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  • 1.
    Vogiazides, Louisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Mondani, Hernan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    A geographical path to integration? Exploring the interplay between regional context and labour market integration among refugees in Sweden2020In: Journal of ethnic and migration studies, ISSN 1369-183X, E-ISSN 1469-9451, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 23-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Migrant integration is an issue at the forefront of political debates in many immigrant-receiving countries. Within academia, a rich body of neighbourhood effects literature examines the significance of the residential environment for the socioeconomic integration of international migrants. Another strand of research explores the associations between immigrants’ initial region of residence and their subsequent socioeconomic integration. Existing research focuses on a single dimension of geographical context and on the neighbourhood scale. Using Swedish longitudinal register data, we estimate discrete-time event history models to assess how regional and neighbourhood contexts influence refugees’ entry into employment. Our study includes all refugees who arrived in Sweden between 2000 and 2009, distinguishing between three categories of refugees: refugees with assigned housing, refugees with self-arranged housing and quota refugees. Our results reveal a clear pattern where the most advantageous regions for finding a first employment are those at the extremes of the population density distribution: the Stockholm region and small city/rural regions. Refugees residing in Malmö have the lowest probability of entering the labour market. Our study also reiterates existing concerns regarding the negative effects of ethnic segregation at the neighbourhood level on labour market participation.

  • 2.
    Bygren, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Institute for Future Studies, Sweden.
    Biased grades? Changes in grading after a blinding of examinations reform2020In: Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, ISSN 0260-2938, E-ISSN 1469-297X, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 292-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Group differences in average grades prior to and after a step-wise introduction of blinded examinations at Stockholm University are examined. Relative to students with 'native' names, students with 'foreign' names appear to experience weak positive bias in the grading of their examinations, but the estimated effect is sensitive to model specification. No substantial effects of blinding examinations with respect to male-female gaps are found. The results suggest that examiners - when the names of students are disclosed to them - if anything have a weak tendency to positively discriminate for students perceived to have an immigrant background, but they do not appear to discriminate on the basis of gender.

  • 3.
    Weber, Rosa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Borders and Barriers: Studies on Migration and Integration in the Nordic and Mexico-U.S. Settings2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    International migration engages large numbers of people. Men, women and children break up from their homes and move to another country temporarily or permanently. Depending on the country of origin and the destination, this comes with varying degrees of uncertainties about where to settle, how much to invest in building a new life abroad and how to retain ties to the country of origin. In recent years, policies have become increasingly salient for migrants’ experiences. They impact entry possibilities and the ease of travelling back home. Increased policing of migrants can interfere in the building of a new life abroad and contribute to stress and apprehension felt among both migrants and their children. To some extent counteracting this, family and friends may provide newly arrived migrants with information on job opportunities and facilitate the transition into the new country.

    This dissertation analyses the links between migration and integration patterns and migrants’ ties to the home and destination country. It does this in two ultimately distinct settings when it comes to the borders and barriers that migrants face: the Nordic and Mexico-U.S. settings. Until recently, Swedish migration policy was among the most welcoming to migrants from different parts of the world. Migration within the Nordic countries, in particular, is characterised by open borders. By contrast, Mexico and the U.S. are separated by an increasingly militarised border and internal policing of migrants has risen dramatically. Consequently, these settings provide contrasting and interesting examples of the relationship between the policy context and migrants’ experiences.

    Study 1 shows that many moves are temporary and short term in the Nordic setting of free mobility. Still, the threshold to the first move is notably higher than for subsequent moves. Study 2 reveals that rising deportations of Mexican migrants in the U.S. are associated with a shift from savings brought home to the sending of remittances. Afraid of a sudden arrest or deportation, migrants maintain transnational ties by sending remittances back to Mexico rather than carrying savings across the border. Study 3 investigates the different roles that social contacts play for male and female migrants’ integration into the Swedish labour market. Whereas friends provide men with benefits in the labour market, women’s job search is often constrained by factors linked to having family in Sweden. Study 4 shows that the implementation of local level immigration enforcement in the U.S. has a negative impact on district level average educational achievement among Hispanic students. This indicates that integration and resulting ethnic achievement gaps are shaped by increased policing and surveillance of migrants.

    This dissertation reveals a series of complex relationships between migration, integration and policies. Family and kin influence migration decisions also when barriers to movement are low. In the new country, kin can assist migrants’ job search or slow it down when newly arrived migrants are expected to care for them. Policing of migrants makes it more difficult to return and may affect migrants’ abilities to invest in building a new life, as indicated by negative effects for educational outcomes among groups targeted by immigration enforcement. Taken together, these factors shape the experiences and life chances of both migrants and their children in the new country.

  • 4. Spéder, Zsolt
    et al.
    Murinkó, Lívia
    Oláh, Livia Sz.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Cash support vs. tax incentives: The differential impact of policy interventions on third births in contemporary Hungary2020In: Population Studies, ISSN 0032-4728, E-ISSN 1477-4747, Vol. 74, no 1, p. 39-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Following steep falls in birth rates in Central and Eastern European countries during the economic and institutional restructuring of the early 1990s, governments made substantial efforts to stop or at least reduce the fertility decline. In Hungary, parents with three or more children could benefit from specific new policy measures: the flat-rate child-rearing support paid from the youngest child's third to eighth birthdays (signalling recognition of stay-at-home motherhood) and a redesigned and upgraded tax relief system. However, the success of these policy measures, if any, is difficult to detect in aggregate statistics. Analysing data from the Hungarian Generations and Gender Survey, we rely on event history methods to examine the policies' effects on third birth risks, especially among different socio-economic groups. The results indicate that while the child-rearing support increased third birth risks among the least educated, the generous tax relief had a similar effect for parents with tertiary education.

  • 5.
    Winter, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    “I’ll Look Into it!” Lubricants in Conversational Coproduction2020In: Minerva, ISSN 0026-4695, E-ISSN 1573-1871Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the interaction between civil servants and politicians in a planning committee in a Swedish county council. As the committees are venues for preparation of future decision-making, civil servants and others are invited to inform and report to the politicians on different topics. The aim is to explore this local interaction process based on an analysis of requests and responses. It is shown that the communication between civil servants and politicians is pervaded by sociability in the form of conversational routines. The article aims to recognize this sociability as an intrinsic part of knowledge coproduction processes. Civil servants and politicians negotiate different types of professional and common knowledge through routines that dislocate time, responsibility, roles, and protocol order. These lubricants – important but often circumvented in studies of policy-making – are explored as instances of conversational coproduction.

  • 6. Bijlsma, Maarten J.
    et al.
    Wilson, Ben
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. London School of Economics and Political Science, UK.
    Modelling the socio-economic determinants of fertility: a mediation analysis using the parametric g-formula2020In: Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society), ISSN 0964-1998, E-ISSN 1467-985X, Vol. 183, no 2, p. 493-513Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theories predict that the timing of childbearing and number of children born are determined by multiple socio-economic factors. Despite this, many methods cannot investigate the interrelationships between these determinants, including the direct and indirect influence that they have on fertility over the life course. Here we use the parametric g-formula to examine the interdependent influences of time-varying socio-economic processes-education, employment status and partnership status-on fertility. To demonstrate this approach, we study a cohort of women who were born in the UK in 1970. Our results show that socio-economic processes play an important role in determining fertility, not only directly but also indirectly. We show that increasing attendance in higher education has a largely direct effect on early childbearing up to age 25 years, resulting in a substantial increase in childlessness. However, childbearing at later ages is dominated by an indirect effect of education on fertility, via partnership status and employment status, that is twice as large as the direct effect. We also use the g-formula to examine bias due to unobserved heterogeneity, and we demonstrate that our results appear to be robust. We conclude that the method provides a valuable tool for mediation analysis in studies of interdependent life course processes.

  • 7.
    Fallesen, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). The ROCKWOOL Foundation, Denmark.
    Gähler, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Post-Divorce Dual-Household Living Arrangements and Adolescent Wellbeing2020In: Divorce in Europe: New Insights in Trends, Causes and Consequences of Relation Break-ups / [ed] Dimitri Mortelmans, Springer, 2020, p. 337-354Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adolescents are increasingly living in two households, alternating between family contexts. It is timely to consider how these contexts may affect adolescent’s psychological wellbeing. We use data from the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Survey in Four European Countries (CILS4EU), England, Germany, the Netherlands, and Sweden, including data on occurrence and extent of dual-household residency, to correlate 15 family types with adolescent’s internalizing problems, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. Analyses show that (i) adolescents in intact families exhibit better wellbeing than peers in different types of dissolved families, (ii) adolescents in reconstituted families exhibit less wellbeing than adolescents living with a single parent only, (iii) living in two households, where both parents are single or either of them is repartnered, is not associated with better wellbeing than living with a single parent only, (iv) adolescents in alternate living generally seem to do as well as their peers in intact families, but (v) there is a tendency that alternate living in a symmetrical family context, i.e., where both parents are either single or living with a new partner, is more positive for the adolescent than if one parent is in a new relationship and the other is not.

  • 8. Erlangsen, Annette
    et al.
    Drefahl, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Haas, Ann
    Bjorkenstam, Charlotte
    Nordentoft, Merete
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Suicide among persons who entered same-sex and opposite-sex marriage in Denmark and Sweden, 1989-2016: a binational, register-based cohort study2020In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 74, no 1, p. 78-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background People belonging to sexual minority groups have higher levels of suicidality than heterosexuals. However, findings regarding suicide death are sparse. Using unique national data from two countries, we investigated whether individuals entering a same-sex marriage (SSM), a proxy group of sexual minority individuals, had higher suicide rates than those entering opposite-sex marriage (OSM).

    Methods A cohort study of all males and females who entered an SSM (n=28649) or OSM (n=3 918 617) in Denmark and Sweden during 1989-2016 was conducted. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for suicide were calculated using adjusted Poisson regression models.

    Results In total, 97 suicides occurred among individuals who had entered an SSM compared with 6074 among those who entered an OSM, corresponding to an adjusted IRR of 2.3 (95% CI 1.9 to 2.8). For people who entered SSM, a 46% decline was noted over time from an IRR of 2.8 (95% CI 1.9 to 4.0) during 1989-2002 to 1.5 (95% CI 1.2 to 1.9) during 2003-2016. The excess suicide mortality was present in all age groups but most pronounced among younger individuals aged 18-34 years of age (IRR 2.7, 95%CI 1.5 to 4.8) and females (IRR 2.7, 95%CI 1.8 to 3.9).

    Conclusion This large register-based study found higher suicide rates among individuals who entered an SSM, compared with those who entered an OSM. A lower suicide rate was noted for individuals in SSMs in recent years. More research is needed to identify the unique suicide risk and protective factors for sexual minority people.

  • 9.
    Magnusson, Charlotta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Nermo, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    40 Years of Gender Inequality among Men and Women in High-Prestige occupations – Does the Story Differ among the Young?2019In: Gender, Age and Inequality in the Professions: Exploring the Disordering, Disruptive and Chaotic Properties of Communication / [ed] Marta Choroszewicz, Tracey L. Adams, Routledge, 2019Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Morosow, Kathrin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    A Family Leave Length Trade-off? Women’s Labour Force Status in Comparative Perspective2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A frequently cited aim of parental leave policies is to provide parents with the opportunity to combine work and family. The availability of additional childcare leaves prolongs mothers’ time out of the labour market, however, and thus may counteract women’s labour market participation. This study is the first to differentiate between the whole range of labour force status outcomes: employment, unemployment and inactivity. Using data for 20 countries from the Luxembourg Income Study, this study examines the relationship between paid family leave length and mothers’ labour market status. Calling on multinomial logistic regression with country fixed effects, this study finds that the provision of comparatively long paid family leave is associated with increased unemployment risks among mothers of 0 to 15-year olds. A slight peak when children are 4 to 6 years old and when leave is longer than two years suggests that mothers are most vulnerable when they re-enter the labour market after a longer leave. These results are in line with prominent theories of human capital depreciation, signalling or statistical discrimination. Leaves of over one year, on the other hand, are associated with reduced inactivity amongst mothers. Hence, results indicate a trade-off when it comes to leave length. Shorter leaves are associated with mothers dropping out of the labour market, especially when children are young, while longer family leaves are associated with increased unemployment risks.

  • 11.
    Carlsson, Christoffer
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology. The Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Rostami, Amir
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. The Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Mondani, Hernan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. The Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Sturup, Joakim
    Sarnecki, Jerzy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology. The Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Edling, Christofer
    A Life-Course Analysis of Engagement in Violent Extremist Groups2019In: British Journal of Criminology, ISSN 0007-0955, E-ISSN 1464-3529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this exploratory study, individuals’ processes of engagement in violent extremist groups are analysed by drawing from criminological life-course theory and narrative-based understandings of crime. Based on interviews with individuals who have participated in violent extremism, it is suggested that the process of engagement consists of three steps: (1) a weakening of informal social controls, followed by (2) an interaction with individuals in proximity to the group and (3) a stage of meaning-making in relation to the group and one’s identity, resulting in an individual’s willingness and capacity to engaging in the group’s activities, including violence. In future theorizing about processes of engagement in violent extremism, the meanings of age, and the life-course stages of late adolescence and emerging adulthood in particular, should be given analytic attention.

  • 12.
    Sandström, Glenn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Umeå University, Sweden.
    Marklund, Emil
    A prelude to the dual provider family - The changing role of female labor force participation and occupational field on fertility outcomes during the baby boom in Sweden 1900-602019In: The History of the Family, ISSN 1081-602X, E-ISSN 1873-5398, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 149-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By investigating changes in the association between women's socioeconomic status, labor market activity and fertility outcomes during the Swedish baby boom 1900-60 this study reaches three main conclusions. First, the results show that a convergence of fertility behavior occurred across female socioeconomic strata during the peak baby boom period in the 1940s and 1950s in terms of a strong two child norm. Second, the negative socio-economic gradient of fertility found in Sweden before the baby boom declined sharply among women who came of age during the 1940s and 1950s, as white-collar women increased their fertility more than all the other strata. Third, this was especially the case for women engaged in the so called 'caring professions' that exhibit the largest changes in behavior. The pattern found in contemporary Western contexts where women in healthcare and education have a substantially higher fertility was thus formed in Sweden already during the 1940s and 1950s. The empirical finding fit with the interpretation that middle-class women employed in the public sector experienced stronger reductions in constraints to family formation compared to women employed in the private sector. We propose that the pronatalist polices implemented in the 1930s and 1940s, especially the extensive improvements in employment protection implemented for women who got married or became pregnant in the late 1930s in Sweden, is one important factor to consider when we try to understand why especially women employed in the public sector in education and healthcare increased their fertility more than other groups.

  • 13. Guillot, Michel
    et al.
    Khlat, Myriam
    Wallace, Matthew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Adult mortality among second-generation immigrants in France: Results from a nationally representative record linkage study2019In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 40, p. 1603-1644, article id 54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND France has a large population of second-generation immigrants (i.e., native-born children of immigrants) who are known to experience important socioeconomic disparities by country of origin. The extent to which they also experience disparities in mortality, however, has not been previously examined. METHODS We used a nationally representative sample of individuals 18 to 64 years old in 1999 with mortality follow-up via linked death records until 2010. We compared mortality levels for second-generation immigrants with their first-generation counterparts and with the reference (neither first- nor second-generation) population using mortality hazard ratios as well as probabilities of dying between age 18 and 65. We also adjusted hazard ratios using educational attainment reported at baseline. RESULTS We found a large amount of excess mortality among second-generation males of North African origin compared to the reference population with no migrant background. This excess mortality was not present among second-generation males of southern European origin, for whom we instead found a mortality advantage, nor among North African- origin males of the first-generation. This excess mortality remained large and significant after adjusting for educational attainment. CONTRIBUTION In these first estimates of mortality among second-generation immigrants in France, males of North African origin stood out as a subgroup experiencing a large amount of excess mortality. This finding adds a public health dimension to the various disadvantages already documented for this subgroup. Overall, our results highlight the importance of second-generation status as a significant and previously unknown source of health disparity in France.

  • 14.
    Stern, Lotta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Weidenstedt, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Sideras, Georgios
    Anställningsskyddets avsedda och oavsedda konsekvenser: Företagarnas perspektiv2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Lagen om anställningsskydd är omdebatterad och skapar friktioner på svensk arbetsmarknad. Å ena sidan finns arbetsgivare som vill ha flexibla företag och rätten att leda och fördela arbetet för att främja verksamheten. Å andra sidan finns arbetstagare som vill ha trygga anställningar och rätt till en icke-godtycklig behandling. På aggregerad nivå får lagstiftningens avsedda och oavsedda konsekvenser förhållandevis mycket utrymme i debatterna såväl som inom forskningen, där studier exempelvis visar att ett strikt anställningsskydd hämmar företagens produktivitet. Mer sällan ställs frågan hur lagstiftningen tillämpas och upplevs fungera lokalt och i praktiken, det vill säga ute på företagen.

    Den här studien syftar till att bidra med sådan konkret och lokal kunskap i syfte att undersöka avsedda och oavsedda konsekvenser av anställningsskyddets utformande i företagens dagliga verksamhet. Frågan undersöks genom tolv intervjuer med företagsledare i medelstora tillverkande företag med erfarenhet av att avsluta anställningar. Företagsledarna fick berätta om vad som hände, hur och när processen initierades, och när - men också hur - de upplevde att processen fungerade.

    Resultaten visar att företagsledarna principiellt har en positiv inställning till anställningsskydd, men upplever att lagstiftningen inte fungerar väl i praktiken. Exempelvis står turordningsreglerna i konflikt med företagsledningens fokus på att vid arbetsbrist behålla rätt kompetens. Vidare menar de att avslut av anställningar på grund av personliga skäl är näst intill omöjligt.

    Rapportens slutsats mynnar ut i att anställningsskyddslagstiftningen - sett ur ett företagsledningsperspektiv - har viktiga oavsedda konsekvenser: Man kan frångå turordningsreglerna, men det är dyrt. Man kan avsluta anställningar som inte fungerar, men bara genom låtsad omorganisering och konstruerad arbetsbrist. Sammanfattningsvis framkommer många, av lagstiftaren oavsedda, oförutsedda, och oönskade, konsekvenser ur intervjuerna som framkallar frågan i vilken utsträckning lagstiftningen i praktiken uppfyller sitt egentliga syfte.

  • 15. Bernard, Aude
    et al.
    Kolk, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for Cultural Evolution. Institute for Future Studies, Sweden.
    Are Young Swedes Moving More? A Cohort Analysis of Internal Migration by Move Order2019In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While levels of migration within countries have been trending down in a number of advanced economies, Sweden has recorded a rise in internal migration among young adults. An increase in aggregate migration levels can be the result of a decline in immobility (i.e. the absence of migration), an increase in repeat movement or a combination of both. In this paper, we draw on retrospective survey and longitudinal register data to explore the demographic mechanisms underpinning the rise in internal migration among young Swedes born in the 30 years to 1980 and we compare the migration behaviour of the youngest cohort to that of their European counterparts. Of all 25 European countries, Sweden reports the highest level of migration among young adults, which is the result of very low immobility combined with high repeat movement. The increase in migration has been particularly pronounced for inter-county moves for the post-1970 cohorts. Analysis of order-specific components of migration shows that this is the result of a decrease in immobility combined with a modest rise in higher-order moves, whereas it is the rise in higher-order moves that underpins the increase in inter-parish migration. This upswing has been accompanied by a shift in the ages at migration, characterised by an earlier start and later finish leading to a lengthening of the number of years young adults are mobile. The results indicate that change in migration behaviour is order-specific, which underlines the need to collect and analyse migration by move order to obtain a reliable account of migration trends.

  • 16.
    Juárez, Sol
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Mussino, Eleonora
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Being a refugee or having a refugee status? Birthweight and gestational age outcomes among offspring of immigrant mothers in Sweden2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 47, no 7, p. 730-734Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: to evaluate whether the information on refugee status based on the residence permit is a useful source of information for perinatal health surveillance. Methods: using the Swedish population registers (1997-2012), we use multinomial regression models to assess the associations between migration status (refugee and non-refugee) and birth outcomes derived from birthweight and gestational age: low birthweight (lBW) (<2500 g), macrosomia (≥4000 g); preterm: (<37 w) and post-term (≥42 w). The Swedish-born population was used as a reference group. Results: Compared to the Swedish-born population, an increased OR (odds ratio) of lBW and post-term was found among migrants with and without refugee status (respectively: OR for refugees: 1.47 [95% CI: 1.33-1.63] and non-refugees:1.27 [95% CI: 1.18-1.38], for refugees: 1.41 [95% CI: 1.35-1.49] and non-refugees:1.04 [95% CI: 1.00-1.08]) with statistically significant differences between these two migrant categories. However, when looking at specific regions of origin, few regions show differences by refugee status. Compared to Swedes, lower or equal ORs of preterm and macrosomia are observed regardless of migratory status. Conclusions: Small or no differences were observed in birth outcomes among offspring of women coming from the same origin with different migratory status, compared to their Swedish counterparts. This suggests that information on migration status is not a relevant piece of information to identify immigrant women at higher risk of experiencing adverse reproductive outcomes. Our results however might be explained by the large proportion of women coming to Sweden for family reunification who are classified as non-refugee migrants.

  • 17. Comolli, Chiara Ludovica
    et al.
    Neyer, Gerda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Dommermuth, Lars
    Fallesen, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). ROCKWOOL Foundation, Denmark .
    Jalovaara, Marika
    Jónsson, Ari
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Kolk, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Lappegård, Trude
    Beyond the Economic Gaze: Childbearing during and after recessions in the Nordic countries2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates fertility responses to the business cycle in the Nordic countries by comparing period variation in women’s childbearing propensity. We harmonize register data from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden to compare childbearing in the aftermath of the two most recent crises that hit those economies: the 1990s and 2010s. We use event-history techniques to present parity-specific fertility, by calendar year, relative to a defined pre-recession year. We further examine any possible impact of the two recessions by women’s age and education. Results show a large heterogeneity across the five Nordic countries in the childbearing developments after 1990. This variation largely disappears after 2008 when period trends in birth hazards become more similar across countries. Likewise, the educational differences that characterized the variation in childbearing relative risk after 1990 considerably diminish in the years after 2010, especially for first and second births. Economic theories do not suffice to explain this reversal from the heterogeneity of the 1990s to the homogeneity of the 2010s in the childbearing response to recession episodes across countries and socioeconomic groups. Our findings suggest the need to expand the theoretical framework explaining the cyclicality of fertility towards the perception of economic and welfare uncertainty.

  • 18.
    Voyer, Andrea
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Book Review: Uneasy Street: The Anxieties of Affluence2019In: Cultural Sociology, ISSN 1749-9755, E-ISSN 1749-9763, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 372-374Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Sundberg, Mikaela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Brotherhood as an Organized Social Relationship2019In: Organization outside Organizations: The Abundance of Partial Organization in Social Life / [ed] Göran Ahrne, Nils Brunsson, Cambridge University Press, 2019, p. 271-290Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The argument of this chapter is that brotherhood can be conceptualized as a partially organized relationship, based on membership and rules. To illustrate the conceptualization, the chapter draws examples from three different arenas where there is a strong rhetorical emphasis on brotherhood, or fraternity: the military, motorcycle clubs, and monasteries. Membership determines who is a brother or not and while the brotherly relationship sometimes extends beyond the cessation of membership in a formal organization, it presupposes membership at some point. Rules clarify important components of brotherhood including homogeneous relations among all brothers (or sisters). This makes a crucial difference relative to friendship, which is a type of relationship that can even be a threat for brotherhood. In areas where collectivist ideology, homogeneity of relationships, and requests on loyalty are especially forceful, personal or friendly relations between individual members cannot compensate for failure as a “brother.” Brotherhood justifies sacrifice of individual needs to collective demands, and this may include the sacrifice of a personal relation.

  • 20. Ma, Li
    et al.
    Rizzi, Ester
    Turunen, Jani
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Childlessness, sex composition of children, and divorce risks in China2019In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 41, p. 753-780, article id 26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND Studies on children and divorce in China find a negative association between the number of children and divorce and a protective effect of having a son. Nonetheless, we have little knowledge of how these associations have developed over time. OBJECTIVE This study explored the association of the number and sex composition of children with divorce risks in China over the period 1980-2012. METHODS We conducted an event history analysis of longitudinal data from the China Family Panel Studies. RESULTS Childless couples had an increasingly higher divorce risk than couples with children over our observation period. In the 2000s, the divorce risk of childless couples in both urban and rural areas was approximately five times that of one-child parents. The role of the child's gender differs for urban and rural one-child parents, with no significant effect on the divorce risk of urban parents and different effects over time for rural parents. CONCLUSIONS Our findings show that ending a marriage when having no children has become an increasingly pronounced trend. Furthermore, partially due to the rapid socioeconomic and demographic progress and the rise of girls' empowerment, the child's gender has lost importance for the divorce risk of urban parents. CONTRIBUTION This study enriches our knowledge about the association between children and divorce risks in a rapidly developing society Indirectly, the study also informs us about the evolution of son preference in China. CONTRIBUTION This study enriches our knowledge about the association between children and divorce risks in a rapidly developing society Indirectly, the study also informs us about the evolution of son preference in China.

  • 21.
    Weber, Rosa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Saarela, Jan
    Circular migration in a context of free mobility: Evidence from linked population register data from Finland and Sweden2019In: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 25, no 4, article id e2230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Circular migration in settings of free mobility has received increasing policy attention. However, due to data constraints, little is known about the mechanisms underlying it. Using linked Finnish and Swedish register data that allow us to follow Finnish migrants across national borders, we analyse whether the determinants of circular migration differ from those of the first and return move. People move freely between Sweden and Finland, as they are in the common Nordic labour market. Event history analysis shows that many moves are temporary and short term. Moreover, the patterns of circular migration reflect those of the first emigration and first return, respectively. Swedish speakers and individuals who are not married are more prone to emigrate for the first and second time, whereas Finnish speakers and married individuals have a higher risk of return migration. This implies that circular migration may amplify demographic features related to emigration and return migration.

  • 22. Lim, Seunghoo
    et al.
    Nakazato, Hiromi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Meiji University, Japan; Södertörn University, Sweden.
    Co-evolving supportive networks and perceived community resilience across disaster-damaged areas after the Great East Japan Earthquake: Selection, influence, or both?2019In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 116-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami in March 2011, the new community currency experiment for supporting disaster recovery, Fukkou Ouen Chiiki Tsuka, was introduced by community-based organizations in these earthquake-damaged areas. However, little is known about how perceived community resilience coevolves with interactions in the disaster recovery process. Using Simultaneous Investigation for Empirical Network Analysis techniques, this study shows the coevolutionary dynamics between perceptions of community resilience and the formation of supportive links among residents through a community currency (Domo) in Kamaishi. This study also provides policy implications for how mutual reinforcement between community residents' engagement in network establishments and building a sense of community resilience among those affected functions as a potential mechanism for facilitating disaster recovery.

  • 23.
    Kolk, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for Cultural Evolution. Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Barclay, Kieron
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Germany; London School of Economics and Political Science, UK.
    Cognitive ability and fertility among Swedish men born 1951–1967: evidence from military conscription registers2019In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 286, no 1902, article id 20190359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the relationship between cognitive ability and childbearing patterns in contemporary Sweden using administrative register data. The topic has a long history in the social sciences and has been the topic of a large number of studies, many reporting a negative gradient between intelligence and fertility. We link fertility histories to military conscription tests with intelligence scores for all Swedish men born 1951 to 1967. We find a positive relationship between intelligence scores and fertility, and this pattern is consistent across the cohorts we study. The relationship is most pronounced for the transition to a first child, and men with the lowest categories of IQ-scores have the fewest children. Using fixed effects models we additionally control for all factors that are shared by siblings, and after such adjustments we find a stronger positive relationship between IQ and fertility. Furthermore, we find a positive gradient within groups at different levels of education. Compositional differences of this kind are therefore not responsible for the positive gradient we observe - instead the relationship is even stronger after controlling for both educational careers and parental background factors. In our models where we compare brothers to one another we find that, relative to men with IQ 100, the group with the lowest category of cognitive ability have 0.56 fewer children, and men with the highest category have 0.09 more children. 

  • 24.
    Svallfors, Signe
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Billingsley, Sunnee
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Conflict and Contraception in Colombia2019In: Studies in family planning, ISSN 0039-3665, E-ISSN 1728-4465, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 87-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores how armed conflict relates to contraceptive use in Colombia, combining data from the Uppsala Conflict Data Program and Demographic and Health Surveys 1990-2016. Our study is the first systematic effort to investigate whether and how violent conflict influences women's contraceptive use, using nationally representative data across all stages of women's reproductive careers. With fixed effects linear probability models, we adjust for location-specific cultural, social, and economic differences. The results show that although modern contraceptive use increased over time, it declined according to conflict intensity across location and time. We find no evidence that this relationship varied across socioeconomic groups. Increased fertility demand appears to explain a small portion of this relationship, potentially reflecting uncertainty about losing a partner, but conflict may also result in lack of access to contraceptive goods and services.

  • 25. Arnalds, Asdis A.
    et al.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Eydal, Gudny Björk
    Gislason, Ingolfur V.
    Constructing parenthood in times of crisis2019In: Journal of Family Studies, ISSN 1322-9400, E-ISSN 1839-3543Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Iceland was hit by a financial crisis in October 2008 and in the following year the ceiling on parental leave benefits was significantly lowered. The subsequent drop in fathers' uptake of parental leave raises questions on whether the crisis endangered gender equality when it comes to how parents arranged care for their new-born. The article explores changes in how parents arrange childcare with the use of paid parental leave and unpaid time off work by comparing findings from surveys among parents of firstborn children in 2003 and 2009. The results show that mothers of children born during the crisis were more likely to lengthen their time at home with the child, than those who had a child during an economic boom. This they did either by using the leave part-time, use vacation days or unpaid leave. It is argued that this could be a result of the fall in fathers' leave use during the crisis.

  • 26.
    Thomson, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. University of Wisconsin–Madison, USA.
    Winkler-Dworak, Maria
    Beaujouan, Éva
    Contribution of the Rise in Cohabiting Parenthood to Family Instability: Cohort Change in Italy, Great Britain, and Scandinavia2019In: Demography, ISSN 0070-3370, E-ISSN 1533-7790, Vol. 56, p. 2063-2082Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we investigate through microsimulation the link between cohabiting parenthood and family instability. We identify mechanisms through which increases in cohabiting parenthood may contribute to overall increases in separation among parents, linking micro-level processes to macro-level outcomes. Analyses are based on representative surveys in Italy, Great Britain, and Scandinavia (represented by Norway and Sweden), with full histories of women's unions and births. We first generate parameters for the risk of first and higher-order birth and union events by woman's birth cohort and country. The estimated parameters are used to generate country- and cohort-specific populations of women with stochastically predicted family life courses. We use the hypothetical populations to decompose changes in the percentage of mothers who separate/divorce across maternal birth cohorts (1940s to 1950s, 1950s to 1960s, 1960s to 1970s), identifying how much of the change can be attributed to shifts in union status at first birth and how much is due to change in separation rates for each union type. We find that when cohabiting births were uncommon, increases in parents' separation were driven primarily by increases in divorce among married parents. When cohabiting parenthood became more visible, it also became a larger component, but continued increases in parents' divorce also contributed to increasing parental separation. When cohabiting births became quite common, the higher separation rates of cohabiting parents began to play a greater role than married parents' divorce. When most couples had their first birth in cohabitation, those having children in marriage were increasingly selected from the most stable relationships, and their decreasing divorce rates offset the fact that increasing proportions of children were born in somewhat less stable cohabiting unions.

  • 27.
    Tønnessen, Marianne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Statistics Norway, Norway.
    Declined Total Fertility Rate Among Immigrants and the Role of Newly Arrived Women in Norway2019In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many Western countries, the total fertility rate (TFR) of immigrant women has declined over the last decades. This paper proposes two methods for investigating such changes in the aggregate immigrant fertility level: what-if scenarios and a formal decomposition. Both methods disentangle the effect of changed composition-by origin area and duration of stay-from the effect of changed fertility within subgroups. The methods are applied to data from Norway, where immigrant TFR declined from 2.6 births per women in 2000 to below 2.0 in 2017. The results show that this decline is not due to successful integration, nor changed composition of immigrant women by origin area or duration of stay. A main reason for the decline is found among newly arrived immigrant women, particularly from Asia. They have a considerably lower fertility now than what the newly arrived had 15-20 years ago. After investigating several possible reasons for the TFR decline among the newly arrived, decreased fertility in origin areas is suggested as a key driver.

  • 28.
    Mussino, Eleonora
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Tervola, Jussi
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Decomposing the determinants of fathers' parental leave use: Evidence from migration between Finland and Sweden2019In: Journal of European Social Policy, ISSN 0958-9287, E-ISSN 1461-7269, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 197-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of parental leave by fathers varies notably between countries. However, the underlying reasons for cross-country differences have not been explicitly studied. We use migration between Finland and Sweden as an instrument to decompose the roles of policy design and social norms in the differences in take-up rates between these two countries. First, we inferred the role of policy by looking at fathers from the same country of origin in various policy contexts. Second, we deduced the role of norms by examining fathers who migrated at different ages and fathers with spouses of different origins. We find that the large cross-country differences in fathers' use of parental leave between Finland and Sweden mainly stem from differences in policy design. Norms seem to play a smaller but still significant role.

  • 29.
    Coppolino Perfumi, Serena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. University of Florence, Italy.
    Bagnoli, Franco
    Caudek, Corrado
    Guazzini, Andrea
    Deindividuation effects on normative and informational social influence within computer-mediated-communication2019In: Computers in human behavior, ISSN 0747-5632, E-ISSN 1873-7692, Vol. 92, p. 230-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on social influence shows that different patterns take place when this phenomenon happens within computer-mediated-communication (CMC), if compared to face-to-face interaction. Informational social influence can still easily take place also by means of CMC, however normative influence seems to be more affected by the environmental characteristics. Different authors have theorized that deindividuation nullifies the effects of normative influence, but the Social Identity Model of Deindividuation Effects theorizes that users will conform even when deindividuated, but only if social identity is made salient. The two typologies of social influence have never been studied in comparison, therefore in our work, we decided to create an online experiment to observe how the same variables affect them, and in particular how deindividuation works in both cases. The 181 experimental subjects that took part, performed 3 tasks: one aiming to elicit normative influence, and two semantic tasks created to test informational influence. Entropy has been used as a mathematical assessment of information availability. Our results show that normative influence becomes almost ineffective within CMC (1.4% of conformity) when subjects are deindividuated. Informational influence is generally more effective than normative influence within CMC (15-29% of conformity), but similarly to normative influence, it is inhibited by deindividuation.

  • 30. Eklund, Lina
    et al.
    Roman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Digital Gaming and Young People's Friendships: A Mixed Methods Study of Time Use and Gaming in School2019In: Young - Nordic Journal of Youth Research, ISSN 1103-3088, E-ISSN 1741-3222, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 32-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this mixed methods study, we investigate the impact of digital gaming on school social life among young people (17-19 year old) by combining over-time data investigating friendships as they form, with subjective experiences of friendships. We draw on one full cohort of Swedish pupils surveyed on three occasions during their first year in upper-secondary school (n = 115) and one interview sample of 10 game users. Results indicate that how much time young people spend on gaming is not a significant factor for friendship formation in the studied sample. Moreover, high-use did not make game users socially isolated or less popular in school. We discuss how young people adhere to ideals of responsible leisure in order to become adults; practising time-management strategies to make place for time-consuming leisure while not letting it impact personal relationships.

  • 31.
    Morosow, Kathrin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Jalovaara, Marika
    Disadvantaging Single Parents? Effects of Long Family Leaves on Single and Partnered Mothers’ Labour Market Outcomes in Finland2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One aim of family leaves is to help mothers combine paid work and childcare, yet longer leaves have been shown to weaken women's labour market positions. Moreover, longer leaves can have differential effects across population groups. This study compares the consequences of longer family leaves for single and partnered mothers’ labour market outcomes as measured by unemployment and earnings. We use Finnish register data for 1989 to 2014 to interact mothers’ partnership status with the accumulated family leave length. To consider selection into being a single mother, we compare estimates from OLS and FE models. The results indicate that longer leaves are positively associated with post-leave unemployment in both groups but more strongly among single mothers. Longer leaves are linked to similar lower annual earnings among both single and partnered mothers. We conclude that longer family leaves disproportionately disadvantage single mothers’ employment chances, highlighting the heterogeneity of consequences. These disadvantages are not due to selection into single motherhood, suggesting potential discrimination or work-family reconciliation problems.

  • 32.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Johansson, Mats
    Does Fathers' Care Spill Over? Evaluating Reforms in the Swedish Parental Leave Program2019In: Feminist Economics, ISSN 1354-5701, E-ISSN 1466-4372, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 67-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of reserving months for fathers in the Swedish parental leave system was to increase fathers' use of leave as well as encourage gender equality in the home and labor market. Using data from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency, this study investigates the effects of the reform - reserving one month of leave for fathers in 1995 and a second month in 2002 - on gender equality in the home. The study uses the take up of the parental benefit for the care for sick children (CFSC) as a proxy for gender equality and follows parents' use of CFSC for twelve years for the first reform and ten years for the second reform. Results indicate the first reform led to more equal leave sharing, mainly because use of the benefit decreased among mothers with low education, and at least in part fulfilled the aim of increasing gender equality in the home.

  • 33. Hellum, Merete
    et al.
    Oláh, Livia Sz.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Doing gender and gender equality’ through emotional expressions during a research interview. Views of highly educated Swedish young adults2019In: Journal of Gender Studies, ISSN 0958-9236, E-ISSN 1465-3869, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 304-317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to contribute to the knowledge on how concepts of gender and gender equality are constructed within research interviews, deepening our understanding of the underlying gender system in society. We focus on emotions and emotional processes expressed during interviews on work and family when specific questions originating in the World Value Survey were asked. Our study is based on interviews with highly educated women and men, in two metropolitan areas of Sweden. In this article we seek to shed more light on how incorporating emotional expressions and the evaluation of these emotions can grasp the construction of gender and gender equality. We highlight the range of emotional expressions that appear during the interviews, differences in their usage by women and men and the links to the construction of gender and gender equality. We explore how the specific situation of the interview influences ‘doing gender and gender equality’ through emotions. Our results reveal that men and women use similar but also different emotional expressions in conforming to the gender equality norm. Men and women, interviewers and interviewees agreed on this norm, but the ways they ’performed’ the norm are gender based.

  • 34. Jalovaara, Marika
    et al.
    Neyer, Gerda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Dahlberg, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Dommermuth, Lars
    Fallesen, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). ROCKWOOL Foundation, Denmark.
    Lappegård, Trude
    Education, Gender, and Cohort Fertility in the Nordic Countries2019In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 563-586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Systematic comparisons of fertility developments based on education, gender and country context are rare. Using harmonized register data, we compare cohort total fertility and ultimate childlessness by gender and educational attainment for cohorts born beginning in 1940 in four Nordic countries. Cohort fertility (CTF) initially declined in all four countries, although for cohorts born in the 1950s and later, the CTF remained stable or declined only modestly. Childlessness, which had been increasing, has plateaued in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Women’s negative educational gradient in relation to total fertility has vanished, except in Finland, while men’s positive gradient has persisted. The highest level of men’s childlessness appears among the least educated. In the oldest female cohorts, childlessness was highest among the highly educated, but these patterns have changed over the cohorts as childlessness has increased among the low educated and remained relatively stable among higher educated women. In Denmark, Norway and Sweden, childlessness is now highest among the least educated women. We witness both a new gender similarity and persistent (among men) and new (among women) educational disparities in childbearing outcomes in the Nordic region. Overall, the number of low educated has decreased remarkably over time. These population segments face increasing social and economic disadvantages that are reflected as well in their patterns of family formation.

  • 35.
    Berlin, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. The Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare, Sweden.
    Vinnerljung, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Brännström, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Educational outcomes of children from long-term foster care: Does foster parents’ educational attainment matter?2019In: Developmental Child Welfare, ISSN 2516-1032, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 344-359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parental education is a robust predictor of children’s educational outcomes in general population studies, yet little is known about the intergenerational transmission of educational outcomes in alternative family settings such as children growing up in foster care. Using Swedish longitudinal register data on 2,167 children with experience of long-term foster care, this study explores the hypothesized mediating role of foster parents’ educational attainment on foster children’s educational outcomes, here conceptualized as having poor school performance at age 15 and only primary education at age 26. Results from gender-stratified regression analyses suggest that there was an association between foster parental educational attainment and foster children’s educational outcomes but that the educational transmission was weak and inconsistent and differed somewhat between males and females. For males, lower educational attainment in foster parents was associated with poor school performance but was not associated with educational attainment at age 26. The reverse pattern was found among females: the educational gradient was inconsistent for poor school performance but appeared in educational attainment. The results indicate that supported interventions for improving foster children’s educational achievements are needed, even when placements are relatively stable and foster parents have a long formal education.

  • 36.
    Fredriksson, Daniel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Enabling employment?: Drivers and outcomes of active labour market policies in comparative perspective2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis includes three empirical studies that analyse driving forces and outcomes of active labour market policies (ALMP) in comparative perspective. Whereas previous comparative research has largely relied on broad conceptualisations of ALMP, often considering policies such as public employment services and training programs as one single type of intervention, the studies in this thesis instead analyse more fine-grained categories and classifications of ALMP. By doing so, the studies contribute with nuance to the discussion of what has shaped labour market policies, and how these influence labour market outcomes.

    Study I: This study focuses on determinants of spending on public employment services (PES). Contrary to common assumptions, which state that PES is largely determined by structural factors, the main hypothesis is that partisan politics is a relevant predictor of PES spending. The analysis includes 17 welfare states between 1985 and 2011. The results indicate that partisan politics and electoral competition are related to the development of PES spending, but that the turn to activation in many welfare states in the late 1990s reduced the salience of partisan politics.

    Study II: This study analyses whether different types of active labour market policies are related to reduced unemployment, and especially if there is evidence for interdependencies between policies. The study distinguishes between public employment services (PES), training, and job creation programs. PES is singled out as a crucial factor that mediates the effects of other labour market policies, both active and passive. The study examines 19 welfare states between 1985 and 2012 and the results indicate that training programs reduce unemployment in the short run, whereas long-term effects are less apparent for all policy types. Increased investment in PES is found to strengthen the impact of training and job creation programs.

    Study III: This study examines the link between active labour market policies and transitions to employment from unemployment and inactivity across the European Union between 2003 and 2013. The study distinguishes between three types of interventions: core programs, directed towards the registered unemployed; peripheral programs, targeting the inactive part of the working age population; and mixed programs, targeting both groups. The results indicate that ALMP have beneficial effects on employment transitions among both the unemployed and the inactive, but that effects differ depending on the type of intervention. Unemployed seem to benefit from increased efforts on ALMP regardless of the type of intervention, whereas the inactive seem to have increased chances to transition into employment if programs target both groups, but not if interventions solely target the inactive.

  • 37.
    Andersson, Linus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Essays on Family Dynamics: Partnering, Fertility and Divorce in Sweden2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Diversity in household and family structures poses interesting questions for scientific inquiry. What accounts for patterns of reproduction, partnering, household formation and household dissolution? This dissertation investigates facets of this question in the context of modern Sweden from a longitudinal and individual level perspective. It consists of three empirical studies using data from administrative registers and panel survey data. The first study begins with noting a rapid expansion in online education and analyzes whether this development leads to higher fertility in student populations. The second study asks whether individuals’ predispositions towards divorce change after exposure to the experience of parenthood, union formation and union dissolution. The third study builds on the literature on assortative mating and investigates what drives underlying preferences for this behavior. 

  • 38.
    Brandén, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Birkelund, Gunn Elisabeth
    Szulkin, Ryszard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Ethnic Composition of Schools and Students' Educational Outcomes: Evidence from Sweden2019In: The international migration review, ISSN 0197-9183, E-ISSN 1747-7379, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 486-517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the impact of ethnic school composition on students' educational outcomes using Swedish population register data. We add to the literature on the consequences of ethnic school segregation for native and immigrant students by distinguishing social interaction effects from selection and environmental effects through one- and two-way fixed effects models. Our findings demonstrate that native and immigrant students' grades are relatively unaffected by social interaction effects stemming from the proportion of immigrant schoolmates. However, we find nontrivial effects on their eligibility for upper secondary school. Immigrants' educational outcomes are weakly positively affected by the proportion of co-ethnics in school.

  • 39.
    Winter, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Everybody knows?: Conversational coproduction in communication of addiction expertise2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The coproduction idiom within Science and Technology Studies (STS) centers on how science and society produce knowledge together. The current thesis explores expert communication – which is immersed in the relationship between science and society – as a case for understanding such coproducing processes. Expert communication is often characterized as a democratic initiative of knowledge enlightenment. But we know less about the consequences that communication initiatives bring. For instance, while groups of publics and experts are large and heterogeneous, expert communication often involves simplified and dichotomized relationships between these groups. The aim of this thesis is to understand the practice of expert communication in terms of how expertise is communicated and received. Who gets to represent experts and publics, in what ways and in which situations, and how do they engage with expertise?

    Expert communication takes place in all kinds of fields. The focus of this thesis is communication of addiction expertise. The addiction field makes a suitable case for studying co-constitutive practices of communication, as it is broad and disparate, and filled with different contradictory perspectives, actors and relations. The current study explores communication of addiction expertise through three cases that involve different types of experts and publics, as well as different dimensions of the expert/public relationships and of communication as a process of coproduction: Newspaper readers’ interpretations of media representations of biomedical addiction expertise, conference participants’ collaboration within a conference on codependency, and civil servants’ and politicians’ interaction within county council committee meetings. Drawing on STS approaches of coproduction of knowledge and classical sociological conversation analysis, the thesis explores questions of how, what, and whose knowledge is communicated and received, and what activities and actors are involved in these processes. A specific focus is put on how sociability in the form of conversational routines is productive, as sociability carries expertise and establishes relations between actors involved in coproducing processes of communication.

    Publics are not only recipients of expertise but also active enablers of how expertise comes into being in the everyday society, as publics engage with expertise through filtering and intertwining expertise through and with their personal experiences. Expertise, at least regarding human and social activities such as addiction, is thus bound to everyday experiences and lives. It is also shown how certain expertise, certain experiences, and certain actors and victims of addiction related problems are included while others are excluded. For example, biomedical explanations such as the reward system and the brain disease model seem to co-exist well with peoples’ personal experiences in contrast to social scientific explanations. Moreover, certain actors manage to draw on personal experiences in multiple roles as both experts and publics. Introducing the concept of conversational coproduction, the studies also highlight the sociability and conversational routines involved in expert communication as crucial for (de)establishing relations and making expertise flow or freeze in local coproducing processes as well as for understanding consequences of expert communication and its relation to public participation and democracy.

  • 40. Sturup, Joakim
    et al.
    Gerell, Manne
    Rostami, Amir
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Institute for Future Studies, Sweden.
    Explosive violence: A near-repeat study of hand grenade detonations and shootings in urban Sweden2019In: European Journal of Criminology, ISSN 1477-3708, E-ISSN 1741-2609Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hand grenade attacks have increasingly been reported in Sweden. However, to date no research on the topic exists. The present study aims to describe the illegal use of hand grenades and to test its spatio-temporal relationship with gun violence to explore whether the two forms of violence are connected. Data were collected for the years 2011 to 2016 from the Swedish police and from open sources about hand grenade detonations, which were considered alongside shootings as two types of violence commonly attributed to criminal groups. Descriptive data and trends are presented and spatio-temporal analysis of near-repeat patterns was performed using a near-repeat calculator. All in all, there were 77 incidents of detonated hand grenades in Sweden during the six-year observation period, in which nine individuals were injured and one killed. The number of incidents increased, with about half of the them occurring during the last year. A near-repeat analysis was performed on shootings (N = 1048) and hand grenades (N = 55) in Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmo. The shootings exhibit a strong component of near-repeat patterns, but adding hand grenades to the analysis did not strengthen the patterns, suggesting that the two types of violence only partially share spatio-temporal patterns. The study confirms an increase in the use of hand grenades in Sweden, although the reason for the increase is unknown. The increase does fit with the overall changing pattern in violence in urban areas in Sweden, which broadly tends to be attributed to criminal groups in disadvantaged neighbourhoods.

  • 41.
    Fallesen, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). ROCKWOOL Foundation, Denmark.
    Gähler, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Family type and parents’ time with children: Longitudinal evidence for Denmark2019In: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parental time with children is important for children’s developmental outcomes. Family type may affect the amount of time parents can and will invest in children. Using time-use panel data obtained from two waves of the Danish Time Use Survey, linked with administrative records, the study shows that parental family type had a substantial impact on the time parents spent with children. When controlling for constant unobserved individual traits, likely to affect both time-use and family type, differences in time-use increase, indicating positive selection into nonintact family types. Single parents and parents in reconstituted families spent less time on developmental activities, such as talking, reading and playing with the child, whereas parents living in reconstituted families also spent less time on non-developmental activities, such as transporting the child or performing basic childcare. Based on our findings, there are indications that cross-sectional results showing little difference in parents’ involvement in children across family types partly emanate from differential selection in family types.

  • 42.
    Ma, Li
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Evertsson, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Fathers’ Uptake of Parental Leave: Forerunners and Laggards in Sweden, 1993-20102019In: Journal of Social Policy, ISSN 0047-2794, E-ISSN 1469-7823Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is often considered a forerunner in family change and developments towards less gendered family production patterns. In this study, we focus on recent developments towards more gender-equal sharing of parental leave in Sweden. We explore how fathers’ use of parental leave has changed over time before and since the turn of the century. As the parental leave benefit is individual and earnings-based, we examine how fathers’ individual socio-economic and demographic characteristics are associated with their parental leave uptake over time, to determine whether there are forerunners and laggards in recent family change. Multinomial logistic regression models were applied to data from national registers. Our study demonstrates a bifurcation in trends in recent decades. This is associated with the extension of reforms that reserve part of the leave for fathers, the so-called “daddy months”, but stretches beyond the impact of any such reforms. Taking a long leave of over two months was pioneered by better-educated residents of metropolitan areas and surrounding suburbs, as well as Swedish-born fathers. Young fathers, low-income earners and foreign-born fathers lagged behind in these developments. We regard the unstable labour market situation of the latter as a contributing factor in widening social inequalities in family-related behaviour.

  • 43.
    Dahlberg, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Fecundity and human birth seasonality in Sweden: a register-based study2019In: Reproductive Health, ISSN 1742-4755, E-ISSN 1742-4755, Vol. 16, article id 87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It is well-established that couples' fecundities vary widely. Each couple has a relatively constant monthly probability of conceiving, which can vary from zero to quite high. This underlying probability is usually expressed as the time (number of menstrual cycles) the couple requires to conceive. Couples with high fecundity will, on average, need fewer cycles than couples with low fecundity. It is also well-documented that almost all human populations exhibit seasonal variation in births. Most European countries show seasonal variation that usually peak in the spring and are the lowest during the last quarter of the year. The increasingly strong pattern of depressed birth rates in November and December is likely explained by the December-January cut-off threshold for Swedish pupils' school entry and their parents increasing awareness of the negative effects on school outcomes for children who are juniors in the school-entry cohort they belong to. To actively plan births for a specific time of the year, couples need to have some knowledge of the time required for them to conceive.

    Methods: We use the duration between marriage of childless couples and first birth as a proxy measure of couples' fecundity. Based on this time-to-pregnancy measure we study to what extent couples' capacity to conceive affects the seasonality of their second births. We hypothesize that in a society with highly controlled fertility and a strong norm of having at least two children, sub-fertile couples will on average show less seasonal variation in second births. Sub-fertile couples, requiring more time to conceive the first time, will be less likely to try to target a desired birth month for their second child because doing so could jeopardize fulfilling their desired family size. We apply multinomial logistic regressions on 81,998 Swedish couples who married while being childless and subsequently gave birth to at least two children between 1990 and 2012, to investigate fecundity's role in seasonal variation in second births.

    Results: We found that seasonal variation in second births was strongly associated with couples' observed fecundity, measured as the duration between marriage formation and first birth. Our results support the hypothesis that sub-fertile couples, requiring more time to conceive the first time, show less seasonal variation in second births. The seasonal variations in second order births among couples with normal fecundity shows some similarities to traditional patterns as seen in agricultural and industrial societies of the past, with high numbers of births during the spring, and low numbers during the last quarter of the year. However, two important differences are notable. The characteristic Christmas peak in September has vanished, and the low birth rates in November and December come out much stronger than in the past.

    Conclusions: The birth seasonality among couples with normal fecundity are what we would expect if couples actively plan their births according to the cut-off date for Swedish pupils' school entry. We argue that our findings support the notion that scheduled childbirth is a reality in contemporary sociality.

  • 44.
    Winter, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Forskningsformidling: oplysning, magtmiddel eller begge dele?2019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 45. Elgenius, Gabriella
    et al.
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Frames of nostalgia and belonging: the resurgence of ethno-nationalism in Sweden2019In: European Societies: The Official Journal of the European Sociological Association, ISSN 1461-6696, E-ISSN 1469-8307, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 583-602Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the ethno-nationalist rhetoric promoted by radical right-wing parties in Europe; its perceived threats against national identity translated into a nostalgia for the past based on ethnic homogeneity. Five anti-immigrant frames have been especially instrumental in attracting voters, merging with other central components to construct a potent master frame and structuring much of the mobilizing activities of these parties. This development motivates a closer look into the ways in which the ethno-nationalist message is framed and constructed, taking Sweden as our case in point. The Sweden Democrats entered the Swedish parliament in 2010, an election that has come to mark the end of Swedish 'exceptionalism' and pointing towards the resurgence of ethno-nationalism in Sweden too. The Swedish case is analyzed with a focus on the Sweden Democrats particular ethno-nationalist message; the rhetoric of decline of golden ages and solutions posed to combat these alleged processes of decay. We depart from framing theory that allow us to better understand the centrality of the ethno-nationalist message, which demonstrates considerable continuity over time, despite the modernization of party rhetoric. Thus, the exclusive conceptualization of nationality as constituted by an 'inherited essence', proposes that Swedish identity is more than culturally assigned. The empirical material consists of Sweden Democrat party manifestos and position papers since 1989 and selected articles from the party newsletter (SD Kuriren).

  • 46. Aarskaug Wiik, Kenneth
    et al.
    Bernhardt, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Gendered expectations: expected consequences of union formation across Europe2019In: Journal of Family Studies, ISSN 1322-9400, E-ISSN 1839-3543, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 214-231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using comparable survey data from eight European countries this study investigated expected consequences of forming a co-residential relationship among non-partnered individuals aged 22-35 (N = 8443). Results showed that respondents expected improvements in their financial situation when moving in with a partner, though in all countries women held more positive expectations toward their post union formation economic situation than men. This result likely reflects the lingering traditional gender structure of the society, with men faced with the responsibility of being the main breadwinner in the family. Such an interpretation would seem to be supported by the fact that this gender gap was smallest in Sweden, France and Belgium, the countries in the current sample with the most egalitarian gender structure. Potential restrictions in personal freedom by forming a co-residential relationship, on the other hand, seem to be less important, particularly among women.

  • 47.
    Beckley, Amber L.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Duke University, USA .
    Palmer, Rohan H.
    Rocque, Michael
    Whitfield, Keith E.
    Health and criminal justice system involvement among African American siblings2019In: SSM - Population Health, ISSN 2352-8273, Vol. 7, article id 100359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Importance

    Health disparities between African Americans and Whites have persisted in the United States. Researchers have recently hypothesized that the relatively poor health of African Americans may be caused, in part, by African American overrepresentation in the criminal justice system.

    Objectives

    To test the hypothesis that criminal justice system involvement is associated with poor health and greater health risk when controlling for unobserved family factors through a discordant sibling design.

    Methods

    Subjects were drawn from the Carolina African American Twin Study of Aging (CAATSA). Criminal conviction records were extracted from North Carolina’s Department of Public Safety. Six measures of health and one measure of health risk were analyzed. The health of convicted respondents was compared to that of unrelated non-convicted respondents matched on childhood and demographic factors (“matched sample”). Convicted respondents were also compared to non-convicted siblings (“discordant sibling sample”).

    Results

    The matched sample included 134 CAATSA respondents. On average, convicted CAATSA respondents, compared to matched non-convicted respondents, were in worse health. Convicted respondents had worse mean self-reported health, worse lung function, more depressive symptoms, and smoked more. The discordant sibling sample included 74 respondents. Convicted siblings and non-convicted siblings had similar self-reported health, depressive symptoms, and smoking. In general, non-convicted siblings were in worse health than non-convicted respondents from the matched sample, implying that poor health runs in families.

    Conclusions

    This study provided preliminary evidence that some of the association between a criminal record and poor health is confounded by family factors. Though more research is needed to support these results, the study suggests that criminal involvement may not be associated with the surfeit of health problems observed among African Americans. The criminal justice system, nonetheless, could be used to decrease the health disparity.

  • 48.
    Garsten, Christina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology. Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study, Sweden.