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  • 1.
    Fogelström, Elsa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Olofsson, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Posledovich, Diana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Wiklund, Christer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Dahlgren, Johan P.
    Ehrlén, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Plant-herbivore synchrony and selection on plant flowering phenology2017In: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 98, no 3, p. 703-711Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Temporal variation in natural selection has profound effects on the evolutionary trajectories of populations. One potential source of variation in selection is that differences in thermal reaction norms and temperature influence the relative phenology of interacting species. We manipulated the phenology of the butterfly herbivore Anthocharis cardamines relative to genetically identical populations of its host plant, Cardamine pratensis, and examined the effects on butterfly preferences and selection acting on the host plant. We found that butterflies preferred plants at an intermediate flowering stage, regardless of the timing of butterfly flight relative to flowering onset of the population. Consequently, the probability that plant genotypes differing in timing of flowering should experience a butterfly attack depended strongly on relative phenology. These results suggest that differences in spring temperature influence the direction of herbivore-mediated selection on flowering phenology, and that climatic conditions can influence natural selection also when phenotypic preferences remain constant.

  • 2. Friberg, M.
    et al.
    Posledovich, Diana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Wiklund, Christer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Decoupling of female host plant preference and offspring performance in relative specialist and generalist butterflies2015In: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 178, no 4, p. 1181-1192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The preference-performance hypothesis posits that the host plant range of plant-feeding insects is ultimately limited by larval costs associated with feeding on multiple resources, and that female egg-laying preferences evolve in response to these costs. The trade-off of either using few host plant species and being a strong competitor on them due to effective utilization or using a wide host plant range but being a poor competitor is further predicted to result in host plant specialization. This follows under the hypothesis that both females and offspring are ultimately favoured by utilizing only the most suitable host(s). We develop an experimental approach to identify such trade-offs, i.e. larval costs associated with being a host generalist, and apply a suite of experiments to two sympatric and syntopic populations of the closely related butterflies Pieris napi and Pieris rapae. These butterflies show variation in their level of host specialization, which allowed comparisons between more and less specialized species and between families within species. Our results show that, first, the link between female host preference and offspring performance was not significantly stronger in the specialist compared to the generalist species. Second, the offspring of the host plant specialist did not outperform the offspring of the generalist on the former's most preferred host plant species. Finally, the more generalized species, or families within species, did not show higher survival or consistently higher growth rates than the specialists on the less preferred plants. Thus, the preference and performance traits appear to evolve as largely separated units.

  • 3.
    Lehmann, Philipp
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Pruisscher, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Posledovich, Diana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Carlsson, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Käkelä, Reijo
    Tang, Patrik
    Nylin, Sören
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Wheat, Christopher W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Wiklund, Christer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Gotthard, Karl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Energy and lipid metabolism during direct and diapause development in a pierid butterfly2016In: Journal of Experimental Biology, ISSN 0022-0949, E-ISSN 1477-9145, Vol. 219, no 19, p. 3049-3060Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diapause is a fundamental component of the life-cycle in the majority of insects living in environments characterized by strong seasonality. The present study addresses poorly understood associations and trade-offs between endogenous diapause duration, thermal sensitivity of development, energetic cost of development and cold tolerance. Diapause intensity, metabolic rate trajectories and lipid profiles of directly developing and diapausing animals were studied using pupae and adults of Pieris napi butterflies from a population for which endogenous diapause is well studied. Endogenous diapause was terminated after 3 months and termination required chilling. Metabolic and postdiapause development rates increased with diapause duration, while the metabolic cost of postdiapause development decreased, indicating that once diapause is terminated development proceeds at a low rate even at low temperature. Diapausing pupae had larger lipid stores than the directly developing pupae and lipids constituted the primary energy source during diapause. However, during diapause lipid stores did not decrease. Thus, despite lipid catabolism meeting the low energy costs of the diapausing pupae, primary lipid store utilization did not occur until the onset of growth and metamorphosis in spring. In line with this finding, diapausing pupae contained low amounts of mitochondria-derived cardiolipins, which suggests a low capacity for fatty acid β-oxidation. While ontogenic development had a large effect on lipid and fatty acid profiles, only small changes in these were seen during diapause. The data therefore indicate that the diapause lipidomic phenotype is built early, when pupae are still at high temperature, and retained until diapause post-diapause development.

  • 4.
    Navarro-Cano, Jose A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Karlsson, Bengt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Posledovich, Diana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Toftegaard, Tenna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Wiklund, Christer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Ehrlén, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Gotthard, Karl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Climate change, phenology, and butterfly host plant utilization2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, no S!, p. S78-S88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of how species interactions are influenced by climate warming is paramount to understand current biodiversity changes. We review phenological changes of Swedish butterflies during the latest decades and explore potential climate effects on butterfly-host plant interactions using the Orange tip butterfly Anthocharis cardamines and its host plants as a model system. This butterfly has advanced its appearance dates substantially, and its mean flight date shows a positive correlation with latitude. We show that there is a large latitudinal variation in host use and that butterfly populations select plant individuals based on their flowering phenology. We conclude that A. cardamines is a phenological specialist but a host species generalist. This implies that thermal plasticity for spring development influences host utilization of the butterfly through effects on the phenological matching with its host plants. However, the host utilization strategy of A. cardamines appears to render it resilient to relatively large variation in climate.

  • 5.
    Posledovich, Diana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Effects of climate on phenological synchrony between butterflies and their host plants2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Shifts in species’ phenologies and phenological asynchronies between the interacting organisms have received a lot of attention in the context of climate change. Changes in temporal overlap between species, caused by phenological asynchrony, make species depending on one another become so separated in time that they can no longer interact. This may have important consequences both for single species, like fluctuations in abundances, and for the functioning of whole communities by creating mismatches between trophic levels and rearrangements of community structure. This thesis focuses on the impact of temperatures on spring timing and phenological synchrony in a herbivorous insect – host plant system, consisting of the orange tipbutterfly Anthocharis cardamines and five of its Brassicaceae host plant species. Paper I demonstrates that diapause duration and winter thermal conditions can determine the timing of spring emergence in the herbivore, and these traits may differ between species with different feeding strategies. In paper II we show that thermal reaction norms of post-winterdevelopment of A. cardamines display cogradient latitudinal variation.Paper III shows that temperature-mediated phenological plasticity of A. cardamines butterflies and a majority of the most used host plant species is similar within populations originating from different latitudes. Thus, the species’ timing appeared well conserved in response to thermal variation. In paper IV we explored the importance of the butterfly’s adult emergence and thermal conditions on the succeeding part of the butterfly’s life-cycle – larval development. The outcome from the interaction was examined for both the insect and the plant side. The degree in phenological overlap between the female butterflies and host plants as well as temperatures during larval development were found to influence larval development but had no effect on plant reproductive fitness. The four papers of the presented thesis demonstrate that developmental preadaptations, evolvedin a herbivore to maintain phenological synchrony with host plants across yearly variation of spring conditions, can prevent disruption of the interaction under a wide range of temperatures. This indicates that temporary constrained interactions are not always vulnerable to decoupling, particularly if they involve generalist strategy.

  • 6.
    Posledovich, Diana
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Toftegaard, Tenna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Navarro-Cano, Jose A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Wiklund, Christer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Ehrlén, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Gotthard, Karl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Latitudinal variation in thermal reaction norms of post-winter pupal development in two butterflies differing in phenological specialization2014In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 113, no 4, p. 981-991Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Latitudinal clines in thermal reaction norms of development are a common phenomenon in temperate insects. Populations from higher latitudes often develop faster throughout the range of relevant temperatures (i.e countergradient variation) because they must be able to complete their life cycle within a shorter seasonal time window compared to populations at lower latitudes. In the present study, we experimentally demonstrate that two species of butterflies Anthocharis cardamines (L.) and Pieris napi (L.) instead show a cogradient variation in thermal reaction norms of post-winter pupal development so that lower latitude populations develop faster than higher latitude populations. The two species share host plants but differ in the degree of phenological specialization, as well as in the patterns of voltinism. We suggest that the pattern in A. cardamines, a univoltine phenological specialist feeding exclusively on flowers and seedpods, is the result of selection for matching to the phenological pattern of its local host plants. The other species, P. napi, is a phenological generalist feeding on the leaves of the hosts and it shows a latitudinal cline in voltinism. Because the latitudinal pattern in P. napi was an effect of slow development in a fraction of the pupae from the most northern population, we hypothesize that this population may include both bivoltine and univoltine genotypes. Consequently, although the two species both showed cogradient patterns in thermal reaction norms, it appears likely that this was for different reasons.

  • 7.
    Posledovich, Diana
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Toftegaard, Tenna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Wiklund, Christer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Ehrlén, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Gotthard, Karl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Latitudinal variation in diapause duration and post-winter development in two pierid butterflies in relation to phenological specialization2015In: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 177, no 1, p. 181-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diapause plays a central role in insect life cycles by allowing survival during adverse seasonal conditions as well as synchronizing life cycles with the period of mate and food availability. Seasonal timing is expected to be particularly important for species that are dependent on resources available during a short time window-so-called phenological specialists-and latitudinal clines in seasonality are expected to favor local adaptation in phenological timing. However, to what degree latitudinal variation in diapause dynamics and post-winter development due to such local adaptation is influenced by the degree of phenological specialization is not well known. We experimentally studied two pierid butterfly species and found that the phenological specialist Anthocharis cardamines had shorter diapause duration than the phenological generalist Pieris napi along a latitudinal gradient in Sweden. Moreover, diapause duration increased with latitude in P. napi but not in A. cardamines. Sensitivity of the two species to winter thermal conditions also differed; additional cold temperature during the winter period shortened diapause duration for P. napi pupae but not for A. cardamines pupae. In both species, post-winter pupal development was faster after longer periods of cold conditions, and more southern populations developed faster than northern populations. Post-winter development was also invariably faster at higher temperatures in both species. We argue that the observed differences in diapause dynamics between the two species might be explained by the difference in phenological specialization that influences the costs of breaking diapause too early in the season.

  • 8.
    Posledovich, Diana
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Toftegaard, Tenna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Wiklund, Christer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Ehrlén, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Gotthard, Karl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Phenological synchrony between a butterfly and its host plants: Experimental test of effects of spring temperature2018In: Journal of Animal Ecology, ISSN 0021-8790, E-ISSN 1365-2656, Vol. 87, no 1, p. 150-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Climate-driven changes in the relative phenologies of interacting species may potentially alter the outcome of species interactions. 2. Phenotypic plasticity is expected to be important for short-term response to new climate conditions, and differences between species in plasticity are likely to influence their temporal overlap and interaction patterns. As reaction norms of interacting species may be locally adapted, any such climate-induced change in interaction patterns may vary among localities. However, consequences of spatial variation in plastic responses for species interactions are understudied. 3. We experimentally explored how temperature affected synchrony between spring emergence of a butterfly, Anthocharis cardamines, and onset of flowering of five of its host plant species across a latitudinal gradient. We also studied potential effects on synchrony if climate-driven northward expansions would be faster in the butterflies than in host plants. Lastly, to assess how changes in synchrony influence host use we carried out an experiment to examine the importance of the developmental stage of plant reproductive structures for butterfly oviposition preference. 4. In southern locations, the butterflies were well-synchronized with the majority of their local host plant species across temperatures, suggesting that thermal plasticity in butterfly development matches oviposition to host plant development and that thermal reaction norms of insects and plants result in similar advancement of spring phenology in response to warming. In the most northern region, however, relative phenology between the butterfly and two of its host plant species changed with increased temperature. We also show that the developmental stage of plants was important for egg-laying, and conclude that temperature-induced changes in synchrony in the northernmost region are likely to lead to shifts in host use in A.cardamines if spring temperatures become warmer. Northern expansion of butterfly populations might possibly have a positive effect on keeping up with host plant phenology with more northern host plant populations. 5. Considering that the majority of insect herbivores exploit multiple plant species differing in their phenological response to spring temperatures, temperature-induced changes in synchrony might lead to shifts in host use and changes in species interactions in many temperate communities.

  • 9.
    Posledovich, Diana
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Toftegaard, Tenna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Wiklund, Christer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Ehrlén, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Gotthard, Karl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    The developmental race between maturing host plants and their butterfly herbivore – the influence of phenological matching and temperature2015In: Journal of Animal Ecology, ISSN 0021-8790, E-ISSN 1365-2656, Vol. 84, no 6, p. 1690-1699Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interactions between herbivorous insects and their host plants that are limited in time are widespread. Therefore, many insect-plant interactions result in a developmental race, where herbivores need to complete their development before plants become unsuitable, while plants strive to minimize damage from herbivores by outgrowing them. When spring phenologies of interacting species change asymmetrically in response to climate warming, there will be a change in the developmental state of host plants at the time of insect herbivore emergence. In combination with altered temperatures during the subsequent developmental period, this is likely to affect interaction strength as well as fitness of interacting species. Here, we experimentally explore whether the combined effect of phenological matching and thermal conditions influence the outcome of an insect-host interaction. We manipulated both developmental stages of the host plants at the start of the interaction and temperature during the subsequent developmental period in a model system of a herbivorous butterfly, Anthocharis cardamines, and five of its Brassicaceae host plant species. Larval performance characteristics were favoured by earlier stages of host plants at oviposition as well as by higher developmental temperatures on most of the host species. The probability of a larva needing a second host plant covered the full range from no influence of either phenological matching or temperature to strong effects of both factors, and complex interactions between them. The probability of a plant outgrowing a larva was dependent only on the species identity. This study demonstrates that climatic variation can influence the outcome of consumer-resource interactions in multiple ways and that its effects differ among host plant species. Therefore, climate warming is likely to change the temporal match between larval and plant development in some plant species, but not in the others. This is likely to have important implications for host plant use and possibly influence competitive relationships.

  • 10.
    Posledovich, Diana
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Toftegaard, Tenna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Wiklund, Christer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Ehrlén, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Gotthard, Karl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Weak effect of spring temperatures on phenological synchrony between herbivore emergence and host plant suitabilityManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many species interactions are maintained by precise timing of life-cycle events across seasonal variation. Ecological implications of changes in phenologies, associated with climate change, with respect to species interactions are to a large extent unexplored. Changes in phenological distance between herbivores and their host plant species under new environmental conditions may potentially lead to shifts in host use patterns, with some plant species becoming more or less available at the time of a herbivore’s emergence. In addition, latitudinal variation in the timing of phenological events can lead to different patterns in host use shifts among populations of a given herbivore. Here we explored latitudinal variation in the effects of temperature on the degree of phenological synchrony between emergence of a butterfly, A. cardamines, and five of its herbaceous host plant species in a set of laboratory experiments to investigate the possibility that there will be shifts in the butterfly’ host utilization due to changes in thermal environment. The results suggest a similar temperature-mediated phenological plasticity between the butterflies and their host plants in three latitudinally divergent populations. In general, butterflies appeared to be well-synchronized with the majority of their host plant species across temperatures. In the most northern region, however, phenological distance between the butterfly and two out of four plant species was affected by temperature and decreased in warmer treatments. We relate this to a lower diversity of plant species and shorter period of host availability in the northern region. This creates a stronger selection pressure on the northern butterflies for a closer matching of their emergence to the plant flowering period. As the butterflies discriminated against non-flowering hosts with respect to oviposition, we conclude that a shift in host use in A. cardamines appears to be a possible scenario under spring warming, especially in the northern region.

  • 11.
    Stålhandske, Sandra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Gotthard, Karl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Posledovich, Diana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Leimar, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Variation in two phases of post-winter development of a butterfly2014In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 27, no 12, p. 2644-2653Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The temporal aspects of life cycle characteristics, such as diapause development, are under strong selection in seasonal environments. Fine-tuning of the life cycle may be particularly important to match the phenology of potential mates and resources as well as for optimizing abiotic conditions at eclosion. Here, we experimentally study the spring phenology of the orange tip butterfly, Anthocharis cardamines, by analysing post-winter pupal development in three populations along a latitudinal cline in each of Sweden and the United Kingdom. These countries differ substantially in their seasonal temperature profile. By repeatedly recording pupal weights, we established that post-winter development has two separate phases, with a more rapid weight loss in the second phase than in the first, likely corresponding to a ramping up of the rate of development. Variation in the duration of the first phase contributed more strongly than the second phase to the differences in phenology between the localities and sexes. We found that insects from Sweden had a faster overall rate of development than those from the United Kingdom, which is consistent with countergradient variation, as Sweden is colder during the spring than the United Kingdom. Similar trends were not observed at the within-country scale, however. A cogradient pattern was found within Sweden, with populations from the north developing more slowly, and there was no clear latitudinal trend within the United Kingdom. In all localities, males developed faster than females. Our results point to the importance of variation in the progression of post-winter development for spring phenology.

  • 12.
    Toftegaard, Tenna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Posledovich, Diana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    König, Malin A. E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Wiklund, Christer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Gotthard, Karl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Ehrlén, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Linking small-scale temperature variations to plant phenology and plant-herbivore interactionsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Toftegaard, Tenna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Posledovich, Diana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Navarro-Cano, José A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Desertification Research Centre (CSIC‐UV‐GV), Spain.
    Wiklund, Christer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Gotthard, Karl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Ehrlén, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Butterfly-host plant synchrony determines patterns of host use across years and regions2019In: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 128, no 4, p. 493-502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Variation in the degree of synchrony among host plants and herbivores can disrupt or intensify species interactions, alter the strength of natural selection on traits associated with phenological timing, and drive novel host plant associations. We used field observations from three regions during four seasons to examine how timing of the butterfly herbivore Anthocharis cardamines relative to six host plant species (Arabis hirsuta, Cardamine pratensis, Arabis glabra, Arabidopsis thaliana, Thlaspi caerulescens and Capsella bursa-pastoris) influenced host species use and the choice of host plant individuals within populations. Butterflies laid a larger fraction of their eggs on species that were closer to the butterfly's preferred stage of development than on other host species. Within host plant populations, butterflies showed a stronger preference for individuals with a late phenology when plants within the population were on average more developed at the time of butterfly flight. Our results suggest that changes in synchrony between herbivores and their host plants are associated with changes in both host species use and the choice of host plant individuals differing in phenology within populations. This is likely to be an important mechanism generating variation in interaction intensities and trait selection in the wild, and therefore also relevant for understanding how anthropogenic induced changes, such as global warming, will influence natural communities.

  • 14.
    Toftegaard, Tenna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Posledovich, Diana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Navarro-Cano, José A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Desertification Research Centre (CSIC-UV-GV), Spain.
    Wiklund, Christer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Gotthard, Karl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Ehrlén, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Variation in plant thermal reaction norms along a latitudinal gradient - more than adaptation to season length2016In: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 125, no 5, p. 622-628Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about the extent to which observed phenological responses to changes in climate are the result of phenotypic plasticity or genetic changes. We also know little about how plasticity, in terms of thermal reaction norms, vary spatially. We investigated if the thermal reaction norms for flower development of five crucifer species (Brassicaceae) differed among three regions along a south-north latitudinal gradient in replicated experiments. The mean response (elevation) of thermal reaction norms of flowering differed among regions in all study species, while sensitivity of flower development to temperature (slope) differed in only one of the species. Differences in mean responses corresponded to cogradient patterns in some species, but countergradient patterns in other. This suggests that differences among regions were not solely the result of adaptation to differences in the length of the growing season, but that other factors, such as herbivory, play an important role. Differences in development rate within species were mainly explained by variation in early phases of bud formation in some species but by variation in later phases of bud formation in other species. The differences in latitudinal patterns of thermal reaction norms among species observed in this study are important, both to identify agents of selection and to predict short- and long-term responses to a warming climate.

  • 15.
    Toftegaard, Tenna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Posledovich, Diana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Navarro-Cano, José Antonio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Wiklund, Christer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Gotthard, Karl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Ehrlén, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Effect of spring temperature on flower development differs among closely related plantsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Toftegaard, Tenna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Posledovich, Diana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Navarro-Cano, José Antonio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Wiklund, Christer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Gotthard, Karl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Ehrlén, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Timing of a butterfly influences host plant species use and the relationship between plant phenology and butterfly attackManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
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