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  • 1. Adolfsson Boman, Marianne
    et al.
    Eriksson, Inger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Hverven, Mona
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Jansson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Tambour, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Att introducera likhetstecken i ett algebraiskt sammanhang för elever i årskurs 12013In: Forskning om undervisning och lärande, ISSN 2000-9674, E-ISSN 2001-6131, no 10, p. 29-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Artikeln bygger på data från forsknings- och utvecklingsprojektet (FoU) ”Utveckling av matematiskt tänkande – expanderande uppgifter i nybörjarundervisningen” där lärare från Skärsätra skola tillsammans med forskare från Stockholms universitet genomförde ett undervisningsexperiment i syfte att introducera algebra i nybörjarundervisningen.

  • 2. Berthén, Diana
    et al.
    Eriksson, Inger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Emerging educational action?: BA-Thesis work in maritime higher education2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The issue of this paper is related to those students’ who enrols the higher education in Maritime Studies at the Åland University of Applied Sciences (ÅUAS) but has problem getting their bachelor degree du to uncompleted thesis work.

     

    The R&D project, here referred to, was initiated by ÅUAS in order to help out some of those students that had left the school without a full exam. Further the aim of the project was to help the teachers to develop a better competence to supervise students’ thesis work. It was not only a problem for the school that several students did not complete their bachelor degree. This was also a problem for the shipping companies since there is a shortage of fully educated master mariners (e.g. Captain). For the drop-out students this was a personal problem in relation to what jobs they could apply for. Realising the problem the ÅUAS had tried to improve the education in different way. The thesis work was thus talked about as an important part of the education; an educational action that played a central role in the educational programme.

     

    The R&D-project was sectioned into two sub-projects. The first sub-project was conducted as an investigation where we tried to get a picture of the problem from the students as well as from the teachers’ perspective. The second sub-project (e.g. the main project) was formed as an intervention divided into three parts. The first was arranged as a series of tutorial sessions where one maritime teacher (subject supervisor) and the interventionist (supervisor of the supervisor) could collaborate in order to help the drop-out student to fulfil his (it was only male students) thesis work. The second part was arranged as a formal in-service course focusing thesis work and supervision. The third part was aiming the organisation of the thesis work.

     

    In the beginning of the R&D-project the teachers and the management ascribed the problem as on the one hand related to AKADEMISERINGEN that had led to a thesis work was og no use for their coming carrier as master mariners, and on the other to students’ lack of motivation, and laziness.

     

    During the investigative sub-project an other picture was growing. The interviews with the students’ gave indications of an education where the thesis work had only a peripheral position. Firstly, the timetabled time was made in relation to free periods and some occasional days spread over three semesters. Secondly, this time was also used when extra time was needed. The students did not always know who their supervisor was and the supervision was not timetabled. The student often felt that asking for help was to burdening the teachers.

     

    These issues that the students where signalling has been focused in the D&R-project both in discussions with the management and in seminars with the teachers. There are still a lot of organisational obstacles e.g. concerning the timetabeling. But, there are indications that the teachers are starting to see the thesis work as core part (and meaningful) of the education. And in addition they have started to address the management with requests of time, both scheduled time with the students and time where the teachers can develop their supervision together as a team. Thus, we can se how the R&D-project has led to an emerging central educational action. An action that perhaps will prevent other students to drop-out due to being left to them self to accomplish a thesis on their spear time beside the regular course.

     

     

     

    @font-face { font-family: "Times"; }@font-face { font-family: "Cambria"; }p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal { margin: 0cm 0cm 0.0001pt; font-size: 12pt; font-family: "Times New Roman"; }div.Section1 { page: Section1; }

    The issue of this paper is related to those students’ who enrols the higher education in Maritime Studies at the Åland University of Applied Sciences (ÅUAS) but has problem getting their bachelor degree du to uncompleted thesis work.

     

    The R&D project, here referred to, was initiated by ÅUAS in order to help out some of those students that had left the school without a full exam. Further the aim of the project was to help the teachers to develop a better competence to supervise students’ thesis work. It was not only a problem for the school that several students did not complete their bachelor degree. This was also a problem for the shipping companies since there is a shortage of fully educated master mariners (e.g. Captain). For the drop-out students this was a personal problem in relation to what jobs they could apply for. Realising the problem the ÅUAS had tried to improve the education in different way. The thesis work was thus talked about as an important part of the education; an educational action that played a central role in the educational programme.

     

    The R&D-project was sectioned into two sub-projects. The first sub-project was conducted as an investigation where we tried to get a picture of the problem from the students as well as from the teachers’ perspective. The second sub-project (e.g. the main project) was formed as an intervention divided into three parts. The first was arranged as a series of tutorial sessions where one maritime teacher (subject supervisor) and the interventionist (supervisor of the supervisor) could collaborate in order to help the drop-out student to fulfil his (it was only male students) thesis work. The second part was arranged as a formal in-service course focusing thesis work and supervision. The third part was aiming the organisation of the thesis work.

     

    In the beginning of the R&D-project the teachers and the management ascribed the problem as on the one hand related to AKADEMISERINGEN that had led to a thesis work was og no use for their coming carrier as master mariners, and on the other to students’ lack of motivation, and laziness.

     

    During the investigative sub-project an other picture was growing. The interviews with the students’ gave indications of an education where the thesis work had only a peripheral position. Firstly, the timetabled time was made in relation to free periods and some occasional days spread over three semesters. Secondly, this time was also used when extra time was needed. The students did not always know who their supervisor was and the supervision was not timetabled. The student often felt that asking for help was to burdening the teachers.

     

    These issues that the students where signalling has been focused in the D&R-project both in discussions with the management and in seminars with the teachers. There are still a lot of organisational obstacles e.g. concerning the timetabeling. But, there are indications that the teachers are starting to see the thesis work as core part (and meaningful) of the education. And in addition they have started to address the management with requests of time, both scheduled time with the students and time where the teachers can develop their supervision together as a team. Thus, we can se how the R&D-project has led to an emerging central educational action. An action that perhaps will prevent other students to drop-out due to being left to them self to accomplish a thesis on their spear time beside the regular course.

     

     

     

     

     

  • 3.
    Carlgren, Ingrid
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Eriksson, Inger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Runesson, Ulla
    Learning study2017In: Undervisningsutvecklande forskning : exemplet Learning study / [ed] Ingrid Carlgren, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2017, p. 17-30Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Undervisningens kvalitet och hur den ska förbättras har kommit i fokus i debatten om skolan. Ofta diskuteras generella lösningar, till exempel att lärarnas förväntningar på eleverna måste höjas. Undervisning har emellertid alltid ett konkret innehåll och genomförs med specifika grupper av elever. Därför måste förbättring av undervisning alltid utgå från såväl det specifika innehållet som de specifika eleverna.

    Undervisning är lärares professionella verksamhet. Den kan inte standardiseras eller mekaniseras utan måste planeras och genomföras i relation till och i interaktion med den specifika kontexten. I detta arbete behöver lärare kunskaper och teoretiska redskap för att problematisera, analysera och utveckla verksamheten.

    En långsiktig och hållbar utveckling av lärarnas professionella kunskapsbas förutsätter en stegvis och systematisk kunskapsutveckling. I den här boken visas hur en lärardriven och praktiknära forskning kan bidra till att utveckla kunskaper och redskap som kan utveckla undervisningen. Författarna ger exempel på hur forskning kan bidra till att belysa undervisning och lärande på ett sätt som har direkt relevans för lärarnas undervisning.

  • 4. Eriksson, Helena
    et al.
    Eriksson, Inger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Matematik som teoretiskt arbete - utveckling av matematiska modeller för rationella tal i åk 42016In: Forskning om undervisning och lärande, ISSN 2000-9674, E-ISSN 2001-6131, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 6-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The teaching of rational numbers to young students (grade 4-6) is known to be difficult. It is for instance difficult for students to understand that fractions and decimal numbers may represent the same value, or that fraction has a specific place on the number line, i.e. that it is a number among other numbers. The purpose of this article is to discuss and exemplify how students can be involved in a theoretical exploration of fractions as numbers. The basis of the students’ exploration was a designed situation where they were to make measurements of wooden rods where the measurements did not make an equal, i.e. “a little bit” was missing. With these measurements students in joint discussions were able to design a general model for fractions. Such a model could be used as a tool in discussions of “the whole” and “its parts” in fractions. The article is based on data from a series of Learning studies conducted in a grade 4 in an intercultural school in 2012-2013.

  • 5.
    Eriksson, Inger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Analysing vocational knowing with help of learning studies2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The issue of this presentation is to discuss how learning study can function as a tool for expanding a didactical understanding of theoretical and practical aspects of knowing. By tradition much vocational knowing is described and perceived in dichotomised terms as practical or theoretical. Taking an activity theoretical perspective (CHAT) this type of dichotomies is problematic since knowledge is seen as developed and used in a specific activity or practice. Thus, knowing must be regarded as complex, multi facetted (multi-voiced) and situational where, theoretical aspects are built into artefacts as professional language, models, and of course physical tools ect. Knowing how to use, value and assess (and develop) the practice-specific artefacts is demanding both a “theoretical” and “practical” knowing. In this presentation this issues will be discussed in relation to an example from a learning study in home economics where students knowing of how to prepare a cold emulsion (exemplified as mayonnaise) where focused.

    Learning study is a teacher led model developed to improve teaching practices in a way that enhances students learning. The model is interventionist– aiming to develop teaching and it is iterative – consisting of repeated analysis, design, evaluation and revisions of a lesson. Further, the model has a special focus on how the content is treated by teachers and students in the on-going classroom interactions, how tools are used and what subject specific content is made available for the students. The core of a learning study is the so-called ‘object of learning’ (OL). The object of learning needs to be identified and analysed both in relation to the historically and culturally developed knowing (in this case cold emulsions) and students’ actual understanding of the targeted knowledge. This identification and analysis is led by questions as: what in the targeted knowing is difficult for the students to understand and master? What do students understand and perhaps misunderstand? What knowing is built into the tools and rules? What do a knowledgeable person master and how?

    If the research and development is focusing the meaning of knowing and the relation between practical and theoretical aspects of knowing the identification and analysis of an OL can help teachers and researchers to develop subject specific didactical knowledge. In order to understand the knowing embedded in i.e. making a cold emulsion the students simultaneously need to master both the manual tools as well as the theoretical principles of a cold emulsion.

  • 6.
    Eriksson, Inger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Constitution of Objects in DWR Activity2015In: Contemporary Approaches to Activity Theory.: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Human Behavior / [ed] Hansson, Thomas, Hershey, PA: IGI Global, 2015Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A shared research object between teachers and researchers in Developmental Work Research (DWR) aims at development of teaching practices and forming of subject-specific knowledge. Currently, design experiments, action research, and formative interventions are used in educational research. A multitude of approaches show an overarching interest in developing teaching and learning practices. Action research and formative interventions include and empower teachers. However, in many DWR projects, teachers and researchers have different objects. In a tradition where teachers are regarded as learners, a shared research object is of interest. This chapter problematizes the relationship between teachers and researchers with the help of three DWR projects. It is challenging to establish a DWR project in which teachers and researchers aim at realising the same object. However, when this is a case, such projects may contribute to new knowledge that enhances student learning and educational, clinical, and subject-matter research.

  • 7.
    Eriksson, Inger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Cultural tools as didactical tool in planning for a learning activity2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I want to address issues related the possibility to use culturally developed tools as a mean to design potential learning tasks in evolving learning activities that can enhance vocational specific ways of mathematical knowing.

    The concept of learning activity is often discussed in relation to the mathematical programme developed by Davydov and his colleagues (Davydov, 2008). Within a curricular program, such as that of Davydov, discussions concerning learning activity are likely to appear rather as a general educational model than as a subject specific intermediate theory to be used to by teachers to design different teaching situations referring to relevant vocational practices. In Sweden national curriculum (on all levels) is formed in a way that requires teachers to design their teaching so that students can develop different subject/vocational specific competences. Learning activity, with its focus on students’ agency and theoretical development seems to be a powerful didactical tool but there is little to support teachers in how to analyse and develop curriculum content and from that analysis design learning tasks (around which a learning activity can develop). Anna Stetsenko an d Igor Arievitch, with references to Vygotsky and Gal’perin, open up for such a pathway in their discussion on how analysis of specific cultural tools in terms of their cultural and historical development and practical use can function as a starting point in the design of such learning tasks.

    What are the possibilities to design content rich learning tasks based on analysis of which mathematical tools are used in different vocational practices? What similarities and differences can be found in how mathematical tools are used in those vocational practices? What specific ways of knowing are embedded in the mastery of those tools?

  • 8.
    Eriksson, Inger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Delad kompetens i gymnasiesärskolans berättelseskrivande – ett sociokulturellt perspektiv på lärande och utveckling2017Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här artikeln syftar till att kunna fungera som ett diskussionsunderlag för lärare i arbetet med att utveckla elevers förmåga till berättelseskrivande. Utifrån ett sociokulturellt perspektiv och framför allt Vygotskijs arbete presenteras och diskuteras några möjliga konsekvenser för hur undervisning kan organiseras, i syfte att optimera elevernas lärande. Vygotskij (1963, 2001) beskriver individers lärande som i första hand en fråga om att få tillgång till kulturellt utvecklade kunskaper.

  • 9.
    Eriksson, Inger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Designing teaching-learning practices with activity theory as a guiding tool: examples from a teacher-researcher DWR-project2013In: A Nordic perspectiveon the Cultural and the Activity approach in Theory and Practice / [ed] Hans Knutagård, Britt Krantz och Marie Jedemark (editors), 2013, p. 29-36Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Eriksson, Inger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Didactic Science and Early Childhood Education.
    Innehållet i fokus - kemiundervisning i finlandssvenska klassrum2010Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I flera jämförande internationella studier hamnar de finska eleverna i toppen. I denna forskningsrapport studeras kemiundervisningen i finlandssvenska klassrum utifrån bl.a. klassrumsobservationer. Rapporten består av sex kapitel där författarna bl.a. tar upp följande frågor: Vad kännetecknar undervisningspraktiken i en finlandssvensk klass? Vilka texter används i klassrummet? Vad betraktas som viktig respektive mindre viktig kunskap? I ett av kapitlen analyseras vilka frågor läraren ställer till eleverna och vilken feedback som ges. I studien ingick fyra lärare, och i det avslutande kapitlet analyseras deras provkonstruktion och bedömningsarbete. Texterna vänder sig till alla som är intresserade av bedömningsfrågor, kunskapsfrågor, lärande och undervisning. Forskningsprojektet är finansierat av Vetenskapsrådet.

  • 11.
    Eriksson, Inger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Kemiundervisning, text och textbruk i finlandssvenska och svenska skolor: en komparativ tvärvetenskaplig studie2011Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vilka kemikunskaper prioriteras i svenska och finlandssvenska klassrum? Vilka kulturella skillnader i undervisningen kan utläsas? I denna forskningsrapport presenteras de huvudsakliga resultaten från forskningsprojektet Kemitexter som redskap för naturvetenskapligt lärande –en komparativ studie av undervisningspraktiker i svenska och finlandssvenska klassrum. Studien har bland annat tillkommit till följd av att finska elevers resultat är bland de främsta i flera jämförande internationella studier. Rapporten består av sju kapitel som alla på olika sätt analyserar videobandade klassrumsobservationer, intervjuer och texter från tre svenska och fyra finlandssvenska klassrum. De olika analyserna som presenteras i denna rapport avser att ge mångsidiga beskrivningar av hur ett specifikt naturvetenskapligt innehålltar form i undervisningen. Sammantaget ger texterna ett underlag för en fördjupad diskussion om vad som utgör skillnader och likheter i undervisningen i de två länderna. Texterna vänder sig till alla som är intresserade av frågor om undervisning, textbruk, kunskap, lärande och bedömning, med speciellt fokus på kemi. Forskningsprojektet har finansierats av Vetenskapsrådet.

  • 12.
    Eriksson, Inger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Lesson och Learning study: modeller för undervisningsutvecklande forskning2016In: Lesson Study i en nordisk kontekst / [ed] Bjørg Oddrun Hallås, Gerd Grimsæth, Oslo: Gyldendal Akademisk, 2016, p. 14-32Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I det här kapitlet diskuteras hur modellerna Lesson Study och Learning Study kan användas av lärare för ämnesdidaktisk (fagdidaktisk) undervisningsutvecklande forskning. Motivet till detta ligger framför allt i att den dominerande föreställningen är att pedagogisk och didaktisk forskning är en fråga för universitet och högskola och att lärare ska ta tillvara och tillämpa forskningsresultaten. Lärare ses således som kunskapskonsumenter. Den idag allt ökande användningen av Lesson Study och Learning Study motiveras också ofta som redskap för lärares lärande och/eller kollegialt lärande. Men båda modellerna kan också fungera som redskap för en ny typ av kvalificerad forskning som bedrivs i den praktik där problemen kan identifieras och lösningarna kan prövas. Frågor som diskuteras i kapitlet är: Vilken typ av ämnesdidaktiska kunskaper kan utvecklas i en Lesson eller Learning Study? Hur kan dessa kunskaper dokumenteras, granskas och spridas på ett sätt som motsvarar vetenskapliga krav?

  • 13.
    Eriksson, Inger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Lärandeverksamhet, lärandeuppgifter & lärandemodeller2018In: Att bli lärare / [ed] Eva Insulander, Staffan Selander, Stockholm: Liber, 2018, p. 160-165Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I det här kapitlet avser jag att översiktligt introducera ett ämnesdidaktiskt ramverk – lärandeverksamhet – som ännu inte är speciellt välkänt i Sverige bland lärare eller lärarutbildare. Principerna för lärandeverksamhet har utvecklats sedan 1950-talet under ledning av Daniil B El’konin och Vasily V Davydovs och i samarbete med lärare på Skola nr 91 i Moskva, principer som i väst presenteras under benämningen ”Developmental instruction” och ”Learning activity”. Jag gjorde mina tidigaste erfarenheter av El’konins och Davydovs arbete i början av 2000-talet. Sedan 2013 har jag i olika sammanhang samverkat med den forskargrupp i Moskva som fortsatt arbetet med att utveckla deras idéer i relation till olika ämnen. Jag har också haft förmånen att tillsammans med doktorander och forskarkollegor vid flera tillfällen besöka skola 91. I skrivandets stund utforskas denna modell vid några svenska skolor kopplat till olika doktorandprojekt.

  • 14.
    Eriksson, Inger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Lärandeverksamhet som redskap i en Learning study2017In: Undervisningsutvecklande forskning: exemplet Learning study / [ed] Ingrid Carlgren, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2017, p. 61-84Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Eriksson, Inger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Lärares medverkan i praktiknära forskning: Förutsättningar och hinder2018In: Utbildning och Lärande / Education and Learning, ISSN 2001-4554, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 27-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In contemporary society there is a growing idea of the importance of teachers’ participation in practice relevant research aiming for a science-based teaching. However, there is no clear common understanding of the meaning of teachers’ participation. The aim of the article is to contribute to the discussion such a meaning through an analysis of three collaborative practice-developing research projects. What conditions facilitate or prevent teachers’ participation as members of a research group? Besides time and support from the headmaster, the analysis indicates some important aspects: a) teachers need to be involved from the start, already in identifying the problem and in the overall research planning, b) especially the researchers must take responsibility for securing that teachers can cooperate as members of the research group on equal basis, bearing in mind that it is easy for teachers to positions themselves as learners and c) the research aim needs to be shared between teachers and researchers. Further, ethical issues need to be considered thoroughly, since e.g. aspects of anonymity are challenged if teachers’ contribution are to be acknowledged.

  • 16.
    Eriksson, Inger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Materializing students’ algebraic arguments in classroom discussion – a learning activity perspective2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    General description on research questions, objectives and theoretical framework

    Learning activity, is a special form activity within the activity theory tradition. It was first developed by El’konin and Davydov (Davydov, 2008). The underpinning cultural historical and activity theoretical principles give us an understanding that students in order to develop knowledge must be involved in a content rich activity where they can work theoretically with general (abstract) principles and structures of the object of knowledge (Chaiklin, 2002). Further, in order to realize a learning activity, students’ (and teacher’s) actions that forms the theoretical work, must be mediated by proper tools. But which tools can enable what type of knowledge?

    In mathematics for the youngest students, that I will discuss in this paper, there is a long tradition that advocate that it is of great importance to use tools that can help students to manipulate with the content in order to understand e.g. numbers – physical things like buttons, toys, fruit, etc. are often used to illustrate e.g. 4+5=. This is often talked about as concrete math-teaching supported by manipulatives. In El'konin and the Davydov program (ED), the main purpose is instead the opposite: to allow students to develop a theoretical understanding of mathematical knowledge (Davydov, 2008). In the ED-program subject specific learning models are used as mediating tools for students in their trying to grasp theoretical aspects of a specific content, e.g. a concept (Gorbov & Chudinova, 2000; Repkin, 2003; Zuckerman, 2004). Aspects that are difficult for students to grasp empirically.

    The issue for this paper is, thus, what function learning models can have in mathematical whole class discussions. What can be used as a learning model? And, how can the object of knowledge be elaborated with the help of learning models in whole-class discussions?

    Methods/methodology

    The paper is using data from several a research project[1] based on learning study as research approach (Carlgren, Eriksson & Runesson, 2017) where the aim was to develop tasks and learning models that could enhance students’ ability to reason algebraically. The research lessons was video-taped and transcribed and analyzed with the help of questions like: what in the planned situation do the students identify as a learning model and how do they use it? Do they transform the learning model and if so in what ways and for what purpose? What indicators can be identified of how the learning model facilitates the whole class discussions? What in the teachers actions, especially communicative actions, facilitate or hindrance in students discussions?

    Expected outcomes/preliminary results/implications

    In the analysis of the research lesson three functions of the learning models used in whole class discussions were identified. First, a learning model enables individuals to make his or her sometimes rather unclear verbal explanations much more comprehensible both for the student that puts forward an idea and for his or her classmates. Second, a learning model if it is available e.g. on the blackboard for the students' exploration, a verbal argument can be available to the group when the words are no longer heard. Third, the learning model itself can be transformed by the students (or by the teacher) in new ways. Such modelling can make other aspects of the content available.

    Further, the analysis also indicates that not only the construction of the learning model is demanding but also the way it is used in as a tool facilitating the classroom discussion.

    The construction requires a solid theoretical understanding of the subject. A theoretical structure is not always easy to identify and to find a way to transform such knowing into something that can function as a learning model for students can be even more demanding. In our cases we used learning models from the ED-program or let us be inspired by it (Davydov, Gorbov, Mikulina, & Saveleva, 2012). In addition, we have experienced that how the teacher act in the classroom is of great importance. One requirement, if a teaching situation will be established as a learning activity, is the teachers’ actions. The teacher cannot simply tell the student what to do, how to use the learning model or tell the students what the problem is. Instead, a learning activity will only be established if the students' experiences a need and a motive to solve the problem. A learning activity is thus is very fragile (Eriksson, 2017, Repkin, 2003).

    Concluding

    Materializing theoretical thinking helps the students to act with agency within a learning activity. In such learning activity abstract structures can be visualized and collaboratively explored.

  • 17.
    Eriksson, Inger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Didactic Science and Early Childhood Education.
    Mål i grundskolans tidigare år2007In: Mål för alla: perspektiv på nationella utbildningsmål för tidiga skolår / [ed] Skolverket, Stockholm: Skolverket , 2007, p. 199-221Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det svenska skolsystemets omstrukturering i slutet av 1900-talet resulterade bl.a. i ett nytt läroplansystem för grundskolan (Lpo94) och därmed också i ett nytt målsystem. Kärnan i det nya målsystemet är uppbyggt kring två typer av mål: mål att sträva mot och mål att uppnå. Målen att sträva mot anger vilka kunskapskvaliteter, utryckt i förmågor och förhållningssätt, som eleverna ska ha möjlighet att utveckla under grundskoletiden. Mål att uppnå ges för skolår 5 och 9 och ska användas för att kontrollera elevernas pågående kunskapsutveckling. Systemet med dubbla mål konstaterades tidigt skapa problem för skolorna. Ett av de främsta problemen handlade om att funktionerna med de båda måltyperna uttolkades på ett annat sätt än vad som avsetts.

    Syftet med föreliggande arbete är att ur ett pedagogiskt perspektiv utreda vilka möjliga konsekvenser för elevernas kunskapsutveckling ett införande av olika typer av mål för skolans lägre år kan medföra. Vad som kan utgöra möjliga konsekvenser för elevernas kunskapsutveckling diskuteras relativt det kunskapsperspektiv som präglar den svenska läroplanen.

    Arbetet kan främst betraktas som en litteraturstudie, där materialet å den ena sidan utgörs av nationella styrdokument i de nordiska länderna Danmark, Finland och Norge och i England och Nya Zeeland. Å den andra sidan utgörs materialet av forskning relaterat till frågor om läroplaner, mål samt olika jämförande studier som fokuserar läroplansfrågor. Analysen av målsystemen i de olika ländernas läroplaner har genomförts med hjälp av tre läroplansteoretiska modeller: den innehållsfokuserade, den resultatfokuserade och den process- och utvecklingsfokuserade. I de tre modellerna får mål för elevernas lärande olika funktion och betydelse.

    Olika läroplansmodeller har inbyggda antaganden om kunskap och lärande. För att ytterligare förstå olika målsystemen i olika läroplansmodeller behöver frågan om vad som betraktas som kunskap och lärande problematiseras. Carlgren (2006) hävdar att sättet att förstå kunskap och lärande har genomgått ett paradigmatiskt skifte från industrialismens (moderna) till dagens senmoderna skola. I den moderna skolan betraktades kunskap huvudsakligen som liktydigt med information (fakta). I skolan skulle man ges möjlighet att tillägna sig den kunskap som utvecklats på andra ställen i samhället – företrädelsevis vid universiteten. Att vara kunnig var det samma som att ha mycket kunskap. I en senmodern skola ses kunskap som utvecklat inom, och därmed invävt i, specifika verksamheter/praktiker. Att bli kunnig innebär en förmåga att behärska de redskap, kommunikationsmönster, normer och regler som karaktäriserar en specifik praktik.

    De danska, engelska och finska läroplanerna beskrivs som exempel på resultatfokuserade läroplaner. Den norska läroplanen kan med viss tvekan ses som ett exempel på en process- och utvecklingsfokuserad läroplan. Den nya zeeländska läroplanens kunskapsperspektiv och målsystem kan inte ses som exempel på någon av de tre läroplansmodellerna.

    Den svenska läroplanens kunskapsperspektiv och målsystem kan inte heller enkelt ses som ett exempel på någon av de tre läroplansmodellerna. Den har ett kunskapsperspektiv som är kännetecknande för en senmodern skola och den är helt klart inte innehållsfokuserad. Att se den som resultatfokuserad är inte heller självklart, men till viss del möjligt sett till målen att uppnå. Kunskapsperspektiv i Lpo94 gör det svårt att se den som ett exempel på en resultatfokuserad läroplan, t.ex. anges inte att vissa kunskaper utvecklas före andra eller att kunskap är något man kan ha mer eller mindre av. Snarare anger kunskapsperspektivet att för att man för att bli kunnig måste man ha möjligheter att delta i olika kunskapspraktiker (verksamheter). Genom deltagandet (ett guidat sådant) kan man bli allt mer kunnig. Lpo94 inte heller är enkel att se som en läroplan som fokuserar processer och barns utveckling. Läroplanen ger inga direkta anvisningar om arbetssätt och den saknar ett underliggande utvecklingspsykologiskt tänkande. Med beaktande av kunskapsperspektivet i den svenska läroplanen är det således problematisk att, som i en process- och utvecklingsfokuserad läroplan, utgå från att målen för utbildningen ska sättas lokalt och i relation till den enskilda individen.

    Lpo94, i likhet med den nya zeeländska läroplanen (och eventuellt den norska läroplanen), kan således inte ses som exempel på någon av de tre tidigare beskrivna läroplansmodellerna. Som komplement skisserades ytterligare en läroplansmodell – en kompetensfokuserad. I en sådan borde det å den ena sidan vara möjligt att formulera mål som är riktgivande (för verksamhetens utformning) utan att utformas som enkelt mätbara och hierarkiska. Å den andra borde en sådan läroplansmodell förmå beskriva kunskaper som praktikbundna (situationella och relationella). Elevernas kunnande borde kunna beskrivas i termer av (ämnes)specifika kompetenser.

    Nya mål att uppnå – Med ett antagande om att det svenska läroplanssystemet även i fortsättningen ska innehålla de båda måltyperna, mål att sträva mot och mål att uppnå, kan nya mål att uppnå utformas för skolår 2 eller 3. Därmed skulle läroplanssystemet omfatta mål att sträva mot som gäller för det sammantagna kunskapsuppdraget och mål att uppnå för att kontrollera riktningen och nivån på elevernas kunskapsutveckling vid tre tillfällen (skolår 2 eller 3, 5 och 9). Att utforma mål att uppnå för de tidigare skolåren inom ramen för nu gällande kunskapsperspektiv förutsätter att man kan identifiera och beskriva förväntade steg/nivåer i en önskad kunskapsutveckling.

    Det är inte oproblematiskt att skapa nya mål eftersom kunskapsperspektivet i t.ex. ämnet svenska betonar helhet och kommunikation och anger att det inte finns vissa slags kunskaper som eleverna ska utveckla före andra. Med beaktande av kunskapsperspektivet kan konstateras att mål att uppnå för t.ex. skolår 3 inte på ett enkelt sätt kan utformas genom en ”halvering” av målen att uppnå för skolår 5. Nya mål att uppnå behöver således utformas på en innehållslig grund för att rådande kunskapsperspektiv ska kunna bibehållas. För detta arbete kan den norska och den nya zeeländska läroplanens målbeskrivningar fungera vägledande men arbetet förutsätter framför allt ett didaktiskt ämneskunnande. I vissa avseende kan frågan om nya mål att uppnå för ämnet svenska således komma att handla om synen på läs- och skrivlärande.

    Mål att sträva mot på nytt sätt – Utifrån ett antagande om att det nuvarande målsystemet ska reformeras, så att systemet består av endast en typ av mål, kan det vara intressant att pröva den typ av målsystem som återfinns i den nya zeeländska läroplanen. Med beaktande av i den nya zeeländska läroplanen kan man utforma ämnesspecifika kompetensmål för att målsätta vilket slags kunnande eleverna ska utveckla, men också för att målsätta kunskapsutveckling genom nivåbeskrivningar av sådana kompetenser.

    Vilka konsekvenser kan ett målsystem av detta slag få? Frågan är inte lätt att besvara då det finns få studier som kan bidra till en kritisk granskning. Aktuell forskning är främst relaterad till resultatfokuserade läroplaner och problematiserar t.ex. accountability-traditionens konsekvenser för elevernas bildningsgång. Skolvärlden, internationellt och nationellt, har ännu endast i begränsad utsträckning erfarenheter av och kunskaper om vad det innebär att innehållsligt analysera vad olika ämnesspecifika kompetenser består av och hur sådana kompetenser utvecklas. Att reformera målsystemet i relation till en kompetensfokuserad läroplansmodell, så som den här exemplifierats med den nya zeeländska läroplanen i engelska, förutsätter således att läroplansarbetet förstås på ett nytt sätt.

  • 18.
    Eriksson, Inger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Skolutveckling på vetenskaplig grund vid Stockholms universitet : Ett diskussionsunderlag baserat på erfarenheter från AkUt+-projektet2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 19.
    Eriksson, Inger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Skriftspråkliga redskap i självreglerande undervisningspraktiker2010In: Uppdrag undervisning: kunskap och lärande / [ed] Eriksson, Inger, Lindberg, Viveca & Österlind, Eva, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2010, p. 147-164Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Eriksson, Inger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Stockholm Teaching & Learning Study, STLS – En samverkansplattform för ämnesdidaktisk praktiknära forskning2016Report (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Eriksson, Inger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Talet om måluppfyllelse och dess konsekvenser för kunskapsuppdraget2018In: Lärares bedömningsarbete: förutsättningar, villkor, agens / [ed] Viveca Lindberg, Inger Eriksson, Astrid Pettersson, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2018, p. 43-68Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta kapitel är att bidra till en diskussion kring vilka konsekvenser den starka fokuseringen på måluppfyllelse och att nå målen kan ha för undervisningens utformning och elevernas kunskapsutveckling i dagens svenska skola. Vad menas med högmåluppfyllelse eller att nå målen? Vad antas bidra till en högmåluppfyllelse? Vilken betydelse tillskrivs fenomen som formativ bedömning och synligt lärande, som pedagogiska lösningar för ökad måluppfyllelse? Kapitlet inleds med en kortare tillbakablick över hur de svenska lärarna har uppfattat de senaste decenniernas läroplansreformer med avseende på undervisning och bedömning. Syftet är att ge en bakgrund till hur och vad som har förändrats. Därefter presenteras en analys av olika webbaserade texter som berör måluppfyllelse. Kapitlet avlutas med en diskussion om hur måluppfyllelse och formativ bedömning kan förstås i relation till läroplanens långsiktiga mål och det kunskapsperspektiv som läroplanen vilar på.

  • 22.
    Eriksson, Inger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Verksamhetsförlagd utbildning, VFU, och övningsskoleprojektet i ett professionsperspektiv : Ett diskussionsunderlag baserat på erfarenheter från AkUt+2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 23.
    Eriksson, Inger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Andrée, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Teachers as lesson and learning study researchers – establishing a research environment2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the type of conditions needed if establishing a research environment for teacher driven research.

    Lesson and Learning Study (LLS) has gained a growing interest during the latest years. In most cases it is framed in relation to teachers’ professional development, teachers’ learning and school development. That is the knowledge that teachers gain from different studies are not object for dissemination and review. Thus, in most cases the aim of a LLS is not to produce knowledge outside the local context. However, LLS has a great potential to function as a research approach for teacher driven research. An approach that would make it possible for teachers to take responsibility for their own professional knowledge base (Carlgren e.g. 2012). This type of research has been compared to medical clinical research (Bulterman Bos 2008; Carlgren 2012). That is, the issues, problems and demands that teachers are trying to master in their everyday work are to be focused in the research. But further, teachers who identify such objects of research also need to be the researcher (Bulterman Bos, 2008). Several problems are related to such a research. Partly due to the lack of traditions and infrastructures, partly due to lack of teachers with formal research education. In this presentation we primarily focus on the conditions, in the form of traditions and infrastructures important to establish a research environment for teacher driven research. To date, teachers who want to conduct research on teaching and learning in their own or their colleague classrooms have to accomplish their research work under different conditions compared to university researchers. What conditions are important to establish a research environment where such research of high quality might be produced? How can teachers with little or no research training be supported to qualify their own research projects? What type of support do they need? Since teachers normally do not have access to university library resources, seminars, and workshops that are of fundamental value for university researchers (Ratkić, 2006), one issue is how such research activities may be adapted to become compatible with teachers’ work in schools? Further, how can aspects of research, such as dissemination and publications be supported and organized?

    In this paper, we provide an account of how we in Stockholm have sought to establish a dynamic research environment for teacher-driven research in an in-between space of school and university. The particular space, or platform, is called Stockholm Teaching & Learning Studies (STLS). STLS includes open seminars, subject specific networks led by senior researchers, a research conference for teachers, project research seminars, project applications and publication as a highly held value. I.e an infrastructure is built to open for discussion, verification, and refutation or modification of research findings. STLS is a platform for teachers and researchers with an interest in didactic research aiming at developing teaching. The overall objectives are to provide a research environment where teachers are offered support and opportunities to participate in didactic research and development (R&D), to develop methodological models that allow teachers to participate in conducting didactic research in school practices, to function as a ’knowledge-production-workshop’ for the processing and analyzing of data and to support and provide arenas for peer-review, writing and dissemination of research results. Some of the challenges involved in establishing STLS has concerned the creating time and resources for teachers to engage in research, developing processes of application for teachers to propose research projects and how to inviting teachers with no or very little prior experience in research.

  • 24.
    Eriksson, Inger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Didactic Science and Early Childhood Education.
    Arvola Orlander, Auli
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Jedemark, Marie
    Att arbeta för godkänt. Timplanens roll i ett förändrat uppdrag: delrapport 1 inom projektet timplanelösa skolors miljöer för lärande2004Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad händer med skolans verksamhet när en styrningsform som den nationella timplanen tas bort? Vilken skolverksamhet skapas i en mål- och resultatstyrd skola?

    Under fem år har ca 900 grundskolor haft möjlighet att, inom ramen för försöksverksamheten Utan timplan – oförändrat uppdrag, arbeta utan den nationella timplanen. Konsekvenserna av detta studeras inom projektet Timplanelösa skolors miljöer för lärande. I den här delrapporten fokuseras skolarbetets organisering och innehåll i relation till skolornas traditioner men också till trender i samhället. Genom att analysera hur lärarna i fem arbetslag organiserar och talar om sin timplanelösa verksamhet urskiljer författarna vad lärarna ser som sin främsta uppgift – att alla elever når målen. Uppnåendemål och betygskriterier får en central betydelse för lärarnas arbete. Kravet på att alla elever ska nå målen uppkom med införandet av nuvarande betygssystem. Timplanelöshetens möjligheter används av lärarna för att öka individualiserande och ämnesövergripande arbetssätt. De förändringar som ägt rum i skolan tycks ge begreppet likvärdig utbildning en delvis ny innebörd.

    Rapporten vänder sig till alla som är intresserade av trender i dagens skola och av frågor om vad som styr lärares arbete. Den kan användas i lokalt utvecklingsarbete och inom lärarutbildningen.

  • 25.
    Eriksson, Inger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education.
    Arvola Orlander, Auli
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education.
    Jedemark, Marie
    Varierande undervisningspraktiker i timplanelösa skolor – likvärdiga förutsättningar för elevers lärande?: slutrapport inom projektet Timplanelösa skolors miljöer för lärande2005Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad kännetecknar olika klassrumspraktiker i en timplanelös verksamhet? Hur är undervisningen organiserad och hur genomförs den? Vilket erfarande erbjuds eleverna och vilka förmågor kan de utveckla? Vilka blir konsekvenserna för frågor om likvärdighet om någon av undervisningspraktikerna dominerar?

    Konsekvenserna av försöket med slopad timplan studerades inom projektet Timplanelösa skolors miljöer för lärande. I denna slutrapport fokuseras konsekvenserna för elevernas lärande. Genom att analysera datamaterialet, omfattande drygt 70 dagars klassrumsobservationer i fyra skolor, har sex olika undervisningspraktiker urskiljts. Tre av de kategoriserade undervisningspraktikerna – självregleringen, redovisningen, sammanhanget – är utformade som alternativ till den läroboksstyrda undervisningspraktiken. Den baskunskapstränande undervisningspraktiken berör ett fåtal elever i varje klass/årskurs även om den i någon form förekommer inom alla arbetslag. Demokratifostrande praktiker iscensätts skilt från arbetet med att få eleverna godkända. Elevers eget ansvar för sina studier framträder som en tydlig tendens och elever som inte klarar av vanlig undervisning erbjuds enklare innehåll. Studien visar att olika elever erbjuds deltagande i skilda undervisningspraktiker, vilket medför olika förutsättningar för och möjligheter till lärande.

    Rapporten vänder sig till alla som är intresserade av tendenser i dagens skola. Den kan användas i lokalt utvecklingsarbete och inom lärarutbildningen.

  • 26.
    Eriksson, Inger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Berg, Astrid
    Linköpings universitet.
    Jämförelse mellan svenska och finlandssvenskaelevers prestationer i ett för- och eftertest2011In: Kemitexter som redskap för naturvetenskapligt lärande: en komparativ studie av undervisningspraktiker i svenska och finlandssvenskaklassrum / [ed] Inger Eriksson, Stockholm: Stockholms universitets förlag, 2011, p. 275-301Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Eriksson, Inger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Berg, Astrid
    Danielsson, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Ekvall, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    Ståhle, Ylva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Vilket kemiinnehåll görs tillgängligt i finlandssvenska och svenska klassrum? Kemitexter som redskap för naturvetenskapligt lärande2010In: Resultatdialog 2010: aktuell forskning om utbildning och lärande, Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet , 2010, p. 51-56Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Svenska och finska (och finlandssvenska) elevers naturvetenskapliga prestationer uppvisar markanta skillnader i internationella mätningar som PISA. Mot bakgrund av att Finland och Sverige har ett till synes likartat skolsystem är det inte helt enkelt att förstå varför de finska och finlandssvenska eleverna presterar så mycket bättre än de svenska. Vad är det som skapar sådana skillnader? Många olika förklaringar har förts fram, tex i relation till lärarutbildning. Men vilket kemilärande möjliggörs i svenska och finlandssvenska undervisningspraktiker? Kemiinnehållet i läromedel från Sverige och Finland är i stort det samma och i finlandssvenska skolor fram till 2007 användes ofta svenska läromedel. I projektet genomfördes 20-40h videobandade klassrumsobservationer relaterade till kemiundervisningen i tre skolor vardera i Svenskfinland (2007-08) och Sverige (2009). Observationerna, kombinerade med intervjuer och dokumentationer, fokuserade periodiska systemet och kemiska bindningar. De första analyserna ger en bild av att det finns skillnader i innehållets behandling och vad som karaktäriserar de konstituerade undervisningspraktikerna i de båda länderna. I finlandssvenska skolor fokuseras t.ex. faktareproduktion (memorering), formelskrivning och detaljerade provfrågor, samma läromedel används i alla skolor. I svenska skolor betonas förståelse av vardagsfenomen, diskussioner och prov som skiljer på G, VG och MVG-frågor där G-frågor utgörs av enkla faktakunskaper. Undervisningen i de finlandssvenska skolorna framstår således som mera lika varandra medan undervisningen i de svenska skolorna uppvisar större variation gällande innehållets behandling och klassrumskommunikation.

  • 28.
    Eriksson, Inger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Berg, Astrid
    Linköpings universitet.
    Lögren, Ragnhild
    Linköpings universitet.
    Observationer i kemiklassrummet: Innehållet i fokus - kemiundervisning i finlandssvenska klassrumatt lära sig se kemiska reaktioner2010In: Innehållet i fokus: kemiundervisning i finlandssvenska klassrum / [ed] Eriksson, Inger, Stockholm: Stockholms universitets förlag , 2010, p. 37-70Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Eriksson, Inger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Berthén, Diana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Finnset, Torgunn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Jansson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    The expansive learning cycle transformed into a tool for educational design2017In: Book of Abstracts, 2017, p. 112-112Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Eriksson, Inger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Eriksson, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Setting an object of knowledge in motion through Davydov’s learning activity2017In: Book of Abstracts, 2017, p. 111-111Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Eriksson, Inger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Fred, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Nordin, Anna-Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Nyman, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Wettergren, Sanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Enabling students’ participation in algebraic reasoning with ‘learning models’ as tools for theoretical work2019In: NOFA7 Abstracts, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The issue for this paper is to discuss conditions for students’ participation in theoretical classroom discussions. In order to develop students’ ability to reason and solve problems algebraically Lins and Kaput (2004) argue that it is important to introduce algebra early in mathematics education. In line with this, researchers working within the sociocultural tradition argue that this may start as early as in first grade (Lins & Kaput, 2004). The so-called Davydov programme (e.g. Schmittau, 2005) is referred to as a promising alternative type of teaching, enhancing young students’ capability to reason algebraically. Central to the Davydov programme is the concept of ’learning model’. Such models (not to be confused with mathematical models) are used to enable students’ elaboration of mathematical phenomena. The characteristics of a learning model is that it materialises central theoretical aspects of a content. Further, it creates specific conditions necessary for students to understand and elaborate on each other’s arguments. However, there are many demanding issues related to the design of such learning models that needs to be further developed. In this paper we address the following research question: What in students’ classroom discussions can be taken as signs of emergent ability to reason algebraically? In this paper we use data from two learning studies conducted in 2017–2018. One in grade 1 (age 7) with three iteratively designed and revised lessons, and one in grade 5 (age 11) with four iteratively designed and revised lessons. We focus especially on how students use learning models as tools to enforce and maintain a collective reasoning indifferent communicative situations. To identify possible algebraic reasoning we have analyzed the communicative situations by drawing upon Toulmin’s (2003) model of argumentation with claim, data, warrant and backing. The tentative results indicate that the ability to work with the learning models not only facilitated an individual student to clarify and substantiate his or her arguments, but also enabled other students to follow and elaborate on the reasoning. This paper also contributes with examples of tasks and especially how to set the tasks in motion to enable students’ theoretical work.

  • 32.
    Eriksson, Inger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Jansson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Algebraic developmental teaching an example from a grade one classroom2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The issue in this paper is grade one students´ emerging understanding of the equal sign in an algebraic meaning inspired by the Davydov curriculum. The mainstream understanding that young students must start with arithmetic, mainly through operations with quantity and numbers in order to develop both an understanding of numbers and to develop a pre-algebraic thinking has been questioned during the latest decades. What if the arithmetic foundations in the mathematics teaching in themselves create problems for some students in relation to developing and expanding a theoretical thinking and reasoning beyond concrete numeric operations? What if such problems hinder students to develop a more comprehensive understanding of numbers and different number systems; mathematical structures; symbols and models as tools for mathematical work? Vygotsky and his contemporary colleagues argued, as a numbers of researchers internationally, that through an early introduction to algebraic work and reasoning students are given the opportunity to develop a theoretical understanding that will function as a foundation for all kinds of arithmetic operations as well as for algebraic reasoning and problem-solving. This paper reports preliminary results from a pilotstudy in a Swedish grade one that indicates that students when working with assignments inspired by the Davydov programme gave examples of an algebraic reasoning in relations to the equal sign that students in the parallel class did not master. When students in an interview (3 month of project) were presented to expressions as A+B=C and M+N= P for the first time all but one of the 28 could, in relation to artefacts/signs, exemplify in a multiple ways the expressions and argue how they know if it was true or not. The parallel class (28) were introduced to the equal sign with numbers as presented in the textbook (algebraic traditions). When shown the expressions A+B=C only few students related that to a mathematics -most associated the expressions to the alphabet.

  • 33.
    Eriksson, Inger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Jansson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Designing algebraic tasks for 7-year-old students – a pilot project inspired by Davydov’s learning activity concept2017In: International Journal for Mathematics Teaching and Learning, ISSN 1473-0111, E-ISSN 1473-0111, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 257-272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The issue of this article is to identify and discuss what conditions may be necessary to build into tasks to make it likely for students to be involved in an algebraic Learning Activity inspired by Davydov. Data from a pilot study was used in which a group of students (N=28) in grade 1 (7-year-olds) were invited to participate in discussions and laborations of how to decide whether two or more variables are equal or not, and making unequal “variables” equal by the help of measurement, abstract symbols and relational material. Three tasks were designed and from the analysis we will highlight five requirements for tasks that have the potential to enable students to engage in an algebraic learning activity.

  • 34.
    Eriksson, Inger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education.
    Jedemark, Marie
    Skola utan timplan: om lärares tolkning av uppdraget i en mål- och resultatstyrd skola2004In: Studies in Educational Policy and Educational Philosophy, ISSN 1652-2729, no 1eArticle in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The issue of this article is the direction of the Swedish compulsory school. The article is based upon the results of a longitudinal study of four schools participating in a trial initiated by the Swedish government, where they are allowed to work without national time regulations. What regulates school activity when there is no timetable that prescribes the amount of time for each subject? What are the consequences of the abolition of a regulation like this? To what extent can the abolition of the timetable contribute to new ways of interpreting the object for the school? The consequences for the task of the school, to offer an equal education for all, are also discussed. The results show that what directs how the activities in school are planned and carried through is the teachers’ striving for all students to achieve the grade ‘passed’. According to the teachers, the abolition of the timetable improves the opportunities for this. An equal education is interpreted as all students achieving the grade ‘passed’.

  • 35.
    Eriksson, Inger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Enriching learning activities with epistemic practices – enhancing students’ agency and epistemic authority2016In: Att ta utbildningens komplexitet på allvar : En vänskrift till Eva Forsberg / [ed] Maja Elmgren, Maria Folke-Fichtelius, Stina Hallsén, Henrik Román, Wieland Wermke, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, 2016, p. 82-97Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Eriksson, Inger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Enriching ‘learning activity’ with ‘epistemic practices’ – enhancing students’ epistemic agency and authority2016In: Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy, ISSN 2002-0317, Vol. 2, no 1, article id 32432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is an unchanged, re-published version of: Inger Eriksson & Viveca Lindberg, ‘Enriching learning activities with epistemic practices – enhancing students’ epistemic agency and authority’, with Maja Elmgren, Maria Folke-Fichtelius, Stina Hallsén, Henrik Román (2016), Att ta utbildningens komplexitet på allvar. En vänskrift till Eva Forsberg, Uppsala Universitet: Uppsala Studies in Education 138.

  • 37.
    Eriksson, Inger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Linking teaching/learning activities to epistemic practices2013In: ECER 2013: Creativity and innovation in educational research, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Eriksson, Inger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Didactic Science and Early Childhood Education.
    Lindberg, VivecaStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Didactic Science and Early Childhood Education.Österlind, EvaStockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Education in Arts and Professions.
    Uppdrag undervisning: kunskap och lärande2010Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Eriksson, Inger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Osaki, Kalafunja
    Foreword2018In: School Development Through Teacher Research : Lesson and Learning Studies in Sweden and Tanzania / [ed] Inger Eriksson, Kalafunja Osaki, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: Mkuki na Nyota Publishers Ltd. , 2018, p. vii-xChapter in book (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Eriksson, Inger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Osaki, Kalafunja
    Framing the Research Project – Background, Aim and Project Description: Lesson and Learning Studies in Sweden and Tanzania2018In: School Development Through Teacher Research: Lesson and Learning Studies in Sweden and Tanzania / [ed] Inger Eriksson, Kalafunja Osaki, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: Mkuki na Nyota Publishers Ltd. , 2018, p. 3-6Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The three year long research project, here reported, draws on cooperation between educational researchers from Tanzania and Sweden. Even though the country contexts differ in social, economicas well as educational conditions and state of teacher education and classroom standards, many recurrent education challenges are shared. These include the tendency to make educational reforms with little or no input from professionals. In both countries a number of costly reform decisions have been taken without substantially improving learning or teaching. Both countries struggle with students’ weak (in Tanzania) or declining (in Sweden) results nationally and internationally. They thus share a corresponding concern for how to improve education quality. Further, in both countries new outcomes based curricula have been implemented. These new curricula put a much higher responsibility on teachers; teachers must be able to organize teaching that enables all students to develop required abilities/competences. Thus, teachers need tools to develop knowledge that can contribute to their professional knowledge base.

  • 41.
    Eriksson, Inger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Osaki, Kalafunja
    School Development Through Teacher Research: Lesson and Learning Studies Studies in Sweden and Tanzania2018Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The origination of this project lies with Dr Gunilla Höjlund, who since the beginning of the 1990s has been involved in different cooperative projects between researchers in Tanzania and Sweden. Thanks to her experiences and connections to different researchers at the University of Dodoma (UDOM), and her interest in school development, the Tanzanian-Swedish research team was brought together. The Swedish team, from Stockholm University (SU), and especially Professor Ingrid Carlgren, have since the beginning of 2000 worked with the models of Lesson and Learning Studies (LLS) and Professor Kalafunja Osaki who has experience of Lesson Study as part of his collaboration with researchers in Japan. Further, the Swedish government has along tradition of funding collaboration with researches in Tanzania. Professor Osaki and I made an application to the Swedish research program, Research Links, run by the Swedish Council for Research on behalf of the Swedish Authority for Development Cooperation. The application was approved in November 2012. The founding we got covered expenses for travels and meetings to be used over the period 2013 to 2015. The idea for the proposed project was to use Lesson and/or Learning Study as a model for research based school development. Or more precisely, as models to enhance teaching -learning in relation to different subjects. The project was centred on local cases in four different subject areas in the respective countries. In Tanzania the four cases were conducted within the established cooperation between UDOM and single municipality primary schools, and in Sweden within the established cooperation between the SU and schools in the municipalities in the Stockholm area.

  • 42.
    Eriksson, Inger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Osaki, Kalafunja
    Teacher Owned School Development – Possibilities and Constraints2018In: School Development Through Teacher Research : Lesson and Learning Studies in Sweden and Tanzania / [ed] Inger Eriksson, Kalafunja Osaki, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: Mkuki na Nyota Publishers Ltd. , 2018, p. 197-206Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today school development with a foci on teaching has gained momentum worldwide following earlier focus on raising school scores on achievement tests, improving school inspection and supervision, initiating programs aimed at school improvement and similar projects that aimed to raise the quality of teaching and learning at school level. There is also a growing expectation that teaching is to be based on and developed in relation to educational research findings or knowledge. This implies that the knowledge needed already exists and only needs to reach out to schools and teachers. This understanding casts teachers as implementers of knowledge. An explanation to schools which fail to improve their teaching and students’ learning – still often measured by the amount of students passing exams and tests – is thus that teachers either do not know about the research findings or resist using new knowledge from available research. The problem is thereby related to the teachers’ lack of knowledge, interest or seriousness.

  • 43.
    Eriksson, Inger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Polotskaia, Elena
    Editorial2017In: International Journal for Mathematics Teaching and Learning, ISSN 1473-0111, E-ISSN 1473-0111, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 132-135Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This special issue is devoted to Vasily Davydov and the ground-breaking work that he introduced together with Daniil Elkonin. Their work, substantiated by many years of rigorous experiments, presents a theoretical extension and an educational concretisation of foremost Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky’s cultural historical theory and Alexei Leontiev’s activity theory. In the West, the curriculum in mathematics for the youngest students stemming from Davydov’s longitudinal series of experimentsis most known as the Davydov curriculumor program. Jean Schmittau together with her colleague Ann Morris is perhaps among the first to “import” the Davydov program into the US (Schmittau & Morris, 2004). There are other established implementations of the Davydov curriculume specially in the US, such as the project “Measure up” in Hawaii led by Barbara Dougherty (Dougherty & Slovin, 2004). More recently, Martin Simon (Simon & Placa, 2012) has been leading a five-year research project inquiry into the mechanisms of mathematics conceptual learning, where the Davydov curriculum is used as the main framework to shift the curriculum in mathematics education in the US. To date, the program has become known in other countries as well and a growing number of researchers are exploring its tenets and potential implications in mathematics education. Interestingly, the Davydov program is more frequently referred to within the research field of early algebraisation (see for e.g.,Cai & Knuth, 2011) and researchers are looking to Davydov’s heritage as a source of inspiration for new developments and new perspectives on what and how to teach elementary mathematics, thus introducing a new paradigm of psychological, mathematical, and pedagogical knowledge in the field of mathematics education.

  • 44.
    Eriksson, Inger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Didactic Science and Early Childhood Education.
    Ståhle, Ylva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Didactic Science and Early Childhood Education.
    Mätandets idé -: en learning study i Botkyrka kommun2010Report (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Eriksson, Inger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ståhle, Ylva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Kemikemi eller samhällskemi? Skilda betoningar i finlandssvenska och svenska kemiklassrum2011In: Kemiundervisning, text och textbruk i finlandssvenska och svenska skolor: en komparativ tvärvetenskaplig studie / [ed] Inger Eriksson, Stockholm: Stockholms universitets förlag, 2011, p. 76-113Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Eriksson, Inger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Wettergren, Sanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Nordin, Anna-Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Fred, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Fermsjö, Roger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Nyman, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Gerholm, Verner
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Same critical aspects regardless of age – indicating lack of experiences of algebraic expressions2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The issue for this paper is to discuss what can explain that students in different grades seem to experience a phenomenon in more or less the same way and thus, need to discern the same critical aspects in teaching. Data comes from a three-year-long learning study project conducted in four different Swedish schools, in K–9: preschool, grade 4, 6 and 9 respectively.  

    Understanding what students yet need to learn in relation to a specific content is of importance if to organize a teaching situation where students can work in a zone of proximal development (Vygotsky, 1986). Within the theory of variation the concept of critical aspects is regarded as bearing such information for teachers to use when designing teaching (Marton, 2005; Runesson, 2013).

    In the research project we used phenomenography as a theoretical framework in search for critical aspects. Phenomenography is a research approach aiming to understand qualitatively different ways of experiencing a phenomenon. A basic assumption is that we, on the basis of what we have experienced in life, what situations and problems we encountered, experience a phenomenon in a specific way (Marton, 1981; Eriksson, 1999). But the ways we experience a phenomenon do not vary very much. This is believed to be because the contexts and activities do not vary at all. A phenomenographical analysis tends to result in a limited but qualitatively different way of experiencing a phenomenon (Eriksson, 1999). Critical aspects can be identified when comparing different ways of experiencing a phenomenon.

    The research question addressed in this paper is what possible explanations can be found that students in different grades seem to experience a phenomenon in more or less the same way and thus, need to discern the same critical aspects in teaching.

    In order to identify critical aspects groups of students from each grade were interviewed when presented algebraic expressions and some possible answers. The interviews were transcribed and phenomenographically analysed.

    The results indicates that regardless of earlier schooling the students experienced the phenomenon of algebraic expressions in a similar way and thus same critical aspects were identified as needed to discern for the students in the four grades. Based on the analysis three different critical aspects were identified. Students from preschool class and grade 4 were interviewed during the first project year and the students from Grade 6 and 10 the second project year. The analysis from the first project year resulted in critical aspects common for the students and that was not so surprising since we knew that these students had not yet experienced algebraic expressions. However almost the same critical aspects were identified in the analysis of the interviewed students in Grade 6 and 9 during second project year. This was more of a surprise since the students had met algebraic expressions in school.

    The discussion will focus on these findings in relation to what possible experiences student may have of discerning aspects of algebraic expressions in relation to the content of mathematical education.

  • 47. Fransson, Sara
    et al.
    Fellenius, Kristina
    Lidgren, Christina
    Westin, Per
    Eriksson, Inger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    The Swedish Mathematics Case: Learning to See Fractions as Numbers on the Number Line2018In: School Development Through Teacher Research: Lesson and Learning Studies in Sweden and Tanzania / [ed] Inger Eriksson, Kalafunja Osaki, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: Mkuki na Nyota Publishers Ltd. , 2018, p. 154-163Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With inspiration from national exams, we tested locally constructed and standardised diagnosis material in Mathematics and, by taking advantage of the local experience, we analysed what effects teaching had on student performance. The analysis showed that the students, among other problems, experienced difficulty in comparing the size offractions. Furthermore, the analysis indicated that most students could easily use fractions if they were asked to divide a whole into smaller parts, for instance when they were asked to divide a pizza or an amount of money into equal parts. In the previous curriculum, before the 2011 reform, fractions have not been part of the content in lower grades mathematics teaching. The common way of teaching fractions was to show a picture representing the whole, for example a pizza, a cake or an apple. The teachers realized that the students needed to have more representations in order to be able to understand the value of fractions, for example, when arranging portions according to size (Eriksson & Eriksson, 2016).

    The purpose and the object of learning of the Swedish mathematics case was initially to find out what the students needed in order to be able to arrange fractions in size order. The teachers wanted to identify which aspects students needed to discern in order to understand that a fraction has a precise value. During the work the teachers readjusted the object of learning to focus on the development of the students’ ability to use fractions as numbers on the number line.

  • 48.
    Höjlund, Gunilla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Eriksson, Inger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Two Meta-Studies of School Development in the Participating Schools2018In: School Development Through Teacher Research : Lesson and Learning Studies in Sweden and Tanzania / [ed] Inger Eriksson, Kalafunja Osaki, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: Mkuki na Nyota Publishers Ltd. , 2018, p. 167-168Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the following two chapters a meta-study is presented of participating schools in Tanzania and Sweden respectively. The aim of the meta-studies is to contextualize the cases in relation to school development. The Tanzanian meta-study is based upon interviews with some of the participating teachers and thus focuses on school development from a teacher perspective. The Swedish meta-study on the other hand is based upon interviews with some of the Head teachers working at three of the participating schools at the time of the project. In the Swedish metastudy school development is taking the perspective of Head teachers.

  • 49.
    Höjlund, Gunilla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Eriksson, Inger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Binde, Andrew
    Framing the Cases in Mathematics in Tanzania and Sweden2018In: School Development Through Teacher Research: Lesson and Learning Studies in Sweden and Tanzania / [ed] Inger Eriksson, Kalafunja Osaki, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: Mkuki na Nyota Publishers Ltd. , 2018, p. 139-141Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fractions are regarded as a challenging mathematical content not only in Tanzania and Sweden, but also in a broader international perspective (Kullberg, 2010). Thus, students around the world continue to struggle with fractions, even after years of instruction (Fazio & Siegler, 2011; Resnick & Singer, 1993). Even in countries where the majority of students achieve reasonably good conceptual understanding, such as Japan and China, fractions are considered a difficult topic (Fazio & Siegler, 2011). One reason for their difficulty is likely that fractions challenge students since many properties of whole numbers that they have learnt are true are not true for all numbers. For example, with fractions, multiplication does not always lead to an answer larger than the multiplicands, division does not always lead to an answer smaller than the dividend, and numbers do not have unique successors. Further, fractions (including decimal fractions) are considered to be the first serious exercises in the type of abstract mathematical reasoning that student will have to master for learning algebra, geometry and other aspects of higher mathematics (see for example Noddings, 2009). Fractions are not only an important stepping-stone for learning advanced mathematics; they are also commonly used in everyday life (Fazio & Siegler, 2011).

  • 50.
    Höjlund, Gunilla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Eriksson, Inger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Osaki, Kalafunja
    Framing the Cases of Science in Tanzania and Sweden2018In: School Development Through Teacher Research: Lesson and Learning Studies Studies in Sweden and Tanzania / [ed] Inger Eriksson, Kalafunja Osaki, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: Mkuki na Nyota Publishers Ltd , 2018, p. 53-55Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural Science subjects encompass Biology, Physics and Chemistry in both countries, Tanzania and Sweden. The subject areas are addressed integrated and thematic in the early Grades (1-3) in Sweden and throughout primary school in Tanzania. The three subjects can though be distinguished in the broad content areas of the Tanzanian syllabus: health, environment, living (Biology), non-living (Chemistry and Physics). In addition to the science content the Tanzanian syllabus also includes cross cutting issues such as HIV/AIDS, road safety education, drug abuse, family-life, education and gender. These are either integrated as topics or as sub topics or as the teaching and learning strategies (MoEVT, 2005; Skolverket, 2011). In Sweden each subject have its own syllabus, however the long-term stated capabilities are formulated in almost identical ways. The core content distinguishes one subject from the other. In Chemistry, Matter is a content area in Grade 6 in both countries.

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