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  • 1.
    Ahlford, Katrin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Lind, Jesper
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Mäler, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Adolfsson, Hans
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Rhodium-catalyzed asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of alkyl and aryl ketones in aqueous media2008In: Green Chemistry, ISSN 1463-9262, E-ISSN 1463-9270, Vol. 10, no 8, p. 832-835Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel lipophilic rhodium catalyst was evaluated in the enantioselective transfer hydrogenation of ketones in water using sodium formate as the hydride donor, and in the presence of sodium docecylsulfonate. Alkyl alkyl ketones were reduced in good yields and in moderate to good enantioselectivities, and the reduction of aryl alkyl ketones proceeded with excellent enantioselectivity (up to 97% ee).

  • 2.
    Blomberg, Margareta R. A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Ädelroth, Pia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    The mechanism for oxygen reduction in cytochrome c dependent nitric oxide reductase (cNOR) as obtained from a combination of theoretical and experimental results2017In: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Bioenergetics, ISSN 0005-2728, E-ISSN 1879-2650, Vol. 1858, no 11, p. 884-894Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacterial NO-reductases (NOR) belong to the heme-copper oxidase (HCuO) superfamily, in which most members are O-2-reducing, proton-pumping enzymes. This study is one in a series aiming to elucidate the reaction mechanisms of the HCuOs, including the mechanisms for cellular energy conservation. One approach towards this goal is to compare the mechanisms for the different types of HCuOs, cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) and NOR, reducing the two substrates O-2 and NO. Specifically in this study, we describe the mechanism for oxygen reduction in cytochrome c dependent NOR (cNOR). Hybrid density functional calculations were performed on large cluster models of the cNOR binuclear active site. Our results are used, together with published experimental information, to construct a free energy profile for the entire catalytic cycle. Although the overall reaction is quite exergonic, we show that during the reduction of molecular oxygen in cNOR, two of the reduction steps are endergonic with high barriers for proton uptake, which is in contrast to oxygen reduction in CcO, where all reduction steps are exergonic. This difference between the two enzymes is suggested to be important for their differing capabilities for energy conservation. An additional result from this study is that at least three of the four reduction steps are initiated by proton transfer to the active site, which is in contrast to CcO, where electrons always arrive before the protons to the active site. The roles of the non-heme metal ion and the redox-active tyrosine in the active site are also discussed.

  • 3.
    Gustafsson, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Jemth, Ann-Sofie
    Gustafsson, Nina M. S.
    Färnegårdh, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Loseva, Olga
    Wiita, Elisée
    Bonagas, Nadilly
    Dahllund, Leif
    Llona-Minguez, Sabin
    Häggblad, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Henriksson, Martin
    Andersson, Yasmin
    Homan, Evert
    Helleday, Thomas
    Stenmark, Pal
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Crystal Structure of the Emerging Cancer Target MTHFD2 in Complex with a Substrate-Based Inhibitor2017In: Cancer Research, ISSN 0008-5472, E-ISSN 1538-7445, Vol. 77, no 4, p. 937-948Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To sustain their proliferation, cancer cells become dependent on one-carbon metabolism to support purine and thymidylate synthesis. Indeed, one of the most highly upregulated enzymes during neoplastic transformation is MTHFD2, a mitochondrial methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase and cyclohydrolase involved in one-carbon metabolism. Because MTHFD2 is expressed normally only during embryonic development, it offers a disease-selective therapeutic target for eradicating cancer cells while sparing healthy cells. Here we report the synthesis and preclinical characterization of the first inhibitor of human MTHFD2. We also disclose the first crystal structure of MTHFD2 in complex with a substrate-based inhibitor and the enzyme cofactors NAD(+) and inorganic phosphate. Our work provides a rationale for continued development of a structural framework for the generation of potent and selective MTHFD2 inhibitors for cancer treatment.

  • 4.
    Hamark, Christoffer
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Berntsson, Ronnie P. -A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Masuyer, Geoffrey
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Henriksson, Linda M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Gustafsson, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Stenmark, Pål
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Widmalm, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Glycans Confer Specificity to the Recognition of Ganglioside Receptors by Botulinum Neurotoxin A2017In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 139, no 1, p. 218-230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The highly poisonous botulinum neurotoxins, produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum, act on their hosts by a high-affinity association to two receptors on neuronal cell surfaces as the first step of invasion. The glycan motifs of gangliosides serve as initial coreceptors for these protein complexes, whereby a membrane protein receptor is bound. Herein we set out to characterize the carbohydrate minimal binding epitope of the botulinum neurotoxin serotype A. By means of ligand-based NMR spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, computer simulations, and isothermal titration calorimetry, a screening of ganglioside analogues together with a detailed characterization of various carbohydrate ligand complexes with the toxin were accomplished. We show that the representation of the glycan epitope to the protein affects the details of binding. Notably, both branches of the oligosaccharide GD la can associate to botulinum neurotoxin serotype A when expressed as individual trisaccharides. It is, however, the terminal branch of GD1a as well as this trisaccharide motif alone, corresponding to the sialyl-Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen, that represents the active ligand epitope, and these compounds bind to the neurotoxin with a high degree of predisposition but with low affinities. This finding does not correlate with the oligosaccharide moieties having a strong contribution to the total affinity, which was expected to be the case. We here propose that the glycan part of the ganglioside receptors mainly provides abundance and specificity, whereas the interaction with the membrane itself and protein receptor brings about the strong total binding of the toxin to the neuronal membrane.

  • 5.
    Hamark, Christoffer
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Berntsson, Ronnie Per-Arne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Gustafsson, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Svensson, Linda M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Stenmark, Pål
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Widmalm, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Recognition of Ganglioside Receptors by Botulinum Neurotoxin AManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Larsson Birgander, Pernilla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biology and Functional Genomics.
    Bug, Stefanie
    Sjöberg, Britt-Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biology and Functional Genomics.
    Gordon, Euan
    Dahlroth, Sue-Li
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Kasrayan, Alex
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Westman, MariAnn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biology and Functional Genomics.
    Euan, Gordon
    Sjöberg, Britt-Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biology and Functional Genomics.
    Nucleotide-dependent formation of catalytically competent dimers from engineered monomeric ribonucleotide reductase protein R12005In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 280, no 15, p. 14997-15003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Each catalytic turnover by aerobic ribonucleotide reductase requires the assembly of the two proteins, R1 (α2) and R2 (β2), to produce deoxyribonucleotides for DNA synthesis. The R2 protein forms a tight dimer, whereas the strength of the R1 dimer differs between organisms, being monomeric in mouse R1 and dimeric in Escherichia coli. We have used the known E. coli R1 structure as a framework for design of eight different mutations that affect the helices and proximal loops that comprise the dimer interaction area. Mutations in loop residues did not affect dimerization, whereas mutations in the helices had very drastic effects on the interaction resulting in monomeric proteins with very low or no activity. The monomeric N238A protein formed an interesting exception, because it unexpectedly was able to reduce ribonucleotides with a comparatively high capacity. Gel filtration studies revealed that N238A was able to dimerize when bound by both substrate and effector, a result in accordance with the monomeric R1 protein from mouse. The effects of the N238A mutation, fit well with the notion that E. coli protein R1 has a comparatively small dimer interaction surface in relation to its size, and the results illustrate the stabilization effects of substrates and effectors in the dimerization process. The identification of key residues in the dimerization process and the fact that there is little sequence identity between the interaction areas of the mammalian and the prokaryotic enzymes may be of importance in drug design, similar to the strategy used in treatment of HSV infection.

  • 7.
    Muheim, Claudio
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Bakali, Amin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Engström, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Wieslander, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Daley, Daniel O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Widmalm, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Identification of a Fragment-Based Scaffold that Inhibits the Glycosyltransferase WaaG from Escherichia coli2016In: Antibiotics, ISSN 0066-4774, E-ISSN 2079-6382, Vol. 5, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    WaaG is a glycosyltransferase that is involved in the biosynthesis of lipopolysaccharide in Gram-negative bacteria. Inhibitors of WaaG are highly sought after as they could be used to inhibit the biosynthesis of the core region of lipopolysaccharide, which would improve the uptake of antibiotics. Herein, we establish an activity assay for WaaG using C-14-labeled UDP-glucose and LPS purified from a increment waaG strain of Escherichia coli. We noted that addition of the lipids phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and cardiolipin (CL), as well as the detergent 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS) increased activity. We then use the assay to determine if three molecular scaffolds, which bind to WaaG, could inhibit its activity in vitro. We show that 4-(2-amino-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)phenol inhibits WaaG (IC50 1.0 mM), but that the other scaffolds do not. This study represents an important step towards an inhibitor of WaaG by fragment-based lead discovery.

  • 8. Patton, Gregory C.
    et al.
    Stenmark, Pål
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Gollapalli, Deviprasad R.
    Sevastik, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Kursula, Petri
    Flodin, Susanne
    Schuler, Herwig
    Swales, Colin T.
    Eklund, Hans
    Himo, Fahmi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Nordlund, Par
    Hedstrom, Lizbeth
    Cofactor mobility determines reaction outcome in the IMPDH and GMPR (beta-alpha)(8) barrel enzymes2011In: Nature Chemical Biology, ISSN 1552-4450, E-ISSN 1552-4469, Vol. 7, no 12, p. 950-958Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) and guanosine monophosphate reductase (GMPR) belong to the same structural family, share a common set of catalytic residues and bind the same ligands. The structural and mechanistic features that determine reaction outcome in the IMPDH and GMPR family have not been identified. Here we show that the GMPR reaction uses the same intermediate E-XMP(star) as IMPDH, but in this reaction the intermediate reacts with ammonia instead of water. A single crystal structure of human GMPR type 2 with IMP and NADPH fortuitously captures three different states, each of which mimics a distinct step in the catalytic cycle of GMPR. The cofactor is found in two conformations: an 'in' conformation poised for hydride transfer and an 'out' conformation in which the cofactor is 6 angstrom from IMP. Mutagenesis along with substrate and cofactor analog experiments demonstrate that the out conformation is required for the deamination of GMP. Remarkably, the cofactor is part of the catalytic machinery that activates ammonia.

  • 9.
    Pershagen, Elias
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Nordholm, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Borbas, K. Eszter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Luminescent Lanthanide Complexes with Analyte-Triggered Antenna Formation2012In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 134, no 24, p. 9832-9835Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new strategy for accessing analyte-responsive luminescent probes is presented. The lanthanide luminescence of Eu and Tb centers is switched on by the analyte-triggered formation of a sensitizing antenna from a nonsensitizing caged precursor. As the cage can be freely varied, an array of probes for different analytes (pd(0/2+), H2O2, F-, beta-galactosidase) can be created from the same core structure. The probe design affords nanomolar to micromolar detection limits, provides the capability to detect two analytes in parallel, and can be utilized to monitor enzymatic activity in live cells.

  • 10.
    Poiana, Federica
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    von Ballmoos, Christoph
    Gonska, Nathalie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Blomberg, Margareta R. A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Ädelroth, Pia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Brzezinski, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Splitting of the O-O bond at the heme-copper catalytic site of respiratory oxidases2017In: Science Advances, ISSN 0036-8156, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 3, no 6, article id e1700279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heme-copper oxidases catalyze the four-electron reduction of O-2 to H2O at a catalytic site that is composed of a heme group, a copper ion (Cu-B), and a tyrosine residue. Results from earlier experimental studies have shown that the O-O bond is cleaved simultaneously with electron transfer from a low-spin heme (heme a/b), forming a ferryl state (P-R; Fe4+= O2-, Cu-B(2+)-OH-). We show that with the Thermus thermophilus ba(3) oxidase, at low temperature (10 degrees C, pH 7), electron transfer from the low-spin heme b to the catalytic site is faster by a factor of similar to 10 (tau congruent to 11 mu s) than the formation of the P-R ferryl (t. 110 ms), which indicates that O-2 is reduced before the splitting of the O-O bond. Application of density functional theory indicates that the electron acceptor at the catalytic site is a high-energy peroxy state [Fe3+-O--O-(H+)], which is formed before the P-R ferryl. The rates of heme b oxidation and P-R ferryl formation were more similar at pH 10, indicating that the formation of the high-energy peroxy state involves proton transfer within the catalytic site, consistent with theory. The combined experimental and theoretical data suggest a general mechanism for O-2 reduction by heme-copper oxidases.

  • 11.
    Popović-Bijelić, Ana
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Kowol, Christian R.
    Lind, Maria E. S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Luo, Jinghui
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Himo, Fahmi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Enyedy, Éva A.
    Arion, Vladimir B.
    Gräslund, Astrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Ribonucleotide reductase inhibition by metal complexes of Triapine (3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone): A combined experimental and theoretical study2011In: European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, ISSN 1434-1948, E-ISSN 1099-1948, Vol. 105, no 11, p. 1422-1431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Triapine (3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone, 3-AP) is currently the most promising chemotherapeutic compound among the class of α-N-heterocyclic thiosemicarbazones. Here we report further insights into the mechanism(s) of anticancer drug activity and inhibition of mouse ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) by Triapine. In addition to the metal-free ligand, its iron(III), gallium(III), zinc(II) and copper(II) complexes were studied, aiming to correlate their cytotoxic activities with their effects on the diferric/tyrosyl radical center of the RNR enzyme in vitro. In this study we propose for the first time a potential specific binding pocket for Triapine on the surface of the mouse R2 RNR protein. In our mechanistic model, interaction with Triapine results in the labilization of the diferric center in the R2 protein. Subsequently the Triapine molecules act as iron chelators. In the absence of external reductants, and in presence of the mouse R2 RNR protein, catalytic amounts of the iron(III)–Triapine are reduced to the iron(II)–Triapine complex. In the presence of an external reductant (dithiothreitol), stoichiometric amounts of the potently reactive iron(II)–Triapine complex are formed. Formation of the iron(II)–Triapine complex, as the essential part of the reaction outcome, promotes further reactions with molecular oxygen, which give rise to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and thereby damage the RNR enzyme. Triapine affects the diferric center of the mouse R2 protein and, unlike hydroxyurea, is not a potent reductant, not likely to act directly on the tyrosyl radical.

  • 12. Rosén Klement, Maria L.
    et al.
    Öjemyr, Linda
    Tagscherer, Katrin E.
    Widmalm, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Wieslander, Åke
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    A processive lipid glycosyltransferase in the small human pathogen Mycoplasma pneumoniae: involvement in host immune response2007In: Molecular Microbiology, ISSN 1365-2958, Vol. 65, no 6, p. 1444-1457Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Rudbeck, Maria E.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Blomberg, Margareta R. A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Barth, Andreas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Hydrolysis of the E2P Phosphoenzyme of the Ca2+-ATPase: A Theoretical Study2013In: Journal of Physical Chemistry B, ISSN 1520-6106, E-ISSN 1520-5207, Vol. 117, no 31, p. 9224-9232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dephosphorylation of the E2P phosphoenzyme intermediate of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase was studied using density functional theory. The hydrolysis reaction proceeds via a nucleophilic attack on the phosphorylated residue Asp351 by a water molecule, which is positioned by the nearby residue Glu183 acting as a base. The activation barrier was calculated to be 14.3 kcal/mol, which agrees well with values of 15-17 kcal/mol derived from experimentally observed rates. The optimized structure of the transition state reveals considerable bond breakage between phosphorus and the Asp351 oxygen (distance 2.19 angstrom) and little bond formation to the attacking water oxygen (distance 2.26 angstrom). Upon formation of the singly protonated phosphate product, Glu183 becomes protonated. The bridging aspartyl phosphate oxygen approaches Lys684 progressively when proceeding from the reactant state (distance 1.94 angstrom) via the transition state (1.78 angstrom) to the product state (1.58 angstrom). This stabilizes the negative charge that develops on the leaving group. The reaction was calculated to be slightly endergonic (+0.9 kcal/mol) and therefore reversible, in line with experimental findings. It is catalyzed by a preorganized active site with little movement of the nonreacting groups except for a rotation of Thr625 toward the phosphate group.

  • 14.
    Siegbahn, Per E. M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Himo, Fahmi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    The quantum chemical clusterapproach for modeling enzymereactions2011In: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Computational Molecular Science, ISSN 1759-0876, E-ISSN 1759-0884, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 323-356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This Overview describes the general concepts behind the quantum chemical clusterapproach formodeling enzyme active sites and reaction mechanisms. First, theunderlying density functional electronic structure method is briefly recapitulated.The cluster methodology is then discussed, including the important observationon the convergence of the solvation effects. The concepts are illustrated usingexamples from recent applications, such as the discrimination between differentreaction mechanisms in phosphotriesterase, the elucidation of origins of regioselectivityin the epoxide-opening reaction of haloalcohol dehalogenase, and finallythe use of the cluster methodology to establish the detailed structure of theoxygen-evolving complex in photosystem II.

  • 15.
    Säwén, Elin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Massad, Tariq
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Landersjö, Clas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Damberg, Peter
    Widmalm, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Population distribution of flexible molecules from maximum entropy analysisusing different priors as background information: application to the phi,psi-conformational space of the a-(1→2)-linked mannose disaccharide presentin N- and O-linked glycoproteins2010In: Organic and biomolecular chemistry, ISSN 1477-0520, E-ISSN 1477-0539, Vol. 8, no 16, p. 3684-3695Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The conformational space available to the flexible molecule a-D-Manp-(1→2)-a-D-Manp-OMe, amodel for the a-(1→2)-linked mannose disaccharide in N- or O-linked glycoproteins, is determinedusing experimental data and molecular simulation combined with a maximum entropy approach thatleads to a converged population distribution utilizing different input information. A database survey ofthe Protein Data Bank where structures having the constituent disaccharide were retrieved resulted inan ensemble with >200 structures. Subsequent filtering removed erroneous structures and gave thedatabase (DB) ensemble having three classes of mannose-containing compounds, viz., N- and O-linkedstructures, and ligands to proteins. A molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of the disaccharide revealeda two-state equilibrium with a major and a minor conformational state, i.e., the MD ensemble. Thesetwo different conformation ensembles of the disaccharide were compared to measured experimentalspectroscopic data for the molecule in water solution. However, neither of the two populations werecompatible with experimental data from optical rotation, NMR 1H,1H cross-relaxation rates as well ashomo- and heteronuclear 3J couplings. The conformational distributions were subsequently used asbackground information to generate priors that were used in a maximum entropy analysis. Theresulting posteriors, i.e., the population distributions after the application of the maximum entropyanalysis, still showed notable deviations that were not anticipated based on the prior information.Therefore, reparameterization of homo- and heteronuclear Karplus relationships for the glycosidictorsion angles f and y were carried out in which the importance of electronegative substituents on thecoupling pathway was deemed essential resulting in four derived equations, two 3JCOCC and two 3JCOCHbeing different for the f and y torsions, respectively. These Karplus relationships are denotedJCX/SU09. Reapplication of the maximum entropy analysis gave excellent agreement between theMD- and DB-posteriors. The information entropies show that the current reparametrization of theKarplus relationships constitutes a significant improvement. The fH torsion angle of the disaccharide isgoverned by the exo-anomeric effect and for the dominating conformation fH = -40◦ and yH = 33◦.The minor conformational state has a negative yH torsion angle; the relative populations of the majorand the minor states are ~3 : 1. It is anticipated that application of the methodology will be useful toflexible molecules ranging from small organic molecules to large biomolecules.

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