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  • 1. Abbass, Allan
    et al.
    Town, Joel
    Johansson, Robert
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Lahti, Melissa
    Kisely, Steve
    Sustained Reduction in Health Care Service Usage after Adjunctive Treatment of Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy in Patients with Bipolar Disorder2019Ingår i: Psychodynamic Psychiatry, ISSN 2162-2590, Vol. 47, nr 1, s. 99-112Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in long-term health care costs and symptom severity after adjunctive intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy (ISTDP) individually tailored and administered to patients with bipolar disorder undergoing standard psychiatric care. Eleven therapists with different levels of expertise delivered an average of 4.6 one-hour sessions of ISTDP to 29 patients with bipolar disorders. Health care service costs were compiled for a one-year period prior to the start of ISTDP along with four one-year periods after termination. Two validated self-report scales, the Brief Symptom Inventory and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, were administered at intake and termination of ISTDP. Hospital cost reductions were significant for the one-year post-treatment period relative to baseline year, and all cost reductions were sustained for the follow-up period of four post-treatment years. Self-reported psychiatric symptoms and interpersonal problems were significantly reduced. These preliminary findings suggest that this brief adjunctive psychotherapy may be beneficial and cost-effective in select patients with bipolar disorders, and that gains may be sustained in long-term followup. Future research directions are discussed.

  • 2. Aboagye, Emmanuel
    et al.
    Björklund, Christina
    Gustafsson, Klas
    Hagberg, Jan
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Marklund, Staffan
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Exhaustion and Impaired Work Performance in the Workplace: Associations With Presenteeism and Absenteeism2019Ingår i: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 61, nr 11, s. 438-444Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between presenteeism and absenteeism during the previous year and the current levels of exhaustion and impaired work performance in a Swedish university setting.

    Methods: In a study of 3525 employees, an ordinal logistic regression and general linear model was used to examine the association between presenteeism and absenteeism during the previous year and the current exhaustion and impaired work performance, respectively.

    Results: Presenteeism, but not absenteeism, during the previous year independently increased the risk of having moderate or severe exhaustion. Presenteeism, absenteeism, and exhaustion remained positively associated with impaired work performance when health status and other confounders had been adjusted for.

    Conclusions: Presenteeism, but not absenteeism, was associated with exhaustion. Both presenteeism and absenteeism were the salient correlates of impaired work performance.

  • 3.
    Alm, Charlotte
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Rehnberg, Nora Helmy
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Language and eyewitness suggestibility2019Ingår i: Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, ISSN 1544-4759, E-ISSN 1544-4767, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 201-212Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During forensic interviews, eyewitnesses are to retrieve correct information from memory. Cognitive load should be high, leading to risks of giving in to suggestive questions and difficulties in memory retrieval generally. Testifying in a non-native vs. native language may require even more cognitive effort due to the need to inhibit the interference of the native language. Such witnesses may also be more motivated to appear credible because they often belong to ethnic outgroups relative to forensic professionals, risking more scepticism. In this study, Swedish participants (N = 51) reported their memory of a simulated crime event either in English (non-native language) or in Swedish (native language) and were tested for suggestibility and accuracy. Results showed that English-speaking witnesses yielded to more suggestive questions, perceived themselves as less credible but were equally accurate. Results suggest that testifying in a non-native language is taxing cognitive resources, in turn increasing suggestibility and suboptimal memory search.

  • 4.
    Almkvist, Ove
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Bosnes, Ole
    Bosnes, Ingunn
    Stordal, Eystein
    Subjective working and declarative memory in dementia and normal aging2019Ingår i: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6314, E-ISSN 1600-0404, Vol. 140, nr 2, s. 140-146Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Subjective memory complaints are common in both elderly individuals and patients with dementia. This study investigated the power of subjective memory, divided into declarative and working memory, to differentiate between patients with dementia and normal elderly individuals.

    Method: Two groups of participants, patients with dementia (n = 117) and normal elderly individuals (n = 117), individually matched with regard to age, gender, and education. All subjects had participated in the third wave of the HUNT population health survey in Nord-Trondelag County in Norway and completed the Meta-Memory Questionnaire (MMQ) in the HUNT study. The MMQ was subdivided into two components, one associated with declarative memory (episodic and semantic) and the other with working memory.

    Results: Patients with dementia reported significantly more subjective memory concerns than normal elderly individuals. The difference between working and declarative memory components was significantly greater in patients with dementia than in normal elderly individuals. This finding made it possible to differentiate patients with dementia from the normal elderly individuals. Mental and somatic health conditions did not significantly add power to differentiating the two groups.

    Conclusion: In clinical and research applications, subjective memory components could contribute to differentiation of patients with dementia and normal elderly individuals by using self-reported impairment in working memory, rather than declarative memory.

  • 5. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Factorial Trial Design in Internet Intervention Research2019Ingår i: Proceedings of the 9th World Congress of Behavioural & Cognitive Therapies: Volume I. Research, Applied Issues / [ed] Thomas Heidenreich, Philip Tata, Tübingen: dgvt-Verlag , 2019, Vol. 1, s. 155-156Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous controlled trials have been published on the effects of internet-delivered psychological treatments for a range of problems and disorders. Generally, trials adhere to the CONSORT statement and include control groups. Often this is attention control, waitlist but also alternative treatments. In experimental psychology factorial designs is the common way to investigate research questions but in psychotherapy research this is rare given the need for large samples in order to have sufficient power to detect differntial effects of  independent variables (like for example different versions of a treatment). With the advent of internet-delivered CBT (ICBT) this has changes and it is now possible to run trials with larger samples. At the same time there is really no need for more studies showing that a treatment is better than just waiting (for some areas at least like depression). In this talk we will present result from three completed factorial design trials in which we have manipulated support form (on demand versus scheduled in one trial and chat-support versus just email in another), and also other aspects like learning support and choice of treatment. The talk will end with a discussion on future directions of ICBT research with regards to design of trials.

  • 6. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi. University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Rozental, Alexander
    Response and Remission Rates in Internet-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy: An Individual Patient Data Meta-Analysis2019Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychiatry, ISSN 1664-0640, E-ISSN 1664-0640, Vol. 10, artikel-id 749Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) was developed over 20 years ago and has since undergone a number of controlled trials, as well as several systematic reviews and meta-analyses. However, the crucial question of response rates remains to be systematically investigated. The aim of this individual patient meta-analysis (IPDMA) was to use a large dataset of trials conducted in Sweden to determine reliable change and recovery rates across trials for a range of conditions.

    Methods: We used previously collected and aggregated data from 2,866 patients in 29 Swedish clinical trials of ICBT for three categories of conditions: anxiety disorders, depression, and others. Raw scores at pre-treatment and post-treatment were used in an IPDMA to determine the rate of reliable change and recovery. Jacobson and Truax’s, (1991) reliable change index (RCI) was calculated for each primary outcome measure in the trials as well as the recovery rates for each patient, with the additional requirement of having improved substantially. We subsequently explored potential predictors using binomial logistic regression.

    Results: In applying an RCI of z = 1.96, 1,162 (65.6%) of the patients receiving treatment were classified as achieving recovery, and 620 (35.0%) were classified as reaching remission. In terms of predictors, patients with higher symptom severity on the primary outcome measure at baseline [odds ratio (OR) = 1.36] and being female (OR = 2.22) increased the odds of responding to treatment. Having an anxiety disorder was found to decrease the response to treatment (OR = 0.51). Remission was predicted by diagnosis in the same direction (OR = 0.28), whereas symptom severity was inversely predictive of worse outcome (OR = 0.81). Conclusions: Response seems to occur among approximately half of all clients administered ICBT, whereas about a third reach remission. This indicates that the efficacy of ICBT is in line with that of CBT based in prior trials, with a possible caveat being the lower remission rates. Having more symptoms and being female might increase the chances of improvement, and a small negative effect of having anxiety disorder versus depression and other conditions may also exist. A limitation of the IPDMA was that only studies conducted in Sweden were included.

  • 7. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi. University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Titov, Nickolai
    Lindefors, Nils
    Internet Interventions for Adults with Anxiety and Mood Disorders: A Narrative Umbrella Review of Recent Meta-Analyses2019Ingår i: Canadian journal of psychiatry, ISSN 0706-7437, Vol. 64, nr 7, s. 465-470Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) has existed for 20 years and there are now several controlled trials for a range of problems. In this paper, we focused on recent meta-analytic reviews of the literature and found moderate to large effects reported for panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and major depression. In total, we reviewed 9 recent meta-analytic reviews out of a total of 618 meta-analytic reviews identified using our search terms. In these selected reviews, 166 studies were included, including overlap in reviews on similar conditions. We also covered a recent review on transdiagnostic treatments and 2 reviews on face-to-face v. internet treatment. The growing number of meta-analytic reviews of studies now suggests that ICBT works and can be as effective as face-to-face therapy.

  • 8. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Titov, Nickolai
    Dear, Blake F.
    Rozental, Alexander
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi. University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Internet‐delivered psychological treatments: from innovation to implementation2019Ingår i: World Psychiatry, ISSN 1723-8617, E-ISSN 2051-5545, Vol. 18, nr 1, s. 20-28Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet interventions, and in particular Internet‐delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT), have existed for at least 20 years. Here we review the treatment approach and the evidence base, arguing that ICBT can be viewed as a vehicle for innovation. ICBT has been developed and tested for several psychiatric and somatic conditions, and direct comparative studies suggest that therapist‐guided ICBT is more effective than a waiting list for anxiety disorders and depression, and tends to be as effective as face‐to‐face CBT. Studies on the possible harmful effects of ICBT are also reviewed: a significant minority of people do experience negative effects, although rates of deterioration appear similar to those reported for face‐to‐face treatments and lower than for control conditions. We further review studies on change mechanisms and conclude that few, if any, consistent moderators and mediators of change have been identified. A recent trend to focus on knowledge acquisition is considered, and a discussion on the possibilities and hurdles of implementing ICBT is presented. The latter includes findings suggesting that attitudes toward ICBT may not be as positive as when using modern information technology as an adjunct to face‐to‐face therapy (i.e., blended treatment). Finally, we discuss future directions, including the role played by technology and machine learning, blended treatment, adaptation of treatment for minorities and non‐Western settings, other therapeutic approaches than ICBT (including Internet‐delivered psychodynamic and interpersonal psychotherapy as well as acceptance and commitment therapy), emerging regulations, and the importance of reporting failed trials.

  • 9.
    Andreasson, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Macquarie University, Australia.
    Schiller, Helena
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Brief report: Contemplate your symptoms and re-evaluate your health. A study on working adults2019Ingår i: Journal of Health Psychology, ISSN 1359-1053, E-ISSN 1461-7277, Vol. 24, nr 11, s. 1562-1567Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated whether self-ratings of health are affected by a symptom rating. A diary including a one-item self-rating of health ("pre-self-rated health"; 1 = excellent, 7 = very poor), a subsequent 26-item rating of symptoms, and thereafter a second (identical) health rating ("post-self-rated health") was completed by 820 persons 21 times. Self-rated health worsened significantly ( p < .0001) after the symptom rating, from 2.72 pre-self-rated health (95% confidence interval: 2.70-2.74) to 2.77 post-self-rated health (95% confidence interval: 2.75-2.79) and more so in persons who reported more symptoms ( b = .058, p < .05). The results support the notion that subjective health perception is influenced by attending to symptoms, especially so in persons with a high symptom burden.

  • 10. Angelov, Angel G.
    et al.
    Ekström, Magnus
    Kriström, Bengt
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Four-decision tests for stochastic dominance, with an application to environmental psychophysics2019Ingår i: Journal of mathematical psychology (Print), ISSN 0022-2496, E-ISSN 1096-0880, Vol. 93, artikel-id 102281Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    If the survival function of a random variable X lies to the right of the survival function of a random variable Y, then X is said to stochastically dominate Y. Inferring stochastic dominance is particularly complicated because comparing survival functions raises four possible hypotheses: identical survival functions, dominance of X over Y, dominance of Y over X, or crossing survival functions. In this paper, we suggest four-decision tests for stochastic dominance suitable for paired samples. The tests are permutation-based and do not rely on distributional assumptions. One-sided Cramer-von Mises and Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistics are employed but the general idea may be utilized with other test statistics. The power to detect dominance and the different types of wrong decisions are investigated in an extensive simulation study. The proposed tests are applied to data from an experiment concerning the individual's willingness to pay for a given environmental improvement. 

  • 11.
    Annell, Stefan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Gustavsson, Petter
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Lämna yrket eller stanna kvar? En studie om nya poliser2019Ingår i: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 25, nr 2, s. 6-27Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie undersöker vilka faktorer som bidrar till att yngre poliser i Sverige väljer att lämna yrket. Studien följer en kohort (N=717) av yngre poliser. Data från antagningen till polisutbildningen (T1-2008), efter ett års arbete (T2-2011) och efter sju års arbete (T3-2017) används för statistiska analyser baserade på en bred uppsättning variabler. Resultaten visar att förhållandevis få poliser lämnat yrket (7,4%) och att det finns få skillnader mellan de som stannat respektive lämnat yrket. Låg organisationssamhörighet efter ett års arbete var den enskilt starkaste prediktorn av frivillig uppsägning. Åtgärder som stärker organisationssamhörigheten tidigt i karriären bör därför prioriteras.

  • 12.
    Annell, Stefan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi. Swedish Defence Universiy, Sweden.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Gustavsson, Petter
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Stay or leave the Police? A longitudinal examination of turnover among younger police officers in Sweden2019Ingår i: Abstract Book of the 19th European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology Congress: Working for the greater good - Inspiring people, designing jobs and leading organizations for a more inclusive society, 2019, s. 1262-1262, artikel-id 839Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Turnover increases among Police officers in Sweden. This is coupled with the Police force facing higher demands. The resulting recruitment of new officers is time-consuming and expensive, and also indicates the need to reduce turnover rates. Thus, increasing turnover rates are important, but knowledge regarding police turnover is limited. This study aims to understand voluntary police turnover among younger officers in a European setting.

    Design/Methodology/Approach/Intervention: Using a sample of Swedish police officers (N = 720) and data from three time-points (application to the police education–2008, first work year–2011, and seven years of work–2017), we followed a two-step approach. First, we performed univariate comparisons between stayers and leavers. Then we predicted turnover-status by hierarchical logistic regression.

    Results: Findings revealed low but increasing annual turnover rates. Some differences  emerged  between stayers and leavers. Regression analyses showed organizational commitment to be the most important long-term predictor of turnover, outperforming predictors such as educational level, job satisfaction, and turnover intention.

    Limitations: Since data were not originally designed to examine turnover, not all potentially relevant variables were included.

    Research/Practical Implications: This study emphasizes early career organizational commitment as an important predictor of long-term retention among police officers. Low associations between turnover intention and actual turnover suggest a need to address reluctant stayers. Further, findings suggest selection being of limited value in preventing police turnover.

    Originality/Value: This is the first larger study that examines turnover among police officers in Sweden.

  • 13.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Astvik, Wanja
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Så återhämtar vi oss!2019Ingår i: Socionomen, ISSN 0283-1929, nr 5, s. 14-19Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 14.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Mellner, Christin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Det gränslösa arbetet2019Ingår i: Arbete & välfärd: Ledning, personal och organisationsmodeller i Sverige / [ed] Åke Sandberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, s. 451-465Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 15.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Nylén, Eva Charlotta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Ishall, Lars
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi. North-West University, Vanderbijlpark, South Africa.
    The long arm of the job - work characteristics and recovery windows in social welfare work2019Ingår i: International Journal of Workplace Health Management, ISSN 1753-8351, E-ISSN 1753-836X, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 15-27Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Social welfare work contains elements that may be difficult for employees to put out of their minds when the working day ends, which may affect the recovery. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the length of recovery in relation to different work characteristics and to two types of welfare work. Design/methodology/approach All 1,365 employees, excluding managers, of two municipality administrations were invited to a survey study. Of these, 673 (49 percent) responded. After adjusting for partial missing, the effective sample included 580 employees (43 percent). Retrospective ratings of four recovery windows were analyzed: recovery after one night's sleep, weekends, shorter holidays and vacations. Findings Employees with a university education were less recovered than those with a shorter education. For those with a university education, the long arm of the job mainly involved failures regarding qualitative job demands (task difficulty). For those with a shorter education, quantitative job demands (too much to do) were most prominent for their prolonged recovery. Feedback from managers had consistent and positive associations with all four recovery windows among employees with a university education, but not among those with a shorter education for whom instead having too much to do and social support had significant spillover effects. Originality/value The identified differences may relate to employees with a university education having more problem-solving tasks, which may result in a higher need of work-related feedback but also in difficulties detaching from work. Thus, education and job characteristics have differential associations with self-rated recovery.

  • 16.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Taloyan, Marina
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Östergren, Per-Olof
    Associations Between Being 'locked-In' and Health - An Epidemiological Study2019Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, ISSN 2245-0157, E-ISSN 2245-0157, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 71-85Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between an individual's level of perceived control over labor market position (locked-in and not locked-in) and self-rated health and psychological well-being. Methods. A representative sample (n = 11,675) of the working population in southern Sweden responded to a questionnaire. Results. Sixty-seven percent of the respondents worked in their preferred workplace and occupation. Nineteen percent reported being in a nonpreferred workplace and nonpreferred occupation (double locked-in). Twenty-three percent reported suboptimal health compared with 31% among the double locked-in. The risk of suboptimal health was elevated in all locked-in groups also after adjustment for background variables and job strain. In the double locked-in group, the fully adjusted odds ratio for suboptimal health was 1.72 (95% confidence interval 1.49-1.99) and for suboptimal psychological well-being 2.17 (95% confidence interval 1.84-2.56). Odds ratio for the other locked-in groups was lower but still statistically significant. Conclusions. Being at a nonpreferred work-place or occupation was associated with impaired health.

  • 17. Asperholm, Martin
    et al.
    Hogman, Nadja
    Rafi, Jonas
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Herlitz, Agneta
    What Did You Do Yesterday? A Meta-Analysis of Sex Differences in Episodic Memory2019Ingår i: Psychological bulletin, ISSN 0033-2909, E-ISSN 1939-1455, Vol. 145, nr 8Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To remember what one did yesterday is an example of an everyday episodic memory task, in which a female advantage has sometimes been reported. Here, we quantify the impact of sex on episodic memory performance and investigate whether the magnitude of the sex difference is modified by study-, task-, and sample-specific moderators. Analyses were based on 617 studies conducted between 1973 and 2013 with 1,233,921 participants. A 5-level random-effects meta-analysis showed an overall female advantage in episodic memory (g = 0.19, 95% CI [0.17, 0.21]). The material to be remembered affected the magnitude of this advantage, with a female advantage for more verbal tasks, such as words, sentences, and prose (g = 0.28, 95% CI [0.25, 0.30]), nameable images (g = 0.16, 95% CI [0.11, 0.22]), and locations (g = 0.16, 95% CI [0.11, 0.21]). and a male advantage in more spatial tasks, such as abstract images (g = -0.20, 95% CI [-0.35, -0.05]) and routes (g = -0.24, 95% CI (-0.35, -0.12]). Furthermore, there was a female advantage for materials that cannot easily be placed along the verbal-spatial continuum, such as faces (g = 0.26, 95% CI [0.20, 0.33]), and odor, taste, and color (g = 0.37, 95% CI [0.18, 0.55]). These differences have remained stable since 1973. For verbal episodic memory tasks, differences were larger in Europe, North America, Oceania. and South America than in Asia, and smaller in childhood and old age than for other ages. Taken together. results suggest that men may use their spatial advantage in spatially demanding episodic memory tasks, whereas women do well in episodic memory tasks that are verbalizable and tasks that are neither verbal nor spatial, such as remembering faces and odors/tastes/colors.

  • 18.
    Azad, Azade
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Ginner Hau, Hanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Adolescent Females with Limited Delinquency: A Follow-Up on Educational Attainment and Recidivism2019Ingår i: Child and Youth Care Forum, ISSN 1053-1890, E-ISSN 1573-3319Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Research has established a strong relationship between education and later life outcomes, where the connection between different school problems and delinquency have been widely acknowledged. These studies have often sampled male juvenile offenders exhibiting extensive and/or persistent delinquency. Less is known about the educational attainment of female juvenile offenders, especially those who display limited delinquency. In a previous study (Azad and Ginner Hau in Child Youth Serv Rev 95:384–396, 2018), the characteristics of this particular group of offenders were explored where the results showed limited self-reported delinquency but elevated school problems.

    Objective

    The present aim was to conduct a follow-up study of the same sample of female adolescents, in order to study their educational attainment during adolescence and the rate of recidivism within 24 months after being sentenced through registry data.

    Method

    The sample consisted of adolescent females (N = 144) who were convicted of a crime and sentenced to youth service between 2007 and 2012 in Stockholm, Sweden.

    Results

    The results showed that the majority of the females did not reoffend within 2 years after being sentenced. They did, however, display high educational deficits. Their grade point average at the end of both compulsory education and upper secondary school was much lower than that of young females in general, and the majority had either dropped out, never begun or received zero in all subjects at the end of upper secondary school.

    Conclusions

    The low school results indicate a need to support young delinquent females’ educational attainment in order to improve their overall life chances.

  • 19.
    Azad, Azadé
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Characteristics of adolescent females with limited delinquency: Developmental challenges in relation to family, peers and education2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Adolescence is a developmental period marked with several changes in a young person’s life. Most adolescents who commit crimes desist over time. Despite this, research has mainly focused on those with extensive and long-term delinquency, including mostly males. Young females with limited delinquency are thus an under-researched group. The overall aim of the thesis was to explore the characteristics of young females with limited delinquency, and relate these features to developmental aspects of adolescence. Further, the objective was to study potential challenges they experience, in connection to family, peers and school. All four studies were based on data from young females sentenced to youth service. Studies 1 and 2 include all (N=144) females convicted in a major city in Sweden during 2007–2012. The data collected through self-reports based on ADAD interviews at the beginning of youth service in Study 1 was further complemented and followed up in Study 2 with registry data on education and recidivism 24 months after starting their sentence. Studies 3 and 4 were based on in-depth interviews with nine adolescent females who started their sentence between 2012–2013 in one of two major cities in Sweden. The results confirmed the assumption that this group of offenders displayed limited delinquency. Their self-reports in Study 1 showed low involvement in crimes during twelve months prior to youth service, which was similar to the reporting of a reference group of females in general. Displaying limited delinquency was supported by registry data in Study 2, showing that the majority of the females did not reoffend within two years after being sentenced, as measured by suspicion and conviction rates. However, they did show high educational deficits. This was evident both by high levels of self-reported school problems in Study 1 and final grade point in compulsory and upper secondary school in Study 2. Their educational attainment was lower than adolescent females in general, irrespective of whether they reoffended or not. These findings suggest that although the females were limited in their delinquency, their low levels of education could still put them at risk for suboptimal development. In the interviews, participants ascribed particular importance to peers and family when describing their delinquency. The narratives illustrated how the process of delinquency as it concerned interpersonal relations involved mutually influential exchanges, both contributing to as well as being affected by the delinquency. As such, delinquency was, in Study 3, portrayed as a way to socialize, where delinquent peers were considered important for committing crimes, and pro-social peers for desisting. Likewise, family relations in Study 4 were given a prominent role in the entire process. Accordingly, delinquency was described as a consequence of the relations to the family, where these were negatively as well as positively affected by the crimes. The collective results indicate that committing crimes for the females may be viewed as part of normative development, in which the quest for independence and establishing ones’ identity can contribute to these behaviors. Practical implications for work with young female offenders are also discussed.

  • 20.
    Baraldi, Erika
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Westling Allodi, Mara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Löwing, Kristina
    Smedler, Ann-Charlotte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Westrup, Björn
    Ådén, Ulrika
    Clinical Protocol & Research Process of Stockholm Preterm Interaction-Based Intervention, SPIBI2019Ingår i: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447, Vol. 86, nr Suppl., s. 54-55Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Extremely preterm (EPT) born children are at increased risk of cognitive and neurodevelopmental impairment, neuropsychiatric disorders and academic difficulties. Parents of EPT born children are extra vulnerable for anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder and depression and the parent-child interaction is negatively affected by prematurity. There is some evidence that early interventions have beneficial effects on neurocognitive and motor outcomes (Spittle A et al 2015). Based on a previous intervention (Verkerk G et al 2012) and adjusted to the Swedish context with 480 days paid parental leave, we created a post–discharge intervention, SPIBI, for families of EPT born children.

    Method

    The aim of (SPIBI) is to improve the quality of the parent-child interaction, child development and parental mental health in families with EPT born children. . SPIBI is a randomized controlled beginning at discharge and lasting until the child is 12 months corrected age. The trial design is a two arm randomized trial with four recruiting sites in Stockholm. Intervention group (target, n=65) receives 10 visits and two telephone calls from a trained interventionist and the control group (target n=65) receives treatment as usual plus an extended follow-up program. The SPIBI-team has recruited and trained 6 multi-professional and NICU-experienced interventionists. The training takes one year (0.2 of full time) and the content was both theoretical and practical, including pilot-cases. 

    Result

    SPIBI is an ongoing research project, beginning the 1st of September 2018 and planning to end recruitment the 31st of August 2020 and finishing the home-visits in August 2021. By the end of April 2019, 33 eligible infants had been identified within the four neonatal units in Stockholm; of which 26 children approved and 7 children declined participation. At this stage, three children have dropped out of the study, because of severe social challenges and child death. Identified challenges have been social and medical vulnerability of the EPT-families, finding the optimal multi-professional balance of motoric, psychological, pedagogical and medical kernels of the intervention, ethical considerations when to ask families for participation, lack of long-term discharge-planning of the neonatal units and large geographical spread of NICUs as well as families.

    Conclusion

    In conclusion, the protocol seem to be feasible and appreciated by parents in the target group. With regard to the small recruitment base, trials of this kind needs a long inclusion time. Since EPT-children and their parents displays a wide scope of difficulties and challenges, multi-professional cooperation is preferable, placing high demands of sensitivity, professional respect and time for long collaborative processes.

  • 21.
    Baraldi, Erika
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Westling Allodi, Mara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Löwing, Kristina
    Smedler, Ann-Charlotte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Westrup, Björn
    Ådén, Ulrika
    Stockholm Preterm Interaction-Based Intervention, SPIBI2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund

    I Sverige föds mellan 300 och 400 barn innan den 28 graviditetsveckan. Omkring 2/3 av de extremt prematurfödda barnen har ingen eller en mild funktionsnedsättning medan 1/3 har medelsvår till svår funktionsnedsättning vid skolstart (Serenius et al, 2016). De vanligaste svårigheterna efter extrem prematur födsel är intellektuell funktionsnedsättning (Jarjour, 2015), i synnerhet svårigheter med arbetsminnet och den exekutiva funktionsutvecklingen (Stålnacke et al., 2018;  Mulder et al., 2009). Även neuropsykiatriska funktionsnedsättningar som ADHD (Burnett et al., 2014) och autism är överrepresenterade i gruppen prematurfödda barn, 8- 29% av de extremt prematurfödda barnen skattas positivs på screeningtest för AST (Johnson et al., 2010; Kim, 2016 & Padilla et al., 2015).

    Inte bara barnet påverkas av den extremt för tidiga födseln, även föräldrarna kastas snabbt in i ett stressigt föräldraskap till ett skört och ofta sjukt spädbarn som inte är som de föreställde sig under graviditeten. Dessa stressiga omständigheter bidrar till att föräldrarna löper en ökad risk för posttraumatisk stress och depressiva symtom än föräldrar till fullgångna barn (Holditch-Davis et al, 2003; Holditch-Davis et al, 2015; Kong et al., 2013 & Singer på al., 1999). Dessutom påverkas samspelet mellan föräldrar och barn och familjesituationen negativt (Forcada-Guex et al., 2006; Saigal et al., 2000 & Treyvaut et al., 2014). När en förälder är psykiskt labil påverkar detta barnet på ett socialt, beteendemässigt och funktionellt sätt, ända till det för tidigt föda barnet är i förskoleåldern (Huhtala et al., 2011 & Huhtala et al., 2014). Det ger därför dubbel utdelning att ta hand om föräldrarna till tidigt födda barn, både genom att påverka den vuxne direkt och barnet indirekt.

    Svenska Prematurförbundet (SPF) har under flera år pekat på de långsiktiga effekterna av för tidig födsel och därmed behovet av långsiktigt stöd till de drabbade familjerna (Prematurförbundet, 2019). Efter utskrivning från sjukhuset rapporterar många av föräldrarna att de känner sig ensamma, stressade och oroliga. Sådana stödprogram har inte införts eller utvärderats tidigare i Sverige.

    Sammanfattningsvis, utifrån risken för negativa långtidseffekter av extrem prematuritet samt Prematurförbundets önskan om ytterligare stöd, finns ett tydligt behov av interventioner riktade till barnen och deras föräldrar i syfte att stödja föräldra-barnsamspelet, barnets utveckling på sikt samt föräldrarnas psykiska hälsa. SPIBI är et interventionsprogram som ämnar fylla det behovet.

    Metod

    SPIBI består av en tvärprofessionell forskargrupp med neonatologer, psykologer, fysioterapeut och specialpedagog. Forskargruppen har designat en RCT i syfte att utvärdera effekten av ett samspelsbaserat interventionsprogram för extremt prematurfödda spädbarn och deras föräldrar, med sin början i utskrivningsprocessen som pågår under förta året hemma. Studien består av två armar, en interventionsgrupp och en kontrollgrupp, och barnen rekryteras från Stockholms fyra neonatalavdelningar under två års tid (sept 2018-sept 2020). Målet är att rekrytera 130 familjer på två år. Interventionsgruppen (IG) får 10 hembesök och två telefonsamtal från en specialutbildad behandlare. Interventionens fokus är styrkebaserat stöd av föräldra-barnsamspelet, öka förälderns lyhördhet för barnets signaler, stödja föräldern i att ge optimalt utvecklingsstöd till barnet samt öka barnets självreglerande förmåga. I det nationella uppföljningsprogrammet får alla extremt prematurfödda barn uppföljning vid 3 månader, 12 månader, 24 månader KÅ. Kontrollgruppens (KG) barn får utöver detta ett utökat uppföljningsprogram.  

    Studiens sex behandlare arbetar inom neontalvården till vardags och har utöver detta fått en ettårig utbildning i SPIBI en dag per vecka, med både teoretisk grund och praktisk träning i interventionen, inklusive sex pilotfallshembesök. Pilotfallen videofilmades och diskuterades i grupp under handledning. Handledningen gavs direkt av de två holländska forskarna Karen Koldewijn och Marie-Jeanne Wolf från Amsterdam Academic Medical Centre som forskat på den snarlika TOP-interventionen i över 20 år och kunnat påvisa effekt på motoriken (Koldewijn et al., 2009; Meijssen et al., 2011; Flierman et al., 2016 & Koldewijn et al., 2010). Grunden till SPIBI interventionen kom utöver TOP-programmet från Cochrane-rapporten från 2015 om post-discharge interventions (Spittle et al., 2015).

    Resultat

    SPIBI är ett pågående forskningsprojekt som hittills rekryterat 44 barn, medan ytterligare 12 familjer tackat nej till deltagande i studien. I nuläget har två barn uteslutits ur studien av svåra psykosociala skäl och ytterligare två barn har avlidit under första året hemma. Identifierade utmaningar har varit den sociala och medicinska skörhet som de här familjerna behöver hantera, att hitta den optimala tvärprofessionella balansen mellan fysioterapeutiska, psykologiska, pedagogiska och medicinska inslag i interventionen, otillräcklig utskrivningsplanering från de olika sjukhusen, stor geografisk spridning på sjukhusenheterna samt den etiska frågan när i barnets liv det optimala tillfället för frågan om studiedeltagande är. Eftersom rekryteringsprocessen idag kommit halvvägs tidsmässigt kan inga resultat presenteras än, men med ett 80 % deltagande i studien och mycket positiv återkoppling från familjerna kan man dra slutsatsen att denna forskning är efterfrågad och ett viktigt nästa steg i utvecklingen av vården för våra allra mest sköra patienter.

    Slutsatser

    Slutsatsen är att SPIBI-protokollet är både genomförbart i klinisk praxis och samtidigt uppskattat av föräldrarna i målgruppen. Med hänsyn taget till den smala rekryteringsbasen kan denna typ av studie kräva en lång inkluderingstid alternativt inkludering på nationell nivå. Eftersom extremt prematurfödda barn och deras föräldrar uppvisar en rad svårigheter och utmaningar, är tvärprofessionellt samarbete att föredra vilket ställer höga krav på lyhördhet, professionell respekt och got om tid för samarbete. På Perinataldagarna kan forskningsprocessen och interventionsprogrammet presenteras i syfte att öka förståelsen för uppföljningen och behovet av ett integrerat föräldrastöd.

  • 22.
    Baraldi, Erika
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Ådén, Ulrika
    Löwing, Kristina
    Smedler, Ann-Charlotte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Westrup, Björn
    Westling Allodi, Mara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    The development of a post-discharge intervention program in Sweden for extremely preterm infants and their caregivers, through home visits during their first year of life2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has a proactive neonatal intensive care, saving children born from gestation week 22, with a 90% survival rate in the extremely preterm (EPT) group. With increased survival rates, the long-term outcome of the EPT children has gained much research interest. Recent studies indicate that 1/3 of the EPT-children in Sweden show moderate to severe neurodevelopmental deficits when beginning school. An interdisciplinary research team has designed an intervention for EPT infants and their caregivers in their home-environment after hospital discharge and throughout the first year of life. The aim of the ongoing randomized controlled trial is to study intervention effects on the children’s cognitive, motor and psychosocial function, the parental mental health and the infant-parent interaction. This paper present the intervention’s theory of change, the validity considerations, and an overview of the syllabus of the training given to the interdisciplinary team of six clinicians who serve as interventionists. 

  • 23.
    Bejnö, Hampus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Roll-Pettersson, Lise
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Klintwall, Lars
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Långh, Ulrika
    Odom, Samuel L.
    Bölte, Sven
    Cross-Cultural Content Validity of the Autism Program Environment Rating Scale in Sweden2019Ingår i: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 49, nr 5, s. 1853-1862Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing rates of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and younger age at diagnosis pose a challenge to preschool intervention systems. In Sweden, most young autistic children receive intervention service in community-based preschool programs, but no tool is yet available to assess the quality of the preschool learning environment. This study adapted the Autism Program Environment Rating Scale Preschool/Elementary to Swedish community context (APERS-P-SE). Following translation and a multistep modification process, independent experts rated the content validity of the adaptation. Findings indicate high cross-cultural validity of the adapted APERS-P-SE. The cultural adaption process of the APERS-P-SE highlights similarities and differences between the American and Swedish preschool systems and their impact on early ASD intervention.

  • 24.
    Bejnö, Hampus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Roll-Pettersson, Lise Renat
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Klintwall, Lars
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Långh, Ulrika
    Odom, Samuel L.
    Bolte, Sven
    Cross-Cultural Content Validity of the Autism Program Environment Rating Scale in Sweden2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing rates of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and younger age at diagnosis pose a challenge to preschool intervention systems. In Sweden, most young autistic children receive intervention service in community-based preschool programs, but no tool is yet available to assess the quality of the preschool learning environment. This study adapted the Autism Program Environment Rating Scale Preschool/Elementary to Swedish community context (APERS-P-SE). Following translation and a multistep modification process, independent experts rated the content validity of the adaptation. Findings indicate high cross-cultural validity of the adapted APERS-P-SE. The cultural adaption process of the APERS-P-SE highlights similarities and differences between the American and Swedish preschool systems and their impact on early ASD intervention.

  • 25. Berggren, Mathias
    et al.
    Akrami, Nazar
    Bergh, Robin
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Motivated Social Cognition and Authoritarianism Is It All About Closed-Mindedness?2019Ingår i: Journal of Individual Differences, ISSN 1614-0001, E-ISSN 2151-2299, Vol. 40, nr 4, s. 204-212Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The domain of motivated social cognition includes a variety of concepts dealing with a need to seek structure and avoid ambiguity, and several of these concepts are also powerful predictors of social attitudes, such as authoritarianism. It is possible though that these relations are due to certain facets reoccurring in the different scales. In this paper, we tested the notion that authoritarianism is predicted specifically by rigidity in beliefs (closed-mindedness), rather than broader cognitive styles. Thus, we initially identified items in the motivated social cognition scales that are specifically measuring closed-mindedness. These items included the closed-mindedness facet of the need for closure scale and items from intolerance of ambiguity and need for cognition. We used these items to predict right-wing authoritarianism, social dominance orientation, and their common factor authoritarianism (generalized). In line with our prediction, two studies showed that the motivated social cognition scales did not provide a significant prediction of authoritarianism beyond the closed-mindedness items. We conclude that the relation between motivated social cognition and authoritarianism is captured entirely by the former's closed-mindedness component.

  • 26.
    Bergman, David
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi. Swedish Defence University, Sweden.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Direct and sustained effects on leadership self-efficacy due to the inability to complete a parachute training course2019Ingår i: Nordic Psychology, ISSN 1901-2276, E-ISSN 1904-0016Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examined a parachute training course intended to improve the leadership abilities of future military officers. Two research questions were examined. First, whether there were any differences between completers and non-completers in anxiety, stress, and collective identity at the beginning of the course (time 1), and second, whether there were any differences between completers and non-completers in leadership self-efficacy immediately after the course and at a five-month follow-up (time 2 and time 3). Participants were cadets from the Swedish Military Academy undergoing the course as part of their officer training curriculum. The results showed no significant differences between completers and non-completers in anxiety, stress, and collective identity at the beginning of the course (time 1). Non-completers showed a significant reduction in leader self-control efficacy compared to those who completed the training immediately after the course and at a five-month follow-up (time 2 and 3). Overall, these results indicate that non-completion of this type of demanding training could have negative effects on the individual's leader self-control efficacy.

  • 27.
    Bergman, David
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi. Swedish Defence University, Sweden.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Preparing to lead in combat: Development of leadership self-efficacy by static-line parachuting2019Ingår i: Military Psychology, ISSN 0899-5605, E-ISSN 1532-7876, Vol. 31, nr 6, s. 481-489Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study examined whether a static-line parachute program could help prepare future military officers to lead in extreme situations by increasing leadership self-efficacy. Parachute training is commonly used for preparing to lead in combat since it presents a perceived threat to life which requires active mastery. Achieving such mastery facilitates the development of leader self-control efficacy and leader assertiveness efficacy. This assumption was tested in a real training situation within the Swedish Military Academy where two groups of cadets were included in the study. The group of cadets undertaking parachute training conducted repeated measures of assessment of their self-efficacy before and after the course as well as at a five-month follow-up. The results show that parachute training increased leader self-control efficacy when compared to a group of cadets who undertook different training. In addition, the training given contributed to increased leader assertiveness efficacy for both groups.

  • 28.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Bergman, Louise
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap. Mälardalen University, Sweden .
    Flourish, fight or flight: Health and well-being in self-employment over time - associations with business success2019Ingår i: Abstract Book of the 19th European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology Congress: Working for the greater good - Inspiring people, designing jobs and leading organizations for a more inclusive society, 2019, s. 207-207Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Around 9% of the working population in Sweden consists of self-employed business owners, but a considerable amount of them struggle to consolidate or expand their businesses. Among the factors predicting business success the decisive role of long-term health of business owners has been acknowledged only recently, but longitudinal studies testing this assumption are scarce. Based on the conservation of resources theory, good health can be seen as a resource that helps business owners to tackle high workloads and make business succeed.

    Design: Data from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Health Survey is used. Starting in 2012, N=554 self-employed have answered three or more times in the biannual data collection. Latent growth curve modelling is employed to study general and mental health trajectories and their associations with business survival over time.

    Results: Preliminary descriptive analyses on biannual changes suggest that roughly one in ten self-employed leaves self-employment at follow-up. Job demands and emotional exhaustion are higher among those who leave compared to those who remain in business. After integrating new data collected in 2018, growth curve analyses are run over the whole longitudinal sample, and associations of health trajectories to business survival will be tested.

    Limitations: Data is collected with questionnaires, and business success is operationalized as business survival only.

    Research/Practical Implications: Study results increase knowledge on the self-employed’s health developments, vulnerable groups with poor health and risk of business failure can be detected.

    Originality/Value: This is one of few studies on longitudinal developments of health in selfemployed business owners.

  • 29.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Canivet, Catarina
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Stengård, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Östergren, P-O
    The role of social embeddedness for remaining in non-desired workplaces and mental health consequences: Results from Scania Public Health Cohort2019Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 47, nr 3, s. 334-343Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The aim of the study was to investigate the role of social embeddedness on and off the job in relation to remaining in non-desired workplaces (NDWs) and the development of mental health. Method: The study used questionnaire data from the Scania Public Health cohort (N=2410) that were collected in 2000 (T1), 2005 (T2) and 2010 (T3). Logistic regression models were calculated to probe how NDWs and social embeddedness factors measured at baseline (T1) related to NDWs five years later (T2), and to investigate how NDWs and social embeddedness factors at T2 related to poor mental health at T3. Synergy indices were calculated in both analyses to test for additive v. interactive effects between NDWs and social embeddedness factors on the outcomes. Results: NDWs at baseline and low social embeddedness on and off the job was associated with NDWs at T2. For those in a desired workplace, low support from co-workers as well as low workplace affinity increased the risk to be in an NDW at T2. NDWs and low social embeddedness also associated with impaired mental health (T3). For those in an NDW, low support from co-workers as well as low workplace affinity increased the risk of poor mental health at T3. Conclusions: This study underlines the importance of social embeddedness for NDWs and the development of poor mental health over time. Particularly low social support from co-workers and low workplace affinity seem to be risk factors for future experience of an NDW and impaired mental health.

  • 30.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    De Cuyper, Nele
    Murphy, Megan
    Connelly, Catherine E.
    Flessibilità organizzativa e lavori atipici2019Ingår i: Introduzione alla psicologia delle organizzazioni: Una prospettiva internazionale / [ed] Nik Chmiel, Franco Fraccaroli, Magnus Sverke, Bologna: Societa Editrice Il Mulino, 2019, s. 285-303Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [it]

    In questo capitolo vedremo che cosa significa avere un lavoro atipico, cioè un lavoro che si discosta dai tradizionali impieghi a tempo pieno e indeterminato. I lavori atipici sono utilizzati frequentemente dalle odierne organizzazioni e spesso sono calibrati sulle necessità organizzative. Si è perciò sviluppata un’ampia varietà di fattispecie contrattuali, il che significa che le condizioni di assunzione e di lavoro e le loro conseguenze per l’individuo e per l’organizzazione possono variare considerevolmente. Il capitolo presenta anzitutto una tipologia dei contratti atipici utilizzati più spesso e considera fino a che punto siano tra loro comparabili al variare delle legislazioni nazionali sulla tutela occupazionale e dei mercati nazionali del lavoro. Il capitolo mostra inoltre che il significato che questi impieghi atipici assumono per i lavoratori varia secondo a) le strutture organizzative e del mercato del lavoro che determinano le condizioni lavorative in relazione ai diversi contratti, e b) la prospettiva individuale, che dipende dalle motivazioni e dalle percezioni individuali riguardo al rapporto di lavoro. Questi fattori strutturali e queste percezioni individuali possono ben spiegare la varietà di conseguenze, positive e negative, del lavoro atipico, che sono discusse in questo capitolo in termini di atteggiamenti lavorativi, comportamento organizzativo, salute e benessere individuali e sviluppo professionale.

  • 31.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Eib, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Griep, Yannick
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. University of Calgary, Canada.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    How Do Job Insecurity and Organizational Justice Relate to Depressive Symptoms and Sleep Difficulties: A Multilevel Study on Immediate and Prolonged Effects in Swedish Workers2019Ingår i: Psychologie Appliquee: Revue Internationale, ISSN 0269-994X, E-ISSN 1464-0597Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on stress and justice literature, we argue that perceptions of job insecurity induce feelings of low procedural justice, which has immediate and prolonged negative effects on health (depressive symptoms, sleep difficulties). Moreover, we explore whether the strength of the job insecurity-justice relationship differs between individuals as a function of their average level of job insecurity over time. Finally, we explore whether the procedural justice-health relationship differs between individuals as a function of variability in justice perceptions over time. We analyzed Swedish panel data from permanent workers over four consecutive waves (with a two-year time lag between waves) using multilevel analysis, separating within- and between-person variance. Results showed that job insecurity associated negatively with procedural justice at the same time point for all waves. Prolonged effects were less stable. We found immediate (but not prolonged) indirect effects of job insecurity on health outcomes via procedural justice. Average levels in job insecurity over time moderated the within-person job insecurity-justice relationship. However, variability in procedural justice over time did not moderate the within-person justice-health relationship. In conclusion, disentangling within- and between-person variability of job insecurity and justice perceptions contributes to the understanding of health effects.

  • 32.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Staying in or switching between permanent, temporary and self-employment during 2008-2010: Associations with changing job characteristics and emotional exhaustion2019Ingår i: Economic and Industrial Democracy, ISSN 0143-831X, E-ISSN 1461-7099, Vol. 40, nr 2, s. 215-237Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Labour market segmentation theories suggest that permanent and temporary workers are exposed to economic risks to different degrees, and differ in their working life quality and well-being. However, few studies have tested these ideas during times of economic crisis. Also, little is known about how the self-employed compare to permanent and temporary workers and are affected by economic downturns. This study investigated Swedish workers in different labour market segments before and after the financial crisis (2008 and 2010). More specifically, it looked at job characteristics and strain differences between permanent, temporary and self-employed workers. Data (N = 6335) came from SLOSH, a longitudinal representative cohort study of the Swedish workforce. Contradicting segmentation theories, differences between permanent and temporary workers were small. The self-employed stood out with favourable job characteristics, but comparable strain levels. During the crisis, work demands and strain declined for many of the workers studied here.

  • 33. Björkenstam, Charlotte
    et al.
    Orellana, Cecilia
    László, Krisztina D
    Svedberg, Pia
    Voss, Margaretha
    Lidwall, Ulrik
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Alexanderson, Kristina
    Sickness absence and disability pension before and after first childbirth and in nulliparous women: longitudinal analyses of three cohorts in Sweden2019Ingår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 9, nr 9, artikel-id e031593Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective Childbirth is suggested to be associated with elevated levels of sickness absence (SA) and disability pension (DP). However, detailed knowledge about SA/DP patterns around childbirth is lacking. We aimed to compare SA/DP across different time periods among women according to their childbirth status.

    Design Register-based longitudinal cohort study.

    Setting Sweden.

    Participants Three population-based cohorts of nulliparous women aged 18–39 years, living in Sweden 31 December 1994, 1999 or 2004 (nearly 500 000/cohort).

    Primary and secondary outcome measures Sum of SA >14 and DP net days/year.

    Methods We compared crude and standardised mean SA and DP days/year during the 3 years preceding and the 3 years after first childbirth date (Y−3 to Y+3), among women having (1) their first and only birth during the subsequent 3 years (B1), (2) their first birth and at least another delivery (B1+), and (3) no childbirths during follow-up (B0).

    Results Despite an increase in SA in the year preceding the first childbirth, women in the B1 group, and especially in B1+, tended to have fewer SA/DP days throughout the years than women in the B0 group. For cohort 2005, the mean SA/DP days/year (95% CIs) in the B0, B1 and B1+ groups were for Y−3: 25.3 (24.9–25.7), 14.5 (13.6–15.5) and 8.5 (7.9–9.2); Y−2: 27.5 (27.1–27.9), 16.6 (15.5–17.6) and 9.6 (8.9–10.4); Y−1: 29.2 (28.8–29.6), 31.4 (30.2–32.6) and 22.0 (21.2–22.9); Y+1: 30.2 (29.8–30.7), 11.2 (10.4–12.1) and 5.5 (5.0–6.1); Y+2: 31.7 (31.3–32.1), 15.3 (14.2–16.3) and 10.9 (10.3–11.6); Y+3: 32.3 (31.9–32.7), 18.1 (17.0–19.3) and 12.4 (11.7–13.0), respectively. These patterns were the same in all three cohorts.

    Conclusions Women with more than one childbirth had fewer SA/DP days/year compared with women with one childbirth or with no births. Women who did not give birth had markedly more DP days than those giving birth, suggesting a health selection into childbirth.

  • 34.
    Björngrim, Stina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    van den Hurk, Wobbie
    Betancort, Moises
    Machado, Alejandra
    Lindau, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Kognitiv psykologi.
    Comparing Traditional and Digitized Cognitive Tests Used in Standard Clinical Evaluation: A Study of the Digital Application Minnemera2019Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, artikel-id 2327Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to compare a new digitized cognitive test battery, Minnemera, with its correspondent traditional paper-based cognitive tests. Eighty-one healthy adults between the ages of 21 and 85 participated in the study. Participants performed the two different test versions (traditional paper-based and digitized) with an interval of four weeks between the tests. Test presentation (the order of the test versions presented) was counterbalanced in order to control for any possible test learning effects. The digitized tests were constructed so that there were only minor differences when compared to the traditional paper-based tests. Test results from the paper-based and digitized versions of the cognitive screening were compared within individuals by means of a correlation analysis and equivalence tests. The effects of demographic variables (age, gender and level of education) and test presentation were explored for each test measure and each test version through linear regression models. For each test measure, a significant correlation between traditional and digitized version was observed ranging between r = 0.34 and r = 0.67 with a median of r = 0.53 (corresponding to a large effect size). Score equivalence was observed for five out of six tests. In line with previous traditional cognitive studies, age was found to be the most prominent predictor of performance in all digitized tests, with younger participants performing better than older adults. Gender was the second strongest predictor, where women outperformed men in tests measuring verbal memory; men performed better than women in tests with a strong visual component. Finally, the educational level of the test subjects had an effect on executive functions, with a higher educational level linked to a better inhibition response and working memory span. This study suggests that the tests in the Minnemera cognitive screening battery are acceptably comparable to the traditional paper-based counterparts.

  • 35.
    Borg, Elisabet
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Magalhães, Adsson
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Fernandes Costa, Marcelo
    Mörtberg, Ewa
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    A pilot study comparing The Borg CR Scale®(centiMax®) and the Beck Depression Inventory for scaling depressive symptoms2019Ingår i: Nordic Psychology, ISSN 1901-2276, E-ISSN 1904-0016, Vol. 71, nr 3, s. 164-176Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Borg centiMax scale is a psychophysically constructed general intensity scale with verbal anchors placed in congruence with the numerical scale (0–100); thus, ratio data are obtained. With ratio data, quantitative relationships among perceptions and feelings can be determined in a statistically more solid way. The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the utility of using the Borg CR Scale® (centiMax®, CR100) for measuring depressive symptoms in a pilot study of 50 students, who completed the centiMax along with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Convergent validity and reliability were examined by correlation analyses (Pearson, Spearman, and Split-half with Spearman–Brown correction), and group and individual symptom profiles were constructed to illustrate the possible advantage of level anchored ratio data. The strong correlation 0.75 (p < .001) between the instruments supports an acceptable convergent validity of the centiMax and indicates a common underlying construct. Additionally, the reliability was high (cM = 0.96; BDI = 0.90). With symptom profiles, it was demonstrated that level anchored ratio data can show both how intense (level) and how many times more intense (relation) the feelings of separate symptoms are. In conclusion, the centiMax appears to be a valid and reliable instrument; however, further studies in larger samples including clinically depressed participants are needed for evaluating its diagnostic importance.

  • 36. Bosnes, Ingunn
    et al.
    Nordahl, Hans Morten
    Stordal, Eystein
    Bosnes, Ole
    Myklebust, Tor Åge
    Almkvist, Ove
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lifestyle predictors of successful aging: A 20-year prospective HUNT study2019Ingår i: PLoS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, nr 7, artikel-id e0219200Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Lifestyle factors predicting successful aging as a unified concept or as separate components of successful aging are important for understanding healthy aging, interventions and preventions. The main objective was to investigate the effect of midlife predictors on subsequent successful aging 20 years later. Materials and methods Data were from a population-based health survey, the Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT), with an average follow-up of 22.6 years. Individuals free of major disease at baseline in 1984-86 with complete datasets for the successful aging components in HUNT3 in 2006-08, were included (n = 4497; mean age at baseline 52.7, range 45-59, years). Successful aging was defined either as a unified category or as three components: being free of nine specified diseases and depression, having no physical or cognitive impairment, and being actively engaged with life. The midlife predictors (smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, obesity and social support) were analysed both as separate predictors and combined into a lifestyle index controlling for sociodemographic variables, using multivariable regression analysis. Results Successful aging as a unified concept was related to all the lifestyle factors in the unadjusted analyses, and all except alcohol consumption in the adjusted analyses. The individual components of successful aging were differently associated with the lifestyle factors; engagement with life was less associated with the lifestyle factors. Non-smoking and good social support were the most powerful predictors for successful aging as a unified concept. When the lifestyle factors were summed into a lifestyle index, there was a trend for more positive lifestyle to be related to higher odds for successful aging. Conclusions Lifestyle factors predicted an overall measure of SA, as well as the individual components, more than 20 years later. Modifiable risk factors in midlife, exemplified by social support, may be used for interventions to promote overall health and specific aspects of health in aging.

  • 37. Buijsman, Stefan
    et al.
    Tirado, Carlos
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Spatial-numerical associations: Shared symbolic and non-symbolic numerical representations2019Ingår i: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, ISSN 1747-0218, E-ISSN 1747-0226, Vol. 72, nr 10, s. 2423-2436Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades, there have been a large number of studies into the number-related abilities of humans. As a result, we know that humans and non-human animals have a system known as the approximate number system that allows them to distinguish between collections based on their number of items, separately from any counting procedures. Dehaene and others have argued for a model on which this system uses representations for numbers that are spatial in nature and are shared by our symbolic and non-symbolic processing of numbers. However, there is a conflicting theoretical perspective in which there are no representations of numbers underlying the approximate number system, but only quantity-related representations. This perspective would then suggest that there are no shared representations between symbolic and non-symbolic processing. We review the evidence on spatial biases resulting from the activation of numerical representations, for both non-symbolic and symbolic tests. These biases may help decide between the theoretical differences; shared representations are expected to lead to similar biases regardless of the format, whereas different representations more naturally explain differences in biases, and thus behaviour. The evidence is not yet decisive, as the behavioural evidence is split: we expect bisection tasks to eventually favour shared representations, whereas studies on the spatial-numerical association of response codes (SNARC) effect currently favour different representations. We discuss how this impasse may be resolved, in particular, by combining these behavioural studies with relevant neuroimaging data. If this approach is carried forward, then it may help decide which of these two theoretical perspectives on number representations is correct.

  • 38. Burke, Sarah M.
    et al.
    Majid, D. S. Adnan
    Manzouri, Amir H.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institute and University Hospital, Sweden.
    Moody, Teena
    Feusner, Jamie D.
    Savic, Ivanka
    Sex differences in own and other body perception2019Ingår i: Human Brain Mapping, ISSN 1065-9471, E-ISSN 1097-0193, Vol. 40, nr 2, s. 474-488Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Own body perception, and differentiating and comparing one's body to another person's body, are common cognitive functions that have relevance for self-identity and social interactions. In several psychiatric conditions, including anorexia nervosa, body dysmorphic disorder, gender dysphoria, and autism spectrum disorder, self and own body perception, as well as aspects of social communication are disturbed. Despite most of these conditions having skewed prevalence sex ratios, little is known about whether the neural basis of own body perception differs between the sexes. We addressed this question by investigating brain activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging during a Body Perception task in 15 male and 15 female healthy participants. Participants viewed their own body, bodies of same-sex, or opposite-sex other people, and rated the degree that they appeared like themselves. We found that men and women did not differ in the pattern of brain activation during own body perception compared to a scrambled control image. However, when viewing images of other bodies of same-sex or opposite-sex, men showed significantly stronger activations in attention-related and reward-related brain regions, whereas women engaged stronger activations in striatal, medial-prefrontal, and insular cortices, when viewing the own body compared to other images of the opposite sex. It is possible that other body images, particularly of the opposite sex, may be of greater salience for men, whereas images of own bodies may be more salient for women. These observations provide tentative neurobiological correlates to why women may be more vulnerable than men to conditions involving own body perception.

  • 39. Carl, Emily
    et al.
    Stein, Aliza T.
    Levihn-Coon, Andrew
    Pogue, Jamie R.
    Rothbaum, Barbara
    Emmelkamp, Paul
    Asmundson, Gordon J. G.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi. University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Powers, Mark B.
    Virtual reality exposure therapy for anxiety and related disorders: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials2019Ingår i: Journal of Anxiety Disorders, ISSN 0887-6185, E-ISSN 1873-7897, Vol. 61, s. 27-36Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Trials of virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) for anxiety-related disorders have proliferated in number and diversity since our previous meta-analysis that examined 13 total trials, most of which were for specific phobias (Powers & Emmelkamp, 2008). Since then, new trials have compared VRET to more diverse anxiety and related disorders including social anxiety disorder (SAD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and panic disorder (PD) with and without agoraphobia. With the availability of this data, it is imperative to re-examine the efficacy of VRET for anxiety. A literature search for randomized controlled trials of VRET versus control or in vivo exposure yielded 30 studies with 1057 participants. Fourteen studies tested VRET for specific phobias, 8 for SAD or performance anxiety, 5 for PTSD, and 3 for PD. A random effects analysis estimated a large effect size for VRET versus waitlist (g = 0.90) and a medium to large effect size for VRET versus psychological placebo conditions (g = 0.78). A comparison of VRET and in vivo conditions did not show significantly different effect sizes (g = −0.07). These findings were relatively consistent across disorders. A meta-regression analysis revealed that larger sample sizes were associated with lower effect sizes in VRET versus control comparisons (β = −0.007, p <  0.05). These results indicate that VRET is an effective and equal medium for exposure therapy.

  • 40.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Design Considerations and their Relation with User Engagement in Two Self-Guided e-Mental Health Interventions2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Internet interventions are often reported in terms of effect sizes, proportion clinically significantly improved and recovered or the number of patients that need to be treated for one of them to benefit compared with a control condition. These randomized controlled trials are of significant value and tell us if an intervention is efficacious. However, in journal papers there is seldom much attention given to design considerations and their relation to user engagement. This is true even in most published study protocols.

    Methods:  Using two existing, recently tested, applications as examples the design idea and the user-application interaction is reviewed and discussed.

    Results: First a smartphone application is showcased and discussed. The ideas behind the use of real-time location awareness, anonymous social interaction between users, a high degree of personalization and gamification techniques is presented. Secondly, a virtual reality application is demonstrated and discussed. Additionally, this talk will explore the design considerations for the various components of the smartphone app and the virtual reality game.

    Conclusions: There are pros and cons of different solutions. However, more attention and detail is needed for true progress and knowledge sharing to be made in internet interventions.

  • 41.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    eMental health solutions: Evidence and perspectives: State-of-the-art2019Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet-delivered psychotherapy has a relatively short history, with the first trials being conducted in the late 1990s. Since then well above 200 randomized controlled trials suggest that it can be effective. So, the evidence is there but how is it done? In this talk a pioneer in the field will present recent research finding, including the use of virtual reality to treat phobias as well as fear of public speaking. The talk will use slides and video clips and ends with the possibility of asking questions and try psychotherapeutic virtual reality applications.

  • 42.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Gamification and virtual reality in the treatment of phobias and fear of public speaking2019Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The development and use of immersive/XR technologies in healthcare is growing fast throughout the world. With the domain still in its infancy, the potential for creating innovative contents & apps is boundless, and the domain is thus ripe for innovative R&D and lucrative business, especially for start-ups.

  • 43.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Guided Web-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Perfectionism: Results Form Two Different Randomized Controlled Trials: In symposium: Maladaptive Perfectionism: Taking a Closer Look at its Relationship with Psychopathology, Transdiagnostic Mechanisms, and Treatment2019Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfectionism can become a debilitating condition that may negatively impact functioning in multiple areas, including mental health. Prior research has indicated that Internet-based Cognitive Behavior Therapy (ICBT) can be beneficial, but few studies have included follow-up data. The current study explored the long-term outcomes of ICBT with guided self-help, delivered as two separate randomized controlled trials conducted in Sweden and the United Kingdom (UK). In total, 120 participants randomized to ICBT were included in both intention-to-treat and completer analyses, n = 78 (Swedish trial) and n = 62 (UK trial). Primary outcome measure was the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, subscale Concern over Mistakes (FMPS CM). Secondary outcome measures varied between the trials and consisted of the Clinical Perfectionism Questionnaire (CPQ; both trials), the Patient Health Questionnaire – 9 Items (PHQ-9; Swedish trial), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder – 7 Items (GAD-7; Swedish trial), and the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale – 21 Items (DASS-21; UK trial). Follow-up occurred after six months for the UK trial, and twelve months for the Swedish trial. Due to a number of differences in terms of baseline characteristics and study design, results were analyzed separately and not in combination. Analysis of Covariance revealed a significant difference between pre-treatment and follow-up in both cases. Intention-to-treat within-group effect sizes Cohen’s d were 1.21 (Swedish trial), 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [0.86, 1.54], and 1.24 (UK trial), 95% CI [0.85, 1.62] for the FMPS CM. Furthermore, 29 (59.2%; Swedish trial) and 15 (42.9%; UK trial) of the participants met criteria for recovery on the FMPS CM. Significant and moderate to large improvements were also found for the CPQ, the PHQ-9, the GAD-7, and the DASS-21. The results are promising for the use of ICBT as a way of targeting perfectionism, but the findings need to be replicated and include a comparison condition.

  • 44.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Implementing a Behavioral Measure to Assess Perfectionism: Exploring the Use of an Essay Writing Test in an Experimental and Treatment Setting: In symposium: Maladaptive Perfectionism: Taking a Closer Look at its Relationship with Psychopathology, Transdiagnostic Mechanisms, and Treatment2019Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfectionism is conceptualized as having two higher-order dimensions that consists of perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns. Both are associated with different forms of mental distress and are usually assessed using such self-report measures as the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (FMPS) and the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS). Whether elevated levels of these dimensions could be determined by a behavioral measure has, however, received less attention, and no study has used it in a clinical trial. Hence, the current study investigated the use of a behavioral measure based on the Pennebaker’s essay writing test. In experiment I, 97 participants were recruited in a university setting and instructed to complete an essay. The participants were randomized into two conditions, primed to remember an occasion where they either failed or succeeded, followed by an opportunity to make corrections. Self-report measures of perfectionism were also completed before and after the experiment. The results indicate that the dimension perfectionistic strivings were correlated to making more changes among those in the fail-condition, rs = .30-.34, while the findings for the positive-condition were mixed. In experiment II, 102 participants receiving Internet-based Cognitive Behavior Therapy (ICBT) for perfectionism or being on a wait-list control completed the same essay writing test at pre- and post-treatment, but without being primed. The results revealed change over time with regard to making more errors for those participants assigned to ICBT, Cohen’s d = 0.27, however, there were no interaction effects between the two conditions. In addition, regression analyses between the essay writing test and self-report measures of perfectionism did not reveal any significant relationships. Overall, the usefulness of a behavioral measure for perfectionism based on an essay writing test is unclear, at least in terms of assessing treatment outcome. Future research should investigate if other types of behavior could be perceived as more personally relevant, thereby inducing more perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns.

  • 45.
    Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Ivanova, Ekaterina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Magnusson, Kristoffer
    Deposit-limits and online gambling intensity: A randomised controlled trial2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Pathological gambling is recognized as a public health issue in a many countries. Consequently, helping individuals control their gambling behaviors is critical. One strategy is setting a pre-committed limit for how much money one can lose, deposit or win. The aim of the study was to compare gambling intensity between online gamblers prompted to set a deposit limit and non-prompted customers.

    Methods: All customers of the gambling service having registered an account during the study recruitment period were included. Gambling intensity was measured with aggregated net loss, with proportions of limit-setters, sum of deposits and number of gambling days used as secondary outcomes.

    Intervention: A total of 4328 customers of a gambling operator from Finland were randomized to receive a prompt to set a voluntary deposit limit of optional size either 1) at registration, 2) before or 3) after their first deposit, or 4) to an unprompted control condition.

    Results: The intervention groups did not differ in either proportion of participants with positive net loss or size of positive net loss. The pooled intervention group did not differ from the control group regarding proportion of gamblers with positive net loss or size of net loss. The intervention groups had higher rates of limit-setters and net loss was highest among participants who had increased/removed a deposit-limit. 

    Conclusions: Prompting online gamblers to set a voluntary deposit limit of optional size did not affect subsequent net loss.

  • 46.
    Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Magnusson, Kristoffer
    Andersson, Gerhard
    The consequences of ignoring therapist effects in trials with longitudinal data: A simulation study2019Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)