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  • 1. Aarts, Alexander A.
    et al.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Zuni, Kellylynn
    Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science2015In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 349, no 6251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reproducibility is a defining feature of science, but the extent to which it characterizes current research is unknown. We conducted replications of 100 experimental and correlational studies published in three psychology journals using high-powered designs and original materials when available. Replication effects were half the magnitude of original effects, representing a substantial decline. Ninety-seven percent of original studies had statistically significant results. Thirty-six percent of replications had statistically significant results; 47% of original effect sizes were in the 95% confidence interval of the replication effect size; 39% of effects were subjectively rated to have replicated the original result; and if no bias in original results is assumed, combining original and replication results left 68% with statistically significant effects. Correlational tests suggest that replication success was better predicted by the strength of original evidence than by characteristics of the original and replication teams.

  • 2. Anderson, Christopher J.
    et al.
    Bahník, Štěpán
    Barnett-Cowan, Michael
    Bosco, Frank A.
    Chandler, Jesse
    Chartier, Christopher R.
    Cheung, Felix
    Christopherson, Cody D.
    Cordes, Andreas
    Cremata, Edward J.
    Della Penna, Nicolas
    Estel, Vivien
    Fedor, Anna
    Fitneva, Stanka A.
    Frank, Michael C.
    Grange, James A.
    Hartshorne, Joshua K.
    Hasselman, Fred
    Henninger, Felix
    van der Hulst, Marije
    Jonas, Kai J.
    Lai, Calvin K.
    Levitan, Carmel A.
    Miller, Jeremy K.
    Moore, Katherine S.
    Meixner, Johannes M.
    Munafò, Marcus R.
    Neijenhuijs, Koen I.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Nosek, Brian A.
    Plessow, Franziska
    Prenoveau, Jason M.
    Ricker, Ashley A.
    Schmidt, Kathleen
    Spies, Jeffrey R.
    Stieger, Stefan
    Strohminger, Nina
    Sullivan, Gavin B.
    van Aert, Robbie C. M.
    van Assen, Marcel A. L. M.
    Vanpaemel, Wolf
    Vianello, Michelangelo
    Voracek, Martin
    Zuni, Kellylynn
    Response to Comment on "Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science"2016In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 351, no 6277, article id 1037Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Gilbert et al. conclude that evidence from the Open Science Collaboration's Reproducibility Project: Psychology indicates high reproducibility, given the study methodology. Their very optimistic assessment is limited by statistical misconceptions and by causal inferences from selectively interpreted, correlational data. Using the Reproducibility Project: Psychology data, both optimistic and pessimistic conclusions about reproducibility are possible, and neither are yet warranted.

  • 3. Bejerot, Susanne
    et al.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Humble, Mats B.
    Subcortical brain volume differences in participants with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adults2017In: Lancet psychiatry, ISSN 2215-0374, E-ISSN 2215-0366, Vol. 4, no 6, p. 437-437Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4. Darai-Ramqvist, Eva
    et al.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Flores-Staino, Carmen
    Hjerpe, Anders
    Dobra, Katalin
    Microenvironment-dependent phenotypic changes in a SCID mouse model for malignant mesothelioma2013In: Frontiers in Oncology, ISSN 2234-943X, E-ISSN 2234-943X, Vol. 3, article id 203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Aims: Malignant mesothelioma is an aggressive, therapy-resistant tumor. Mesothelioma cells may assume an epithelioid or a sarcomatoid phenotype, and presence of sarcomatoid cells predicts poor prognosis. In this study, we investigated differentiation of mesothelioma cells in a xenograft model, where mesothelioma cells of both phenotypes were induced to form tumors in severe combined immunodeficiency mice.

    Methods: Xenografts were established and thoroughly characterized using a comprehensive immunohistochemical panel, array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) of chromosome 3, fluorescent in situ hybridization, and electron microscopy.

    Results: Epithelioid and sarcomatoid cells gave rise to xenografts of similar epithelioid morphology. While sarcomatoid-derived xenografts had higher growth rates, the morphology and expression of differentiation-related markers was similar between xenografts derived from both phenotypes. aCGH showed a convergent genotype for both xenografts, resembling the original aggressive sarcomatoid cell sub-line.

    Conclusion: Human mesothelioma xenografts from sarcomatoid and epithelioid phenotypes converged to a similar differentiation state, and genetic analyses suggested that clonal selection in the mouse microenvironment was a major contributing factor. This thoroughly characterized animal model can be used for further studies of molecular events underlying tumor cell differentiation.

  • 5. Hardwicke, Tom E.
    et al.
    Mathur, Maya B.
    MacDonald, Kyle
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Stanford University, USA; Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Banks, George C.
    Kidwell, Mallory C.
    Mohr, Alicia Hofelich
    Clayton, Elizabeth
    Yoon, Erica J.
    Tessler, Michael Henry
    Lenne, Richie L.
    Altman, Sara
    Long, Bria
    Frank, Michael C.
    Data availability, reusability, and analytic reproducibility: evaluating the impact of a mandatory open data policy at the journal Cognition2018In: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 5, no 8, article id 180448Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Access to data is a critical feature of an efficient, progressive and ultimately self-correcting scientific ecosystem. But the extent to which in-principle benefits of data sharing are realized in practice is unclear. Crucially, it is largely unknown whether published findings can be reproduced by repeating reported analyses upon shared data ('analytic reproducibility'). To investigate this, we conducted an observational evaluation of a mandatory open data policy introduced at the journal Cognition. Interrupted time-series analyses indicated a substantial post-policy increase in data available statements (104/417, 25% pre-policy to 136/ 174, 78% post-policy), although not all data appeared reusable (23/ 104, 22% pre-policy to 85/136, 62%, post-policy). For 35 of the articles determined to have reusable data, we attempted to reproduce 1324 target values. Ultimately, 64 values could not be reproduced within a 10% margin of error. For 22 articles all target values were reproduced, but 11 of these required author assistance. For 13 articles at least one value could not be reproduced despite author assistance. Importantly, there were no clear indications that original conclusions were seriously impacted. Mandatory open data policies can increase the frequency and quality of data sharing. However, suboptimal data curation, unclear analysis specification and reporting errors can impede analytic reproducibility, undermining the utility of data sharing and the credibility of scientific findings.

  • 6. Ingre, Michael
    et al.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Stanford University, USA.
    Estimating statistical power, posterior probability and publication bias of psychological research using the observed replication rate2018In: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 5, no 9, article id 181190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we show how Bayes' theorem can be used to better understand the implications of the 36% reproducibility rate of published psychological findings reported by the Open Science Collaboration. We demonstrate a method to assess publication bias and show that the observed reproducibility rate was not consistent with an unbiased literature. We estimate a plausible range for the prior probability of this body of research, suggesting expected statistical power in the original studies of 48-75%, producing (positive) findings that were expected to be true 41-62% of the time. Publication bias was large, assuming a literature with 90% positive findings, indicating that negative evidence was expected to have been observed 55-98 times before one negative result was published. These findings imply that even when studied associations are truly NULL, we expect the literature to be dominated by statistically significant findings.

  • 7. Klein, Olivier
    et al.
    Hardwicket, Tom E.
    Aust, Frederik
    Breuer, Johannes
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Hofelich Mohr, Alicia
    Ijzerman, Hans
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Stanford University, USA; Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Vanpaemel, Wolf
    Frank, Michael C.
    A Practical Guide for Transparency in Psychological Science2018In: Collabra: Psychology, E-ISSN 2474-7394, Vol. 4, no 1, article id 20Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The credibility of scientific claims depends upon the transparency of the research products upon which they are based (e.g., study protocols, data, materials, and analysis scripts). As psychology navigates a period of unprecedented introspection, user-friendly tools and services that support open science have flourished. However, the plethora of decisions and choices involved can be bewildering. Here we provide a practical guide to help researchers navigate the process of preparing and sharing the products of their research (e.g., choosing a repository, preparing their research products for sharing, structuring folders, etc.). Being an open scientist means adopting a few straightforward research management practices, which lead to less error prone, reproducible research workflows. Further, this adoption can be piecemeal – each incremental step towards complete transparency adds positive value. Transparent research practices not only improve the efficiency of individual researchers, they enhance the credibility of the knowledge generated by the scientific community. 

  • 8.
    Lekander, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Karshikoff, Bianka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Johansson, Emilia
    Soop, Anne
    Fransson, Peter
    Lundström, Johan N.
    Andreasson, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Ingvar, Martin
    Petrovic, Predrag
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Intrinsic functional connectivity of insular cortex and symptoms of sickness during acute experimental inflammation2016In: Brain, behavior, and immunity, ISSN 0889-1591, E-ISSN 1090-2139, Vol. 56, p. 34-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Task-based fMRI has been used to study the effects of experimental inflammation on the human brain, but it remains unknown whether intrinsic connectivity in the brain at rest changes during a sickness response. Here, we investigated the effect of experimental inflammation on connectivity between areas relevant for monitoring of bodily states, motivation, and subjective symptoms of sickness. In a double blind randomized controlled trial, 52 healthy volunteers were injected with 0.6 ng/kg LPS (lipopolysaccharide) or placebo, and participated in a resting state fMRI experiment after approximately 2h 45 minutes. Resting state fMRI data were available from 48 participants, of which 28 received LPS and 20 received placebo. Bilateral anterior and bilateral posterior insula sections were used as seed regions and connectivity with bilateral orbitofrontal and cingulate (anterior and middle) cortices was investigated. Back pain, headache and global sickness increased significantly after as compared to before LPS, while a non-significant trend was shown for increased nausea. Compared to placebo, LPS was followed by increased connectivity between left anterior insula and left midcingulate cortex. This connectivity was significantly correlated to increase in back pain after LPS and tended to be related to increased global sickness, but was not related to increased headache or nausea. LPS did not affect the connectivity from other insular seeds. In conclusion, the finding of increased functional connectivity between left anterior insula and middle cingulate cortex suggests a potential neurophysiological mechanism that can be further tested to understand the subjective feeling of malaise and discomfort during a sickness response.

  • 9. Lodin, Karin
    et al.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Petrovic, Predrag
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Hedman-Lagerlöf, Erik
    Andreasson, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Macquarie University, Australia.
    Cross-sectional associations between inflammation, sickness behaviour, health anxiety and self-rated health in a Swedish primary care population2019In: European journal of inflammation, ISSN 2058-7392, Vol. 17, article id 2058739219844357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated associations between inflammatory markers, sickness behaviour, health anxiety and self-rated health in 311 consecutive primary care patients. Poor self-rated health was associated with high sickness behaviour (rho = 0.28, P < 0.001; rho = 0.42, P = 0.003) and high health anxiety (rho = 0.31, P < 0.001; rho = -0.32, P = 0.003). High levels of interleukin 6 were associated with poor self-rated health in men (rho = 0.26, P = 0.009). Low levels of interleukin-6 were associated with poor self-rated health in women (rho = -0.15, P = 0.04), but this association was non-significant when adjusted for health anxiety (rho = -0.08, P = 0.31). These results are consistent with the theory that interoceptive processes draw on both inflammatory mediators and the state of sickness behaviour in inferring health state.

  • 10.
    McGrath, Cormac
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Data sharing in qualitative research: opportunities and concerns2018In: MedEdPublish, ISSN 2312-7996, Vol. 7, no 4, article id 34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data sharing is increasingly practiced by researchers and mandated by research funders as well as scientific journals. However, data sharing within qualitative research paradigms is less common, and sharing interview data has particular challenges. Earlier debate has pointed to the value of data sharing for discouraging research fraud and permitting critical scrutiny. We elaborate on this discussion by highlighting the value of data sharing for cumulative science, for re-use, and to maximise the value of the participants’ contribution. We review methods and possibilities for sharing interview data, and give concrete recommendations for mitigating risks to the participants. In conclusion, we find that sharing of interview data is possible, valuable, and ethical, and serves a purpose for both journals and researchers.

  • 11. Mundt, Filip
    et al.
    Heidari-Hamedani, Ghazal
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Metintas, Muzaffer
    Hjerpe, Anders
    Dobra, Katalin
    Diagnostic and Prognostic Value of Soluble Syndecan-1 in Pleural Malignancies2014In: BioMed Research International, ISSN 2314-6133, E-ISSN 2314-6141, p. 419853-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. The distinction between malignant and benign pleural effusions is a diagnostic challenge today and measuring soluble biomarkers could add to the diagnostic accuracy. Syndecan-1 is a proteoglycan involved in various cellular functions and is cleaved from the cell surface in a regulated manner. The shed fragment, which can be recovered in effusion supernatant and in serum, retains its binding capacities, but often with different functions and signalling properties than the cell-bound form. Aim. This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic and prognostic value of soluble syndecan-1 in pleural effusions and sera from patients with pleural malignancies. Study Design. Using two cohorts of patients, we assessed the diagnostic and prognostic value of soluble syndecan-1 in pleural effusions and sera, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results. In pleural effusions, syndecan-1 distinguished malignant and benign diseases, with an odds ratio of 8.59 (95% CI 3.67 to 20.09). Furthermore, syndecan-1 in pleural effusions predicted a survival difference for patients with pleural metastatic disease and malignant mesothelioma of 11.2 and 9.2 months, respectively. However, no such effects were seen when syndecan-1 was measured in serum. Conclusion. Soluble syndecan-1 is a promising candidate biomarker for the cytopathological diagnosis and prognostication of malignant pleural effusions.

  • 12. Mundt, Filip
    et al.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Arslan, Sertac
    Csürös, Karola
    Hillerdal, Gunnar
    Yildirim, Huseyin
    Metintas, Muzaffer
    Dobra, Katalin
    Hjerpe, Anders
    Hyaluronan and N-ERC/Mesothelin as Key Biomarkers in a Specific Two-Step Model to Predict Pleural Malignant Mesothelioma2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 8, article id e72030Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma is challenging. The first available diagnostic material is often an effusion and biochemical analysis of soluble markers may provide additional diagnostic information. This study aimed to establish a predictive model using biomarkers from pleural effusions, to allow early and accurate diagnosis. Patients and Methods: Effusions were collected prospectively from 190 consecutive patients at a regional referral centre. Hyaluronan, N-ERC/mesothelin, C-ERC/mesothelin, osteopontin, syndecan-1, syndecan-2, and thioredoxin were measured using ELISA and HPLC. A predictive model was generated and validated using a second prospective set of 375 effusions collected consecutively at a different referral centre. Results: Biochemical markers significantly associated with mesothelioma were hyaluronan (odds ratio, 95% CI: 8.82, 4.82-20.39), N-ERC/mesothelin (4.81, 3.19-7.93), CERC/mesothelin (3.58, 2.43-5.59) and syndecan-1 (1.34, 1.03-1.77). A two-step model using hyaluronan and N-ERC/mesothelin, and combining a threshold decision rule with logistic regression, yielded good discrimination with an area under the ROC curve of 0.99 (95% CI: 0.97-1.00) in the model generation dataset and 0.83 (0.74-0.91) in the validation dataset, respectively. Conclusions: A two-step model using hyaluronan and N-ERC/mesothelin predicts mesothelioma with high specificity. This method can be performed on the first available effusion and could be a useful adjunct to the morphological diagnosis of mesothelioma.

  • 13.
    Månsson, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Lindqvist, Daniel
    Yang, Liu
    Wolkowitz, Owen
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Isung, Josef
    Svanborg, Cecilia
    Boraxbekk, C-J.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Lavebratt, Catharina
    Furmark, Tomas
    Can Psychological Treatment Slow Down Cellular Aging in Social Anxiety Disorder?: An Intervention Study Evaluating Changes in Telomere Length and Telomerase Activity2018In: Biological Psychiatry, ISSN 0006-3223, E-ISSN 1873-2402, Vol. 83, no 9, p. S351-S352Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Mental illness, including anxiety disorders, is linked to accelerated cell aging. This is evidenced by shorter leukocyte telomere length. Cells with critically short telomeres may undergo apoptosis. In dividing cells, telomere shortening is counteracted by the telomeraseenzyme. Telomerase is reportedly low following chronic psychological stress. We hypothesized that a psychological treatment may increase telomerase activity, less telomere attritionand greater symptom improvement.

    Methods: Forty-six patients (91% SSRI naïve) with social anxiety disorder(SAD; mean age 31, 63% females) underwent a 9-week waiting period, and 9 weeks of Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy(CBT). During treatment, symptoms were assessed weekly using the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS-SR). Fasting blood samples were collected twice before treatment, and at post-treatment. Genomic DNA was extracted using DNeasy® Blood & Tissue Kit (Qiagene) to assess leukocyte telomere length. Telomerase activity was detected by real-time telomeric repeat amplification protocol (RT-TRAP).

    Results: Patients improved significantly on the LSAS-SR (p<.001; Cohen’s d=1.5). Pre-post changes in telomerase and telomere length correlated positively (Pearson’s r=.31, p=.05). Reduced telomerase activity (<33th percentile) was associated with less improvement and increased activity (>66th percentile) with more improvement on the LSAS-SR (Z=-2.4, p=.02).

    Conclusions: We demonstrate, to our knowledge for the first time, that altered telomerase activity is associated with clinical response to a psychological treatment in a psychiatric population. The observed CBT effect on telomerase in patients with SAD is consistent with results from animal trials and a small previous study of antidepressants in humans. Thus, telomerase activation may play an important role in clinical recovery.

  • 14.
    Nilsonne, G.
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Tamm, S.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Schwarz, J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Almeida, R.
    Fischer, H.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Kecklund, G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Lekander, M.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Fransson, P.
    Åkerstedt, T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Increased global FMRI signal variability after partial sleep deprivation: Findings from the Stockholm sleepy brain study2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Neural correlates of sleep deprivation are not fully understood and the difference between young and older adults in this regard has received little attention. We aimed to investigate the effect of partial sleep deprivation on resting state connectivity.

    Methods: 30 younger (20–30 years) and 23 older (65–75 years) healthy participants underwent MR imaging after normal sleep and partial sleep deprivation (3 h sleep). We acquired two runs of eyes-open resting state functional magnetic resonance images. Participants were monitored with eye-tracking to ensure their eyes remained open during scanning.

    Results: Global signal variability, defined as log-transformed standard deviation of average gray matter signal, was increased following partial sleep deprivation (0.16 [0.07, 0.24], p = 0.0004). In contrast to previous studies, we did not find that partial sleep deprivation inhibited connectivity in the default mode network, nor in other major networks investigated.

    Conclusion: Sleep deprivation caused increased global signal variability. This novel finding should be confirmed using independent data. Our finding of no difference in default mode connectivity in the sleep deprived state, could possibly be due to stricter monitoring of participants’ wakefulness compared to some earlier studies.

  • 15.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Biotermgruppen rekommenderar: våga vårda vårt fackspråk2014In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, no 08, p. 349-349Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Clinical trials, replication, and crowdsourcing2014Other (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet.
    Dyrköpt avtal med Elsevier2019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Nyligen meddelade Bibsam-konsortiet, som för svenska lärosätens räkning förhandlar om vetenskapliga tidskriftsprenumerationer, att man nått ett nytt avtal med Elsevier. Därmed slutar det avtalslösa tillstånd som rått i bortåt ett och ett halvt år, då svenska forskare inte fått tillgång till aktuella artiklar i Elseviertidskrifter. Det nya avtalet är transformativt. Detta innebär att det innehåller publicering med öppen tillgång för svenska forskare utan att forskaren eller lärosätet behöver betala en avgift för varje artikel. Fler artiklar kommer därmed att bli omedelbart öppet tillgängliga.

    Det gamla avtalet med Elsevier kostade 14 miljoner euro 2017, samtidigt som tidskrifterna också tog betalt per artikel för publicering med öppen tillgång. Det var helt nödvändigt att bryta den skenande kostnadsökningen, och Bibsamkonsortiet ska ha all heder av sitt beslut att inte fortsätta med samma typ av avtal som förut.

    Men det transformativa avtalet med Elsevier är en pyrrhusseger. Problemet med det nya avtalet är att det cementerar låsningen till en föråldrad publiceringskultur. Förlaget tillåts fortfarande ta dubbelt betalt: både för att vi ska få läsa andra länders artiklar, och för att publicera svenska artiklar med öppen tillgång – fastän båda kostnaderna är inbakade i samma avtal. Vi får alltså betala först för att de reser en brandvägg framför vetenskapens landvinningar, och sedan igen för att få spika upp våra egna alster på väggens utsida.

    Öppna arkiv på internet gör att vetenskapliga resultat kan publiceras till mycket låg kostnad, och utan den fördröjning som tidskrifternas granskning innebär. Systematiska metoder för att granska kvaliteten efter publicering har potential att ersätta den traditionella referentgranskningen, som ofta åberopas som kvalitetshöjande, men som i allmänhet försiggår i det fördolda och inte i sig kan granskas. Tidskrifternas roll som förvaltare av ett prestigekapital som snedvrider forskningsprocessen behöver brytas.

    Experimentet med ett avtalslöst tillstånd visade att svensk forskning klarade sig bra. Kostnaden för det nya avtalet är ännu inte offentliggjord, men den kvardröjande låsningen till Elsevier medför en risk för fortsatta kostnadsökningar. Det går inte att motivera att svensk forskning årligen ska dräneras på hundratals miljoner kronor för att köpa tillbaka forskningsresultat som borde varit öppet tillgängliga från början. Bibsamkonsortiet borde experimentera med att säga upp fler avtal. Inbesparade medel skulle kunna användas exempelvis till stöd för att publicera forskningsdata och andra forskningsprodukter öppet och FAIR.

  • 18.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Effects of sleep deprivation on emotional processing related to others’ emotional expression and experience2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Mindre än hälften av psykologistudier kunde reproduceras2015In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 39, p. 112-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 20.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Sleep deprivation and the brain: focus on emotion2014Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 21.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Towards an ecosystem for open data2014Other (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sverige.
    Öppna data viktig pusselbit i framtidens forskningsmetod2014In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 111, no 44-45, article id C63DArticle in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskningsdata är grunden för vårt vetenskapliga kunskapsbygge. Men alltför ofta går de inte att få fram. Vetenskapsrådet föreslår att alla data ska publiceras öppet, vilket är bra. Men framför allt behöver vi en ny kultur som skapar en genuin efterfrågan på befintliga data.

  • 23.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Appelgren, Alva
    Axelsson, John
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Learning in a simple biological system: A pilot study of classical conditioning of human macrophages in vitro2011In: Behavioral and Brain Functions, ISSN 1744-9081, E-ISSN 1744-9081, Vol. 7, p. 47-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT: Recent advances in cell biology and gene regulation suggest mechanisms whereby associative learning could be performed by single cells. Therefore, we explored a model of classical conditioning in human macrophages in vitro. In macrophage cultures, bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS; unconditioned stimulus) was paired once with streptomycin (conditioned stimulus). Secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6) was used as response measure. At evocation, conditioning was not observed. Levels of IL-6 were higher only in those cultures that had been exposed to LPS in the learning phase (p's<.05), regardless whether they received the conditioned stimulus or not at evocation. However, habituation was evident, with a 62% loss of the IL-6 response after three LPS presentations (p<.001). If further experiments confirm that simple learning can occur in immune cells, this may have bearings not only on immune regulation, but also on the brain response to molecular signals detected in the periphery. Importantly, whether capacities for simple learning in single cells extend beyond habituation, and how this would be demonstrated, remain open questions.

  • 24.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Hilgard, Joseph
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Arnberg, Filip K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Post-traumatic stress disorder and interleukin 62016In: Lancet psychiatry, ISSN 2215-0374, E-ISSN 2215-0366, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 200-201Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Circulating Interleukin 6 in Parkinson Disease2017In: JAMA Neurology, ISSN 2168-6149, E-ISSN 2168-6157, Vol. 74, no 5, p. 607-608Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Ingre, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Diurnal Variation of Circulating Interleukin-6 in Humans: A Meta-Analysis2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 11, article id e0165799Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pleiotropic cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) has been proposed to contribute to circadian regulation of sleepiness by increasing in the blood at night. Earlier studies have reported diurnal variation of IL-6, but phase estimates are conflicting. We have therefore performed a meta-analysis on the diurnal variation of circulating IL-6. Studies were included if they reported IL-6 in plasma or serum recorded at least twice within 24 hours in the same individual. A systematic search resulted in the inclusion of 43 studies with 56 datasets, for a total of 1100 participants. Individual participant data were available from 4 datasets with a total of 56 participants. Mixed-effects meta-regression modelling confirmed that IL-6 varied across the day, the most conspicuous effect being a trough in the morning. These results stand in contrast to earlier findings of a peak in the evening or night, and suggest that diurnal variation should be taken into account in order to avoid confounding by time of day in studies of IL-6 in plasma or serum.

  • 27.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Renberg, Adam
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Tamm, Sandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Health at the ballot box: disease threat does not predict attractiveness preference in British politicians2016In: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 3, article id 160049Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to disease avoidance theory, selective pressures have shaped adaptive behaviours to avoid people who might transmit infections. Such behavioural immune defence strategies may have social and societal consequences. Attractiveness is perceived as a heuristic cue of good health, and the relative importance of attractiveness is predicted to increase during high disease threat. Here, we investigated whether politicians' attractiveness is more important for electoral success when disease threat is high, in an effort to replicate earlier findings from the USA. We performed a cross-sectional study of 484 members of the House of Commons from England and Wales. Publicly available sexiness ratings (median 5883 ratings/politician) were regressed on measures of disease burden, operationalized as infant mortality, life expectancy and self-rated health. Infant mortality in parliamentary constituencies did not significantly predict sexiness of elected members of parliament (p = 0.08), nor did life expectancy (p = 0.06), nor self-rated health (p = 0.55). Subsample analyses failed to provide further support for the hypothesis. In conclusion, an attractive leader effect was not amplified by disease threat in the UK and these results did not replicate those of earlier studies from the USA concerning the relationship between attractiveness, disease threat and voting preference.

  • 28.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Tamm, Sandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    D'Onofrio, Paolo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Schwarz, Johanna F. A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Fischer, Frida M.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Effect of partial sleep deprivation on self-rated health and sickness2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Tamm, Sandra
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    D'Onofrio, Paolo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Detection of facial mimicry by electromyography during fMRI scanning2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated whether electromyography (EMG) could be used to detect facial mimicry during fMRI scanning.

    EMG activity in the superciliary corrugator muscle increased when participants viewed angry faces.

  • 30.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Tamm, Sandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    D'Onofrio, Paolo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Thuné, Hanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Schwarz, Johanna F A
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Petrovic, P
    Fischer, H
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Effect of partial sleep deprivation on empathy for pain in an fMRI experiment2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Tamm, Sandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    D'Onofrio, Paolo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Thuné, Hanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Schwarz, Johanna F A
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Petrovic, P
    Fischer, Håkan
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Effect of partial sleep deprivation on empathy for pain in an fMRI experiment2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Tamm, Sandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Golkar, A.
    Gospic, K.
    Olsson, A.
    Ingvar, Martin
    Petrovic, P.
    Pharmacological modulation of empathy using Oxazepam2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Tamm, Sandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Golkar, Armita
    Sörman, Karolina
    Howner, Katarina
    Kristiansson, Marianne
    Olsson, Andreas
    Ingvar, Martin
    Petrovic, Predrag
    Effects of 25 mg oxazepam on emotional mimicry and empathy for pain: a randomized controlled experiment2017In: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 4, no 3, article id 160607Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emotional mimicry and empathy are mechanisms underlying social interaction. Benzodiazepines have been proposed to inhibit empathy and promote antisocial behaviour. First, we aimed to investigate the effects of oxazepam on emotional mimicry and empathy for pain, and second, we aimed to investigate the association of personality traits to emotional mimicry and empathy. Participants (n= 76) were randomized to 25mg oxazepam or placebo. Emotional mimicry was examined using video clips with emotional expressions. Empathy was investigated by pain stimulating the participant and a confederate. We recorded self-rated experience, activity in major zygomatic and superciliary corrugator muscles, skin conductance, and heart rate. In the mimicry experiment, oxazepam inhibited corrugator activity. In the empathy experiment, oxazepam caused increased self-rated unpleasantness and skin conductance. However, oxazepam specifically inhibited neither emotional mimicry nor empathy for pain. Responses in both experiments were associated with self-rated empathic, psychopathic and alexithymic traits. The present results do not support a specific effect of 25mg oxazepam on emotional mimicry or empathy.

  • 34.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Tamm, Sandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Månsson, Kristoffer N. T.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Leukocyte telomere length and hippocampus volume: a meta-analysis [version 1; referees: 2 approved]2015In: F1000 Research, E-ISSN 2046-1402, Vol. 4, article id 1073Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Leukocyte telomere length has been shown to correlate to hippocampus volume, but effect estimates differ in magnitude and are not uniformly positive. This study aimed primarily to investigate the relationship between leukocyte telomere length and hippocampus gray matter volume by meta-analysis and secondarily to investigate possible effect moderators. Five studies were included with a total of 2107 participants, of which 1960 were contributed by one single influential study. A random-effects meta-analysis estimated the effect to r = 0.12 [95% CI -0.13, 0.37] in the presence of heterogeneity and a subjectively estimated moderate to high risk of bias. There was no evidence that apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype was an effect moderator, nor that the ratio of leukocyte telomerase activity to telomere length was a better predictor than leukocyte telomere length for hippocampus volume. This meta-analysis, while not proving a positive relationship, also is not able to disprove the earlier finding of a positive correlation in the one large study included in analyses. We propose that a relationship between leukocyte telomere length and hippocamus volume may be mediated by transmigrating monocytes which differentiate into microglia in the brain parenchyma.

  • 35.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Tamm, Sandra
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Almeida, Rita
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Fransson, Peter
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Intrinsic brain connectivity after partial sleep deprivation in young and older adults2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Sleep deprivation has been reported to affect intrinsic brain connectivity, notably in the default mode network, but studies to date have shown inconsistent effects and have largely included young participants. We therefore aimed to investigate effects of partial sleep deprivation on intrinsic brain connectivity in young and older participants. Methods: Participants aged 20-30 (n = 30) and 65-75 (n = 23) years underwent partial sleep deprivation (3 h sleep) in a cross-over design, with two eyes-open resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) runs in each session. We assessed intrinsic brain connectivity using independent components analysis (ICA) as well as seed-region analyses of functional connectivity, and also analysed global signal variability, regional homogeneity, and the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations. Participants were monitored with eye-tracking to ensure they did not fall asleep during scanning. Results: Sleep deprivation caused increased global signal variability, defined as log-transformed standard deviation of average gray matter signal (0.16 [0.07, 0.24], p = 0.0004). In contrast to previous studies, sleep deprivation did not cause major changes in investigated resting state networks, nor did it cause changes in regional homogeneity. Younger participants had higher functional connectivity in most examined resting state networks, as well as higher regional homogeneity in brain areas including anterior and posterior cingulate cortex. Conclusions: We show for the first time that partial sleep deprivation caused increased global signal variability. This outcome should be examined as a potential biomarker for sleepiness using independent data. Unlike a few earlier studies, we did not find less default mode connectivity in the sleep deprived state, possibly because of stricter monitoring of participants' wakefulness.

  • 36.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Tamm, Sandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Almeida, Rita
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Fransson, Peter
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Intrinsic brain connectivity after partial sleep deprivation in young and older adults: results from the Stockholm Sleepy Brain study2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 9422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep deprivation has been reported to affect intrinsic brain connectivity, notably reducing connectivity in the default mode network. Studies to date have however shown inconsistent effects, in many cases lacked monitoring of wakefulness, and largely included young participants. We investigated effects of sleep deprivation on intrinsic brain connectivity in young and older participants. Participants aged 20–30 (final n = 30) and 65–75 (final n = 23) years underwent partial sleep deprivation (3 h sleep) in a cross-over design, with two 8-minutes eyes-open resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) runs in each session, monitored by eye-tracking. We assessed intrinsic brain connectivity using independent components analysis (ICA) as well as seed-region analyses of functional connectivity, and also analysed global signal variability, regional homogeneity, and the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations. Sleep deprivation caused increased global signal variability. Changes in investigated resting state networks and in regional homogeneity were not statistically significant. Younger participants had higher connectivity in most examined networks, as well as higher regional homogeneity in areas including anterior and posterior cingulate cortex. In conclusion, we found that sleep deprivation caused increased global signal variability, and we speculate that this may be caused by wake-state instability.

  • 37.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Tamm, Sandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Sörman, Karolina
    Golkar, Armita
    Gospic, Katarina
    Kristiansson, Marianne
    Olsson, Andreas
    Ingvar, Martin
    Petrovic, Predrag
    Psychopathic traits and the representation of others’ emotional states2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska institutet, Sverige .
    Willén, Rebecca
    Öppen data kan öka kunskapsmassan och motverka fusk2016In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 113, no 47, p. 1-2, article id ECLUArticle in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Öppna data från kliniska prövningar och andra studier gör det möjligt att utvinna mer kunskap, minskar risken för snedvridning (bias) och kan motverka fusk.

    Krav på öppna data ställs nu av EU liksom av flera forskningsfinansiärer och vetenskapliga tidskrifter.

    Meritsättning av öppna data är en delvis olöst utmaning.

  • 39.
    Radun, Igor
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Radun, Jenni
    Helgesson, Gert
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Company employees as experimental participants in traffic safety research: Prevalence and implications2019In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 60, p. 81-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of company employees as experimental participants when testing products, technology or paradigms developed by the same company raises questions about bias in results and research ethics. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of studies authored by car company researchers with car company employees as participants, to assess the risk of bias in such studies, to investigate journal editors’ opinions in the field of traffic safety regarding these procedures, and to offer a general discussion about ethical and methodological implications. Three types of data were collected. We (i) examined guidelines and recommendations for authors in eleven selected peer-reviewed journals in the area of traffic safety; (ii) surveyed editors of these journals; and (iii) reviewed articles authored by researchers from a selected group of car manufacturers and published in these journals during 2011–2015. Guidelines and recommendations for authors in the included journals did not mention whether and under what circumstances company employees can be research participants, nor did publishers’ general guidelines. However, three out of the four editors who responded to our survey believed that this issue of private company researchers using participants from the same company deserves to be explicitly addressed in their journal’s guide for authors. The total number of regular articles and conference papers during 2011–2015 in the eleven journals reviewed was 6763; 95 (1.4%) listed at least one car manufacturer in the authors’ affiliations; and out of these, nine included company employees as participants. In summary, company employees are seldom (0.13%) used as research participants in traffic safety research. Nevertheless, the use of company employees as research participants raises questions about bias in results as well as about incursions into the participants’ autonomy.

  • 40. Szulkin, Adam
    et al.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Mundt, Filip
    Wasik, Agata M.
    Souri, Pega
    Hjerpe, Anders
    Dobra, Katalin
    Variation in Drug Sensitivity of Malignant Mesothelioma Cell Lines with Substantial Effects of Selenite and Bortezomib, Highlights Need for Individualized Therapy2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 6, article id e65903Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Malignant mesothelioma cells have an epithelioid or sarcomatoid morphology, both of which may be present in the same tumor. The sarcomatoid phenotype is associated with worse prognosis and heterogeneity of mesothelioma cells may contribute to therapy resistance, which is often seen in mesothelioma. This study aimed to investigate differences in sensitivity between mesothelioma cell lines to anti-cancer drugs. We studied two novel drugs, selenite and bortezomib and compared their effect to four conventional drugs. We also investigated the immunoreactivity of potential predictive markers for drug sensitivity; Pgp, MRP-1, ERCC1, RRM1, TS, xCT and proteasome 20S subunit. Materials and methods: We treated six mesothelioma cell lines with selenite, bortezomib, carboplatin, pemetrexed, doxorubicin or gemcitabine as single agents and in combinations. Viability was measured after 24 and 48 hours. Immunocytochemistry was used to detect predictive markers. Results: As a single agent, selenite was effective on four out of six cell lines, and in combination with bortezomib yielded the greatest response in the studied mesothelioma cell lines. Cells with an epithelioid phenotype were generally more sensitive to the different drugs than the sarcomatoid cells. Extensive S-phase arrest was seen in pemetrexed-sensitive cell lines. MRP-1 predicted sensitivity of cell lines to treatment with carboplatin and xCT predicted pemetrexed effect. Conclusions: The observed heterogeneity in sensitivity of mesothelioma cell lines with different morphology highlights the need for more individualized therapy, requiring development of methods to predict drug sensitivity of individual tumors. Selenite and bortezomib showed a superior effect compared to conventional drugs, motivating clinical testing of these agents as future treatment regime components for patients with malignant mesothelioma.

  • 41. Sörman, Karolina
    et al.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Howner, Katarina
    Tamm, Sandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Caman, Shilan
    Wang, Hui-Xin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Ingvar, Martin
    Edens, John F.
    Gustavsson, Petter
    Lilienfeld, Scott O.
    Petrovic, Predrag
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Kristiansson, Marianne
    Reliability and Construct Validity of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised in a Swedish Non-Criminal Sample: A Multimethod Approach including Psychophysiological Correlates of Empathy for Pain2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 6, article id e0156570Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-cultural investigation of psychopathy measures is important for clarifying the nomological network surrounding the psychopathy construct. The Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R) is one of the most extensively researched self-report measures of psychopathic traits in adults. To date however, it has been examined primarily in North American criminal or student samples. To address this gap in the literature, we examined PPI-R’s reliability, construct validity and factor structure in non-criminal individuals (N = 227) in Sweden, using a multimethod approach including psychophysiological correlates of empathy for pain. PPI-R construct validity was investigated in subgroups of participants by exploring its degree of overlap with (i) the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV), (ii) self-rated empathy and behavioral and physiological responses in an experiment on empathy for pain, and (iii) additional self-report measures of alexithymia and trait anxiety. The PPI-R total score was significantly associated with PCL:SV total and factor scores. The PPI-R Coldheartedness scale demonstrated significant negative associations with all empathy subscales and with rated unpleasantness and skin conductance responses in the empathy experiment. The PPI-R higher order Self-Centered Impulsivity and Fearless Dominance dimensions were associated with trait anxiety in opposite directions (positively and negatively, respectively). Overall, the results demonstrated solid reliability (test-retest and internal consistency) and promising but somewhat mixed construct validity for the Swedish translation of the PPI-R.

  • 42.
    Tamm, Sandra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    D'Onofrio, Paolo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Thuné, Hanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Schwarz, Johanna F A
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Petrovic, P
    Fischer, H
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Effect of partial sleep deprivation on empathy for pain in an fMRI experiment.2014In: SFSS (Svensk Förening för Sömnforskning och Sömnmedicin) Årskongress 5-7 Maj 2014, Stockholm, Sweden, Stockholm: Svensk förening för sömnforskning och sömnmedicin , 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Tamm, Sandra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    D'Onofrio, Paolo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Thuné, Hanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Petrovic, P.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Effect of partial sleep deprivation on empathy for pain in an fMRI experiment2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Tamm, Sandra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Golkar, Armita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Petrovic, Predrag
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Sleep restriction caused impaired emotional regulation without detectable brain activation changes—a functional magnetic resonance imaging study2019In: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 6, no 3, article id 181704Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep restriction has been proposed to cause impaired emotional processing and emotional regulation by inhibiting top-down control from prefrontal cortex to amygdala. Intentional emotional regulation after sleep restriction has, however, never been studied using brain imaging. We aimed here to investigate the effect of partial sleep restriction on emotional regulation through cognitive reappraisal. Forty-seven young (age 20–30) and 33 older (age 65–75) participants (38/23 with complete data and successful sleep intervention) performed a cognitive reappraisal task during fMRI after a night of normal sleep and after restricted sleep (3 h). Emotional downregulation was associated with significantly increased activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (pFWE < 0.05) and lateral orbital cortex (pFWE < 0.05) in young, but not in older subjects. Sleep restriction was associated with a decrease in self-reported regulation success to negative stimuli (p< 0.01) and a trend towards perceiving all stimuli as less negative (p = 0.07) in young participants. No effects of sleep restriction on brain activity nor connectivity were found in either age group. In conclusion, our data do not support the idea of a prefrontal-amygdala disconnect after sleep restriction, and neural mechanisms underlying behavioural effects on emotional regulation after insufficient sleep require further investigation.

  • 45. Tamm, Sandra
    et al.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Lamm, Claus
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Petrovic, Predrag
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    It hurts me too – an fMRI study of the effects of sleep restriction and age on empathy for pain2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Many emotional processes are affected by sleep restriction (Beattie et al. 2015). Whether this is likewise true for social emotions, such as empathy, is not known. Empathy for pain has previously been studied using paradigms where subjects are presented with pain in others or pictures of pain in others. These paradigms consistently activated areas in the anterior cingulate cortex and anterior insula. Aging affects both sleep (Vitiello 2012) and emotional functions (Mather 2012), but whether the role of sleep in emotional functioning is stable across age is not known. This study aims to investigate how neural and behavioral responses to pain in others are affected by sleep restriction and age, and whether age modulates the role of sleep in responses to pain in others.

    Methods: In a randomized cross-over experimental design, 47 healthy younger (age: 20-30) and 39 older (age: 65-75) volunteers underwent fMRI twice, after either normal sleep or sleep restricted to 3 hours. In an event-related fMRI task, participants viewed pictures of needles pricking a hand (pain condition) or Q-tips touching a hand (control condition), and reported their vicarious unpleasantness. Preprocessing and analyses were performed in SPM12 and included slice time correction, realignment, DARTEL normalization and smoothing with an 8x8x8 FWHM kernel. First level analyses included fixed effects for events, motion parameters and button presses. At second level a full factorial design was applied. Additional region of interest analyses were performed in anterior insula and anterior cingulate cortex.

    Results: The contrast pain > control robustly activated anterior cingulate cortex and anterior insula (FWE p < 0.05, fig 1) as well as other areas previously proposed as the core empathy for pain network (Lamm et al. 2011). Older participants generally experienced more unpleasantness in response to pictures of pain compared to younger participants (p < 0.001), and this was accompanied by higher activity in bilateral angular gyrus (FWE p < 0.05). Age and sleep interacted so that sleep restriction caused decreased unpleasantness in young and increased unpleasantness in old to pain stimuli (p < 0.01), even though there was no significant simple main effect of sleep restriction in any age group. In clusters in bilateral insula, old participants showed more activity and young less activity in response to pain after sleep restriction (p < 0.001 uncorrected).

    Conclusions: Compared to younger participants, older subjects generally responded more to pain in others, shown as subjective experience as well as brain responses. With sleep restriction, empathic responses in young and old changed in opposite directions, so that empathic responses increased in older and decreased in younger participants. Given that empathy is crucial in effective interaction with others, our findings imply possible age-related changes in prosocial behavior, amplified by short sleep.

  • 46.
    Tamm, Sandra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Nilssone, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lamm, Claus
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Radboud Universiteit, Netherlands.
    Petrovic, Predrag
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    The effect of sleep restriction on empathy for pain: An fMRI study in younger and older adults2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 12236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Age and sleep both affect emotional functioning. Since sleep patterns change over the lifespan, we investigated the effects of short sleep and age on empathic responses. In a randomized cross-over experimental design, healthy young and older volunteers (n = 47 aged 20–30 years and n = 39 aged 65–75 years) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) after normal sleep or night sleep restricted to 3 hours. During fMRI, participants viewed pictures of needles pricking a hand (pain) or Q-tips touching a hand (control), a well-established paradigm to investigate empathy for pain. There was no main effect of sleep restriction on empathy. However, age and sleep interacted so that sleep restriction caused increased unpleasantness in older but not in young participants. Irrespective of sleep condition, older participants showed increased activity in angular gyrus, superior temporal sulcus and temporo-parietal junction compared to young. Speculatively, this could indicate that the older individuals adopted a more cognitive approach in response to others’ pain. Our findings suggest that caution in generalizability across age groups is needed in further studies of sleep on social cognition and emotion.

  • 47.
    Thuné, Hanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Tamm, Sandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    D'Onofrio, Paolo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Schwarz, Johanna F A
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Effects of partial sleep deprivation on the neural mechanisms of face perception2014In: Journal of Sleep Research, Special issue: abstracts of the 22nd Congress of the European Sleep Research Society, 16–20 September 2014, Tallinn, Estonia, Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2014, p. 245-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 48. Willén, Rebecca
    et al.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sverige.
    Psykologin i framkant för öppen vetenskap2017In: Psykologtidningen, ISSN 0280-9702, no 3, p. 28-31Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppmärksamheten kring tvivelaktig forskning har lett till ökade krav på transparens genom hela forskningsprocessen. Psykologin har tagit ledningen för att genomdriva förändringar, skriver forskarna Rebecca Willén och Gustav Nilsonne, som ger en introduktion till öppen vetenskap (open science) och sammanfattar de främsta kraven som nu börjat ställas på vetenskaplig kvalitet.

  • 49.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    d'Onofrio, Paolo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Gruber, G.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Women sleep better and have a stronger response to late night curtailed sleep than men, particularly in older individuals - effects on polysomnographical sleep2016In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 25, p. 156-156, article id P206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Higher age is associated with poorer sleep and women report more sleep problems than men, despite indications of better physiological sleep. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether a common daily life sleep problem, late night curtailed sleep, would have different effects depending on gender and age. Methods: 60 healthy individuals (equal groups of gender and age (20–30 and 65–75 years)) participated in an experiment with a full night’s sleep and one night with reduced sleep between 0400 h and 0700 h, in a balanced design. Sleep was recorded through standard polysomnography (PSG) at home. Results: The results showed the expected main effect of sleep loss. Older participants had a lower TST, N3%, sleep efficiency, but more N1%, longer N3 latency, and fewer awakenings. Women had more N3%, more REM%, more N3%, and shorter N3 latency compared with men. The curtailed late night sleep caused a stronger increase in N3%, and more pronounced reductions in REM%, a stronger reduction in N1%, and N3 latency in women than men. In the higher age group the N3% response in men was strongly attenuated compared to that of women. Conclusions: The results show that women, apart form getting more N3% and less N1% even in the normal sleep condition, have a stronger response to late night sleep, particularly in higher age groups.

  • 50.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Tamm, S.
    d'Onofrio, Paolo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Petrovic, P.
    Månsson, Kristoffer N.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Gray Matter Volume Correlates Of Sleepiness: A Voxel-based Morphometry Study In Younger And Older Adults2018In: Sleep, ISSN 0161-8105, E-ISSN 1550-9109, Vol. 41, p. A58-A58, article id 0149Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Sleepiness is prevalent in society, often linked to disturbed sleep, shift work, stress, or diseases. It is also associated with an increased risk of accidents. Sleepiness may be related to brain metabolism and, we hypothesize that it is associated with brain gray matter (GM) volume. The present study investigated the association between sleepiness and GM volume in thalamus and insula, with a special focus on age, since both sleepiness and GM volume change with age.

    Methods: In all, 84 healthy individuals participated in the experiment, of which 46 were in the age range 20–30 years and 38 ranging between 65–75 years. Data was collected in a 3 T scanner during a 5 minute anatomical scan (first in a several sessions in the scanner) in the evening after a full night of sleep. Momentary sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale) was rated 7 times during the time in the scanner.

    Results: Results showed that, in older, relative to younger adults, areas within bilateral insular cortex and thalamus GM regions of interest were negatively associated (FWE-corrected) with sleepiness (Z=4.02, p=.015 left insula and Z=4.42, p=.009 for right insula; Z=3.75, p=.020 for left thalamus and Z=4.60, p=.001 for right thalamus). Larger volume was associated with low sleepiness in the older group, but not in the older group. The effect in the insula was mainly present in the mid-anterior parts of the structure.. In addition, after applying a conservative small volume correction including all ROIs simultaneously, age-interaction effects remained significant.

    Conclusion: It was concluded that self-rated momentary sleepiness in a monotonous situation is negatively associated with GM volume in areas within both thalamus and insula in older individuals. The results are in line with notions of thalamus as a driver of arousal and of anterior insula as a structure evaluating the state of the organism. Possibly, a larger GM volume in these structures may be protective against sleepiness in older individuals, a hypothesis that needs confirmation in further studies.

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