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  • 1.
    Anderhag, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Emanuelsson, Patrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Hamza, Karim Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Students' choice of post-compulsory science: In search of schools that compensate for the socio-economic background of their students2013In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 35, no 18, 3141-3160 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is commonly argued that socio-economic inequalities can explain many of the differences in achievement and participation in science education that have been reported among countries and among schools within a country. We addressed this issue by examining (a) the relationship between variables associated with socio-economic background and application frequencies to the Swedish Natural Science Programme (NSP) in upper secondary school and (b) whether there are lower secondary schools in Sweden that seem to compensate for these variables. Data from Statistics Sweden (SCB) covering the whole population of 106,483 ninth-grade students were used to calculate the probability for each student to apply to the NSP. Our results indicate that the variables, such as parental educational level and grades, have explanatory power, but with varying effect for different subpopulations of students. For example, grades in mathematics have a greater impact than grades in science for females’ choice of the NSP. The opposite holds for male students. Out of 1,342 schools, 158 deviated significantly from predicted, that is, the students in these schools applied to the NSP in greater or lesser extent than expected. The number of deviating schools is greater than predicted by pure random variation. This suggests that variables of socio-economic background are only a partial explanation of the application frequencies, and that the deviation needs to be investigated further. Our findings suggest that in order to understand why schools deviate positively and so compensate for the socio-economic background of their students, we need to study their practices more closely

  • 2.
    Anderhag, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Hamza, Karim Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    What can a teacher do to support students’ interest in science?: A study of the constitution of taste in a science classroom2015In: Research in science education, ISSN 0157-244X, E-ISSN 1573-1898, Vol. 45, no 5, 749-784 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we examined how a teacher may make a difference to the way interest develops in a science classroom, especially for students from disadvantaged socioeconomic backgrounds. We adopted a methodology based on the concept of taste for science drawing on the work of John Dewey and Pierre Bourdieu. We investigated through transcripts from video recordings how such a taste is socially constituted in a 9th grade (ages 15–16) science classroom, where there was evidence that the teacher was making a positive difference to students’ post-compulsory school choice with regard to science. Salient findings regarding how this teacher supported students’ interest are summarized. For example, the teacher consistently followed up how the students acknowledged and enjoyed purposes, norms, and values of the science practice and so ensuing that they could participate successfully. During these instances, feelings and personal contributions of the students were also acknowledged and made continuous with the scientific practice. The results were compared with earlier research, implications are discussed, and some suggestions are given about how these can be used by teachers in order to support student interest.

  • 3.
    Anderhag, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Bergqvist, Kerstin
    Jakobson, Britt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Hamza, Karim Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Saljo, Roger
    Why Do Secondary School Students Lose Their Interest in Science? Or Does it Never Emerge? A Possible and Overlooked Explanation2016In: Science Education, ISSN 0036-8326, E-ISSN 1098-237X, Vol. 100, no 5, 791-813 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we review research on how students' interest in science changes through the primary to secondary school transition. In the literature, the findings generally show that primary students enjoy science but come to lose interest during secondary school. As this claim is based mainly on interview and questionnaire data, that is on secondary reports from students about their interest in science, these results are reexamined through our own extensive material from primary and secondary school on how interest is constituted through classroom discourse. Our results suggest the possibility that primary students do not lose their interest in science, but rather that an interest in science is never constituted. The overview indicates that studies relying on interviews and questionnaires make it difficult to ascertain what the actual object of interest is when students act in the science classroom. The possibility suggested should, if valid, have consequences for science education and be worthy of further examination.

  • 4.
    Anderhag, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Hamza, Karim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    What difference can a teacher make for the constitution of taste in the science classroom?:  2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Anderhag, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Hamza, Karim Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    How can teaching make a difference to students’ interest in science? Including Bourdieuan field analysis2015In: Cultural Studies of Science Education, ISSN 1871-1502, E-ISSN 1871-1510, Vol. 10, no 2, 377-380 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we respond to the discussion by Alexandra Schindel Dimick regarding how the taste analysis presented in our feature article can be expanded within a Bourdieuan framework. Here we acknowledge the significance of field theory to introduce wider reflexivity on the kind of taste that is constituted in the science classroom, while we at the same time emphasize the importance of differentiating between how taste is reproduced versus how it is changed through teaching. The contribution of our methodology is mainly to offer the possibility to empirically analyze changes in this taste, and how teaching can make a difference in regard to students’ home backgrounds. However, our last two steps of our taste analysis include asking questions about how the taste developing in the classroom relates more widely in society. Schindel Dimick shows how these two steps can be productively expanded by a wider societal field analysis.

  • 6.
    Anderhag, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Hamza, Karim Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Signs of taste for science: a methodology for studying the constitution of interest in the science classroom2015In: Cultural Studies of Science Education, ISSN 1871-1502, E-ISSN 1871-1510, Vol. 10, no 2, 339-368 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a methodological approach for analyzing the transformation of interest in science through classroom talk and action. To this end, we use the construct of taste for scienceas a social and communicative operationalization, or proxy, to the more psychologically oriented construct of interest. To gain a taste for science as part of school science activities means developing habits of performing and valuing certain distinctions about ways to talk, act and be that are jointly construed as belonging in the school science classroom. In this view, to learn science is not only about learning the curriculum content, but also about learning a normative and aesthetic content in terms of habits of distinguishing and valuing. The approach thus complements previous studies on students’ interest in science, by making it possible to analyze how taste for science is constituted, moment-by-moment, through talk and action in the science classroom. In developing the method, we supplement theoretical constructs coming from pragmatism and Pierre Bourdieu with empirical data from a lower secondary science classroom. The application of the method to this classroom demonstrates the potential that the approach has for analyzing how conceptual, normative, and aesthetic distinctions within the science classroom interact in the constitution of taste for, and thereby potentially also in the development of interest in science among students.

  • 7.
    Anderhag, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Jakobson, Britt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Hamza, Karim Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Why do secondary school students lose their interest in science?: A possible overlooked explanationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Hamza, Karim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Contingency in high-school students’ reasoning about electrochemical cells: Opportunities for learning and teaching in school science2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis takes its departure from the extensive literature on students’ alternative ideas in science. Although describing students’ conceptual knowledge in many science areas, the literature offers little about how this knowledge enters into the science learning process. Neither has it focused on how particulars and contingencies of curricular materials enter into the learning process. In this thesis I make high-resolution analyses of students’ learning in action during school science activities about real or idealized electrochemical cells. I use a discursive mechanism of learning developed to describe how students become participants in new practices through slow changes in word use. Specifically, I examine how alternative and accepted scientific ideas, as well as curricular materials, enter into students’ reasoning. The results are then used for producing hypotheses over how a teacher can support students’ science learning. Alternative ideas in electrochemistry did not necessarily interfere negatively with, and were sometimes productive for, students’ reasoning during the activities. Students included the particulars and contingencies of curricular materials in their reasoning not only when interacting with a real electrochemical cell but also in a more theoretical concept mapping activity about an idealized cell. Through taxonomic and correlational investigations students connected the particulars and contingencies of the real electrochemical cell to the generic knowledge of electrochemistry. When actively introduced by the researcher, such investigations had consequences for how single students framed their explanations of a real electrochemical cell. The results indicate ways in which teachers may encourage the productive use of contingencies to promote learning within the science classroom. However, this may require consideration of what students say in terms of consequences for their further learning rather than in terms of correct or incorrect content.

  • 9.
    Hamza, Karim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Distractions in the school science laboratory2013In: Research in science education, ISSN 0157-244X, E-ISSN 1573-1898, Vol. 43, no 4, 1477-1499 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, I make a case for the potential educative worth of distractions for learning science in the school laboratory. Distractions are operationalized as experiences lying outside the main purpose of the laboratory activity, thereby diverting students’ attention from that purpose. Through a practical epistemology analysis, I examined in close detail the conversations of three groups of high school students trying to explain how a real galvanic cell works. The three groups experienced the same two distractions, (1) a nonworking light-emitting diode and (2) negative readings on a voltmeter. The analysis reveals how one of the groups, through a series of contingencies, successively made the two distractions continuous with the main purpose of the activity. In the remaining two groups, no such continuity was established. The results show that (a) experiences initially being distracting, perplexing, and confusing may indeed acquire significance for the students’ possibilities of coping with the main purpose of the activity but that (b) the outcome is highly contingent on the particular experiences drawn upon by the students to cope with the distractions. Consequently, I discuss ways in which teachers may turn distractions encountered in laboratory activities into educative experiences for more than a few lucky students.

  • 10.
    Hamza, Karim Mikael
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Beyond Explanations: What Else Do Students Need to Understand Science?2009In: Science Education, ISSN 0036-8326, E-ISSN 1098-237X, Vol. 93, 1026-1049 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Students’ difficulties with learning science have generally been framed in terms of their generalized conceptual knowledge of a science topic as elicited through their explanations of natural phenomena. In this paper, we empirically explore what more goes into giving a scientific account of a natural phenomenon than giving such generalized explanations. We audio-recorded pairs of upper secondary students during lab-work in electrochemistry. We used a situative and pragmatist approach to study learning in action. This approach made it possible to study how the particulars and contingencies of working with a real electrochemical cell went into students’ reasoning. Our results show that students needed to learn to make distinctions, recognize, and name the particulars in encounters with their cell. They also needed to learn what counts as reasonable readings and to deal with quantitative issues and correlations pertaining to their cell. We refer to these additional learning requirements as the students’ taxonomic and measurement interests. Implications for what is involved in giving a scientific account of a natural phenomenon in school are discussed. The study constitutes an attempt to include, in a systematic way, also the particulars and contingencies of actual practice in an account of students’ reasoning in science.

  • 11.
    Hamza, Karim Mikael
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Student Engagement with Artefacts and Scientific Ideas in a Laboratory and a Concept-Mapping Activity2013In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 35, no 13, 2254-2277 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to use a comparative approach to scrutinize the common assumption that certain school science activities are theoretical and therefore particularly suited for engaging students with scientific ideas, whereas others are practical and, thus, not equally conducive to engagement with scientific ideas. We compared two school science activities, one (laboratory work) that is commonly regarded as focusing attention on artefacts that may distract students from central science concepts and the other (concept mapping) that is thought to make students focus directly on these concepts. We observed students in either a laboratory activity about real galvanic cells or a concept-mapping activity about idealized galvanic cells. We used a practical epistemology analysis to compare the two activities regarding students' actions towards scientific ideas and artefacts. The comparison revealed that the two activities, despite their alleged differences along the theory–practice scale, primarily resulted in similar student actions. For instance, in both activities, students interacted extensively with artefacts and, to a lesser extent, with scientific ideas. However, only occasionally did students establish any explicit continuity between artefacts and scientific ideas. The findings indicate that some of the problems commonly considered to be unique for school science practical work may indeed be a feature of school science activities more generally.

  • 12.
    Hamza, Karim
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Piqueras, Jesus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Angelin, Marcus
    Vetenskapens hus.
    Risk taking and change in a science teacher professional development program2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this presentation we show how a certain critical event contributed to teacher change in a professional development program in a Swedish secondary school. The professional development program was part of a wider research project focusing on how knowledge stemming from science education research can support science teachers’ day-to-day work with improving teaching. We collected video data from thirteen meetings between science education researchers and teachers taking place before and after three teaching cycles. We also video recorded all lessons comprising the three cycles. We employed Clarke and Hollingsworth’s interconnected model of teacher professional growth to analyze what consequences interactions between teachers and researchers had for teacher change. Here, we focus on one aspect of these analyses, viz., the crucial consequences which followed as the researchers took increased responsibility for implementing the newly introduced knowledge in the teachers’ practice. Thus, following an initial stage in which the newly introduced concepts did not have any sustained consequences for the teachers’ practice, the researchers decided to take a considerably higher risk concerning their own contribution in the program. This was done by (a) making explicit commitments regarding the positive consequences of employing the research based knowledge and (b) providing the teachers with thorough analyses and attendant concrete suggestions for how to change practice on the basis of this knowledge. This change in the researchers’ assumption of responsibility for the outcome of the project resulted in distinct teacher change, visible as the teachers (1) acknowledged salient outcomes of the researchers contributions, (2) suddenly took over the new vocabulary and (3) consistently began to employ the knowledge in their own planning, in talk between themselves and the researchers as well as in artifacts such as planning documents. The results have implications for how we view the role of researchers in professional development.

  • 13.
    Hamza, Karim
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education. Naturvetenskapsämnenas didaktik.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education. Naturvetenskapsämnenas didaktik.
    Describing and Analyzing Learning in Action: An Empirical Study of the Importance of Misconceptions in Learning Science2008In: Science Education, ISSN 0036-8326, Vol. 92, no 1, 141-164 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although misconceptions in science have been established in interview studies, their role during the learning process is poorly examined. In this paper we use results from a classroom study to analyze to what extent nonscientific ideas in electrochemistry that students report in interviews enter into their learning in a more authentic setting. We audio recorded talk between eight pairs of Swedish upper secondary students during a practical on electrochemical cells. Learning was operationalized on a discursive level as a description of what students do and say when taking part in an activity. This enabled an analysis of how encounters with misconceptions influenced the development of students’ reasoning, compared to other encounters during the learning experience. Misconceptions did not constrain the development of students’ reasoning. Rather, their reasoning developed in response to the contingencies of the specific situation. When misconceptions were encountered, they appeared as alternatives and questions not actively defended. Sometimes, encounters with these misconceptions were generative of the students’ reasoning. The results indicate that demonstrating misconceptions in interviews is not enough to assume that they interfere with learning in other contexts. Educational implications and future lines of research based on these findings and on the methodology applied are discussed.

  • 14.
    Hamza, Karim
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    How do misconceptions of electrochemistry enter into students’ reasoning during a practical task?2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Misconceptions are frequently treated as the chief problem to be overcome in science instruction. In this study we examine to what extent misconceptions of electrochemistry identified in interviews enter into students’ reasoning during a practical on electrochemical cells. We recorded talk in eight pairs of upper secondary students, using a practical epistemology analysis to investigate how their reasoning developed. Students established relations connecting to known misconceptions on rather few occasions. In those instances, their reasoning showed a tentative character, consisting of possibilities and questions rather than of conceptions. In none of these cases did relations touching upon misconceptions constrain how they filled central gaps. On the contrary, they contributed to the students reasoning going in the right direction in some instances. We conclude than when studied in action, the role of common misconceptions can be radically different from that assumed by identifying them in interviews or written surveys. Hence, only when studied within an activity can their significance for the learning of a science content be evaluated correctly.

  • 15.
    Hamza, Karim
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    How do misconceptions of electrochemistry identified in interviews enter into students’ reasoning in a more authentic setting?2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite repeated demonstration of students’ nonscientific ideas, the central import for learning ascribed to such misconceptions has been questioned in the literature. In this study, we investigate what role encounters with misconceptions of electrochemistry identified in interviews play for the development of students’ reasoning in an authentic school setting. We audio-recorded talk between eight pairs of upper secondary students during a practical on electrochemistry. To study the role of misconceptions during the learning process, we used an approach that operationalizes learning on a discursive level as a description of what students do and say as part of an activity. We analyzed how encounters with known misconceptions entered into the students’ reasoning, and how these encounters influenced the directions students’ reasoning took. None of the encounters with known misconceptions constrained students’ reasoning or made it go in unwanted directions. In some cases, encountering the misconception worked as a resource for students’ reasoning. Furthermore, the misconceptions appeared as tentative alternatives or as questions rather than being actively maintained and defended. The results indicate that misconceptions recorded in interviews may have different roles in other settings. This may have consequences for how we interpret difficulties in learning science in authentic learning situations.

  • 16.
    Hamza, Karim
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Hur lär sig elever naturvetenskap?2008In: Resultatdialog 2008: forskning inom utbildningsvetenskap, Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet , 2008, 120-124 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Hamza, Karim
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Moving beyond a focus on conceptual difficulties to support students' learning in scienceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Systematic descriptions of students’ discursive ways of coping with various school science activities constitute potential resources for teachers in their ongoing interactions with students in the science classroom. In a previous study we showed that in order to give a scientific account of a real electrochemical cell high school students needed to learn how to distinguish and name constituents of the cell as well as to sort out correlations pertaining to the cell. Here we analyze consequences for students’ learning about electrochemical cells of introducing such taxonomic and correlational investigations into conversations between a researcher and single students. The investigations had consequences for (1) students’ ability to frame their explanations, (2) how students connected the macroscopic and submicroscopic levels of chemical representation and (3) students’ possibilities of perceiving what happened in the cell. The results show that problems of producing explanations as well as of connecting levels of chemical representation may be fruitfully dealt with by addressing issues beyond those linked to conceptual difficulties. The study suggests ways in which systematic descriptions of students’ own ways of coping with school science activities may be generalized and incorporated into teachers’ repertoires for action in the science classroom.

  • 18.
    Hamza, Karim
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Reasoning about electrochemical cells in a concept mapping activity and in the school laboratory2008In: Concept mapping: Connecting educators / [ed] A. J. Cañas, P. Reiska, M. Åhlberg & J. D. Novak, Helsinki-Tallinn, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we study students’ actions in the classroom as a matter of learning to participate in situated practices. We investigate how learning is constituted in two classroom activities commonly regarded as directing students towards manipulating either concrete material or scientific ideas. We audio-recorded pairs of students as they engaged in a common reasoning task about electrochemical cells, either as part of constructing a concept map or working with a real electrochemical cell. In both settings students needed to learn the rules, norms and techniques of the practice as part of their reasoning. This included techniques for attaining an acceptable concept map, or for how to make correct and relevant measures of current and voltage in the electrochemical cell. Students also learned norms for including terms in the concept map, or for distinguishing and naming particulars of the electrochemical cell. Our results show that similarities and differences between two classroom settings can be specified in new ways by studying them as situated practices. How science is taught in the classroom may not primarily be framed as questions about the effectiveness of different methods, but of what students need to learn in order to act competently in different relevant practices.

  • 19.
    Hamza, Karim
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Students' interactions with curricular materials and scientific ideas in two different school science activitiesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The extent to which students connect what they do with materials to the relevant scientific ideas has primarily been studied in relation to laboratory work. We compared students’ interactions with curricular materials and scientific ideas in two activities commonly regarded as affording manipulation of either materials (laboratory work) or ideas (concept mapping). Students were audio and video recorded as they engaged in a lab work activity about real electrochemical cells or in a concept mapping activity about idealized cells. We used a practical epistemology analysis to describe how students interacted with ideas and materials in each activity. Students interacted extensively with materials as well as with ideas in both activities. Students used the real electrochemical cell, but never the physical concept map, to further their explanations of how an electrochemical cell works. Students also took additional actions beyond interacting with materials and ideas to further both activities. Primarily, students invoked taxonomic investigations and oriented themselves in the expectations and rules of each activity. Both activities thus afforded the learning of habits of interacting with materials and ideas, although to somewhat different extents and in partly different ways.

  • 20.
    Hamza, Karim
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Supporting students’ progression in science: Continuity between the particular, the contingent, and the general2013In: Science Education, ISSN 0036-8326, E-ISSN 1098-237X, Vol. 97, no 1, 113-138 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we analyze the relation between particular, contingent, and general aspects of a school science activity and show how they are intertwined in nontrivial ways as students give explanations for how a real galvanic cell works during conversations with a researcher. The conversations were examined by using practical epistemology analysis, which made it possible to follow students’ meaning making in detail. The analysis revealed interactions between generic explanations of electrochemistry and the distinctions and correlations that were connected to particulars and contingencies of the galvanic cell. Consequences of these interactions amounted to becoming reminded of knowledge one had come across before, being able to connect distinctions of particular features of the cell to generalized chemical explanations, and realizing which aspects may be excluded from the account. The results indicate that learning in science needs to be approached more as a contingent process than as something that progresses along one particular dimension. They show how students appropriate the sociocultural tools of science and how they situate what they learn in both the particular features of the activity and in the relevant science. Hence, there is a need for more inclusive accounts of how students progress toward increased competency in science.

  • 21.
    Kaufmann, Ilana
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Hamza, Karim M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Rundgren, Carl-Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). lerik.
    Developing an approach for teaching and learning about Lewis structures2017In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 39, no 12, 1601-1624 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores first-year university students' reasoning as they learn to draw Lewis structures. We also present a theoretical account of the formal procedure commonly taught for drawing these structures. Students' discussions during problem-solving activities were video recorded and detailed analyses of the discussions were made through the use of practical epistemology analysis (PEA). Our results show that the formal procedure was central for drawing Lewis structures, but its use varied depending on situational aspects. Commonly, the use of individual steps of the formal procedure was contingent on experiences of chemical structures, and other information such as the characteristics of the problem given. The analysis revealed a number of patterns in how students constructed, checked and modified the structure in relation to the formal procedure and the situational aspects. We suggest that explicitly teaching the formal procedure as a process of constructing, checking and modifying might be helpful for students learning to draw Lewis structures. By doing so, the students may learn to check the accuracy of the generated structure not only in relation to the octet rule and formal charge, but also to other experiences that are not explicitly included in the formal procedure.

  • 22.
    Lundegård, Iann
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Hamza, Karim M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Putting the Cart Before the Horse: The Creation of Essences out of Processes in Science Education Research2014In: Science Education, ISSN 0036-8326, E-ISSN 1098-237X, Vol. 98, no 1, 127-142 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses the problem of treating generalizations of human activity as entities and structures that ultimately explain the activities from which they were initially drawn. This is problematic because it involves a circular reasoning leading to unwarranted claims explaining the originally studied activities of science teaching and learning. Unlike other fields within social science research, this problem has not been appreciated and discussed in the science education literature and the field thus needs to be reminded of it. A heuristic specifically developed for the purposes of this article is applied to two examples taken from a much-cited research in the field. Through the examples it is argued that the practice of creating entities out of generalizations of science classroom activities leads to a number of unintended consequences. It is further argued that the stated purposes in the two example articleswould actually have been better served by investigating the entire processes through which the activities develop, as well as how the activities may change through teaching. The article concludes that through the search for explanations caused by underlying entities, science education research runs a risk of alienating its results from the activities from which it initially wanted to meliorate.

  • 23.
    Piqueras, Jesús
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Hamza, Karim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Edvall, Susanna
    Swedish Museum of Natural History.
    The Practical Epistemologies in the Museum: A Study of Students' Learning in Encounters with Dioramas2008In: Journal of Museum Education, ISSN 1059-8650, Vol. 33, no 2, 153-164 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a way to study science learning on a discursive level in a teaching activity designed for a museum of natural history. We used here an analysis of practical epistemologies. The method, which allows a description of students' meaning making in socially shared practices, has been used previously to analyze learning in various school practices. The data presented in this study proceeded from a videotaped activity of the educational program for student teachers at the Swedish Museum of Natural History in Stockholm. The activity utilizes a variety of dioramas with preserved animals in scenes that reproduce their natural environments and behaviors. In small groups, and without the help of exhibition text, student teachers discuss, interpret, and explain the different scenes displayed in the dioramas. Through the analytical framework used in this study, we are able to study people's meaning making through the development of their discourse in encounters with the diorama and with their previous experiences. We suggest that this approach offers a practical and useful way to describe and analyze people's actions in informal learning settings.

  • 24.
    Piqueras, Jesús
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Hamza, Karim M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Palm, Ola
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Usefulness and value of a theoretical framework in science teachers’ practice2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this presentation we show how the usefulness and value of a theoretical framework for planning, assessing, and modifying teaching were noticed by teachers in a science teacher professional development project.  The framework, called organizing purposes (Johansson & Wickman, 2011, Wickman & Ligozat, 2010), was introduced by the researchers at the beginning of two-year collaboration.  Data for this presentation comes from two cycles of teaching of a unit on the chemistry of food and human nutrition. We made video recordings of planning meetings between researchers and teachers, classroom teaching, and teachers’ reflections at the end of the cycle.  One of the teachers was interviewed two years after the end of the project. We used Clarke and Hollingsworth’s interconnected model of teacher professional growth to analyze how change in the domain of consequence (salient outcomes) was realized during the collaboration. Change in the domain of consequence, observed through the salient outcomes noticed by the teachers, occurred through the following sequence: (1) anticipation of particular benefits of the framework as a resource for assessing and modifying teaching, (2) recognition of actual student behavior i.e. a dramatic increase of student participation in the equivalent lesson of the second cycle, and (3) reflection on the framework’s role in one’s own practice. It may be significant that the first salient outcome that the teachers noticed was a consequence of the researchers using the framework to suggest concrete changes in teaching for cycle 2. Implications of this feature, and the observed sequence in general, will be discussed at the presentation.

  • 25.
    Piqueras, Jesús
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Hamza, Karim M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Student teachers’ moment-to-moment reasoning and the developmentof discursive themes – an analysis of practical epistemologies in a natural history museum exhibit2012In: Understanding interactions at science centers and museums: Approaching sociocultural perspectives / [ed] Eva Davidsson, Anders Jakobsson, Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, 2012, 79-96 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Hamza, Karim
    Piqueras, Jesús
    Transforming epistemic practices in science education: Contribution to the symposium Teaching and/as epistemic practice2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala universitet.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    Uppsala universitet.
    Hamza, Karim Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Lidar, Malena
    Uppsala universitet.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    Uppsala universitet.
    Practical Epistemology Analysis: Cognitive learning2008Conference paper (Refereed)
1 - 27 of 27
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