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  • 1.
    Kolk, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    A Life-Course Analysis of Geographical Distance to Siblings, Parents, and Grandparents in Sweden2017In: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 23, no 3, e2020Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study makes a contribution to the demography and geography of kinship by studying how internal migration and demography shape the geographical availability of kin in contemporary Sweden. Age structures an individual's relationship with their parents and other kin, and this is reflected in how geographical distance to kin varies over the life course. This study uses a longitudinal approach in which the distance to siblings, parents, and grandparents is measured for the same individuals at different ages. The study follows all men and women in Sweden born in 1970 (N = 74,406) and their kin from age 10 (in 1980) to age 37 (in 2007), examining changes in distances to kin at ages when the cohort leave the parental home and often begin a new family. Swedish administrative registers containing yearly information on residence of everyone in Sweden are used to examine how geographical proximity changes over the life course. The study reveals overall continuity in geographical distance to family members after age 25. Overall, results show that Swedes live close to parents, siblings, and grandparents and have a large family network in their proximity. 

  • 2.
    Weidenstedt, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    A Sociology of Empowerment: The Relevance of Communicative Contexts for Workplace Change2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Empowerment has been a popular concept in management and leadership practice and research for more than forty years. The intentions behind empowerment at the workplace are positive: empowered employees should experience a greater degree of influence, decision-making latitude, and meaningfulness. This is achieved through transfers of power, such as increases in autonomy and responsibility. Although empowerment efforts have often been shown to successfully result in empowered and highly involved employees, there has also been research that shows the opposite: the so-called paradox of empowerment is a well-known problem that refers to failed empowerment efforts through which beneficiaries feel disempowered rather than empowered.

    This thesis comprises three papers intended to contribute to empowerment research and practice within a sociological framework that offers a better understanding of implicit assumptions between employer and employee and the unintended consequences these can have on the outcome of empowerment change efforts. The analyses utilize a communicative approach in line with sociological and social-psychological theories of communication and interaction.

    The first two papers are theoretical analyses, one examining the general concept of empowerment (Paper I), the other focusing more specifically on empowerment in workplace contexts (Paper II). Paper III is an empirical analysis that investigates some of the theoretical assumptions made in Papers I and II.

    The first paper analyzes empowerment from a sociological point of view and identifies possible mechanisms behind the paradox of empowerment. It is argued that such paradoxes may evolve from discrepancies between approaching empowerment from a purely economic and structural perspective versus a communicative and relational one. It concludes with the observation that, although their agency may be increased on a structural level, empowerees may experience a parallel decrease of agential options on a communicative level.

    The second paper deals with empowerment at the workplace as a management or leadership technique. Focusing on relational aspects, a “basic communicative structure” is identified. This is analyzed as comprising a contractual and a communicative context that should be taken into consideration by empowerers in order to avoid misunderstandings in the recipients’ sensemaking processes. Paper II concludes by arguing that the way recipients make sense of their roles and situations as defined by employment and/or psychological contracts might not necessarily be in line with the communicative meanings they ascribe to the change agents’ actions, and vice versa.

    The third paper analyzes employees’ orientations and attitudes toward empowerment and the relevance of their attitudes for the success of empowerment efforts. These issues are explored by means of survey data from 268 employees in the Swedish retail sector. Results indicate that age and work intensity (part-time vs. full-time), as well as cohabitation status may have significant impacts on how empowerment efforts are approached and received by employees.

    The thesis as a whole provides insights into sociological issues of empowerment, both generally and particularly in management and leadership contexts and concludes that the communicative context of empowerment interactions plays a significant role in employees’ empowerment orientations.

  • 3. Busetta, Annalisa
    et al.
    Cetorelli, Valeria
    Wilson, Ben
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. London School of Economics, UK.
    A Universal Health Care System? Unmet Need for Medical Care Among Regular and Irregular Immigrants in Italy2017In: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, ISSN 1557-1912, E-ISSN 1557-1920Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Italy has a universal health care system that covers, in principle, the whole resident population, irrespective of citizenship and legal status. This study calculates the prevalence of unmet need for medical care among Italian citizens, regular and irregular immigrants and estimates logistic regression models to assess whether differences by citizenship and legal status hold true once adjusting for potential confounders. The analysis is based on two Surveys on Income and Living Conditions of Italian households and households with foreigners. Controlling for various factors, the odds of experiencing unmet need for medical care are 27% higher for regular immigrants than for Italian citizens and 59% higher for irregular immigrants. The gaps by citizenship and legal status are even more striking among those with chronic illnesses. These results reveal the high vulnerability of immigrants in Italy and the need to develop more effective policies to achieve health care access for all residents.

  • 4.
    Miething, Alexander
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Access to occupational networks and ethnic variation of depressive symptoms in young adults in Sweden2017In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 190, 207-216 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social capital research has recognized the relevance of occupational network contacts for individuals’ life chances and status attainment, and found distinct associations dependent on ethnic background. A still fairly unexplored area is the health implications of occupational networks. The current approach thus seeks to study the relationship between access to occupational social capital and depressive symptoms in early adulthood, and to examine whether the associations differ between persons with native Swedish parents and those with parents born in Iran and the former Yugoslavia.

    The two-wave panel comprised 19- and 23-year-old Swedish citizens whose parents were born in either Sweden, Iran or the former Yugoslavia. The composition of respondents’ occupational networks contacts was measured with a so-called position generator. Depressive symptoms were assessed with a two-item depression screener. A population-averaged model was used to estimate the associations between depressive symptoms and access to occupational contact networks.

    Similar levels of depressive symptoms in respondents with parents born in Sweden and Yugoslavia were contrasted by a notably higher prevalence of these conditions in those with an Iranian background. After socioeconomic conditions were adjusted for, regression analysis showed that the propensity for depressive symptoms in women with an Iranian background increased with a higher number of manual class contacts, and decreased for men and women with Iranian parents with a higher number of prestigious occupational connections. The respective associations in persons with native Swedish parents and parents from the former Yugoslavia are partly reversed.

    Access to occupational contact networks, but also perceived ethnic identity, explained a large portion of the ethnic variation in depression. Mainly the group with an Iranian background seems to benefit from prestigious occupational contacts. Among those with an Iranian background, social status concerns and expected marginalization in manual class occupations may have contributed to their propensity for depressive symptoms.

  • 5.
    Uggla, Caroline
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. University College London, UK.
    Mace, Ruth
    Adult sex ratio and social status predict mating and parenting strategies in Northern Ireland2017In: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8436, E-ISSN 1471-2970, Vol. 372, no 1729, 20160318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evidence from animal species indicates that a male-biased adult sex ratio (ASR) can lead to higher levels of male parental investment and that there is heterogeneity in behavioural responses to mate scarcity depending on mate value. In humans, however, there is little consistent evidence of the effect of the ASR on pair-bond stability and parental investment and even less of how it varies by an individual's mate value. In this paper we use detailed census data from Northern Ireland to test the association between the ASR and pair-bond stability and parental investment by social status ( education and social class) as a proxy for mate value. We find evidence that female, but not male, cohabitation is associated with the ASR. In female-biased areas women with low education are less likely to be in a stable pair-bond than highly educated women, but in male-biased areas women with the lowest education are as likely to be in a stable pair-bond as their most highly educated peers. For both sexes risk of separation is greater at female-biased sex ratios. Lastly, our data show a weak relationship between parental investment and the ASR that depends on social class. We discuss these results in the light of recent reformulations of parental investment theory. This article is part of the themed issue `Adult sex ratios and reproductive decisions: a critical re-examination of sex differences in human and animal societies'.

  • 6. Myrskylä, M.
    et al.
    Barclay, Kieron
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Germany; London School of Economics and Political Science, UK.
    Goisis, A.
    Advantages of later motherhood2017In: Der Gynäkologe, ISSN 0017-5994, E-ISSN 1433-0393, Vol. 50, no 10, 767-772 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    In high-income countries childbearing has been increasingly postponed since the 1970s and it is crucial to understand the consequences of this demographic shift. The literature has tended to characterize later motherhood as a significant health threat for children and parents.

    Objectives

    We contribute to this debate by reviewing recent evidence suggesting that an older maternal age can also have positive effects.

    Materials

    Literature linking the age at parenthood with the sociodemographic characteristics of the parents, with macrolevel interactions, and with subjective well-being.

    Methods

    Comprehensive review of the existing literature.

    Results

    Recent studies show that there can also be advantages associated with later motherhood. First, whilst in past older mothers had low levels of education and large families, currently older mothers tend to have higher education and smaller families than their younger peers. Consequently, children born to older mothers in the past tended to have worse outcomes than children born to younger mothers, whilst the opposite is true in recent cohorts. Second, postponement of childbearing means that the child is born at a later date and in a later birth cohort, and may benefit from secular changes in the macroenvironment. Evidence shows that when the positive trends in the macroenvironment are strong they overweigh the negative effects of reproductive ageing. Third, existing studies show that happiness increases around and after childbirth among older mothers, whereas for younger mothers the effect does not exist or is short-lived.

    Conclusion

    There are important sociodemographic pathways associated with postponement of childbearing which might compensate or even more than compensate for the biological disadvantages associated with reproductive ageing.

  • 7.
    Björkenstam, Charlotte
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. University of California, USA; Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Björkenstam, Emma
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Cochran, Susan
    Kosidou, Kyriaki
    Anxiety and Depression Among Sexual Minority Women and Men in Sweden: Is the Risk Equally Spread Within the Sexual Minority Population?2017In: Journal of Sexual Medicine, ISSN 1743-6095, E-ISSN 1743-6109, Vol. 14, no 3, 396-403 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Sexual minority individuals have a higher risk of anxiety and depression compared with heterosexuals. However, whether the higher risk is spread equally across the sexual minority population is not clear.

    Aim

    To investigate the association between sexual orientation and self-reported current anxiety and a history of diagnosis of depression, paying particular attention to possible subgroup differences in risks within the sexual minority population, stratified by sex and to examine participants' history of medical care for anxiety disorders and depression.

    Methods

    We conducted a population-based study of 874 lesbians and gays, 841 bisexuals, and 67,980 heterosexuals recruited in 2010 in Stockholm County. Data were obtained from self-administered surveys that were linked to nationwide registers. Main Outcome Measures: By using logistic regression, we compared risks of current anxiety, histories of diagnosed depression, and register-based medical care for anxiety and/or depression in lesbian and gay, bisexual, and heterosexual individuals.

    Results

    Bisexual women and gay men were more likely to report anxiety compared with their heterosexual peers. Bisexual individuals and gay men also were more likely to report a past diagnosis of depression. All sexual minority groups had an increased risk of having used medical care for anxiety and depression compared with heterosexuals, with bisexual women having the highest risk.

    Conclusion

    Bisexual women appear to be a particularly vulnerable sexual minority group. Advocating for nondiscrimination and protections for lesbian, gay, and bisexual people is a logical extension of the effort to lower the prevalence of mental illness.

  • 8. Saarela, Jan
    et al.
    Weber, Rosa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Assessment of educational misclassification in register-based data on Finnish immigrants in Sweden2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 45, 20-24 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: In population registers, information on completed schooling is either missing or misclassified for a large proportion of newly arrived immigrants. It is unclear how quickly the information is updated and whether misclassification, i.e., that the wrong level of education is recorded, biases empirical estimates. Methods: We use unique linked Swedish and Finnish register data to determine the extent of such mismeasurement. By running logistic regressions on zero earnings, we also illustrate how mismeasurement might influence the estimated effects of education on health or labour market outcomes. Results: We find a considerable bias in estimates based on Swedish records of educational attainment during immigrants' first few years in the country. Misclassification is additionally very common, even when information on educational attainment exists. Conclusions: These findings suggest that research and policies using recently arrived immigrants' completed schooling as a determinant of socioeconomic integration need to be interpreted with care.

  • 9. Björkenstam, Emma
    et al.
    Ekselius, Lisa
    Burström, Bo
    Kosidou, Kyriaki
    Björkenstam, Charlotte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; University of California, USA.
    Association between childhood adversity and a diagnosis of personality disorder in young adulthood: a cohort study of 107,287 individuals in Stockholm County2017In: European Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0393-2990, E-ISSN 1573-7284, Vol. 32, no 8, 721-731 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Childhood adversity (CA) may increase the risk for later developing of personality disorder (PD). However, less is known about the association between cumulative CA and PD, and the role of childhood psychopathology and school performance. The current study examined the relationship between a range of CAs and a diagnosis of PD in young adulthood, and the roles of childhood psychopathology and school performance in this relationship. All individuals born in Stockholm County 1987-1991 (n = 107,287) constituted our cohort. Seven CAs were measured between birth and age 14: familial death, parental criminality, parental substance abuse and psychiatric morbidity, parental separation and/or single-parent household, household public assistance and residential instability. Individuals were followed from their 18th birthday until they were diagnosed with PD or until end of follow-up (December 31st 2011). Adjusted estimates of risk of PD were calculated as hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Associations were observed between cumulative CA and PD. During the follow-up 770 individuals (0.7%) were diagnosed with PD. Individuals exposed to 3+ CAs had the highest risks of being diagnosed with PD (HR 3.0, 95% CI 2.4-3.7). Childhood psychopathology and low school grades further increased the risk of PD among individuals exposed to CA. Cumulative CA is strongly associated with a diagnosis of PD in young adulthood. Our findings indicate that special attention should be given in schools and health services to children exposed to adversities to prevent decline in school performance, and to detect vulnerable individuals that may be on negative life-course trajectories.

  • 10. Björkenstam, Emma
    et al.
    Cheng, Siwei
    Burström, Bo
    Pebley, Anne R.
    Björkenstam, Charlotte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. University of California, USA; Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Kosidou, Kyriaki
    Association between income trajectories in childhood and psychiatric disorder: a Swedish population-based study2017In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 71, no 7, 648-654 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Childhood family income variation is an understudied aspect of households' economic context that may have distinct consequences for children. We identified trajectories of childhood family income over a 12-year period, and examined associations between these trajectories and later psychiatric disorders, among individuals born in Sweden between 1987 and 1991 (n=534 294).

    Methods We used annual income data between the ages of 3-14 years and identified 5 trajectories (2 high-income upward, 1 downward and 2 low-income upward trajectories). Psychiatric disorders in the follow-up period after age 15 were defined from International Classification of Disease (ICD)-codes in a nationwide patient register. Multiadjusted risks for all psychiatric disorders, as well as for specific psychiatric diagnoses, were calculated as HRs with 95% CIs.

    Results Of the 5 identified income trajectories, the constant low and the downward trajectories were particularly associated with later psychiatric disorder. Children with these trajectories had increased risks for psychiatric disorder, including mood, anxiety, psychotic disorders and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The association remained, even after adjusting for important variables including parental psychiatric disorder. In contrast, the relationship was reversed for eating disorders, for which children in higher income trajectories had elevated risks.

    Conclusions Findings show that children growing up in a household characterised by low or decreasing family income have an increased risk for psychiatric disorder. Continued work is needed to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in psychiatric disorders. Policies and interventions for psychiatric disorders should consider the socioeconomic background of the family as an important risk or protective factor.

  • 11.
    Dunlavy, Andrea
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Between Two Worlds: Studies of migration, work, and health2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to investigate the extent to which work-related factors contribute to the health inequalities often observed between foreign-origin and native-origin persons in Sweden. Four empirical studies using survey data and population-based registers assessed the health impact of different labor market adversities among groups of foreign-origin persons who were both in and outside the labor market relative to native-origin Swedes.

    Studies I and II examined associations between different measures of working life quality, including adverse psychosocial and physical working conditions and educational mismatch, and self-reported health among the employed. Adverse psychosocial and physical working conditions minimally contributed to the excess risk of poor health found among workers from low- and middle-income countries. Over-education had a stronger association with increased risk of poor health, most notably among foreign-born workers from countries outside of Western Europe. Under-educated women from these countries also demonstrated an elevated risk of poor health.  There was no association between educational mismatch and poor health among native-born workers. 

    Studies III and IV focused on the health implications of labor market exclusion, and examined relationships between employment status and risk of all-cause mortality and suicide. The majority of foreign-origin groups that experienced unemployment showed an elevated risk of both mortality and suicide. The magnitude of excess risk varied by generational status and region of origin. Variations in patterns of suicide risk were also evident among migrants by age at arrival and duration of residence. Yet within many foreign-origin groups, health advantages were observed among the employed.

    The health of migrants is affected by the confluence of several different pre- and post-migration factors.  The extent to which health inequalities are found among persons of foreign-origin in Sweden is influenced by the degree to which they experience labor market adversities, as well as differential vulnerability to the negative effects of these adversities across foreign-origin groups.

  • 12. Giuliani, Giuliana
    et al.
    Duvander, Ann Zofie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Cash-for-care policy in Sweden: An appraisal of its consequences on female employment2017In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 26, no 1, 49-62 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2008, Sweden introduced a cash-for-care benefit consisting of a flat-rate sum paid by municipalities to parents whose children were between the ages of one and three and who did not use publicly subsidised childcare. The main object of the reform was to increase parents' freedom to choose', but the policy was criticised because of its potentially negative effects on gender equality and mothers' employment. This study focuses on the effects of cash-for-care on female employment in Sweden. The study shows that the adoption of this policy had negative effects on female employment, although primarily in rural areas. Cash-for-care was abolished in Sweden in 2016. To evaluate the effects that the policy had on female employment during the time it was in place is important as it indicates what may happen if the policy is introduced again.

  • 13.
    Adjei, Nicholas Kofi
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology - BIPS, Germany; University of Bremen, Germany.
    Billingsley, Sunnee
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Childbearing Behavior Before and After the 1994 Population Policies in Ghana2017In: Population: Research and Policy Review, ISSN 0167-5923, E-ISSN 1573-7829, Vol. 36, no 2, 251-271 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the high population growth rate in the mid-20th century, the government of Ghana introduced population policies to reduce the growth rate. Encouraging girls' education and increasing contraceptive use were the two main policy measures to reduce population growth. In order to get a clear picture of the childbearing dynamics of Ghanaian women in response to the population policy of 1994, we analyzed individual reproductive histories from 1969 to 2003 using 2003 Ghana Demographic Health survey data to disentangle patterns by parity, calendar period, and educational groups. Exponential hazard regression models were used to estimate the relative risk of births. We find some evidence of a critical juncture in fertility trends, particularly for the fifth child. In addition, higher parity transition rates continuously declined for women with secondary or higher education and these educational levels were achieved by a higher share of the population after the policy was implemented. The 1994 population policy was successful if only by virtue of the increasing number of women with secondary or higher education. Belonging to this group is not only associated with lower fertility, but this suppressing effect strengthened in the years following the policy implementation. We also suspect that the increasing similarity between women with no education and with primary education reflects the diffusion of contraceptive knowledge and norms related to childbearing. The educational reform and contraceptive initiatives did result in increased education and contraceptive awareness and are therefore beneficial programs.

  • 14.
    Jónsson, Ari Klaengur
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Childbearing trends in Iceland, 1982-2013: Fertility timing, quantum, and gender preferences for children in a Nordic context2017In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 37, 147-188 p., 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND Iceland is one of the most gender-equal countries in the world, but one that does not seem to have experienced the same fertility fluctuations as most other countries, following the enhanced role of women in society. OBJECTIVE In this study we examine the childbearing trends in Iceland during 1982-2013 by analysing the progressions to parities one, two, and three. We also investigate whether there is evidence of gender preferences for children among Icelandic parents. METHODS Official individual longitudinal register data is used, covering the total female population born in Iceland between 1941 and 1997. The data is analysed by means of event history analysis. RESULTS We find evidence of tendencies to postpone motherhood during the period, with increases in fertility for women in their 30s and 40s. The propensity to have a second and a third child has not declined; on the contrary, these birth intensities have increased since the mid-1980s. Estimates suggest that Icelandic parents prefer to have daughters. CONCLUSIONS During a period of increased educational attainment and postponed family formation, the resilience of Icelandic fertility is intriguing. CONTRIBUTION The study provides the first comprehensive overview of fertility trends in Iceland.

  • 15.
    Björkenstam, Charlotte
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; University of California, USA.
    Kosidou, Kyriaki
    Björkenstam, Emma
    Childhood adversity and risk of suicide: cohort study of 548 721 adolescents and young adults in Sweden2017In: BMJ. British Medical Journal, E-ISSN 1756-1833, Vol. 357, j1334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE To examine the relation between childhood adversity, the role of school performance, and childhood psychopathology and the risk of suicide. DESIGN Cohort study of register based indicators of childhood adversity (at ages 0-14) including death in the family (suicide analysed separately), parental substance abuse, parental psychiatric disorder, substantial parental criminality, parental separation/single parent household, receipt of public assistance, and residential instability. SETTING Swedish medical birth register and various Swedish population based registers. PARTICIPANTS 548 721 individuals born 1987-91. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Estimates of suicide risk at ages 15-24 calculated as incidence rate ratios adjusted for time at risk and confounders. Results Adjusted incidence rate ratios for the relation between childhood adversity and suicide during adolescence and young adulthood ranged from 1.6 (95% confidence interval 1.1 to 2.4) for residential instability to 2.9 (1.4 to 5.9) for suicide in the family. There was a dose-response relation between accumulating childhood adversity and risk: 1.1 (0.9 to 1.4) for those exposed to one adversity and 1.9 (1.4 to 2.5) and 2.6 (1.9 to 3.4) for those exposed to two and three or more adversities, respectively. The association with increased risk of suicide remained even after adjustment for school performance and childhood psychopathology. CONCLUSION Childhood adversity is a risk factor for suicide in adolescence and young adulthood, particularly accumulated adversity. These results emphasise the importance of understanding the social mechanisms of suicide and the need for effective interventions early in life, aiming to alleviate the risk in disadvantaged children.

  • 16. Aarskaug Wiik, Kenneth
    et al.
    Bernhardt, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Cohabiting and Married Individuals' Relations With Their Partner's Parents2017In: Journal of Marriage and Family, ISSN 0022-2445, E-ISSN 1741-3737, Vol. 79, no 4, 1111-1124 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using Norwegian survey data on partnered individuals ages 18 to 55 (N = 4,061; 31% cohabitors), the current study investigated differences across marital and cohabiting unions regarding the patterns of contact with the parents of the partner. In addition to investigating the frequency of such contact, we assessed the nature of and perceived quality of contacts with the partner's parents. The authors grouped respondents according to whether they had children with their partner and controlled for a range of selection characteristics. Results confirmed that parents with preschool children met their in-laws more frequently than the childless, irrespective of union type. Married respondents as well as cohabitors with preschool children reported better relations with their partner's parents than childless cohabitors. Taken together, the results imply that having small children was more decisive for the relationship with the parents of the partner than getting married, particularly with regard to contact frequency.

  • 17.
    Nakazato, Hiromi
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Meiji University, Japan.
    Lim, Seunghoo
    Community rebuilding processes in a disaster-damaged area through community currency The pilot project of Domo in Kamaishi, Japan2017In: Disaster Prevention and Management, ISSN 0965-3562, E-ISSN 1758-6100, Vol. 26, no 1, 79-93 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Community currency (CC) is used as a tool for reviving local communities by promoting economic growth and facilitating the formation of social capital. Although the Japanese CC movement has stagnated since mid-2005, a new experiment, Fukkou Ouen Chiiki Tsuka (CC for supporting disaster recovery), was introduced across disaster-damaged areas after the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami of March 2011. Previous studies assessing the role of CC in these earthquake-damaged areas are rare; the purpose of this paper is to examine the micro processes of community rebuilding that underlie the transactional networks mediated by one of the experiments, Domo, in Kamaishi. Design/methodology/approach - Using transactional records capturing residents' CC activities during the five-month pilot period before actual implementation of Domo simultaneous investigation for empirical network analysis techniques identify the network configuration dynamics representing the multiple observed forms of social capital in this disaster-affected local community. Findings - This study of the five-month pilot for the Domo system revealed: intensive dependence on the coordinating role of core members (i.e. the creation of weak ties), a lack of balanced support amongmembers and the resulting uni-directional transactions (i.e. the avoidance of generalized exchanges), and the reinforcement of previous transactional ties via reciprocation or transitive triads (i.e. the formation of strong ties). Originality/value - This study provides guidance for practitioners, researchers, and policy makers on how community residents' engagement in CC activities could function as a potential tool for generating positive socio-economic effects for local communities in disaster areas.

  • 18.
    Kolk, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Hällsten, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Demographic and Educational Success of Lineages in Northern Sweden2017In: Population and Development Review, ISSN 0098-7921, E-ISSN 1728-4457, Vol. 43, no 3, 491-512 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Persson, Lotta
    Obucina, Ognjen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Depressed fertility among descendants of immigrants in Sweden2017In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 36, 1149-1184 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND Previous research shows evidence of an interrelation between family formation and the migration of immigrants in Europe. Less research has been conducted on the fertility and family behavior of the descendants of immigrants. OBJECTIVES Our study provides analyses of the childbearing behavior of daughters of immigrants in Sweden. The context is that of a country with near-replacement-level fertility and social policies oriented towards social equality. METHODS The study is based on register data covering 1998-2012, which allows for highly detailed analyses of the childbearing behavior of 20 country origin groups of second-generation women. By means of event history techniques, we analyze the transition to any first, second, and third births. RESULTS Our analyses show that most groups of descendants of immigrants have lower fertility than those with a full Swedish background. The risk of having a first child is particularly depressed, and the risk of having a second child is also lower for daughters of immigrants than for women with two Swedish-born parents. In contrast, many groups of immigrant-descendant two-child mothers display elevated third-birth risks. CONCLUSIONS Our findings demonstrate the necessity to account for parity-specific differences in fertility when studying the fertility of descendants of migrants.

  • 20. Ruppanner, Leah
    et al.
    Bernhardt, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Brandén, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Division of housework and his and her view of housework fairness: A typology of Swedish couples2017In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 36, 501-524 p., 16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Housework studies have long documented a fairness paradox, whereby unequal divisions of housework are evaluated as fair. Gender equality, both at home and at work, is strongly normative in a highly egalitarian country like Sweden, but not always matched by an equally egalitarian situation in the family which are often viewed as fair.

    Objective: To explore the relationship between housework-sharing and perceived fairness of this division, using both partners’ reports, to identify how Swedish couples cluster across these measures and what individual characteristics predict cluster membership.

    Methods: Using the couple-level design of the 2009 wave of the Young Adult Panel Study (YAPS, n=1,026), we are able to advance the research field and evaluate housework experience within broader couple dynamics. Our approach is exploratory and develops a typology using latent class analysis.

    Results: We identify six latent groups, with distinct features. The modal Swedish-couple category comprises those who share housework equally and agree that this arrangement is fair (33% of the couples). Applying a distributive justice perspective, we find that childhood socialization, presence of children in the household, and the distribution of employment, education, income, and egalitarianism across couples are important predictors of cluster membership.

    Conclusions: We find that equal-sharing/fair couples are most common in the Swedish context, suggesting clear benefits from Sweden’s expansive gender policies. Yet, there seems to be a generational divide, whereby Swedish women who witnessed housework inequality in their parental home are increasingly dissatisfied when this inequality replicates in their own lives.

    Contribution: Demonstrating that housework allocations, conflict and fairness may reflect different types of couples rather than associations across those measures.

  • 21.
    Eklund, Lina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Roman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Do adolescent garners make friends offline? Identity and friendship formation in school2017In: Computers in human behavior, ISSN 0747-5632, E-ISSN 1873-7692, Vol. 73, 284-289 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today adolescents grow up and make friends in an increasingly digital society, which has led to the study of potential effects of digital gaming on youths' friendships. To date studies have tended to focus on online settings with a knowledge gap concerning the role of gaming identity for friendship formation in offline settings. The current study addresses this, applying a longitudinal social network approach to investigate whether being a gamer impacts adolescent friendship formation. Data was collected by questionnaire from an entire cohort (n = 115) of pupils (age 16-18) on three occasions during their first year in a Swedish high school. Data was analysed using a stochastic actor oriented model, developed for testing hypotheses concerning social network changes. Results show that being similar in terms of identifying as a gamer at the later part, but not the start, of the school year makes a friendship 1.5 times more likely. We conclude that shared identities related to digital gaming influence individuals' offline, everyday social relationships as, in the analyses of changes over time to youths' school networks, digital gaming seems to motivate friendship formation.

  • 22.
    Bygren, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Linköping University, Sweden; Institute for Future Studies, Sweden.
    Anni, Erlandsson
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Gähler, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Do Employers Prefer Fathers? Evidence from a Field Experiment Testing the Gender by Parenthood Interaction Effect on Callbacks to Job Applications2017In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 33, no 3, 337-348 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In research on fatherhood premiums and motherhood penalties in career-related outcomes, employers’ discriminatory behaviours are often argued to constitute a possible explanation for observed gender gaps. However, there is as yet no conclusive evidence of such discrimination. Utilizing a field experiment design, we test (i) whether job applicants are subject to recruitment discrimination on the basis of their gender and parenthood status, and (ii) whether discrimination by gender and parenthood is conditional on the qualifications required by the job applied for. We applied for 2,144 jobs in the Swedish labour market, randomly assigning gender and parenthood status to fictitious job applicants. Based on the rate of callbacks, we do not find that employers practise systematic recruitment discrimination on the basis of the job applicants’ gender or parental status, neither in relation to less qualified nor more highly qualified jobs.

  • 23.
    Borg, Ida
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Brandén, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Linköping University, Sweden .
    Do high levels of home-ownership create unemployment? Introducing the missing link between housing tenure and unemployment2017In: Housing Studies, ISSN 0267-3037, E-ISSN 1466-1810Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large number of studies have demonstrated that the proportion of home-owners in a region tend to be positively associated with the unemployment levels in that region. In this paper, we introduce a missing piece of explaining this commonly found pattern. By analysing individual-level population register data on Sweden, we jointly examine the effects of micro- and macro-level home-ownership on individuals’ unemployment. The findings indicate that even though home-owners have a lower probability of being unemployed, there is a penalty for both renters and home-owners on unemployment in regions with high home-ownership rates. Differences in mobility patterns cannot explain this pattern. However, when labour market size is considered, the higher probability of unemployment in high home-owning regions is drastically reduced. This suggests that high home-ownership regions tend to coincide with small labour markets, affecting the job matching process negatively.

  • 24. Ruppanner, Leah
    et al.
    Brandén, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Turunen, Jani
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Does Unequal Housework Lead to Divorce? Evidence from Sweden2017In: Sociology, ISSN 0038-0385, E-ISSN 1469-8684Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The lack of couple-level data hinders direct exploration of how inconsistencies in couples’ housework reports structure their relationship quality. We address this limitation by applying Swedish data from the 2009 Young Adult Panel Study (N = 1057 couples) matched with Swedish register data (2009–2014) to extend equity theory by estimating mismatch in couples’ housework reports on relationship satisfaction and stability. We find women who report performing more housework are less likely to be satisfied with their relationships, and are more likely to consider breaking up. These unions are also more likely to dissolve. Using both partners’ housework reports, we document discrediting women’s housework contribution, or reporting she does less than she reports, is associated with lower relationship satisfaction. Women in these partnerships also consider breaking up, and the unions are more likely to dissolve. Our results identify the gendered impact of housework inequality on relationship stability.

  • 25.
    Neyer, Gerda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Hoem, Jan M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Education and childlessness: The influence of educational field and educational level on childlessness among Swedish and Austrian women2017In: Childlessness in Europe: Contexts, Causes and Consequences / [ed] Kreyenfeld, M., and Konietzka, D, Doordrecht: Springer, 2017, 183-207 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article deals with the question of how different institutional structures affect ultimate levels of childlessness. We compare rates of childlessnessby educational field and educational level among women born in 1955-59 in two different welfare states:Austria and Sweden. We find similar patterns of childlessness by educational field in both countries: i.e., women who have been educated to work in the education or health sector have lower rates of childlessness than women who have been educated to work in most other occupational fields. However, rates of childlessness by educational level differ markedly between the two countries:Austrian women with upper-secondary or tertiary education are significantly more likely to be childless than Swedish womenwith comparable levels of educationandAustrian women with lower levelsof education. We attribute these differences to the educational systems, the labourmarket structures, and the family policies of the two countries;which inSweden promote equality across educational groups, and in Austriacreate cleavages between educational groups. We conclude with reflections on the implications ofour results for demographic research on education and fertility.

  • 26. Jalovaara, Marika
    et al.
    Neyer, Gerda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Dahlberg, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Dommermuth, Lars
    Fallesen, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Lappegård, Trude
    Education, Gender, and Cohort Fertility in the Nordic Countries2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Systematic comparisons of fertility developments based on education, gender and country context are rare. Using harmonized register data, we compare cohort total fertility (CTF) andultimatechildlessness by gender and educational attainment for cohorts bornbeginning in 1940 in four Nordic countries. CTF has remained fairly stable in all countries. Childlessness, which had been increasing, has plateaued except in Finland. Women’s negative educational gradient has vanished, while men’s positive gradient has persisted. The highest level of men’s childlessness appears among the less educated, revealing striking educational differences. Childlessness has increased among low-educated women but not among highly educated women. The educational gradient in women’s childlessness has shifted from positive to negative. Thus, we witness both a new gender similarity and widening social inequalities in childbearing in the Nordic welfare states. Low-educated citizens of both sexes have apparently become an increasingly marginalized segment with regard to childbearing.

  • 27.
    Chudnovskaya, Margarita
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Kolk, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Educational Expansion and Intergenerational Proximity in Sweden2017In: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 23, no 1, UNSP e1973Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Education is one of the most important drivers of regional migration in European countries, and educational expansion has been a major social phenomenon in the last decades. We use decomposition analysis to examine how the expansion of tertiary education has affected intergenerational distance between adult children and their parents in Sweden. We use administrative register data for the complete population of Sweden and examine changes in intergenerational proximity between 1980 and 2010, using couples at the birth of their first child as the study population. An explicit policy goal of tertiary expansion was to widen the geographical access to tertiary education and the enrolment grew at newer regional institutions during this period. We additionally explore if this policy of regional expansion influenced average distance to parents. We find that intergenerational distances increased over the study period and that this was mainly attributed to the increased enrolment at traditional, older, universities.

  • 28.
    Bihagen, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Nermo, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Stern, Charlotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Åberg, Yvonne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Elite mobility among college graduated men in Sweden: Skills, personality and family ties2017In: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869, Vol. 60, no 4, 291-308 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using Swedish registry data, we study the chances of mobility into the Swedish labour market elite for men who graduated in the years 1985-2005. The elite is defined as top earners within mid- and large sized firms and within the public sector organisations (henceforth, we use organisation for both firms and public organisations). Using discrete time event history models, we study the incidence of elite entry in terms of external recruitment and internal promotion. The choice of field of study and of college or university are important, as are personality and, to a limited extent, cognitive ability. What is most striking is that having kin in elite positions increases the chance of elite entry in general, and having parents in top positions in the same organisation increases the likelihood of internal promotion. In sum, elite entry among college-educated males is associated with a diversity of factors, suggesting that complex explanations for labour market success should be considered, where skills, personality, and family ties all seem to matter.

  • 29.
    Goldschmidt, Tina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Emmanuel Todd, Who is Charlie? Xenophobia and the New Middle Class, Polity Press: Cambridge, 20152017In: International Sociology, ISSN 0268-5809, E-ISSN 1461-7242, Vol. 32, no 2, 240-243 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 30. Kaufman, Gayle
    et al.
    Bernhardt, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Goldscheider, Frances
    Enduring Egalitarianism? Family Transitions and Attitudes Toward Gender Equality in Sweden2017In: Journal of family issues, ISSN 0192-513X, E-ISSN 1552-5481, Vol. 38, no 13, 1878-1898 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research in industrialized countries finds that attitudes toward gender equality are affected by family-related transitions as young adults with egalitarian attitudes based on growing equality between the sexes in the public sphere of education and work encounter a much less equal situation in the private sphere of the family. Sweden, however, is a society known for its emphasis on gender equality in the family. This study examines the effect of family transitions on attitudes toward gender equality, asking whether egalitarian attitudes can withstand changing family transitions in Sweden. Using longitudinal data from the Young Adult Panel Study, we examine six different family transitions and three measures of attitudes toward gender equality for men and women, with only three significant findings across 18 coefficients. We conclude that most Swedish young adults possess enduring attitudes, likely because there is strong state support for families and gender sharing in the private sphere.

  • 31.
    Härkönen, Juho
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Bernardi, Fabrizio
    Boertien, Diederik
    Family Dynamics and Child Outcomes: An Overview of Research and Open Questions2017In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 33, no 2, 163-184 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has documented that children who do not live with both biological parents fare somewhat worse on a variety of outcomes than those who do. In this article, which is the introduction to the Special Issue on Family dynamics and children's well-being and life chances in Europe, we refine this picture by identifying variation in this conclusion depending on the family transitions and subpopulations studied. We start by discussing the general evidence accumulated for parental separation and ask whether the same picture emerges from research on other family transitions and structures. Subsequently, we review studies that have aimed to deal with endogeneity and discuss whether issues of causality challenge the general picture of family transitions lowering child well-being. Finally, we discuss whether previous evidence finds effects of family transitions on child outcomes to differ between children from different socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds, and across countries and time-periods studied. Each of the subsequent articles in this Special Issue contributes to these issues. Two articles provide evidence on how several less often studied family forms relate to child outcomes in the European context. Two other articles in this Special Issue contribute by resolving several key questions in research on variation in the consequences of parental separation by socioeconomic and immigrant background, two areas of research that have produced conflicting results so far.

  • 32. Vidal, Sergi
    et al.
    Perales, Francisco
    Lersch, Philipp M.
    Brandén, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Linköpings universitet, Sweden.
    Family migration in a cross-national perspective: The importance of within-couple employment arrangements in Australia, Britain, Germany, and Sweden2017In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 36, 307-338 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE Migration rates of dual-earner couples are lower than those of male-breadwinner couples. We revisit this issue using a cross-national comparative perspective and examine heterogeneity in the role of female employment in couple relocations. We propose a theoretical framework in which national levels of support for female employment and normative expectations about gender roles act as moderators of the relationship between couple type (i.e., dual-earner and male-breadwinner) and family migration. METHODS We deploy discrete-time event history analyses of harmonised longitudinal data from four large-scale datasets from Australia, Britain, Germany, and Sweden, covering the 1992-2011 period. RESULTS Consistent with prior research, we find that male-breadwinner couples migrate more often than dual-earner couples in all countries, suggesting that traditional gender structures affecting family migration operate across very different contexts. We also find cross-country differences in the estimated effects of different sorts of absolute and relative partner resources on family migration. CONCLUSIONS We take our results as preliminary evidence that national contexts can serve as moderators of the relationship between within-couple employment arrangements and family migration decisions. CONTRIBUTION Our study contributes to family migration literature by illustrating how cross-national comparisons are a valuable methodological approach to put prevailing micro-level explanations of the relationship between female employment and family migration in context.

  • 33. Kulu, Hill
    et al.
    Hannemann, Tina
    Pailhe, Ariane
    Neels, Karel
    Krapf, Sandra
    Gonzalez-Ferrer, Amparo
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Fertility by Birth Order among the Descendants of Immigrants in Selected European Countries2017In: Population and Development Review, ISSN 0098-7921, E-ISSN 1728-4457, Vol. 43, no 1, 31-60 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Miething, Alexander
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Almquist B., Ylva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Edling, Christofer
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Friendship trust and psychological well-being from late adolescence to early adulthood: A structural equation modeling approach2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 45, no 3, 244-252 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: This study explored the sex-specific associations between friendship trust and the psychological well-being of young Swedes from late adolescence to early adulthood. Methods: A random sample of native Swedes born in 1990 was surveyed at age 19 years and again at age 23 years regarding their own well-being and their relationships with a maximum of five self-named peers. The response rate was 31.3%, resulting in 782 cases to be analysed. We used sex-stratified structural equation models to explore the associations between trust and well-being. Psychological well-being was constructed as the latent variable in the measurement part. The structural part accounted for the autocorrelation of trust with respect to well-being over time and incorporated the cross-lagged effects between late adolescence and early adulthood. Results: It was found that trust increased while well-being decreased for young men and remained stable for young women from 19 to 23 years of age. The young women reported lower well-being at both time points, whereas no sex difference was found for trust. Based on model fit comparisons, a simple model without forward or reward causation was accepted for young men, whereas reversed causation from well-being to trust was suggested for young women. Subsequent analysis based on these assumptions confirmed the reversed effect for young women. Conclusions: The findings suggest that young people do not benefit from trustful social relations to the same extent as adult populations. Young women who express impaired well-being run a greater risk of being members of networks characterized by low friendship trust over time.

  • 35.
    Magnusson, Charlotta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Nermo, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Gender, Parenthood and Wage Differences: The Importance of Time-Consuming Job Characteristics2017In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 131, no 2, 797-816 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using data from the Swedish Level of Living Survey (2000, 2010), we investigate how the gender wage gap varies with occupational prestige and family status and also examine the extent to which this gap is explained by time-consuming working conditions. In addition, we investigate whether there is an association between parenthood, job characteristics and wage (as differentiated by gender). The analyses indicate that there are gender differences regarding prestige-based pay-offs among parents that are partly explained by fathers' greater access to employment characterized by time-consuming conditions. Separate analyses for men and women demonstrate the presence of a marriage wage premium for both genders, although only men have a parenthood wage premium. This fatherhood premium is however only present in high-prestigious occupations. Compared with childless men, fathers are also more advantaged in terms of access to jobs with time-consuming working conditions, but the wage gap between fathers and childless men is not explained by differences in access to such working conditions.

  • 36.
    Hällsten, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Pfeffer, Fabian T.
    Grand Advantage: Family Wealth and Grandchildren's Educational Achievement in Sweden2017In: American Sociological Review, ISSN 0003-1224, E-ISSN 1939-8271, Vol. 82, no 2, 328-360 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the role of family wealth for children's educational achievement using novel Swedish register data. In particular, we focus on the relationship between grandparents' wealth and their grandchildren's educational achievement. Doing so allows us to reliably establish the independent role of wealth in contributing to long-term inequalities in opportunity. We use regression models with extensive controls to account for observed socioeconomic characteristics of families, cousin fixed effects to net out potentially unobserved grandparent effects, and marginal structural models to account for endogenous selection. We find substantial associations between grandparents' wealth and their grandchildren's grade point averages (GPA) in the 9th grade that are only partly mediated by parents' socioeconomic characteristics and wealth. Our findings indicate that family wealth inequality-even in a comparatively egalitarian context like Sweden-has profound consequences for the distribution of opportunity across multiple generations. We posit that our estimates of the long-term consequences of wealth inequality may be conservative for nations other than Sweden, like the United States, where family wealth-in addition to its insurance and normative functions-allows the direct purchase of educational quality and access.

  • 37.
    Chudnovskaya, Margarita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Higher education and family formation: A story of Swedish educational expansion2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The subject of this dissertation is trends in family formation among highly educated men and women in Sweden. The highly educated have typically differed from other educational groups in their patterns of childbearing. This has particularly been

    the case for highly educated women, who used to be in the minority among the highly educated and who were much more likely to be childless than other women. The goal of this dissertation is to understand how the expansion of higher education has transformed  the formation of childbearing unions among the highly educated group. The context for the dissertation is the dramatic expansion of higher education which has occurred in Sweden over the last half century. As the share of cohorts graduating from post-secondary education has grown, diversity among the highly educated has also increased. This dissertation draws upon rich Swedish administrative register data to answer questions about changes in the behavior of the highly educated group, as well as emerging stratification within the group. This dissertation consists of five studies and an introductory chapter.

    In Study 1, we examine changes in geographical distances between young couples and their parents. We find that among younger cohorts, generations live further apart. The expansion of higher education contributes to these distances, though the introduction of regional colleges has mediated the impact of educational expansion to some extent. In Study 2, we consider how effective colleges are as partner markets. We follow one birth cohort (1970), and examine the likelihood that they form a childbearing union with someone who attended the same university at the same time. We find that colleges are an important potential meeting place for childbearing partners, and examine how the likelihood of partnering with a fellow student is related to the college composition.

    In Study 3, I assess changes in partner choice among the highly educated, by comparing the likelihood that highly

    educated men and women born in 1940-2, 1950-2, 1960-2, and 1970-2 form a childbearing union, and whether they do

    so with a highly or a lower educated partner. I find that female graduates are much more likely to enter unions, and to

    “partner down”. Men’s likelihood of forming a childbearing union hasn’t changed across cohorts, but men from later cohorts are much more likely to find a highly educated partner than men from earlier cohorts. I show that partnership outcomes for graduates are related to social class background, university experience (degree length and institution type), and post-graduation income. In Study 4, we study unions with at least one highly educated partner, including men and women born in 1950-2, 1960-2, 1970-2, and 1980-2. We examine the extent to which educational (in)equality is mirrored in other measures of status such as social class background, income, and occupational prestige. We conclude that although the number of women “partnering down” in terms of education has increased dramatically, these unions are not necessarily characterized by female status-dominance more generally. In Study 5, I focus on highly educated men who do not form any childbearing union, studying men born in the years 1945-1974. I find that the consistent levels of childlessness among highly educated men may best be explained by changes in the composition of graduates in terms of field of study and post-graduation income.

  • 38. Strömdahl, Susanne
    et al.
    Liljeros, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Ekéus Thorson, Anna
    Ingemarsdotter Persson, Kristina
    Forsberg, Birger C.
    HIV testing and prevention among foreign-born Men Who have Sex with Men: an online survey from Sweden2017In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 17, 139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is an increasing trend toward international migration worldwide. With it comes a challenge for public health and public funded health care systems to meet the migrating population's health needs. Men who have sex with men are a key population for HIV, contributing an estimated 42% of new HIV cases in Europe in 2013. HIV monitoring data suggest that foreign-born MSM are not only exposed to a high risk of HIV before migration but also while living in Sweden. The aim of this study is to examine HIV testing prevalence and uptake of HIV prevention interventions among foreign-born MSM living in Sweden.

    Methods: A web survey available in English and Swedish was conducted from October 1 to October 30, 2013 via a Scandinavian Web community for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Intergender people. The web survey included modules on sociodemographics, condom use, sexual risk behaviour and HIV/STI testing experience. 244 eligible MSM participants born abroad and living in Sweden participated in the study. Descriptive and inferential analysis was performed.

    Results: Half of the foreign-born MSM participants in this study had been tested for HIV during the last 12 months. Participants who had lived in Sweden less than or equal to 5 years were more likely to have been tested for HIV during the last 12 months. Having talked about HIV/STI with a prevention worker during the past year was associated with having been tested for HIV. Requested services among the majority of participants were HIV rapid test, anonymous HIV testing, HIV/STI testing outside of the health care setting and MSM-friendly clinics.

    Conclusion: Efforts are needed to promote HIV testing among foreign-born MSM. Peer outreach, individual and group counselling may be preferred interventions to do so. In addition, it is critically important to increase HIV testing among foreign-born MSM who have lived in Sweden for more than five years. Further research should explore if scale up of implementation of requested services may increase frequency of HIV testing and detection of new cases linked to treatment among foreign-born MSM living in Sweden.

  • 39.
    Goldschmidt, Tina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Immigration, Social Cohesion, and the Welfare State: Studies on Ethnic Diversity in Germany and Sweden2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Can social cohesion and solidarity persist in the face of large-scale migration? One particularly contentious hypothesis states that native majorities will be unwilling to support the provision of government-funded welfare to those whom they do not consider to be part of their own sociocultural ingroup, especially when sociocultural or ethnic otherness and socioeconomic disadvantage overlap. Consequently, majorities’ willingness to accept disadvantaged immigrant groups as legitimate and trusted members of the welfare community is central to the social cohesion of societies diversifying through migration.

    The dissertation consists of a comprehensive summary, followed by four original studies addressing the interplay between migration-induced diversity and social cohesion through the lens of majority attitudes and the micro and macro contexts within which they are embedded. The studies focus on Sweden and Germany, two European societies that host strong welfare states and large immigrant populations. Together, they seek to answer two central questions:

    First, does social distance between native-born citizens and immigrants lead the former to withdraw support from all redistributive policies, or are some types of welfare more affected than others? Second, how does the migration-induced diversification of societies come to matter for majority attitudes toward the welfare state and, as they are closely related, for majority attitudes toward the trustworthiness of others?

    Looking at the case of Germany, Study 1 shows that the conflict between diversity and welfare solidarity is not expressed in a general majority opposition to welfare, but rather in an opposition to government assistance benefiting immigrants – a phenomenon sometimes referred to as welfare chauvinism.

    Study 2 turns to the case of Sweden and investigates three pathways into welfare chauvinism: via the first-hand experience of immigrant unemployment and putative welfare receipt in the neighborhood context; via exposure to immigrant competition at the workplace; and via negative prejudice against immigrants. We find that the direct observation of immigrant unemployment in the neighborhood increases natives’ preference for spending on other Swedes over spending on immigrants, while competition with immigrants at the workplace does not.

    Using the same Swedish data, Study 3 hypothesizes that ethnically diverse workplaces imply trust-fostering inter-group contact. Yet, like in Study 2, we find a negative relationship between majority Swedes’ exposure to certain immigrant groups in the neighborhood and their trust in neighbors, while diverse workplaces neither seem to increase trust nor to affect the negative neighborhood-level association.

    Both Studies 2 and 3 show that negative attitudes toward immigrants increase welfare chauvinism and lower trust, even disregarding majority Swedes’ actual experience of immigrant presence or unemployment. Study 4 thus turns to a social force outside the realm of first-hand experience and explores German online news media debates on the welfare deservingness of various sociodemographic groups – among them, immigrants (as refugees in particular). However, rather than observing the persistent and particular stigmatization of immigrants as undeserving recipients or untrustworthy abusers of welfare, we find much more nuanced descriptions in our vast corpus of news stories.

  • 40. van der Woude, Maartje
    et al.
    Barker, Vanessa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    van der Leun, Joanne
    Introduction: Crimmigration in Europe2017In: European Journal of Criminology, ISSN 1477-3708, E-ISSN 1741-2609, Vol. 14, no 1, 3-6 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Barker, Vanessa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Miller, Lisa L
    Introduction to the special issue on the state of the State2017In: Theoretical criminology, ISSN 1362-4806, E-ISSN 1461-7439, Vol. 21, no 4, 417-421 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Hällsten, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Is Education a Risky Investment? The Scarring Effect of University Dropout in Sweden2017In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 33, no 2, 169-181 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of theoretical models of educational decision-making assume that education is a risky investment, but the empirical evidence of those risks is scant. This article analyses the link between educational failure and future adverse outcomes using Swedish register data. Drawing on the concept of risk inherent in the Breen-Goldthorpe model of educational decision-making-that staying on in school and failing leads to downward mobility-this article estimates the risk of university dropout in terms of future labour market exclusion, where dropouts are compared to never entrants of tertiary education. To rule out unobserved differences between the groups, sibling fixed effects are paired with controls for ability, non-cognitive skills, and life course events. The results show scarring effects of university dropout on labour market marginalization, although the scarring effects are small. This lends some support for the assumption that entering higher levels of education involves a risk of downward mobility.

  • 43.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Thomson, Elizabeth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Duntava, Aija
    Life-table representations of family dynamics in the 21st century2017In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 37, 1081-1229 p., 35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND A key resource for cross-national comparative research on family dynamics (Andersson and Philipov 2002) is seriously outdated. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS We provide an update of the life-table estimates by Andersson and Philipov (2002) based on data from the Generations and Gender Surveys and other related surveys in 18 countries across Europe and the United States. RESULTS Life-table estimates of family formation of women and men, union dynamics, and children's experience of family disruption and family formation demonstrate the degree of variation in family dynamics across countries. CONCLUSIONS Our findings provide the basis for more in-depth research on the causes and consequences of differences in family dynamics across contexts. CONTRIBUTION The Appendix of the current manuscript is a new resource for comparative research on family dynamics in the early 21st century.

  • 44.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Drefahl, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Long-Distance Migration and Mortality in Sweden: Testing the Salmon Bias and Healthy Migrant Hypotheses2017In: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 23, no 4, UNSP e2032Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    International migrants often have lower mortality rates than the native populations in their new host countries. Several explanations have been proposed, but in the absence of data covering the entire life courses of migrants both before and after each migration event, it is difficult to assess the validity of different explanations. In the present study, we apply hazard regressions to Swedish register data to study the mortality of long-distance migrants from Northern to Southern Sweden as well as the mortality of return migrants to the North. In this way, we can study a situation that at least partly resembles that of international migration while still having access to data covering the full demographic biographies of all migrants. This allows us to test the relative roles of salmon bias and healthy migrant status in observed mortality rates of long-distance migrants. We find no mortality differentials between residents in northern and southern Sweden, and no evidence of a selection of healthy migrants from the North to the South. In contrast, we provide clear evidence of salmon effects' in terms of elevated mortality of the return migrants to northern Sweden, which are produced when migrants return to their place of origin in relation to subsequent death.

  • 45.
    Bergman Blix, Stina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Martine Herzog-Evans, French Renentry Courts and Rehabilitation: Mister Jourdain of Desistance2017In: Punishment & Society, ISSN 1462-4745, E-ISSN 1741-3095, Vol. 19, no 2, 260-262 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Mondani, Hernan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Modeling Organizational Dynamics: Distributions, Networks, Sequences and Mechanisms2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of how social organizations work, change and develop is central to sociology and to our understanding of the social world and its transformations. At the same time, the underlying principles of organizational dynamics are extremely difficult to investigate. This is partly due to the difficulties of tracking organizations, individuals and their interactions over relatively long periods of time. But it is also due to limitations in the kinds of quantitative methods used to tackle these questions, which are for the most part based on regression analysis.

    This thesis seeks to improve our understanding of social organizing by using models to explore and describe the logics of the structures and mechanisms underlying organizational change. Particular emphasis is given to the modeling process, the use of new concepts and analogies, and the application of interdisciplinary methods to get new insights into classical sociological questions.

    The thesis consists of an introductory part and five studies (I-V). Using Swedish longitudinal data on employment in the Stockholm Region, the studies tackle different dimensions of organizational dynamics, from organizational structures and growth processes to labor mobility and employment trajectories. The introductory chapters contextualize the studies by providing an overview of theories, concepts and quantitative methods that are relevant for the modeling of organizational dynamics. 

    The five studies look into various aspects of organizational dynamics with the help of complementary data representations and non-traditional quantitative methods. Study I analyzes organizational growth statistics for different sectors and industries. The typically observed heavy-tailed statistical patterns for the size and growth rate distributions are broken down into a superposition of interorganizational movements. Study II models interorganizational movements as a labor flow network. Organizations tend to be more tightly linked if they belong to the same ownership sector. Additionally, public organizations have a more stable connection structure. Study III uses a similarity-based method called homogeneity analysis to map out the social space of large organizations in the Stockholm Region. A social distance is then derived within this space, and we find that the interorganizational movements analyzed in Studies I and II take place more often between organizations that are closer in social space and in the same network community. Study IV presents an approach to organizational dynamics based on sequences of employment states. Evidence for a positive feedback mechanism is found for large and highly sequence-diverse public organizations. Finally, Study V features an agent-based model where we simulate a social influence mechanism for organizational membership dynamics. We introduce a parameter analogous to a physical temperature to model contextual influence, and the familiar growth distributions are recovered as an intermediate case between extreme parameter values.

    The thesis as a whole provides suggestions for a more process-oriented modeling approach to social organizing that gives a more prominent role to the logics of organizational change. Finally, the series of methodological tools discussed can be useful for the analysis of many other social processes and more broadly for the development of quantitative sociological methods.

  • 47.
    Andersson, Anton B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Networks and Success: Access and Use of Social Capital among Young Adults in Sweden2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis explores the role of social capital in shaping inequality among young adults. Social capital is defined as resources embedded in a social network and the thesis investigates differences in access to social capital, and the effects in the labor market and the housing market. The thesis consists of four empirical studies and an introductory chapter that develops the theoretical and empirical background. The four empirical studies use a Swedish survey titled “Social Capital and Labor Market Integration” that includes individuals born in 1990 living in Sweden. A gross sample based on three subsamples was selected based on the country of birth of the respondents’ parents (Sweden, former Yugoslavia, or Iran). The survey consists of two waves of panel data and most respondents were 19 years old at the time of the first survey and 22 at the time of the second. The four studies investigate: (1) the effect of social class and migration background on access to social capital through national and transnational ties, (2) the effect of socioeconomic segregation in schools and neighborhoods on access to social capital through occupational networks and close friendship ties, (3) the effect of social capital in the process of labor market entry, and (4) the effect of social capital on the likelihood to move away from parents. All four studies measure social capital with ego network measures and the main measurement is the position generator that asks the respondent about contacts in occupational positions spanning the socioeconomic structure. Results show that family background factors and socioeconomic segregation affects access to social capital, and that social capital affects labor market and housing market outcomes. The thesis concludes that social capital is an important factor to understand unequal outcomes among young adults.

  • 48.
    Barker, Vanessa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Nordic Nationalism and Penal Order: Walling the Welfare State2017Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In late summer 2015, Sweden embarked on one of the largest self-described humanitarian efforts in its history, opening its borders to 163,000 asylum seekers fleeing the war in Syria. Six months later this massive effort was over. On January 4, 2016, Sweden closed its border with Denmark. This closure makes a startling reversal of Sweden’s open borders to refugees and contravenes free movement in the Schengen Area, a founding principle of the European Union. What happened? This book sets out to explain this reversal.

  • 49.
    Barker, Vanessa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Nordic Vagabonds: The Roma and the Logic of Benevolent Violence in the Swedish Welfare State2017In: European Journal of Criminology, ISSN 1477-3708, E-ISSN 1741-2609, Vol. 14, no 1, 120-139 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, control of the mobile poor is often driven by the needs and demands of the welfare state itself and follows a different logic outside the neoliberal paradigm. By examining the case of the Roma, EU citizens who travel to Sweden to ask for money on the streets, we can see the expansion and retraction of the criminal law as the government responds to new forms of migration and poverty in its society. The government’s mixed responses – no to bans on begging, but yes to evictions – are the result of dualities inherent in Nordic welfare states, when their inclusionary ameliorative dimensions collide with their exclusionary and nationalistic tendencies. This article proposes the term benevolent violence to conceptualize this duality. It occurs when coercive means are used to uphold the state’s ameliorative goals and when the state’s ameliorative practices have violent effects. In the case of the Roma, it means protecting them from their own livelihood and it means protecting the welfare state for nationals, keeping it solvent for members.

  • 50.
    Ahrne, Göran
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Brunsson, Nils
    Seidl, David
    On the fruitfulness of the concept of partial organization: A rejoinder to Apelt et al2017In: European Management Journal, ISSN 0263-2373, E-ISSN 1873-5681, Vol. 35, no 3, 297-299 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This short paper responds to Apelt et al.'s (2017) comments on Ahrne et al.'s (2016) proposal of extending the concept of organization to any decided social orders and thereby putting organization studies at the centre of the social sciences. We highlight some misunderstandings about the aims of this proposal and discuss Apelt et al.'s own proposal of re-focusing organization studies on formal organizations based on Niklas Luhmann's systems theory.

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