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  • 1. Conley, Daniel J.
    et al.
    Carstensen, Jacob
    Aigars, Juris
    Axe, Philip
    Bonsdorff, Erik
    Eremina, Tatjana
    Haahti, Britt-Marie
    Humborg, Christoph
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM). Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Jonsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Kotta, Jonne
    Lannegren, Christer
    Larsson, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Maximov, Alexey
    Medina, Miguel Rodriguez
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Lysiak-Pastuszak, Elzbieta
    Remeikaite-Nikiene, Nijole
    Walve, Jakob
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Wilhelms, Sunhild
    Zillen, Lovisa
    Hypoxia is increasing in the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea2011In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 45, no 16, p. 6777-6783Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hypoxia is a well-described phenomenon in the offshore waters of the Baltic Sea with both the spatial extent and intensity of hypoxia known to have increased due to anthropogenic eutrophication, however, an unknown amount of hypoxia is present in the coastal zone. Here we report on the widespread unprecedented occurrence of hypoxia across the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea. We have identified 115 sites that have experienced hypoxia during the period 1955-2009 increasing the global total to ca. 500 sites, with the Baltic Sea coastal zone containing over 20% of all known sites worldwide. Most sites experienced episodic hypoxia, which is a precursor to development of seasonal hypoxia. The Baltic Sea coastal zone displays an alarming trend with hypoxia steadily increasing with time since the 1950s effecting nutrient biogeochemical processes, ecosystem services, and coastal habitat.

  • 2.
    Eriksson Hägg, Hanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Humborg, Christoph
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Mörth, Carl- Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geology and Geochemistry.
    Rodriguez Medina, Miguel
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Scenario Analysis on Human Protein consumption and Climate change effects on riverine N export to the Balitc SeaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Eriksson Hägg, Hanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Humborg, Christoph
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM). Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Medina, Miguel Rodriguez
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Wulff, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Scenario Analysis on Protein Consumption and Climate Change Effects on Riverine N Export to the Baltic Sea2010In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 44, no 7, p. 2379-2385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates possible future nitrogen loadings from 105 catchments surrounding the Baltic Sea. Multiple regressions are used to model total nitrogen (TN) flux as a function of specific runoff (0), atmospheric nitrogen deposition, and primary emissions (PE) from humans and livestock. On average cattle contributed with 63%, humans with 20%, and pigs with 17% of the total nitrogen PE to land. Compared to the reference period (1992-1996) we then evaluated two types of scenarios for year 2070. i) An increased protein consumption scenario that led to 16% to 39% increased mean TN flux (kg per km(-2)). ii) Four climate scenarios addressing effects of changes in river discharge. These scenarios showed increased mean TN flux from the northern catchments draining into the Gulf of Bothnia (34%) and the Gulfs of Finland and Riga (14%), while the mean TN flux decreased (-27%) for catchments draining to the Baltic Proper. However, the net effect of the scenarios showed a possible increase in TN flux ranging from 3-72%. Overall an increased demand for animal protein will be instrumental for the Baltic Sea ecosystem and may be a major holdback to fulfill the environmental goals of the Baltic Sea Action Plan.

  • 4.
    Gustafsson, Bo G.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Rodriguez Medina, Miguel
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Validation data set compiled from Baltic Environmental Database - Version 22011Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5.
    Humborg, Christoph
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Smedberg, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Rodriguez Medina, Miguel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geology and Geochemistry.
    Changes in dissolved silicate loads to the Baltic Sea: The effects of lakes and reservoirs2008In: Journal of Marine Systems, ISSN 0924-7963, E-ISSN 1879-1573, Vol. 73, no 3-4, p. 223-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We tested the hypothesis that dissolved silicate (DSi) yields [kg km− 2 yr− 1] of 82 major watersheds of the Baltic Sea can be expressed as a function of the hydraulic load (HL) as a measure of water residence time and the total organic carbon (TOC) concentration, both variables potentially increasing the DSi yield. Most boreal rivers fitted a linear regression model using HL as an independent variable to explain the DSi yield. Rivers with high HL, i.e., shortest residence times, showed highest DSi yields up to 2300 kg km− 2 yr− 1. This is most likely caused by an excess supply of DSi, i.e., the geochemical sources prevail over biological sinks in these boreal watersheds. The DSi yield for regulated and unregulated larger rivers of the boreal watersheds constituting about 40% of the total water discharge and of the total DSi load to the Baltic Sea, respectively, can be expressed as: DSi yield = 190 + 49.5 HL[m yr− 1] + 0.346 TOC [µM] (R2 = 0.80). Since both HL and TOC concentrations have decreased after damming, the DSi yields have decreased significantly in the regulated boreal watersheds, for the River Luleälven we estimated more than 30%. The larger eutrophic watersheds draining cultivated landscape of the southern catchment of the Baltic Sea and representing about 50% of the annual water discharge to the Baltic Sea, deviated from this pattern and showed lower DSi yields between 60–580 kg km− 2 yr− 1. DSi yields showed saturation curve like relationship to HL and it appears that DSi is retained in the watersheds efficiently through biogenic silica (BSi) production and subsequent sedimentation along the entire river network. The relationship between HL and DSi yields for all larger cultivated watersheds was best fitted by a Freundlich isotherm (DSi = 115.7HL109; R2 = 0.73), because once lake and reservoir area exceeds 10% of the watershed area, minimum DSi yields were reached. To estimate an uperturbed DSi yield for the larger eutrophic southeastern watersheds is still difficult, since no unperturbed watersheds for comparison were available. However, a rough estimate indicate that the DSi flux from the cultivated watersheds to the Baltic Sea is nowadays only half the uperturbed flux. Overall, the riverine DSi loads to the Baltic Sea might have dropped with 30–40% during the last century.

  • 6. Myrberg, Kai
    et al.
    Ryabchenko, Vladimir
    Isaev, Alexei
    Vankevich, Roman
    Andrejev, Oleg
    Bendtsen, Jorgen
    Erichsen, Anders
    Funkquist, Lennart
    Inkala, Arto
    Neelov, Ivan
    Rasmus, Kai
    Medina, Miguel Rodriguez
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Raudsepp, Urmas
    Passenko, Jelena
    Söderkvist, Johan
    Sokolov, Alexander
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Kuosa, Harri
    Anderson, Thomas R.
    Lehmann, Andreas
    Skogen, Morten D.
    Validation of three-dimensional hydrodynamic models of the Gulf of Finland2010In: Boreal environment research, ISSN 1239-6095, E-ISSN 1797-2469, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 453-479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A model-intercomparison study was conducted, the first of its kind for the Baltic Sea, whose aim was to systematically simulate the basic three-dimensional hydrographic properties of a realistic, complex basin. Simulations of the hydrographic features of the Gulf of Finland for the summer autumn of 1996 by six three-dimensional hydrodynamic models were compared. Validation was undertaken using more than 300 vertical hydrographic profiles of salinity and temperature. The analysis of model performance, including averaging of the ensemble results, was undertaken with a view to assessing the potential suitability of the models in reproducing the physics of the Baltic Sea accurately enough to serve as a basis for accurate simulations of biogeochemistry once ecosystem models are incorporated. The performance of the models was generally satisfactory. Nevertheless, all the models had some difficulties in correctly simulating vertical profiles of temperature and salinity, and hence mixed layer dynamics, particularly in the eastern Gulf of Finland. Results emphasized the need for high resolution in both vertical and horizontal directions in order to resolve the complex dynamics and bathymetry of the Baltic Sea. Future work needs to consider the choice of mixing and advection schemes, moving to higher resolution, high-frequency forcing, and the accurate representation of river discharges and boundary conditions.

  • 7.
    Mörth, C-M
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Humborg, Christoph
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Eriksson Hägg, Hanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Danielsson, Åsa
    Rodriguez Medina, Miguel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Löfgren, S
    Swaney, DP
    Rahm, Lars
    Modeling riverine nutrient transport to the Baltic Sea: A large-scale approach2007In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, Vol. 36, no 2-3, p. 124-133Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 7 of 7
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