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  • 1. Busetta, Annalisa
    et al.
    Cetorelli, Valeria
    Wilson, Ben
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. London School of Economics, UK.
    A Universal Health Care System? Unmet Need for Medical Care Among Regular and Irregular Immigrants in Italy2018In: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, ISSN 1557-1912, E-ISSN 1557-1920, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 416-421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Italy has a universal health care system that covers, in principle, the whole resident population, irrespective of citizenship and legal status. This study calculates the prevalence of unmet need for medical care among Italian citizens, regular and irregular immigrants and estimates logistic regression models to assess whether differences by citizenship and legal status hold true once adjusting for potential confounders. The analysis is based on two Surveys on Income and Living Conditions of Italian households and households with foreigners. Controlling for various factors, the odds of experiencing unmet need for medical care are 27% higher for regular immigrants than for Italian citizens and 59% higher for irregular immigrants. The gaps by citizenship and legal status are even more striking among those with chronic illnesses. These results reveal the high vulnerability of immigrants in Italy and the need to develop more effective policies to achieve health care access for all residents.

  • 2. Van Rooij, Antonius J.
    et al.
    Ferguson, Christopher J.
    Colder Carras, Michelle
    Kardefelt-Winther, Daniel
    Shi, Jing
    Aarseth, Espen
    Bean, Anthony M.
    Helmersson Bergmark, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Brus, Anne
    Coulson, Mark
    Deleuze, Jory
    Dullur, Pravin
    Dunkels, Elza
    Edman, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Elson, Malte
    Etchells, Peter J.
    Fiskaali, Anne
    Granic, Isabela
    Jansz, Jeroen
    Karlsen, Faltin
    Kaye, Linda K.
    Kirsh, Bonnie
    Lieberoth, Andreas
    Markey, Patrick
    Mills, Kathryn L.
    Lundedal Nielsen, Rune Kristian
    Orben, Amy
    Poulsen, Arne
    Prause, Nicole
    Prax, Patrick
    Quandt, Thorsten
    Schimmenti, Adriano
    Starcevic, Vladan
    Stutman, Gabrielle
    Turner, Nigel E.
    Van Looy, Jan
    Przybylski, Andrew K.
    A weak scientific basis for gaming disorder: Let us err on the side of caution2018In: Journal of Behavioral Addictions, ISSN 2062-5871, E-ISSN 2063-5303, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We greatly appreciate the care and thought that is evident in the 10 commentaries that discuss our debate paper, the majority of which argued in favor of a formalized ICD-11 gaming disorder. We agree that there are some people whose play of video games is related to life problems. We believe that understanding this population and the nature and severity of the problems they experience should be a focus area for future research. However, moving from research construct to formal disorder requires a much stronger evidence base than we currently have. The burden of evidence and the clinical utility should be extremely high, because there is a genuine risk of abuse of diagnoses. We provide suggestions about the level of evidence that might be required: transparent and preregistered studies, a better demarcation of the subject area that includes a rationale for focusing on gaming particularly versus a more general behavioral addictions concept, the exploration of non-addiction approaches, and the unbiased exploration of clinical approaches that treat potentially underlying issues, such as depressive mood or social anxiety first. We acknowledge there could be benefits to formalizing gaming disorder, many of which were highlighted by colleagues in their commentaries, but we think they do not yet outweigh the wider societal and public health risks involved. Given the gravity of diagnostic classification and its wider societal impact, we urge our colleagues at the WHO to err on the side of caution for now and postpone the formalization.

  • 3.
    Juárez, Sol P.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Drefahl, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Dunlavy, Andrea
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    All-cause mortality, age at arrival, and duration of residence among adult migrants in Sweden: A population-based longitudinal study2018In: SSM - Population Health, ISSN 2352-8273, Vol. 6, p. 16-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A mortality advantage has been observed among recently arrived immigrants in multiple national contexts, even though many immigrants experience more social disadvantage compared to natives. This is the first study to investigate the combined influence of duration of residence and age at arrival on the association between region of origin and all-cause mortality among the adult immigrant population in Sweden.

    Methods: Using population-based registers, we conducted a follow-up study of 1,363,429 individuals aged 25-64 years from 1990 to 2008. Gompertz parametric survival models were fitted to derive hazard ratios (HR) for all-cause mortality.

    Results: Compared to native Swedes, we observed a health advantage in all group of immigrants, with the exception of individuals from Finland. However, when information on age at arrival and duration of residence was combined, an excess mortality risk was found among immigrants who arrived before age 18, which largely disappeared after 15 years of residence in Sweden. Non-European immigrants over age 18 showed similar or lower mortality risks than natives in all categories of age at arrival, regardless of duration of residence.

    Conclusions: The findings suggest that the mortality advantage commonly observed among immigrants is not universal. Combined information on age at arrival and duration of residence can be used to identify sensitive periods and to identify possible selection bias. The study also suggests that young immigrants are a vulnerable subpopulation. Given the increased number of unaccompanied minors arriving in Europe, targeted health or integration policies should be developed or reviewed.

  • 4.
    Billingsley, Sunnee
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Drefahl, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Ghilagaber, Gebrenegus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    An application of diagonal reference models and time-varying covariates in social mobility research on mortality and fertility2018In: Social Science Research, ISSN 0049-089X, E-ISSN 1096-0317, Vol. 75, p. 73-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In social mobility research, the diagonal reference model (DRM) is argued to best isolate the effect of social mobility from origin and destination status effects. In demographic research, standard analyses of the duration until an event occurs rely heavily on the appropriate use of covariates that change over time. We apply these best-practice methods to the study of social mobility and demographic outcomes in Sweden using register data that covers the years 1996–2012. The mortality analysis includes 1,024,142 women and 747,532 men and the fertility analysis includes 191,142 women and 164,368 men. We identify the challenges inherent in this combination and present strategies with an application to how social mobility is related to both fertility and mortality. Our application is successful at incorporating all requirements related to these methods. Our findings suggest, however, that certain data characteristics, such as a relatively high share of missing data, can be problematic. We also find that controlling for origin and destination status generally provides acceptable estimates of the mobility association in the specific case of Sweden and the relationship between social mobility and both fertility and mortality.

  • 5.
    Uggla, Caroline
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. University of Bristol, UK.
    Gurmu, Eshetu
    Gibson, Mhairi A.
    Are wives and daughters disadvantaged in polygynous households? A case study of the Arsi Oromo of Ethiopia2018In: Evolution and human behavior, ISSN 1090-5138, E-ISSN 1879-0607, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 160-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whether polygyny is harmful for women and their children is a long-standing question in anthropology. Few studies, however, have explored whether the effect of polygyny varies for women of different wife order, and whether there are different outcomes for their sons and daughters. Because males have higher reproductive variance, especially when they are allowed to take multiple wives, parents may have higher fitness returns from investing in sons over daughters in polygynous households. Moreover, previous studies have found that first wives and their children are advantaged over monogamous and second order wives (who marry into unions later). Here we test the predictions that children of first wives will have an advantage over children to monogamous or second wives, and that sex-biased investment will be strongest among first wives. Using data from the Arsi Oromo of Ethiopia (n-6200 children) we test whether associations with mother's wife order extend beyond childhood into adulthood by examining simultaneously child survival, education and age at marriage. We find that polygynous first wives have no child survival disadvantage, first wives' sons benefit in terms of longer education and daughters have an earlier age at marriage than daughters of monogamous women. Second wives have lower child survival than monogamous women, but surviving children experience advantages in later life outcomes, particularly marriage. These findings challenge the view that polygynous women are always doing the 'best of a bad job'. Rather, our results suggest that via their surviving sons and daughters there may be long-term benefits for some polygynous women.

  • 6.
    Beckley, Amber L.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Duke University, North Carolina.
    Caspi, Avshalom
    Broadbent, Jonathan
    Harrington, Honalee
    Houts, Renate M.
    Poulton, Richie
    Ramrakha, Sandhya
    Reuben, Aaron
    Moffitt, Terrie E.
    Association of Childhood Blood Lead Levels With Criminal Offending2018In: JAMA pediatrics, ISSN 2168-6203, E-ISSN 2168-6211, Vol. 172, no 2, p. 166-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Importance  Lead is a neurotoxin with well-documented effects on health. Research suggests that lead may be associated with criminal behavior. This association is difficult to disentangle from low socioeconomic status, a factor in both lead exposure and criminal offending.

    Objective  To test the hypothesis that a higher childhood blood lead level (BLL) is associated with greater risk of criminal conviction, recidivism (repeat conviction), conviction for violent offenses, and variety of self-reported criminal offending in a setting where BLL was not associated with low socioeconomic status.

    Design, Setting, and Participants  A total of 553 individuals participated in a prospective study based on a population-representative cohort born between April 1, 1972, and March 31, 1973, from New Zealand; the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study observed participants to age 38 years (December 2012). Statistical analysis was performed from November 10, 2016, to September 5, 2017.

    Exposures  Blood lead level measured at age 11 years.

    Main Outcomes and Measures  Official criminal conviction cumulative to age 38 years (data collected in 2013), single conviction or recidivism, conviction for nonviolent or violent crime, and self-reported variety of crime types at ages 15, 18, 21, 26, 32, and 38 years.

    Results  Participants included 553 individuals (255 female and 298 male participants) who had their blood tested for lead at age 11 years. The mean (SD) BLL at age 11 years was 11.01 (4.62) μg/dL. A total of 154 participants (27.8%) had a criminal conviction, 86 (15.6%) had recidivated, and 53 (9.6%) had a violent offense conviction. Variety scores for self-reported offending ranged from 0 to 10 offense types at each assessment; higher numbers indicated greater crime involvement. Self-reported offending followed the well-established age-crime curve (ie, the mean [SD] variety of self-reported offending increased from 1.99 [2.82] at age 15 years to its peak of 4.24 [3.15] at age 18 years and 4.22 [3.02] at age 21 years and declined thereafter to 1.10 [1.59] at age 38 years). Blood lead level was a poor discriminator between no conviction and conviction (area under the curve, 0.58). Overall, associations between BLL and conviction outcomes were weak. The estimated effect of BLL was lower for recidivism than for single convictions and lower for violent offending than for nonviolent offending. Sex-adjusted associations between BLL reached statistical significance for only 1 of the 6 self-reported offending outcomes at age 15 years (r = 0.10; 95% CI, 0.01-0.18; P = .02).

    Conclusions and Relevance  This study overcomes past limitations of studies of BLL and crime by studying the association in a place and time where the correlation was not confounded by childhood socioeconomic status. Findings failed to support a dose-response association between BLL and consequential criminal offending.

  • 7.
    Helmersson Bergmark, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Behavioral addictions - a social science perspective2018In: General Internal Medicine and Clinical Innovations, E-ISSN 2397-5237, Vol. 3, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This conceptual review and analysis discusses the development of the addiction concept, a development that entails a marked expansion of what is considered to constitute an addiction. During the last decade, following the introduction of DSM-5 (the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, APA 2013) [1] and the opening up of new terrains, many bad habits and behavioral problems are in the process of being transferred to and renamed as addictions, endorsing a continued or rather reinforced medicalization of social problems. In this paper a social science viewpoint is suggested as a more appropriate perspective on these matters.

  • 8.
    Barclay, Kieron J.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. London School of Economics and Political Science, UK; Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research Germany.
    Kolk, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for Cultural Evolution. Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Birth Intervals and Health in Adulthood: A Comparison of Siblings Using Swedish Register Data2018In: Demography, ISSN 0070-3370, E-ISSN 1533-7790, Vol. 55, no 3, p. 929-955Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing body of research has examined whether birth intervals influence perinatal outcomes and child health as well as long-term educational and socioeconomic outcomes. To date, however, very little research has examined whether birth spacing influences long-term health. We use contemporary Swedish population register data to examine the relationship between birth-to-birth intervals and a variety of health outcomes in adulthood: for men, height, physical fitness, and the probability of falling into different body mass index categories; and for men and women, mortality. In models that do not adjust carefully for family background, we find that short and long birth intervals are clearly associated with height, physical fitness, being overweight or obese, and mortality. However, after carefully adjusting for family background using a within-family sibling comparison design, we find that birth spacing is generally not associated with long-term health, although we find that men born after very long birth intervals have a higher probability of being overweight or obese in early adulthood. Overall, we conclude that birth intervals have little independent effect on long-term health outcomes.

  • 9.
    Brandén, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Bygren, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Linköping University, Sweden; Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Gähler, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Can the trailing spouse phenomenon be explained by employer recruitment choices?2018In: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 24, no 6, article id e2141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that couples tend to relocate for the sake of the man's career rather than the woman's, also known as the “trailing spouse phenomenon.” The role of employer choices in this process is unknown however. If employers are hesitant to make job offers to women who live a long way from the workplace (e.g., because of work–family balance concerns or a perceived risk that they will not follow through on their applications, or stay hired if employed), this tendency might constitute an underlying mechanism behind the moving premium of partnered men. Ours is the first study to empirically test whether employers prefer geographically distant men over geographically distant women. We sent applications for 1,410 job openings in the Swedish labour market, randomly assigning gender and parental status to otherwise equivalent applications from cohabiting or married women and men and recorded employer callbacks to these. The results indicate that employers in general tend to disfavour job applicants who live a long way from the employer's workplace. This tendency is stronger for women, both for mothers and for women with no children. Our estimated effects are imprecise but clearly suggest that employer recruitment choices contribute to the trailing spouse phenomenon by offering men a larger pool of geographically distant jobs. We call for more research on this hitherto ignored mechanism behind the trailing spouse phenomenon.

  • 10. Ma, Li
    et al.
    Turunen, Jani
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Rizzi, Ester
    Divorce Chinese Style2018In: Journal of Marriage and Family, ISSN 0022-2445, E-ISSN 1741-3737, Vol. 80, no 5, p. 1287-1297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated divorce during China's social and economic transformation period from 1970 to 2012. Specifically, the study examined the trend development of divorce and demonstrated how marriage formation type and individual socioeconomic characteristics were associated with the likelihood of divorce across time. Event-history analysis was applied to longitudinal data from the China Family Panel Studies (2010-2012 waves). The results showed a threefold increase in divorce from the pre-1990s to the 1990s. Surprisingly, the trend shifted to a plateau toward the 2000s. When cohabitation was in its rapidly diffusing stage in the 1990s, individuals who cohabited prior to marriage had a substantially higher likelihood of divorce. As cohabitation became increasingly common in the 2000s, its effect on divorce weakened. The role of socioeconomic characteristics in divorce also varied across time. This study enriches the knowledge of family dynamics in contemporary Chinese society.

  • 11.
    Borg, Ida
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Brandén, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Do high levels of home-ownership create unemployment? Introducing the missing link between housing tenure and unemployment2018In: Housing Studies, ISSN 0267-3037, E-ISSN 1466-1810, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 501-524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large number of studies have demonstrated that the proportion of home-owners in a region tend to be positively associated with the unemployment levels in that region. In this paper, we introduce a missing piece of explaining this commonly found pattern. By analysing individual-level population register data on Sweden, we jointly examine the effects of micro- and macro-level home-ownership on individuals’ unemployment. The findings indicate that even though home-owners have a lower probability of being unemployed, there is a penalty for both renters and home-owners on unemployment in regions with high home-ownership rates. Differences in mobility patterns cannot explain this pattern. However, when labour market size is considered, the higher probability of unemployment in high home-owning regions is drastically reduced. This suggests that high home-ownership regions tend to coincide with small labour markets, affecting the job matching process negatively.

  • 12. Ruppanner, Leah
    et al.
    Brandén, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Turunen, Jani
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Does Unequal Housework Lead to Divorce? Evidence from Sweden2018In: Sociology, ISSN 0038-0385, E-ISSN 1469-8684, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 75-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The lack of couple-level data hinders direct exploration of how inconsistencies in couples’ housework reports structure their relationship quality. We address this limitation by applying Swedish data from the 2009 Young Adult Panel Study (N = 1057 couples) matched with Swedish register data (2009–2014) to extend equity theory by estimating mismatch in couples’ housework reports on relationship satisfaction and stability. We find women who report performing more housework are less likely to be satisfied with their relationships, and are more likely to consider breaking up. These unions are also more likely to dissolve. Using both partners’ housework reports, we document discrediting women’s housework contribution, or reporting she does less than she reports, is associated with lower relationship satisfaction. Women in these partnerships also consider breaking up, and the unions are more likely to dissolve. Our results identify the gendered impact of housework inequality on relationship stability.

  • 13. Kaariala, Antti
    et al.
    Berlin, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. The National Board of Health and Welfare (Socialstyrelsen), Sweden.
    Lausten, Mette
    Hiilamoa, Heikki
    Ristikari, Tiina
    Early school leaving by children in out-of-home care: A comparative study of three Nordic countries2018In: Children and youth services review, ISSN 0190-7409, E-ISSN 1873-7765, Vol. 93, p. 186-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have reported that children and adolescents who have been placed in out-of-home care for the protection of their safety and welfare face considerably high risks for early school leaving. Our study adds to the literature by comparing the association between children's exposure to placement in care and lack of secondary education (i.e. post-compulsory education after age 16) across three Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, and Sweden. We use data from national registers for children born in 1987, following them until age 23. The datasets for Denmark (N = 55,995, of whom 3056 are in care), Finland (N = 58,855, of whom 1884 are in care), and Sweden (N = 100,152, of whom 3209 are in care) cover the entire birth cohort. To estimate and compare country-specific risks, we calculate average marginal effects from binary logistic regression and adjust the effects for birth mother's socio-economic and health-related background. As expected, the results show that in each country, children placed in care had a significantly higher risk for early school leaving. After adjusting for maternal background, young adults who experienced out-of-home care were 24 to 39 percentage points more likely than their peers never in care to have not completed secondary education. Those placed in care for the first time at teenage were the most likely to have low attainment. In Finland and Sweden, children in care had a similar excess risk for early school leaving, whereas in Denmark the risk was higher. We discuss these results and recommend developing effective interventions to improve the educational attainment of children in care. The difference between Denmark and the other two requires further investigation.

  • 14. Jalovaara, Marika
    et al.
    Neyer, Gerda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Dahlberg, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Dommermuth, Lars
    Fallesen, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). ROCKWOOL Foundation, Denmark.
    Lappegård, Trude
    Education, Gender, and Cohort Fertility in the Nordic Countries2018In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Systematic comparisons of fertility developments based on education, gender and country context are rare. Using harmonized register data, we compare cohort total fertility and ultimate childlessness by gender and educational attainment for cohorts born beginning in 1940 in four Nordic countries. Cohort fertility (CTF) initially declined in all four countries, although for cohorts born in the 1950s and later, the CTF remained stable or declined only modestly. Childlessness, which had been increasing, has plateaued in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Women’s negative educational gradient in relation to total fertility has vanished, except in Finland, while men’s positive gradient has persisted. The highest level of men’s childlessness appears among the least educated. In the oldest female cohorts, childlessness was highest among the highly educated, but these patterns have changed over the cohorts as childlessness has increased among the low educated and remained relatively stable among higher educated women. In Denmark, Norway and Sweden, childlessness is now highest among the least educated women. We witness both a new gender similarity and persistent (among men) and new (among women) educational disparities in childbearing outcomes in the Nordic region. Overall, the number of low educated has decreased remarkably over time. These population segments face increasing social and economic disadvantages that are reflected as well in their patterns of family formation.

  • 15.
    Härkönen, Juho
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. European University Institute, Italy; University of Turku, Finland.
    Lindberg, Matti
    Karlsson, Linnea
    Karlsson, Hasse
    Scheinin, Noora M.
    Education is the strongest socio-economic predictor of smoking in pregnancy2018In: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443, Vol. 113, no 6, p. 1117-1126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims To investigate socio-economic disparities in smoking in pregnancy (SIP) by the mother's education, occupational class and current economic conditions. Design Cross-sectional analysis with linked survey and register data. Setting South-western Finland. Participants A total of 2667 pregnant women [70% of the original sample (n=3808)] from FinnBrain, a prospective pregnancy cohort study. Measurements The outcome was smoking during the first pregnancy trimester, measured from the Finnish Medical Birth Register. Education and occupational class were linked from population registers. Income support recipiency and subjective economic wellbeing were questionnaire-based measures of current economic conditions. These were adjusted for age, partnership status, residential area type, parental separation, parity, childhood socio-economic background, childhood adversities (the Trauma and Distressing Events During Childhood scale) and antenatal stress (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale). Logistic regressions and attributable fractions (AF) were estimated. Findings Mother's education was the strongest socio-economic predictor of SIP. Compared with university education, adjusted odds ratios (aORs) of SIP were: 2.2 [95% confidence interval (CI)=1.2-3.9; P=0.011] for tertiary vocational education, 4.4 (95% CI=2.1-9.0; P<0.001) for combined general and vocational secondary education, 2.9 (95% CI=1.4-6.1; P=0.006) for general secondary education, 9.5 (95% CI 5.0-18.2; P<0.001) for vocational secondary education and 14.4 (95% CI=6.3-33.0; P<0.001) for compulsory schooling. The total AF of education was 0.5. Adjusted for the other variables, occupational class and subjective economic wellbeing did not predict SIP. Income support recipiency was associated positively with SIP (aOR=1.8; 95% CI=1.1-3.1; P=0.022). Antenatal stress predicted SIP (aOR=2.0; 95% CI=1.4-2.8; P<0.001), but did not attenuate its socio-economic disparities. Conclusions In Finland, socio-economic disparities in smoking in pregnancy are attributable primarily to differences in the mother's educational level (low versus high) and orientation (vocational versus general).

  • 16. Johnson-Singh, Charisse M.
    et al.
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Ponce de Leon, Antonio
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Engström, Karin
    Ethnic heterogeneity, social capital and psychological distress in Sweden2018In: Health and Place, ISSN 1353-8292, E-ISSN 1873-2054, Vol. 52, p. 70-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Ethnic heterogeneity has been linked to both protective and detrimental effects on mental health. Few studies have investigated the role of social capital in this relationship and none have found that it has an explanatory role. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between two measures of ethnic heterogeneity and psychological distress in Stockholm County, as well as the explanatory role of social capital for individuals with Swedish-background, foreign-background and those who are foreign-born.

    Methods

    This study used data collected from respondents aged 18-64 to the 2002, 2006, 2010 baseline questionnaires of the Stockholm Public Health Cohort and was linked with individual and area-level register information. Ethnic heterogeneity was the main exposure, measured by: 1) ethnic density, defined as the proportion of first and second generation immigrants with 2 foreign-born parents; and 2) ethnic diversity, using the fragmentation index. Social capital measures of individual and contextual-level social support and horizontal trust were the main explanatory factors of interest. The outcome, psychological distress, was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire-12 with a 2/3 cut-off. Prevalence ratios with 95% confidence intervals were estimated using multi-level poisson regression with robust variances.

    Results

    Age and sex adjusted analyses for the whole study population demonstrated that a 10% increase in ethnic density or diversity was associated with a 1.06 (1.05-1.07) times higher prevalence of psychological distress. In the stratified analyses, both foreign-born respondents and those with Swedish-background showed increasing prevalence of psychological distress with increasing ethnic heterogeneity. However, this trend was entirely explained by socioeconomic factors in the Swedish-background respondents and by additional adjustments for individual and contextual social support and horizontal trust for the foreign-born. Further adjustment for contextual horizontal trust showed ethnic heterogeneity to be protective for respondents Swedish-background. There was no clear trend between ethnic heterogeneity and psychological distress for respondents with foreign-background.

    Conclusion

    The association between ethnic heterogeneity and psychological distress differs by ethnic background. There was no difference in this association based on the measure of ethnic heterogeneity used, nor in the explanatory role of social capital between ethnic heterogeneity measures. Socioeconomic indicators and some elements of individual and contextual social capital are important explanatory factors of the excess risk of psychological distress with regards to ethnic heterogeneity.

  • 17. Valarino, Isabel
    et al.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Haas, Linda L.
    Neyer, Gerda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Exploring Leave Policy Preferences: A Comparison of Austria, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States2018In: Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State and Society, ISSN 1072-4745, E-ISSN 1468-2893, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 118-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses preferences regarding leave length, gender division of leave,and leave financing in four countries with different welfare-state and leaveregimes. Embedded in a gender perspective, institutional, self-interest, and ideationaltheoretical approaches are used to explore the factors shaping individuals’preferences (ISSP 2012 data). Findings show dramatic cross-country differences,suggesting the institutional dimension is most strongly related to leave policy preferences.Self-interest and values concerning gender relations and state responsibilityare also important correlates. The study identifies mismatches between leavepreferences, entitlements, and uptake, with implications for policy reform and thegendered division of parenting.

  • 18.
    Eriksson, Helen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Fathers and Mothers Taking Leave from Paid Work to Care for a Child: Economic Considerations and Occupational Conditions of Work2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    While most types of unpaid work have become considerably more equally divided over decades, child care that requires leave from paid work is still extremely gender specialized. Understanding conditions of paid work that can make leave-taking for both parents possible is crucial to halt the onset of gender specialization in couples. In this study, Sweden is utilized as a context in which the family policy constellation provides a real opportunity for both fathers’ and mothers’ leave-taking. The number of parental leave weeks taken by the father and the mother in the first two years of the child’s life is analyzed using administrative register data for 29,366 couples having their first child in 2009. Multi-level cross-classified models with each couple nested in 112 father and 111 mother occupations are used to estimate effects of conditions of work that have been hypothesized to hinder fathers’ leave-taking. Career costs, job insecurity and flexibility explained little variation in father leave. The strongest predictor was the father’s occupational skill level, i.e., the higher the skill level required for the occupation, the more leave fathers take. As would be expected from gendered norms and behavior and resulting gendered assumptions of care at the workplace, some of the conditions of work favorable for mothers’ leave-taking are not transferrable to fathers.

  • 19.
    Magnusson, Charlotta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Nermo, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    From childhood to young adulthood: the importance of self-esteem during childhood for occupational achievements among young men and women2018In: Journal of Youth Studies, ISSN 1367-6261, E-ISSN 1469-9680, Vol. 21, no 10, p. 1392-1410Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the impact of self-esteem during childhood on men’s and women’s occupational prestige in young adulthood. By combining first-hand information from parents in the Swedish Level-of-Living surveys (LNU) 2000 and their children in the Child-LNU in 2000 and the follow-up study in LNU-2010, we are able to assess how self-esteem during adolescence is related to occupational prestige in adulthood. Multivariate analyses were used to determine whether associations between self-esteem (global and domain-specific) in childhood (aged 10–18 years) and occupational prestige in young adulthood (aged 20–28) exist and, if so, what the magnitudes of these associations are for each respective gender.

    For women, there is a positive association between confidence in mathematics and prestige, even when accounting for actual math grades. Global self-esteem is positively related to later occupational prestige as well. For men, self-esteem is unrelated to occupational prestige. Only actual performance in mathematics is important for men’s occupational achievements.

    These results indicate the importance of taking gender differences into account when investigating how self-esteem is related to outcomes in young adulthood. A possible implication is the importance of focusing on the development of self-esteem among children, particularly girls, in school.

  • 20.
    Hobson, Barbara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Gendered Dimensions and Capabilities: Opportunities, Dilemmas and Challenges2018In: Critical Sociology, ISSN 0896-9205, E-ISSN 1569-1632, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 883-898Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Looking through the lens of gender, this article engages with the opportunities, dilemmas and challenges posed by Sen's framework to sociological research. Sen's capability approach offers sociological research a dynamic framework through its concept of agency and its multidimensional approach. It also poses dilemmas, revealed in the tensions within agency and choice and the challenges in operationalizing Sen's framework: adapting it to sociological models and applying it to empirically grounded research. Through conversion factors and processes, a central component in the capabilities approach, I reveal the potential of Sen's approach for developing more dynamic frameworks in sociological research, with respect to (1) changes in gendered norms (how new norms are seeded); (2) how entitlements are converted into a sense of entitlement to make claims; and (3) how the capabilities approach can lead toward a more dynamic institutional analysis of welfare states. My contribution to Sen's framework involves elaborating two mechanisms in the conversion of capabilities to agency freedoms and achievements: the sense of entitlement to make claims and the perceived scope of alternatives in exercising rights.

  • 21. Wertz, J.
    et al.
    Caspi, A.
    Belsky, D. W.
    Beckley, Amber L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Duke University, USA.
    Arseneault, L.
    Barnes, J. C.
    Corcoran, D. L.
    Hogan, S.
    Houts, R. M.
    Morgan, N.
    Odgers, C. L.
    Prinz, J. A.
    Sugden, K.
    Williams, B. S.
    Poulton, R.
    Moffitt, T. E.
    Genetics and Crime: Integrating New Genomic Discoveries Into Psychological Research About Antisocial Behavior2018In: Psychological Science, ISSN 0956-7976, E-ISSN 1467-9280, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 791-803Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on psychological and sociological theories of crime causation, we tested the hypothesis that genetic risk for low educational attainment (assessed via a genome-wide polygenic score) is associated with criminal offending. We further tested hypotheses of how polygenic risk relates to the development of antisocial behavior from childhood through adulthood. Across the Dunedin and Environmental Risk (E-Risk) birth cohorts of individuals growing up 20 years and 20,000 kilometers apart, education polygenic scores predicted risk of a criminal record with modest effects. Polygenic risk manifested during primary schooling in lower cognitive abilities, lower self-control, academic difficulties, and truancy, and it was associated with a life-course-persistent pattern of antisocial behavior that onsets in childhood and persists into adulthood. Crime is central in the nature-nurture debate, and findings reported here demonstrate how molecular-genetic discoveries can be incorporated into established theories of antisocial behavior. They also suggest that improving school experiences might prevent genetic influences on crime from unfolding.

  • 22.
    Morosow, Kathrin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Trappe, Heike
    Intergenerational transmission of fertility timing in Germany2018In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 38, p. 1389-1422, article id 46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Intergenerational transmission of completed fertility is widely confirmed for several societies. Less research, however, has focused on differences in the transmission effect of fertility timing and its underlying mechanisms in a regional context.

    Objective: The aim of this study is to examine the association between a mother’s age at her daughter’s birth and that daughter’s transition to first birth in eastern and western Germany, as well as its underlying mechanisms.

    Methods: Using data from the German Family Panel (pairfam), the intergenerational transmission of fertility timing between mothers and daughters born between 1971–1973 and 1981–1983 is investigated using event history analysis. As an alternative to a mother’s age at first birth, a mother’s age at her daughter’s birth is used to determine her daughter’s transition to first birth.

    Results: Results show evidence for intergenerational transmission of young childbearing between mothers and their daughters in eastern and western Germany, though the association was weaker for eastern Germany. This intergenerational transmission effect cannot be explained by the measures used to capture the underlying mechanisms – socialisation, socioeconomic status transmission, and social control.

    Contribution: Our contribution to the ongoing discussion is to close a gap in research on the intergenerational transmission of fertility timing. By using the German context to analyse regional differences, we exemplify the varying strength of the intergenerational transmission of fertility timing between eastern and western Germany that persisted beyond reunification.

  • 23. Vadimovna Permyakova, Natalia
    et al.
    Billingsley, Sunnee
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Men's health and co-residence with older generations in Russia: better or worse?2018In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 72, no 3, p. 179-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Previous studies show contradictory findings on the relationship between health and intergenerational living arrangements (ILAs), which may be due to variation in who selects themselves into and out of ILA. Addressing the selectivity into ILA and the health of the older generation, we assess whether there is a health-protective or health-damaging effect of ILA. We locate our study in the Russian context, where ILA is prevalent and men's health has become a public health issue.

    Methods We apply a fixed-effects logistic regression to self-rated health status of 11546 men aged 25 years or older who participated in at least two waves in the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey from 1994 to 2015. To further isolate the health effect of ILA, we observe only associations after transitioning into or out of ILA.

    Results A transition into co-residence with an unhealthy older generation increases men's odds of reporting poor health (OR=0.64, CI 0.44 to 0.93). A transition out of co-residence with a healthy older generation decreases men's odds of reporting fine health by 63% (OR=0.37, CI 0.28 to 0.50), whereas continuing to live with an unhealthy older generation decreases the odds by half (OR=0.49, CI 0.38 to 0.63).

    Conclusions We reveal a health interlinkage between co-residing generations by finding a detrimental health effect of co-residence with an unhealthy older generation. No longer living with an older generation who was in fine health also negatively affects men's health. Future studies should address heterogeneity related to the health of older generations, unobserved time-constant characteristics of younger generations and selectivity into/out of ILA.

  • 24.
    Hobson, Barbara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Hellgren, Zenia
    Serrano, Inma
    Migrants, markets and domestic work: Do institutional contexts matter in the personal household service sector?2018In: Journal of European Social Policy, ISSN 0958-9287, E-ISSN 1461-7269, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 386-401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article compares Spain and Sweden, dissimilar in their welfare/care, migration and employment regimes; however, both have experienced expansions of private markets for personal household services where migrants are over-represented. Using Sen's capabilities framework as a point of departure, we explore the extent to which regime differences shaping the dynamics of personal household service markets are reflected in the capabilities and well-being of migrants employed in them. Despite variations in employment regimes and market structures, we found more similarities than differences in capabilities and well-being. Institutional contexts mattered for the access to entitlements and capabilities for alternative choices in employment, discernible in the more positive perceptions of future possibilities and potential agency to leave the sector among migrants in Sweden than in Spain. The analysis is based on 90 semi-structured interviews, as well as findings from two national migrant surveys and interviews with stakeholders.

  • 25. Albertini, Marco
    et al.
    Gähler, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Härkönen, Juho
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. European University Institute, Italy.
    Moving back to “mamma”? Divorce, intergenerational coresidence, and latent family solidarity in Sweden2018In: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 24, no 6, article id e2142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most obvious consequences of divorce is the moving out of one or both ex‐partners from the formerly common household. Here we focus on a particular postdivorce residential move, the return to the parental home in Sweden, where intergenerational coresidence is uncommon. We ask whether family dissolution increases the likelihood of intergenerational coresidence among separated/divorced individuals who have at least 1 child below age 18. Furthermore, we ask whether the strength of the effect depends on socio‐economic and geographical factors. Our analysis of 670,777 individuals from Swedish population register data shows that even if living with parents is, in absolute terms, not a common intergenerational support strategy, its likelihood increases considerably after a family dissolution. This event increases the probability of living with one's parents especially among men, those with low incomes, and those who live close to their parent(s). We discuss the implications of our findings for the literature on patterns of intergenerational support across Europe.

  • 26.
    Hällsten, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Thaning, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Multiple dimensions of social background and horizontal educational attainment in Sweden2018In: Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, ISSN 0276-5624, E-ISSN 1878-5654, Vol. 56, p. 40-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We follow Swedish cohorts born between 1976 and 1984 through their educational career and analyze how different dimensions of parents' socio-economic standing (SES) in education, occupation, income, and wealth structure horizontal attainment in secondary tracks and tertiary fields. Our results show that there is strong horizontal segregation by parents' SES. However, the influence of social background dimensions on educational attainment is not uniform, but differ by combination of dimension and track or field. We identify a main contrast between parents' education, and to some extent occupation, on the one hand, and the economic dimensions of income and wealth on the other. When we assess the total contribution of all dimensions, we find that net of previous achievement about 35% of the attainment of different upper-secondary tracks, and 25% of attainment of different tertiary fields is due to social background. Despite the non-uniform pattern, this segregation is also linked to future inequality, i.e. in chances of tertiary graduation linked to upper-secondary tracks and in expected earnings linked to tertiary field choices.

  • 27.
    Schéele, Siv
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Municipality attraction and commuter mobility in urban Sweden: An analysis based on longitudinal population data2018In: Urban Studies, ISSN 0042-0980, E-ISSN 1360-063X, Vol. 55, no 9, p. 1875-1903Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At the individual level, commuting can be seen as part of a search process that may lead to adjustments in terms of migration or change of workplace. The behaviour of commuters is affected by individual characteristics and factors related to housing, labour and transport markets. It can provide insight into factors related to different municipalities’ levels of attraction. In our study, we provide a longitudinal analysis of individual commuting behaviour during a one-year study period: we simultaneously address the dynamics of ending commuting by a migration event, a change of workplace, or both. Our study is situated in the urban region that surrounds lake Mälaren of Sweden, including its capital Stockholm. We draw on unique register data on the entire commuter population of that region and linked contextual data on the characteristics of the municipalities where the commuters live and work. Migration rates are strongly related to demographic variables, whereas the propensity to change workplace mainly varies with economic variables. We demonstrate that the attraction of a municipality in terms of residence increases with the general accessibility to workplaces and decreases with its level of housing prices. An increased supply of new dwellings in a municipality has a greater impact on the capacity to increase its population than has an increased supply of workplaces.

  • 28. Sturup, Joakim
    et al.
    Rostami, Amir
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Institute for Future Studies, Sweden.
    Gerell, Manne
    Sandholm, Anders
    Near-repeat shootings in contemporary Sweden 2011 to 20152018In: Security Journal, ISSN 0955-1662, E-ISSN 1743-4645, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 73-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of near-repeat patterns illustrates how crimes are clustered in space and time, with a crime event often shortly followed by another crime nearby. This study aims first to describe the frequency in shootings; second, to analyse the patterns of near-repeat shootings; and third, to validate a near-repeat calculator in the three largest cities in Sweden. Data were geocoded from three registries on shootings administered by the police departments in Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmö from 2011 to 2015, and were analysed using a free near-repeat calculator. There were 948 shootings, 378 of which involved at least one injury or death (40%). The relative risk of firearm-perpetrated homicides was almost 2.5 times higher in Malmö compared to Stockholm, but almost half of the shootings occurred in Stockholm. Near-repeat patterns were found with a significantly increased risk of a new shooting in all three cities, but were weaker in Gothenburg.

  • 29.
    Barclay, Kieron
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Germany; London School of Economics and Political Science, UK.
    Myrskylä, Mikko
    Parental age and offspring mortality: Negative effects of reproductive ageing may be counterbalanced by secular increases in longevity2018In: Population Studies, ISSN 0032-4728, E-ISSN 1477-4747, Vol. 72, no 2, p. 157-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As parental ages at birth continue to rise, concerns about the effects of fertility postponement on offspring are increasing. Due to reproductive ageing, advanced parental ages have been associated with negative health outcomes for offspring, including decreased longevity. The literature, however, has neglected to examine the potential benefits of being born at a later date. Secular declines in mortality mean that later birth cohorts are living longer. We analyse mortality over ages 30-74 among 1.9 million Swedish men and women born 1938-60, and use a sibling comparison design that accounts for all time-invariant factors shared by the siblings. When incorporating cohort improvements in mortality, we find that those born to older mothers do not suffer any significant mortality disadvantage, and that those born to older fathers have lower mortality. These findings are likely to be explained by secular declines in mortality counterbalancing the negative effects of reproductive ageing.

  • 30. Brons, M. D. (Anne)
    et al.
    Härkönen, Juho
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Parental Education and Family Dissolution: A Cross-National and Cohort Comparison2018In: Journal of Marriage and Family, ISSN 0022-2445, E-ISSN 1741-3737, Vol. 80, no 2, p. 426-443Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the first study to systematically analyze whether the association between parental education and family dissolution varies cross-nationally and over time. The authors use meta-analytic tools to study cross-national variation between 17 countries with data from the Generations and Gender Study and Harmonized Histories. The association shows considerable cross-national variation, but is positive in most countries. The association between parental education and family dissolution has become less positive or even negative in six countries. The findings show that the association between parental education and family dissolution is generally positive or nil, even if the association between own education and family dissolution is in many countries increasingly negative. The authors find suggestive evidence that the association is related to the crude divorce rate, but not to the generosity of the welfare state in these countries. The implications of these findings for understanding the stratification in family dissolution are discussed.

  • 31.
    Miranda, Vitor
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Statistics Sweden, Sweden.
    Dahlberg, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Parents' Preferences for Sex of Children in Sweden: Attitudes and Outcomes2018In: Population: Research and Policy Review, ISSN 0167-5923, E-ISSN 1573-7829, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 443-459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been argued that preferences for the sex of children would be small or nonaEuroexisting in relatively gender equal societies. However, previous studies have suggested that a stronger preference for having daughter exists in Scandinavian countries, which are frequently noted for being among the most gender equal societies in the world. Combining new register data on birth rates by sex of the previous children and recent survey data on couples' stated preferences for the sex of children, we show that the preference for daughters has increased in Sweden over the last decade. In addition to the stronger preference for having daughters among twoaEurochild mothers documented in previous research, our findings show that during the previous decade this preference was noticeable also among oneaEurochild parents. Despite Swedish society being known for holding gender equal social norms, interviewed parents openly expressed some degree of preference for having daughters over sons.

  • 32. Brinton, Mary C.
    et al.
    Bueno, Xiana
    Oláh, Livia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Hellum, Merete
    Postindustrial Fertility Ideals, Intentions, and Gender Inequality: A Comparative Qualitative Analysis2018In: Population and Development Review, ISSN 0098-7921, E-ISSN 1728-4457, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 281-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fertility ideals remain centered on two children per woman in most postindustrial societies, presenting a puzzle for demographers interested in explaining very low fertility. This article explores the conditions producing a gap between fertility ideals and intentions among highly educated young women and men in four postindustrial countries. We employ in-depth interviews to analyze reasoning about fertility ideals and intentions in two countries with very low fertility (Japan and Spain) and two with slightly higher fertility (the United States and Sweden). We find that American and Swedish female interviewees are more likely than those in Japan and Spain to cite work/family conflict as a reason for their ideals/intentions gap. Our results also suggest that gender inequality is more important in generating low fertility intentions among highly educated interviewees in Japan than Spain. Taken together, these findings suggest complexities in how gender inequality affects fertility intentions among the highly educated in postindustrial contexts.

  • 33.
    Wilson, Ben
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. London School of Economics, UK.
    Kuha, Jouni
    Residential segregation and the fertility of immigrants and their descendants2018In: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 24, no 3, article id e2098Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measures of community population composition, such as residential segregation, are important theoretical mechanisms that have the potential to explain differences in fertility between immigrants, their descendants, and destination natives. However, only a handful of studies explore these mechanisms, and most are limited by the fact that they carry out cross-sectional analysis. This study proposes a new approach, which focuses on community composition in childhood. It uses longitudinal census data and registered births in England and Wales to investigate the relationship between completed fertility and multiple measures of community composition, including residential segregation. The results show that the fertility of immigrants is closer to native fertility if they grow up in less segregated areas. This provides evidence in support of the childhood socialisation hypothesis. Furthermore, residential segregation explains some of the variation in completed fertility for second-generation women from Pakistan and Bangladesh, the only second-generation group to have significantly higher completed fertility than natives. This suggests one reason why the fertility of some South Asians in England and Wales may remain culturally entrenched. All of these findings are consistent for different measures of community composition. They are also easier to interpret than the results of previous research because exposure is measured before childbearing has commenced, therefore avoiding many issues relating to selection, simultaneity, and conditioning on the future.

  • 34.
    Hobson, Barbara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Institute for Advanced Study, Germany.
    Revisiting Recognition and Redistribution and Extending the Borders: Julia Szalai's Contribution2018In: Intersections. East European Journal of Society and Politics, ISSN 2416-089X, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 9-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article revisits the recognition and redistribution debates emerging from Nancy Fraser's 1995 agenda article underscoring the dangers in the rise of identity politics and displacement of economic justice in postsocialist age. Julia Szalai has been a crucial actor in reshaping the research on recognition struggles, and I will focus on the important contribution of her research on the Roma. Looking beyond dichotomy in recognition and redistribution, Szalai's research has highlighted the interplay and overlapping configurations in recognition struggles: their institutional and historical embeddedness and their emphasis on political agency and voice. Her analysis of the multiple and interacting processes of exclusion of the Roma in Central Europe, including the spatial, educational and employment dimensions and the lack of political representation, reflect a near congruence in misrecognition and malredistribution. Her research highlights shifts in the discourse from the cultural wars to the redistributional wars in neo-liberal market economies between those who have lost status and income in the dominant population and the most vulnerable (minority and migrant populations). Finally, Szalai's research and writings have extended the theoretical and empirical borders on recognition struggles, engaging with the frameworks of intersectionalities and capabilities both of which offer lenses for revealing complex inequalities and the tensions within the paradigms for social justice that have inspired my own research.

  • 35.
    Modin, Bitte
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Plenty, Stephanie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). Institute for Futures Studies (IFFS), Sweden.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Bergström, Malin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Berlin, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. National Board of Health and Welfare, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Per A.
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    School Contextual Features of Social Disorder and Mental Health Complaints—A Multilevel Analysis of Swedish Sixth-Grade Students2018In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, no 1, article id 156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addressed school-contextual features of social disorder in relation to sixth-grade students' experiences of bullying victimization and mental health complaints. It investigated, firstly, whether the school's concentrations of behavioural problems were associated with individual students' likelihood of being bullied, and secondly, whether the school's concentrations of behavioural problems and bullying victimization predicted students' emotional and psychosomatic health complaints. The data were derived from the Swedish National Survey of Mental Health among Children and Young People, carried out among sixth-grade students (approximately 12-13 years old) in Sweden in 2009. The analyses were based on information from 59,510 students distributed across 1999 schools. The statistical method used was multilevel modelling. While students' own behavioural problems were associated with an elevated risk of being bullied, attending a school with a higher concentration of students with behavioural problems also increased the likelihood of being bullied. Attending a school with higher levels of bullying victimization and behavioural problems predicted more emotional and psychosomatic complaints, even when adjusting for their individual level analogues. The findings indicate that school-level features of social disorder influence bullying victimization and mental health complaints among students.

  • 36.
    Mondani, Hernan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Sector, industry and inter-organizational movement statistics in the Stockholm Region: informing organizational growth models2018In: Quality and quantity, ISSN 0033-5177, E-ISSN 1573-7845Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational growth processes exhibit interesting statistical regularities, chiefly the heavy-tailed pattern of the size and growth-rate (i.e. yearly change in size) distributions. In spite of its ubiquity, empirical studies of growth are often limited to private activities and specific sectors, and generative models on the other hand are built on simplified assumptions and only aim at reproducing stylized facts. In this study, we use a unique Swedish longitudinal database on employment in the Stockholm Region, to analyze the interplay between organizational growth statistics by ownership sector, industrial activity and inter-organizational employee movements during a period of 14 years. We fit distributions for organizational size and growth rates. We find that the body of the aggregate growth-rate distribution is dominated by public sector growth, while the private sector dominates the tails. Industries with mostly public organizations tend to have a lognormal size distribution, while privately-owned industries are better fitted by a truncated power law. Growth-rate distributions are fitted to an exponential power (Subbotin) distribution. We decompose the change in size into incoming and outgoing employee movements, and find that the distribution of aggregated movements is well approximated by a lognormal distribution. Most organizations that do not grow have however in- and outgoing movements, but these mostly cancel each other out.

  • 37.
    Brandén, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Ohlsson-Wijk, Sofi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Sharing the Caring: Attitude-Behavior Discrepancies and Partnership Dynamics2018In: Journal of family issues, ISSN 0192-513X, E-ISSN 1552-5481, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 771-795Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though ideals in favor of gender equality in the private sphere are wide spread, discrepancies between ideals and actual behavior are common. Such discrepancies and potential dissatisfaction with gender unequal behavior within a couple are expected to influence partnership dynamics negatively. This study examines how discrepancies between the perceived ideal sharing of parental leave and the actual division of leave, as well as satisfaction with the division are associated with (a) relationship satisfaction, (b) continued childbearing, and (c) union dissolution, using Swedish panel data. The findings cannot confirm an effect of discrepancies on partnership dynamics. However, men who wish they had used a larger share of the parental leave have lower relationship satisfaction, lower continued childbearing, and higher probability of union dissolution. Women are seemingly not affected by their (dis)satisfaction with the division. The findings may reflect a changing father role related to the policy setting and norms in Sweden.

  • 38.
    Shahbazian, Roujman
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Sibling Configuration and Adulthood Outcomes: The Case of Two-Child Families2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis includes three empirical studies, analyzing how sibling configuration (i.e. birth order, birth spacing and sex-composition) influences siblings’ long-run income and educational choice. This is done by utilizing the unique linkage opportunities of administrative registers covering the entire population of Sweden.

    Study I: This paper focuses on how different birth spacing intervals are associated with income rank from ages 33 to 42 years, for siblings in two-child families. The results show clear differences between first- and second-born siblings. At the more common spacing intervals (less than 5 years), spacing has a negligible association to second-born children’s long-term income rank. However, first-born children have lower income rank when a younger sibling is born when they are very young. Having relatively high spacing intervals (over 5 years) is associated with somewhat lower long-term income-rank than having mid-length intervals for both first- and second-born siblings.

    Study II: This study focuses on the association between combinations of sibling configuration (i.e. birth order, birth spacing and sex composition) and long-run income rank of siblings. The results show that the significance of different family factors in two-child families vary by sibling sex-composition. The findings suggest that both birth order and birth spacing are important factors for first born boys independent of the younger sibling’s sex. First-born girls, however, only have an advantage if they have a younger sister. More surprisingly is that this advantage does not seem to vary by birth spacing.

    Study III: This study examines how sibling gender configuration in Swedish two-child families influences the choice of so-called STEM educational fields (i.e. Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics). The results show that younger siblings, net of parental characteristics, are more likely to choose a STEM field if their older sibling already has attended a STEM program. The findings indicate that boys’ choice of STEM fields is independent of having an older brother or sister who has attended a STEM program. However, girls seem to be more likely to choose a STEM-field if they have a sister who has attended a STEM program, than if they have a brother with a similar program. Given that STEM-fields are markedly male dominated, this indicate the importance of having a same-sex role model for making gender atypical educational choices.

  • 39.
    Billingsley, Sunnee
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Södertörns University, Sweden.
    Matysiak, Anna
    Social mobility and family expansion in Poland and Russia during socialism and capitalism2018In: Advances in Life Course Research, ISSN 1040-2608, Vol. 36, p. 80-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We explore whether social mobility influences fertility behavior, using multiple comparative layers to better observe structural and individual-level mechanisms at work. We locate this study in Poland and Russia during periods of socialism and capitalism. Applying event-history analysis techniques to longitudinal micro-data, we find evidence of a relationship between mobility and second birth risks for women only. Status enhancement aims seem the most plausible link between mobility and childbearing. The relationship appears moderated by the economic context, which we interpret as being related to differential selection into upward and downward mobility based on labor market opportunities. In general, the suppressing effect of upward mobility on second birth risks was stronger in the poorer economic context of Russia, whereas the increased second birth risks related to downward mobility were heightened in Poland's more prosperous context.

  • 40.
    Bihagen, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Nermo, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Social stratifiering och social klass2018In: Den orättvisa hälsan: om socioekonomiska skillnader i hälsa och livslängd / [ed] Mikael Rostila, Susanne Toivanen, Stockholm: Liber, 2018, 2, p. 32-49Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Eriksson, Helen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Studies on Parental Leave and Co-residence using Swedish Register Data2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the two primary life-course events that create and accelerate gender inequality within the couple -- the transition to parenthood and parental separation -- may ameliorate their far-reaching consequences over the life-course in multiple domains of life. This thesis includes four studies on various aspects of these life-course events. The first two studies investigate division of child care at the transition to parenthood. A gender equal transition to parenthood, in which both women and men take leave off work to care for their children, is essential for couples to achieve gender equality in the family as well as in the labor market. Study I investigates the ways in which Swedish couples do such ‘dual-caring’ and shows that the dominant trajectory of dual care is characterized by taking turns as the child’s primary caregiver. Study II investigates how the domain of paid work may hinder or facilitate a gender equal transition to parenthood, focusing on economic considerations and occupational conditions of work. Study III investigates gendered division of care leave taken after couples have returned to paid work. It shows that economic differentials within the couple may shape the onset of long-term division of child care but that short-term economic incentives do not seem to alter the division. Study IV turns to parental separation as the second life-course event in which gender inequality is accelerated. As children have been most likely to live with their mothers when their parents’ union ends, parental separation typically marks the (possible) second life-course event in which unpaid work is shifted towards women. Study IV provides a method for estimating parental separation with register data and therefore making possible studies of outcomes for mothers, fathers and children who live apart.

     

    All studies use administrative register data. These data provide a unique source of couple-level longitudinal information on all parental couples registered in Sweden. The first two studies are made possible by the availability of dated information on parental leave use. The third study accurately traces division of care leave by income composition within the couple. The last study traces parental coresidence from birth to age 15 for a period of almost four decades.

  • 42.
    Eriksson, Helen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Taking Turns or Halving It All: Care Trajectories of Dual-Caring Couples2018In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interview and observational studies document that dual-caring is characterized by temporality. Two ‘ideal-typical’ trajectories are identified: ‘halving it all’ in which couples divide care equally on a daily or weekly basis and ‘taking turns’ in which parents take month- or year-long turns in serving as primary caregivers to the child. This study utilizes a new source of couple-level longitudinal information on parental leave to investigate dual-caring trajectories in contemporary Sweden. Results show that while care trajectories in which only one parent serves as the primary caregiver can be captured without longitudinal information, the dominant dual-caring trajectory cannot. In fact, despite a uniquely flexible parental leave system that allows egalitarian couples to share care on a daily basis, most couples do not share care in every point in time, but ‘take turns’ in serving as the primary caregiver to the child, with the mother’s ‘turn’ preceding the father’s. The results demonstrate that cross-sectional and aggregate measures of child care may fail to detect emerging trends in dual-caring.

  • 43.
    Hällsten, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Edling, Christofer
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    The acculturation in Sweden of adolescents of Iranian and Yugoslavian origin2018In: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869, Vol. 61, no 2, p. 163-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethnic acculturation in a sample of 19-year-old individuals of Yugoslavian and Iranian origin in contemporary Sweden was studied, with a focus on how acculturation is contingent on social structure and social context. Acculturation was measured as orientation to the majority and the parental culture of origin. The results suggest, first, that the two dimensions are weakly but positively correlated, meaning that acculturation identity does not involve any trade-offs, as new strands of oppositional culture theory suggest. Second, it was found that ethnic closure in friendship networks is positively associated with orientations to parents' culture and negatively with orientations to Swedish culture. Individuals with a rich occupational social contact network tended to be orientated towards both the majority and the parental culture. There was a marked social difference between the most disadvantaged social class and all other classes, with the former being less oriented to both cultures compared to more advantaged classes.

  • 44.
    Ye, Rebecca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    The Aspirants: How faith is built in emerging occupations2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Anticipating future demands in skills and workforce development has been a longstanding practice and challenge for governments and policy-makers. While such developments are examined closely at the national and regional levels, an even more pressing issue is to advance our understanding of how people who take on jobs in new and emerging fields embark on and persist in their occupational pathways. A striking feature of these occupations is their weakly defined and unstable nature. How do individuals traverse career trajectories with these characteristics? What drives and enables them to take the road less travelled? To address such questions, this research project set off from a distinctive occupational school in Sweden that prepares individuals for emerging occupational roles in digital work. Using an interpretative, longitudinal, and multi-method approach, this study focuses on a group of aspirants who were being trained to become specialists in extracting, analysing, and using digital data for the growth and profit of organisations. These individuals can be viewed as experiencing a double “not-yet” situation, since not only are they at the stage of aspiring to certain work roles, but the occupations to which they aspire are also in a nascent, not yet fully defined stage. This study accompanies them through significant events over the years: from when they are in training, to when they search for jobs, and, finally, when they are in work.

    The monograph contains three empirical sections that are sequenced by the aspirants’ school-to-work pathways. The first section examines the processes of socialisation into the occupational school; the second analyses their efforts to meet the labour market; and the final one investigates the ways in which they persist in their occupational trajectories. Following these stages reveals how a strong school culture, coupled with a strong labour market, facilitates the building of “faith” into weak-form occupational pathways. Through the ceremony of being selected into the educational organisation and performing everyday rituals that engender confidence in their individual and collective futures, the analysis reveals types of “scripts” that are fashioned into the school’s methodology as well as the expectations of future hirers. It becomes apparent that aspirants generally accept these scripts as necessary and adhere to them to navigate the constantly changing demands of the labour market. However, when these interpretive schemes fail to help them cope with their unclear occupational futures, uncertainties of worth, and the unstable normative logics they encounter at work sites, the aspirants are compelled to deliberate and adapt conceptions of what is possible and permissible through individual and collective projections. In all, the empirical findings form the basis for a sociological model that offers a perspective on how to treat temporality, anticipation, and the “not-yets”, particularly in the context of education to work transitions.

  • 45.
    Barclay, Kieron J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Germany; London School of Economics and Political Science, UK.
    The birth order paradox: Sibling differences in educational attainment2018In: Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, ISSN 0276-5624, E-ISSN 1878-5654, Vol. 54, p. 56-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses population register data to examine the relationship between birth order and educational attainment in Sweden, and demonstrates that while the net effect of birth order on educational attainment is negative, later-born children often spend longer in education. The explanation for this finding is due to educational expansion in Sweden in the 20th century, which outweighs the negative causal effect of birth order for the affected cohorts. This is particularly true for women due to the fact that the rate of increasing educational enrolment has been greater for women than for men. These results also show that later-borns in large families particularly benefit from educational expansion due to the longer average birth interval between the first and last child in large families, meaning that the supply of educational opportunities increased to a greater extent in the intervening period. However, in periods where education is not expanding, later-born siblings continue to fare worse than first-borns.

  • 46.
    Beckley, Amber L.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Duke University, USA.
    Caspi, Avshalom
    Arseneault, Louise
    Barnes, J. C.
    Fisher, Helen L.
    Harrington, Honalee
    Houts, Renate
    Morgan, Nick
    Odgers, Candice L.
    Wertz, Jasmin
    Moffitt, Terrie E.
    The Developmental Nature of the Victim-Offender Overlap2018In: Journal of Developmental and Life-Course Criminology, ISSN 2199-4641, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 24-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose It is well-established that victims and offenders are often the same people, a phenomenon known as the victim-offender overlap, but the developmental nature of this overlap remains uncertain. In this study, we drew from a developmental theoretical framework to test effects of genetics, individual characteristics, and routine-activity-based risks. Drawing from developmental literature, we additionally tested the effect of an accumulation of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). Methods Data came from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Study, a representative UK birth cohort of 2232 twins born in 1994-1995 and followed to age 18 (with 93% retention). Crime victimization and offending were assessed through self-reports at age 18 (but findings replicated using crime records). We used the classical twin study method to decompose variance in the victim-offender overlap into genetic and environmental components. We used logistic regression to test the effects of childhood risk factors. Results In contrast to past twin studies, we found that environment (as well as genes) contributed to the victim-offender overlap. Our logistic regression results showed that childhood low self-control and childhood antisocial behavior nearly doubled the odds of becoming a victim-offender, compared to a victim-only or an offender-only. Each additional ACE increased the odds of becoming a victim-offender, compared to a victim-only or an offender-only, by approximately 12%, pointing to the importance of cumulative childhood adversity. Conclusions This study showed that the victim-offender overlap is, at least partially, developmental in nature and predictable from personal childhood characteristics and an accumulation of many adverse childhood experiences.

  • 47.
    Billingsley, Sunnee
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Södertörn University, Sweden.
    Neyer, Gerda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Wesolowski, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). Uppsala University, Sweden.
    The influence of family policies on women´s childbearing: A longitudinal micro-data analysis of 21 countries2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes whether and how family policies are related to women’s first and second child transitions in 21 post-industrial countries. We adapt the social investment approach developed in welfare state research and distinguish between investment-oriented family policies and traditional, protection-oriented family policies. Our family policy indicators vary over time and are merged with fertility histories provided by harmonized individual level data. We use multilevel event-history models and control for time-varying unobserved heterogeneity at the country level and individual-level characteristics. Higher family-policy support of both types is correlated with the postponement of first births, particularly among young women, whereas traditional-family support is also correlated with postponement among older women and women in education. Both types of family support are linked to earlier first births among lower educated women. Only investment-oriented support is correlated with second birth transitions and this positive relationship does not vary for women with different educational levels.

  • 48.
    Andersson, Anton
    et al.