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  • 1.
    Jon-And, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies. Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Learnability as an explanation of language change in contact settings2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Accelerated language change in contact settings, especially language shift, has commonly been attributed to innovation during the second language acquisition process (Weinreich, 1979; Thomason & Kaufman, 1988). The role of second language speakers in contact-induced change is investigated quantitatively by Bentz et al. (2013) who find negative correlations between the proportions of L2 speakers and morphosyntactic complexity in synchronic cross-linguistic data. At the same time, evolutionary models and experiments have revealed learnability as a general force in language evolution (Kirby 2001, Kirby et al. 2008), suggesting that more learnable features (such as morphological simplicity or compositionality) would be favored by language acquisition in general and not only by second language acquisition. The aim of this paper is to use agent-based modeling and simulations in order to test if diffusion of linguistic innovation in a language shift setting may result from a general acquisition effect reinforced by large proportions of learners, or if special weight needs to be attributed to second language acquisition. The models’ predictions are compared to linguistic and demographic diachronic data from the ongoing language shift from Bantu languages to Portuguese in Maputo, Mozambique.

    To model linguistic interaction, I adapted Jansson et al. (2015)’s model of creole formation. Speakers interact pairwise and chose a variant of a linguistic feature based on their probability distribution of usage. Each agent modifies their distribution of usage based on what they heard. The simulation starts with a conservative linguistic variant fixed. After a round of interactions, population turnover occurs with some individuals dying and new first and second language speakers entering. New individuals are assigned with a probability of introducing a novel variant during a period of acquisition.  Experienced speakers accommodate less to learners than vice versa.  To investigate the role of first and second language acquisition, we test if a rate of innovation low enough not to spread in a situation with no recruitment of second language speakers, may result in the observed spread of reduced verbal morphology in Maputo Portuguese when demographic parameters are fixed to data on the number of first and second language speakers in Maputo over the period 1975-2007. The linguistic data comprehend recordings with 20 participants in similar circumstances from two time points (1993 & 2007), where variation between the conservative pre-contact variant (full verbal plural agreement) and the innovative variant (deletion of verbal plural suffix) is quantified. Results show it is possible to account for a stable low level of use of the new variant with standard population turnover, as well as to account for the diffusion of the new variant when the proportion of learners increases due to language shift. With parameters set to demographic data on language shift from Bantu languages to Portuguese in Mozambique, changes in proportions of learners are sufficiently high to account for the spread of new variants. The model where all learners introduce the new variant is a better fit to data than the one where only second language learners introduce the new variant. This suggests that learnability This qualitative deviation suggests that mechanisms included in recent models for replicator-neutral language change may also be important to account for contact-driven change where some variants are inherently favored.

  • 2.
    Jon-And, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies. Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Modeling the effect of learnability in contact-induced language change2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Language contact, especially language shift, is known to accelerate language change. This has commonly been attributed to innovations during the second language acquisition process. At the same time, cultural evolution experiments and models have revealed learnability as a general constraint in language evolution, suggesting that more learnable features (such as morphological simplicity), would be favored by language acquisition in general and not only by second language acquisition. I use multi-agent simulations to test if diffusion of linguistic innovation in language shift may result from a general acquisition effect reinforced by large proportions of learners compared to experienced speakers. Learners introduce a new variant, and experienced speakers accommodate less to learners than vice versa. Results show that this way it is possible to account for a stable low level of use of the new variant with standard population turnover, as well as account for the diffusion of the new variant when the proportion of learners increases due to language shift. With parameters set to demographic data on language shift from Bantu languages to Portuguese in Mozambique, changes in proportions of learners are sufficiently high to account for the spread of new variants but the trajectory of change differs from linguistic data. This qualitative deviation suggests that mechanisms included in recent models for replicator-neutral language change may also be important to account for contact-driven change where some variants are inherently favored.

  • 3.
    Jon-And, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies. Högskolan Dalarna, Sverige.
    Sekvenser gör människan unik2018In: Språktidningen, ISSN 1654-5028, no 1, p. 40-45Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4.
    Jon-And, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies.
    Variação, contato e mudança linguística em Moçambique e Cabo Verde: A concordância variável de número em sintagmas nominais do português2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates variable noun phrase number agreement (VNA) in two second language varieties of Portuguese, spoken in Maputo, Mozambique and in Mindelo, Cape Verde. Quantitative VARBRUL analysis is carried out based on recordings made in Maputo and Mindelo 2007 and 2008.

    Previous quantitative studies on VNA in varieties of Brazilian Portuguese (Guy, 1981; Lopes, 2001; Andrade, 2003) as well as on VNA in first and second language varieties of Portuguese from São Tomé (Baxter, 2004; Figueiredo, 2008, 2010) indicate contact between Portuguese and African languages as the main origin of this phenomenon. VNA in Brazilian Portuguese is, however, interpreted by Scherre (1988) and Naro & Scherre (1993, 2007) as the result of language internal drift.

    Varieties of Portuguese from Mozambique and Cape Verde are particularly interesting to contrast in order to investigate influences from African languages on VNA, as in Mozambique Bantu languages are first languages of the vast majority of Portuguese speakers, whereas in Cape Verde, practically all Portuguese speakers are first language speakers of Cape Verdean Creole, whose substrates are West African, and not Bantu, languages. Comparison is also made with previous studies from Brazil and São Tomé.

    The results of this study comment previously postulated explanations for VNA in Portuguese in various ways. The analysis of the variables onset age and age stratum indicates that VNA in the analyzed varieties is a phenomenon linked to the acquisition of Portuguese as a second language and/or language contact rather than the result of internal drift. The fact that all the compared varieties tend to mark plural on pre-head components contradicts Bantu transfer as an explanation for this pattern, and raises the need to also consider more general explanations based on language contact. The basic structural similarity between the compared varieties suggests the existence of a grammatical restructuring continuum.

  • 5.
    Jon-And, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for Cultural Evolution. Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Aguilar, Elliot
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for Cultural Evolution. University of Pennsylvania, United States of America .
    A model of contact-induced language change: Testing the role of second language speakers in the evolution of Mozambican Portuguese2019In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 4, article id e0212303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Language change is accelerated by language contact, especially by contact that occurs when a group of speakers shifts from one language to another. This has commonly been explained by linguistic innovation occurring during second language acquisition. This hypothesis is based on historical reconstructions of instances of contact and has not been formally tested on empirical data. In this paper, we construct an agent-based model to formalize the hypothesis that second language speakers are responsible for accelerated language change during language shift. We compare model predictions to a unique combination of diachronic linguistic and demographic data from Maputu, Mozambique. The model correctly predicts an increased proportional use of the novel linguistic variants during the period we study. We find that a modified version of the model is a better fit to one of our two datasets and discuss plausible reasons for this. As a general conclusion concerning typological differences between contact-induced and non-contact-induced language change, we suggest that multiple introductions of a new linguistic variant by different individuals may be the mechanism by which language contact accelerates language change.

  • 6.
    Jon-And, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies. Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Aguilar, Elliot
    Modeling language change triggered by language shift2016In: The Evolution of Language: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference (EVOLANG11) / [ed] S.G. Roberts, C. Cuskley, L. McCrohon, L. Barceló-Coblijn, O. Feher, T. Verhoef, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Jon-And, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Aguilar, Elliot
    Modelling contact-induced language change in Angolan Portuguese2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Jon-And, Anna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Alvarez López, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    A Cupópia do Cafundó: uma análise morfossintática2018In: Revista de Estudos da Linguagem, ISSN 0104-0588, E-ISSN 2237-2083, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 73-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study analyzes the speech of the Afro-Brazilian rural community of Cafundó, located 150 km from São Paulo. Between 1978 and 1988, when the analyzed data were collected, the community had a population of 80 people, descendants of two former slaves, who were sisters and inherited the lands of their owner. In a book published in 1996, Carlos Vogt and Peter Fry (with the collaboration of Robert Slenes) argue that the variety denominated Cupópia presents structures of regional Portuguese, and that part of the vocabulary is of Bantu origin. The present paper focuses on morphosintactic aspects and discusses copulaomission, the use of copula instead of the possessive verb, unexpected word order in Portuguese, nouns without determinant in subject position, the use of definite articles in prepositional prepositional phrases functioning as adjectival locutions, as well as the variable agreement in the noun phrases and the agreement between the subject and the verb. The results indicate that the grammatical features of Cupopia do not fully coincide with those observed in the Portuguese spoken by the same individuals, but are shared with more restructured linguistic varieties than the ones spoken in rural areas of the interior of the State of São Paulo.

  • 9.
    Jon-And, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for Cultural Evolution.
    Avelar, Juanito
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Álvarez López, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Contact, variation and change in Angolan Portuguese: the case of existential constructions in Cabinda2020In: Bulletin of Hispanic studies (Liverpool. 2002), ISSN 1475-3839, E-ISSN 1478-3398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper deals with contact-induced change in existential constructions in the variety of Portuguese spoken in Cabinda, Angola. Portuguese is the official language of Angola, and the officially adopted norm is European Standard Portuguese. The focus of the analysis is on the use of the possessive verb ter ‘to have’ in existential constructions, rather than the existential haver ‘to exist’, which is the standard form in Portugal. The analysis is based on data from 40 interviews with 20 male and 20 female high school Cabinda students between 18 and 30 years of age. The aim is to investigate the role of language contact in the emergence of existential sentences with ter, as well as to verify if the use of ter in existential constructions in Cabinda has the same linguistic constraints as in Brazilian Portuguese. The paper also analyzes social factors related to multilingualism in order to discuss how social and linguistic constraints interact in shaping new varieties, such as Cabinda Portuguese. The conclusion is that the use of ter sentences as existentials in Cabinda Portuguese may be an effect resulting from the confluence of two linguistic factors: (i) changes linked with the pro-drop parameter in Portuguese emerging in Angola, and (ii) the transference of a grammatical property from Bantu languages to Portuguese, specifically, the morphological identity of possessive and existential verbs. Moreover, the only registered social influence over the presence of existential ter constructions is the level of use of Bantu languages, a finding that does not rule out that these constructions may initially have been triggered by more general acquisition effects.

  • 10.
    Jon-And, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Developing a pidgin corpus2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Jon-And, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for Cultural Evolution.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Funcke, Alexander
    Is Language Less Cumulative than Other Culture? Indicators of Breakdown and Build-up of Complexityin Pidgins, Creoles and Non-contact Languages2018In: Applications in Cultural Evolution: Arts, Languages, Technologies: Conference abstracts, 2018, p. 18-19Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the study of cultural evolution, human culture is generally assumed to be cumulative, implying increasing complexity and diversity over time (Enquist et al. 2011, Lewis & Laland 2012). Recent studies suggest that evolutionary mechanisms operate differently in different cultural domains (Tamariz et al. 2016), but it has not been discussed whether all mechanisms result in cumulativity. Experiments have shown that compositional language structure emerge as a trade-off between learnability and expressivity (Kirby et al. 2008, 2015), but there is no evidence of languages generally becoming more compositional, or regular, over time. As all modern natural languages are expressive enough for human communicative needs and compressed enough for generational transmission, we suggest that linguistic complexity is 19 not currently cumulative but breaks down and builds up in cycles triggered by demographically determined variation in learnability and expressivity pressures. We focus on pidgins, a special case of natural languages where the expressivity pressure is presumably weaker and learnability pressure stronger than in other languages. We compare pidgins to creoles, where both expressivity and learnability pressures are presumably high, and non-contact languages where the learnability pressure is presumably lower, allowing for more complexity. We analyze compiled material from spoken and written pidgins, spoken creoles and non-contact languages and a parallel bible corpus, applying two complexity measures: the relation between word length and frequency, and pronominal morphology. We observe a smaller degree of exponentiality in the negative correlation between word length and frequency in pidgins than in their lexifiers, likely reflecting the loss of short and common grammatical words. Creoles expose a higher exponentiality in this correlation, which may reflect a newly built up analytical grammar. For pronouns, we observe expected reduced marking of person, number, case and gender in pidgins, increasing in creoles, being highest in non-contact languages.

  • 12.
    Jon-And, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Funcke, Alexander
    Word Length and word frequency in pidgins and creoles2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Jon-And, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Reite, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    A direção da mudança linguística no português de Maputo: Dados diacrônicos de uma situação de contato2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Reite, Torun
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Jon-And, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for Cultural Evolution. Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Oral Portuguese in Maputo from a diachronic perspective: Diffusion of linguistic innovations in a language shift scenario2017In: Romance Languages and Linguistic Theory 12: Selected papers from the 45th Linguistic Symposium on Romance Languages (LSRL), Campinas, Brazil / [ed] Ruth E.V. Lopes, Juanito Ornelas de Avelar, Sonia M. L. Cyrino, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2017, p. 199-212Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the diffusion of contact-induced linguistic innovations in Portuguese spoken in Maputo, Mozambique, in two datasets from 1993/4 and 2007, focusing on quantitative accounts of linguistic innovations at lexical, lexico-syntactic, syntactic and morphosyntactic levels. Overall, innovative features that registered in the two datasets are qualitatively the same. Results confirm an increase in the frequency of innovative features related to second language acquisition and language contact at all linguist levels, with particularly high diffusion rates of morphological simplifications. This increase may be related to bilingualism and changes in use of, access to, and input of Portuguese. Furthermore, the qualitative stability of features may be a sign of an emerging usage norm.

  • 15.
    Álvarez López, Laura
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Jon-And, Anna
    Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Afro-Brazilian Cupópia: lexical and morphosyntactic features of a lexically driven in-group code2017In: Journal of Pidgin and Creole languages ( Print), ISSN 0920-9034, E-ISSN 1569-9870, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 75-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper focuses on the speech of a rural Afro-Brazilian community called Cafundó, situated 150 km from São Paulo. In 1978, when linguistic data were collected, the community constituted approximately eighty individuals, descendants of two slave women who inherited their owners’ proprieties. According to earlier studies, when the inhabitants of Cafundó spoke in their supposed ‘African language,’ Cupópia, they used structures borrowed from Portuguese and a vocabulary of possible African origin. A lexical analysis shows that the etymologies match historical and demographical data, indicating that speakers of varieties of Kimbundu, Kikongo and Umbundu dominated in the community. Through a morphosyntactic analysis, specific features were found in the data, such as copula absence and variable agreement patterns. By showing that some of Cupópia’s specific grammatical features are not derived from the Portuguese spoken by the same speakers but are instead shared with more restructured varieties, this paper defends the hypothesis that this lexically driven in-group code is not simply a regional variety of Portuguese with a number of African-derived words.

  • 16.
    Álvarez López, Laura
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Jon-And, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Language Attitudes in Contact Settings: data from speakers of Portuguese and Bantu languages in Cabinda, Angola2015Conference paper (Other academic)
1 - 16 of 16
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