their childhood with both parents. The sociodemographic inequalities among children in Nordic welfare states clearly deserve more scholarly attention.

  • 42. Ma, Li
    et al.
    Turunen, Jani
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Rizzi, Ester
    Divorce Chinese Style2018In: Journal of Marriage and Family, ISSN 0022-2445, E-ISSN 1741-3737, Vol. 80, no 5, p. 1287-1297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated divorce during China's social and economic transformation period from 1970 to 2012. Specifically, the study examined the trend development of divorce and demonstrated how marriage formation type and individual socioeconomic characteristics were associated with the likelihood of divorce across time. Event-history analysis was applied to longitudinal data from the China Family Panel Studies (2010-2012 waves). The results showed a threefold increase in divorce from the pre-1990s to the 1990s. Surprisingly, the trend shifted to a plateau toward the 2000s. When cohabitation was in its rapidly diffusing stage in the 1990s, individuals who cohabited prior to marriage had a substantially higher likelihood of divorce. As cohabitation became increasingly common in the 2000s, its effect on divorce weakened. The role of socioeconomic characteristics in divorce also varied across time. This study enriches the knowledge of family dynamics in contemporary Chinese society.

  • 43.
    Borg, Ida
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Brandén, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Do high levels of home-ownership create unemployment? Introducing the missing link between housing tenure and unemployment2018In: Housing Studies, ISSN 0267-3037, E-ISSN 1466-1810, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 501-524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large number of studies have demonstrated that the proportion of home-owners in a region tend to be positively associated with the unemployment levels in that region. In this paper, we introduce a missing piece of explaining this commonly found pattern. By analysing individual-level population register data on Sweden, we jointly examine the effects of micro- and macro-level home-ownership on individuals’ unemployment. The findings indicate that even though home-owners have a lower probability of being unemployed, there is a penalty for both renters and home-owners on unemployment in regions with high home-ownership rates. Differences in mobility patterns cannot explain this pattern. However, when labour market size is considered, the higher probability of unemployment in high home-owning regions is drastically reduced. This suggests that high home-ownership regions tend to coincide with small labour markets, affecting the job matching process negatively.

  • 44.
    Qi, Haodong
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Lund University, Sweden.
    Helgertz, Jonas
    Bengtsson, Tommy
    Do notional defined contribution schemes prolong working life?: Evidence from the 1994 Swedish pension reform2018In: The Journal of the Economics of Ageing, ISSN 2212-828X, Vol. 12, p. 250-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates whether the Notional Defined Contribution (NDC) scheme prolongs working life. The evidence from the 1994 Swedish pension reform shows a gender and socio-economic gradient in the labor supply responses to phasing in NDC. While the reform exerted a large and significant positive effect on the average retirement age among highly educated and skilled, it had little or negative effect on those with low level of human capital. And the overall effect is more profound among older men, compared to older women. These findings imply that the aggregate impact of NDC may only be positive if the average level of older workers’ education and skills is high, whereas it may be moderate (or even adverse) if the majority of the older workers are less educated and engage in low-skill jobs. This highlights the importance of incorporating the gender and socio-economic aspects into the evaluation of how a multi-pillar pension scheme, such as NDC, may increase the average working life expectancy.

  • 45. Ruppanner, Leah
    et al.
    Brandén, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Turunen, Jani
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Does Unequal Housework Lead to Divorce? Evidence from Sweden2018In: Sociology, ISSN 0038-0385, E-ISSN 1469-8684, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 75-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The lack of couple-level data hinders direct exploration of how inconsistencies in couples’ housework reports structure their relationship quality. We address this limitation by applying Swedish data from the 2009 Young Adult Panel Study (N = 1057 couples) matched with Swedish register data (2009–2014) to extend equity theory by estimating mismatch in couples’ housework reports on relationship satisfaction and stability. We find women who report performing more housework are less likely to be satisfied with their relationships, and are more likely to consider breaking up. These unions are also more likely to dissolve. Using both partners’ housework reports, we document discrediting women’s housework contribution, or reporting she does less than she reports, is associated with lower relationship satisfaction. Women in these partnerships also consider breaking up, and the unions are more likely to dissolve. Our results identify the gendered impact of housework inequality on relationship stability.

  • 46. Kaariala, Antti
    et al.
    Berlin, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. The National Board of Health and Welfare (Socialstyrelsen), Sweden.
    Lausten, Mette
    Hiilamoa, Heikki
    Ristikari, Tiina
    Early school leaving by children in out-of-home care: A comparative study of three Nordic countries2018In: Children and youth services review, ISSN 0190-7409, E-ISSN 1873-7765, Vol. 93, p. 186-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have reported that children and adolescents who have been placed in out-of-home care for the protection of their safety and welfare face considerably high risks for early school leaving. Our study adds to the literature by comparing the association between children's exposure to placement in care and lack of secondary education (i.e. post-compulsory education after age 16) across three Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, and Sweden. We use data from national registers for children born in 1987, following them until age 23. The datasets for Denmark (N = 55,995, of whom 3056 are in care), Finland (N = 58,855, of whom 1884 are in care), and Sweden (N = 100,152, of whom 3209 are in care) cover the entire birth cohort. To estimate and compare country-specific risks, we calculate average marginal effects from binary logistic regression and adjust the effects for birth mother's socio-economic and health-related background. As expected, the results show that in each country, children placed in care had a significantly higher risk for early school leaving. After adjusting for maternal background, young adults who experienced out-of-home care were 24 to 39 percentage points more likely than their peers never in care to have not completed secondary education. Those placed in care for the first time at teenage were the most likely to have low attainment. In Finland and Sweden, children in care had a similar excess risk for early school leaving, whereas in Denmark the risk was higher. We discuss these results and recommend developing effective interventions to improve the educational attainment of children in care. The difference between Denmark and the other two requires further investigation.

  • 47.
    Fahlén, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Oláh, Livia Sz.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Economic uncertainty and first-birth intentions in Europe2018In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 39, article id 28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND

    The demographic challenge Europe is facing due to long-term low fertility, accompanied by pronounced economic uncertainty, indicates the need for adequate policy response based on a thorough understanding of the economic uncertainty-fertility decisions-public policy nexus.

    OBJECTIVE

    We address the relationship between societal economic conditions, individual economic uncertainty, and short-term first-birth intentions of women and men in ten European countries, representing various institutional contexts before and after the Great Recession.

    METHODS

    We analyse European Social Survey data from 2004 and 2011. After addressing the macro-level association, we study the micro-level relationship in regard to perceived security of employment and income situation, based on multiple logistic regression models.

    RESULTS

    Societal economic uncertainty is negatively associated with short-term parenthood intentions, especially for men. Regarding subjective economic security, men's labour market position matters irrespectively of the institutional context, but women's labour market position matters at younger ages only and in particular welfare regimes (the Postsocialist and Familialistic regimes). Perceived income security is less important at higher ages for either gender and for women below age 30, especially in the aftermath of the crisis. Men in their early thirties show the lowest fatherhood intentions in a constrained situation.

    CONTRIBUTION

    Our findings highlight the continued importance of economic uncertainty for fertility plans, especially for men, who still seem to consider themselves as the primary earner in couples. For young employed women, a secure position is a precondition for first birth, but motherhood appears as attractive alternative to unemployment above age 30, except for Postsocialist and Universal clusters.

  • 48. Jalovaara, Marika
    et al.
    Neyer, Gerda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Dahlberg, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Dommermuth, Lars
    Fallesen, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). ROCKWOOL Foundation, Denmark.
    Lappegård, Trude
    Education, Gender, and Cohort Fertility in the Nordic Countries2018In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Systematic comparisons of fertility developments based on education, gender and country context are rare. Using harmonized register data, we compare cohort total fertility and ultimate childlessness by gender and educational attainment for cohorts born beginning in 1940 in four Nordic countries. Cohort fertility (CTF) initially declined in all four countries, although for cohorts born in the 1950s and later, the CTF remained stable or declined only modestly. Childlessness, which had been increasing, has plateaued in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Women’s negative educational gradient in relation to total fertility has vanished, except in Finland, while men’s positive gradient has persisted. The highest level of men’s childlessness appears among the least educated. In the oldest female cohorts, childlessness was highest among the highly educated, but these patterns have changed over the cohorts as childlessness has increased among the low educated and remained relatively stable among higher educated women. In Denmark, Norway and Sweden, childlessness is now highest among the least educated women. We witness both a new gender similarity and persistent (among men) and new (among women) educational disparities in childbearing outcomes in the Nordic region. Overall, the number of low educated has decreased remarkably over time. These population segments face increasing social and economic disadvantages that are reflected as well in their patterns of family formation.

  • 49.
    Härkönen, Juho
    et al.