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  • 1.
    Bonnevier, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Josephson, Anna
    Lavelle, Thomas
    Scheja, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Potential for high-quality learning in medical students' ways of approaching a modified essay questionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Bonnevier, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Josephson, Anna
    Scheja, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Potentialities for learning in medical students' ways of approaching a diagnostic task2012In: Higher Education, ISSN 0018-1560, E-ISSN 1573-174X, Vol. 64, no 3, p. 371-384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study investigates medical students' ways of approaching a medical task. Fourteen medical students in their clinical years responded to a written patient case on chest pain. Variations in the students' responses to the task were analysed from a contextual and linguistic perspective. Students approached the task in two distinctly different ways. Either they treated the task as a problem situated within a purely academic context-listing concepts relevant to the symptom, applying the steps in the diagnostic process only once-or dealt with the task as a problem contextualised within a hypothetical clinical situation-testing alternative meanings of the symptom, elaborating on implications for the patient. It is not students' conceptualisations of medical theory that explain these outcomes but rather how students construct contexts in which these conceptualisations are embedded. The results highlight the importance of being sensitive to what students make of a given task, how their interpretations relate to what was intended by the teacher, the desired outcome of the curriculum, and the influences exercised upon students by the various educational settings confronting them in their studies.

  • 3.
    Bälter, Olle
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Cleveland-Innes, Martha
    Athabasca University.
    Pettersson, Kerstin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Scheja, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Svedin, Maria
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Student approaches to learning in relation to online course completion2013In: Canadian Journal of Higher Education, ISSN 0316-1218, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the relationship between approaches to studying and course completion in two online preparatory university courses in mathematics and computer programming. The students participating in the two courses are alike in age, gender, and approaches to learning. Four hundred and ninety-three students participating in these courses answered the short version of the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST). Results show that students demonstrating a deep approach to learning in either course are more likely to complete. In the mathematics  course, a combination of deep and strategic approaches correlates positively with course completion. In the programming course, students who demonstrate a surface approach are less likely to complete. These results are in line with the intentions of the course designers, but they also suggest ways to improve these courses. Furthermore, the study demonstrates that ASSIST can be used to evaluate course design.

  • 4. Conte, Helen
    et al.
    Jirwe, Maria
    Scheja, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Hjelmqvist, Hans
    Get it together: Issues that facilitate collaboration in teams of learners in intensive care2016In: Medical teacher, ISSN 0142-159X, E-ISSN 1466-187X, Vol. 38, no 5, p. 491-497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The study describes issues that facilitate collaboration in teams of learners in an interprofessional education unit in intensive care.

    Methods: A descriptive qualitative study design was applied using semi-structured interviews based on the critical incident technique and qualitative content analysis. Nineteen participants, eight learners in their specialist training, nine supervisors and two head supervisors in Sweden identified 47 incidents.

    Result: Teams of learners having control was the core issue. Motivation, time, experiences and reflection were central issues for facilitating collaboration.

    Conclusion: Efficiently training teams how to collaborate requires learners having control while acting on their common understanding and supervisors taking a facilitating role supporting teams to take control of their critical analysis.

  • 5. Conte, Helen
    et al.
    Scheja, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Hjelmqvist, Hans
    Jirwe, Maria
    Exploring teams of learners becoming WE in the Intensive Care Unit - a focused ethnographic study2015In: BMC Medical Education, ISSN 1472-6920, E-ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 15, article id 131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Research about collaboration within teams of learners in intensive care is sparse, as is research on how the learners in a group develop into a team. The aim of this study was to explore the collaboration in teams of learners during a rotation in an interprofessional education unit in intensive care from a sociocultural learning perspective. Methods: Focused Ethnographic methods were used to collect data following eight teams of learners in 2009 and 2010. Each team consisted of one resident, one specialist nurse student and their supervisors (n = 28). The material consisted of 100 hours of observations, interviews, and four hours of sound recordings. A qualitative analysis explored changing patterns of interplay through a constant comparative approach. Results: The learners' collaboration progressed along a pattern of participation common to all eight groups with a chronological starting point and an end point. The progress consisted of three main steps where the learners' groups developed into teams during a week's training. The supervisors' guided the progress by gradually stepping back to provide latitude for critical reflection and action. Conclusion: Our main conclusion in training teams of learners how to collaborate in the intensive care is the crucial understanding of how to guide them to act like a team, feel like a team and having the authority to act as a team.

  • 6. Entwistle, Noel
    et al.
    McCune, Velda
    Scheja, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Student learning in context: Understanding the phenomenon and the person2006In: Instructional psychology. Past, present, and future trends: Sixteen essays in honour of Eric De Corte, Elsevier Ltd. (Amsterdam, the Netherlands) , 2006, p. 131-48Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 7. Eulau, Louise
    et al.
    Sundman, Christina
    Scheja, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Fossum, Bjöörn
    Assessing students' learning in student dedicated treatment rooms during clinical nursing education.2015In: Nursing and Health, ISSN 2332-2217, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 22-29Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 8. Hagström, Linus
    et al.
    Scheja, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Using meta-reflection to improve learning and throughput: redesigning assessment procedures in a political science course on power2014In: Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, ISSN 0260-2938, E-ISSN 1469-297X, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 242-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to contribute to the discussion on how examinations can be designed to enhance students' learning and increase throughput in terms of the number of students who sit, and pass, the course examination. The context of the study is a basic level political science course on power analysis, which initially suffered from low throughput. The contribution of the article is to demonstrate that no other changes to the course than the introduction of an element of meta-reflection in the take-home examination - a so-called reflection exercise' - helped increase throughput by 70-80%. The aggregated performance of the students was thus significantly enhanced after they were explicitly encouraged to meta-reflect on problems posed in the take-home examination, and on different strategies for tackling these problems. The introduction of another meta-reflection exercise in the mandatory seminars did not further increase throughput, but made a qualitative difference in terms of the positive feedback that students received on their work.

  • 9.
    Halldén, Ola
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Petersson, Gunilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Scheja, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ehrlén, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Haglund, Liza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Österlind, Karolina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Stenlund, Agneta
    Situating the concept of conceptual change2002In: Reconsidering conceptual change: Issues in theory and practice, Kluwer (Dordrecht, Netherlands) , 2002, p. 137-48Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Halldén, Ola
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Scheja, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Haglund, Liza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    The contextuality of knowledge: an intentional approach to meaning making and conceptual change2013In: International handbook of research on conceptual change / [ed] Stella Vosniadou, London: Routledge, 2013, 2. uppl., p. 509-532Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Halldén, Ola
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Scheja, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Jacobsson-Öhrn, Harriet
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Intentionell analys2001Book (Other academic)
  • 12. Hörberg, Anna
    et al.
    Kalén, Susanne
    Jirwe, Maria
    Scheja, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lindström, Veronica
    Treat me nice! -a cross-sectional study examining support during the first year in the emergency medical services2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine, ISSN 1757-7241, E-ISSN 1757-7241, Vol. 26, article id 92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Working in the emergency medical service (EMS) can be extremely varying and sometimes physically and psychologically demanding. Being new in this context can be a great challenge. This study aim to describe what ambulance nurses consider to be important support during the first year in the EMS.

    Methods Three hundred and eighty-nine eligible participants that had graduated from the prehospital emergency care program were identified via university registrations office in Sweden. The eligible participants received a study specific questionnaire via mail consisting of 70 statements about support during the first year. The perceived importance of each statement were graded on a 7-point Likert scale. The gradings were analysed using descriptive statistics and frequencies, mean and SD were calculated.

    Results Two hundred and thirty questionnaires were returned fully completed, giving a response rate of 59%. Fourteen statements regarding desirable support were rated with mean values >6.00 and SD<1.00 and considered as being the most important during the first year in the EMS. The important supports regarded; colleagues and work environment, management and organisation, experience-based knowledge, introduction period, practical support, and theoretical support. Most statements regarded culture and climate and the way the newcomers wanted to be treated.

    Conclusion It was concluded that an important way to support newcomers in the EMS is to treat them nice'. This can be achieved by creating an open climate and a welcoming culture where the new professionals feel trusted and treated with respect, created ways to work structurally, have applicable medical guidelines, and for newcomers to receive feedback on their actions.

  • 13. Hörberg, Anna
    et al.
    Lindström, Veronica
    Kalén, Susanne
    Scheja, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Vicente, Veronica
    Striving for balance - A qualitative study to explore the experiences of nurses new to the ambulance service in Sweden2017In: Nurse Education in Practice, ISSN 1471-5953, E-ISSN 1873-5223, Vol. 27, p. 63-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New nurses and nurses new to a professional practice go through a transition where they adopt a new professional identity. This has been described as a challenging time where peer support and limited responsibility are considered necessary. Little is known about the experience of nurses being new to the ambulance service where support is limited and the nurse holds full responsibility of patient care. The aim of this study has therefore been to explore nurses' experiences during their first year of employment in the Swedish ambulance service. Data was generated from semi-structured interviews with 13 nurses having less than 12 months of experience of work in the ambulance service. The nurses represented nine different districts in Sweden. Analysis was a latent inductive qualitative content analysis. The analysis resulted in the main category, Striving for balance during the transition process in the ambulance context. Transition in the ambulance service was experienced as a balance act between emotions, expectations and a strive for professional development. The balance was negatively affected by harsh, condescending attitudes among colleagues and the lack of structured support and feedback. In striving for balance in their new professional practice, the nurses described personal, unsupervised strategies for professional development.

  • 14. Hörberg, Anna
    et al.
    Lindström, Veronica
    Scheja, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Conte, Helen
    Kalen, Susanne
    Challenging encounters as experienced by registered nurses new to the emergency medical service: explored by using the theory of communities of practice2019In: Advances in Health Sciences Education, ISSN 1382-4996, E-ISSN 1573-1677, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 233-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to explore challenging encounters experienced by registered nurses (RN) during their first year in the emergency medical service by using the social learning theory of communities of practice. During the first year in a new professional practice, a new RN experiences a transition during which the new professional identity is being formed. This is a challenging and demanding period of time. According to the learning theory of communities of practice by Lave and Wenger, individuals' learning and development in a new professional practice occurs through participation in social activity and is influenced by context. This study is based on the qualitative data from semi-structured interviews. Thirty-two RNs working in the Swedish emergency medical service were interviewed via telephone during the spring of 2017. A qualitative content analysis with deductive reasoning of the interviews was used. The analysis process generated the main category; New RNs participation is challenged by unpredictability and uncertainty in practice. The main category was based on three generic categories; Loneliness in an unpredictable context, Uncertainty about the team, and Uncertainty in action. The challenges new RNs encounter during the first year relate to all three dimensions of a community of practice; mutual engagement, joint enterprise and shared repertoire. The encountered challenges also relate to the EMS context. Taking into account all these aspects when designing support models for RN's professional development may be advantageous for creating positive development for RNs new to the EMS and/or similar practices.

  • 15. Lewitt, Moira S.
    et al.
    Ehrenborg, Ewa
    Scheja, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Brauner, Annelie
    Stereotyping at the undergraduate level revealed during interprofessional learning between future doctors and biomedical scientists2010In: Journal of Interprofessional Care, ISSN 1356-1820, E-ISSN 1469-9567, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 53-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interprofessional education (IPE) involving undergraduate health professionals is expected to promote collaboration in their later careers. The role of IPE between doctors and biomedical scientists has not been explored at the undergraduate level. Our aim was to introduce IPE sessions for medical and biomedical students in order to identify the benefits and barriers to these groups learning together. Medical and biomedical students together discussed laboratory results, relevant literature, and ideas for developing new diagnostic tools. T]he programme was evaluated with questionnaires and interviews. While there was general support for the idea of IPE, medical and biomedical students responded differently. Biomedical students were more critical, wanted more explicit learning objectives and felt that their professional role was often misunderstood. The medical students were more enthusiastic but regarded the way the biomedical students communicated concerns about their perceived role as a barrier to effective interprofessional learning. We conclude that stereotyping, which can impede effective collaborations between doctors and biomedical scientists, is already present at the undergraduate level and may be a barrier to IPE. Effective learning opportunities should be supported at the curriculum level and be designed to specifically enable a broad appreciation of each other's future professional roles.

  • 16. Lindblom, Per
    et al.
    Scheja, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Torell, Eva
    Astrand, Per
    Felländer-Tsai, Li
    Learning orthopaedics: assessing medical students' experiences of interprofessional training in an orthopaedic clinical education ward.2007In: J Interprof Care, ISSN 1356-1820, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 413-23Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Interprofessional training is becoming commonplace in undergraduate medical education. Orthopaedics is considered to be a setting that offers good opportunities for interprofessional training. Curriculum overload is a common problem, which has to be addressed with respect to content. The aim of this study was to assess medical students' experiences of interprofessional care during their orthopaedic training. Over a two-week period, medical, nursing, physiotherapy and occupational therapy students trained together in teams in an orthopaedic ward (Clinical Education Ward, CEW). A questionnaire was distributed to assess the impact of this new curriculum on medical students. A patient-satisfaction questionnaire was also administered to assess patients' satisfaction with the treatment provided by students at the CEW. In general, the medical students were satisfied with the interprofessional course in the CEW. Of the 178 medical students who took the course, 134 (75%) responded to the questionnaire. Total time devoted to orthopaedics was reported to be between 7 - 44% (mean). The total time regarding medical tasks was reported to be between 57 - 71% (mean). Results from the patient-satisfaction questionnaire showed that patients perceived CEW as highly satisfactory. The medical students reported generally satisfactory experiences of interprofessional orthopaedic training in general. In an interprofessional training context, professional supervision and role modeling takes on added importance, and may be regarded as essential ingredients in helping students to learn effectively within an authentic clinical setting.

  • 17. Manninen, Katri
    et al.
    Welin Henriksson, Elisabeth
    Scheja, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Silén, Charlotte
    Supervisors’ pedagogical role at a clinical education ward – an ethnographic study2015In: BMC Nursing, ISSN 1472-6955, E-ISSN 1472-6955, Vol. 14, article id 55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Clinical practice is essential for health care students. The supervisor’s role and how supervision should be organized are challenging issues for educators and clinicians. Clinical education wards have been established to meet these challenges and they are units with a pedagogical framework facilitating students’ training in real clinical settings. Supervisors support students to link together theoretical and practical knowledge and skills. From students’ perspectives, clinical education wards have shown potential to enhance students’ learning. Thus there is a need for deeper understanding of supervisors’ pedagogical role in this context. We explored supervisors’ approaches to students’ learning at a clinical education ward where students are encouraged to independently take care of patients.

    Method: An ethnographic approach was used to study encounters between patients, students and supervisors. The setting was a clinical education ward for nursing students at a university hospital. Ten observations with ten patients, 11 students and five supervisors were included in the study. After each observation, individual follow-up interviews with all participants and a group interview with supervisors were conducted. Data were analysed using an ethnographic approach.

    Results: Supervisors’ pedagogical role has to do with balancing patient care and student learning. The students were given independence, which created pedagogical challenges for the supervisors. They handled these challenges by collaborating as a supervisory team and taking different acts of supervision such as allowing students their independence, being there for students and by applying patient-centredness.

    Conclusion: The supervisors’ pedagogical role was perceived as to facilitate students’ learning as a team. Supervisors were both patient- and student-centred by making a nursing care plan for the patients and a learning plan for the students. The plans were guided by clinical and pedagogical guidelines, individually adjusted and followed up.

  • 18.
    Murstedt, Linda
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    von Reybekiel Trostek, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Scheja, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Values in political science students' contextualizations of nationalism2015In: Journal of political science education, ISSN 1551-2177, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 126-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research on conceptual change has argued that it is insufficient to assume that prior knowledge is the only aspect relevant in order to explain the conceptual change process. In addition, “warm constructs” such as emotions, epistemological beliefs, and values have been proposed to play a determinative role. In this study, we aim to further the understanding of the qualitative aspects of such constructs. By investigating how 20 science students interpret Michael Billig’s critical theory of nationalism in written exam papers, we explore how values are involved in university students’ meaning making of nationalism. The results indicate that students in different ways bring alternative values, such as togetherness, pride, and personal identity, in their reasoning, and these become a significant aspect of their meaning making in political science. This suggests that the students enter the classroom with their own ideas and principles of what is “good” or “right” when “practicing political science.” The study thus provides an example of how conceptual change involves accepting prescriptions of a certain intellectual activity.

  • 19.
    Pettersson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Scheja, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Algorithmic contexts and learning potentiality: A case study of students’ understanding of calculus2008In: International journal of mathematical education in science and technology, ISSN 0020-739X, E-ISSN 1464-5211, Vol. 39, no 6, p. 767-784Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study explores the nature of students’ conceptual understanding of calculus. Twenty students of engineering were asked to reflect in writing on the meaning of the concepts of limit and integral. A sub-sample of four students was selected for subsequent interviews, which explored in detail the students’ understandings of the two concepts. Intentional analysis of the students’ written and oral accounts revealed that the students were expressing their understanding of limit and integral within an algorithmic context, in which the very ‘operations’ of these concepts were seen as crucial. The students also displayed great confidence in their ability to deal with these concepts. Implications for the development of a conceptual understanding of calculus are discussed, and it is argued that developing understanding within an algorithmic context can be seen as a stepping stone towards a more complete conceptual understanding of calculus.

  • 20.
    Pettersson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Scheja, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Prospective mathematics teachers’ development of understanding of the threshold concept of a function2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Pettersson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Svedin, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Numerical Analysis and Computer Science (NADA). KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Scheja, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Bälter, Olle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Numerical Analysis and Computer Science (NADA). KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Approaches to studying in first-year engineering: comparison between inventory scores and students' descriptions of their approaches through interviews2018In: Higher Education, ISSN 0018-1560, E-ISSN 1573-174X, Vol. 75, no 5, p. 827-838Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This combined interview and survey study explored the relationship between interview data and data from an inventory describing engineering students' ratings of their approaches to studying. Using the 18-item Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST) students were asked to rate their approaches to studying in relation to particular statements. A subsample of nine first-year engineering students participated in subsequent interviews exploring their experiences of studying and learning. The students' views were examined and interpreted into inventory scores which were compared to the students' actual ratings. The interviews confirmed the scales measured in the inventory and provided illustrations to them. While students who were extreme in either approach were easier to interpret, others provided a good example of the complex combination of approaches that can exhibit itself in one individual. The study illustrates how combined data sets can contribute to achieve a holistic understanding of student learning in its context.

  • 22.
    Ringer, Noam
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wilder, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Scheja, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Gustavsson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Managing children with challenging behaviours. Parents’ meaning-making processes in relation to their children’s ADHD diagnosis2019In: International journal of disability, development and education, ISSN 1034-912X, E-ISSN 1465-346XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates parents’ lived experiences of having a child diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The aim was to explore parents’ meaning-making processes in relation to their children’s ADHD with a focus on understanding the impact that receiving a diagnosis had on the parents’ perceptions of, and ways of managing, their children’s challenging behaviours. Drawing on data collected through semi-structured interviews with 12 parents, we carried out a content analysis of the parents’ accounts, producing a range of categories describing different aspects of the parents’ meaning-making processes in relation to their child receiving an ADHD diagnosis. Five conceptual categories were identified, describing components of a process of adaptation through which the parents – using the diagnosis as a tool – were able to transform feelings of distress over their difficulties in managing their child’s challenging behaviours into feelings of being able to cope with these challenges of integrating the ADHD diagnosis into everyday family life. This research suggests that understanding the long-term processes involved in parents’ meaning-making of an ADHD diagnosis is important and can open up a pathway to developing initiatives to support parents in dealing with their child’s challenging behaviours in everyday life.

  • 23. Ryve, Andreas
    et al.
    Scheja, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wistedt, Inger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Contextualizing mathematical teaching and learning2010In: The First Sourcebook on Nordic Research in Mathematics Education : Norway, Sweden, Iceland, Denmark, and contributions from Finland / [ed] Bharath Sriraman ... [et al.], Charlotte: Information Age Pub. , 2010, p. 319-332Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Scheja, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Att bedriva forskarstudier: En empirisk belysning av doktoranders studiesituation på forskarutbildningen vid institutionen för numerisk analys och datalogi1999Report (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Scheja, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Book review: Peter Knight 2002. Being a Teacher in Higher Education. Buckingham: The Society for Research into Higher Education and Open University Press. vii + 245 pp. Hb. £60.00 Pb. £18.99 Hb.2006In: Higher Education, ISSN 0018-1560 (Print) 1573-174X (Online), Vol. 52, no 4, p. 749-51Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Scheja, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Contextualising studies in higher education: An empirical study of first-year students' experiences of studying and learning in tertiary engineering education2001In: Conference Proceedings of the 9th European Conference for Research on learning and Instruction, 2001, p. 132-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish first-year students’ experiences of studying and learning were investigated with a focus on their interpretations of aspects of the teaching-learning environment they considered to have been important and/or problematic during the year. Data from 86 written student accounts and 15 semi-structured interviews were qualitatively analysed exploring the students’ narratives in terms of personal contextualisations of studying in first-year engineering. The different contextualisations identified among the students’ narratives could be most appropriately captured by the terms exertion, remediation, and autonomy, referring to the disparate ways that the students had understood and set about their studies in relation to perceived constraints of the learning environment. The investigation offers analyses of student learning in higher education derived from an alternative conceptualisation to those typically followed in research in this area.

  • 27.
    Scheja, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Contextualising studies in higher education: First-year experiences of studying and learning in engineering2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The study aims at investigating students’ first-year experiences of studying and learning in tertiary engineering education. At the end of their first year 86 Swedish undergraduates of electrical engineering and computer science at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm were asked to reflect in writing on the conditions for studying and learning as they perceived them. Fifteen of these students were selected for subsequent interviews which explored in greater detail their experiences of studying and learning in engineering education.

    Drawing on a methodological framework – intentional analysis – derived from an alternative conceptualisation of student learning to those typically followed in research within this area, qualitative analyses of the data were carried out which focused on the students’ narratives in terms of actions that they had performed to fulfil certain study goals. The analyses revealed that the students had understood and gone about their studies in different ways: as a question of exertion of disciplined effort, as a problem of remediation taking corrective steps to ‘stay in phase’ with the course schedule, or as a matter of maintaining autonomy in relation to perceived constraints of the teaching-learning environment. It is argued that the students’ varying ways of dealing with their studies may be understood and explained with reference to their personal beliefs about what it means to study and learn.

    The results lead to a particularisation of the notion of ‘learning orientation’ used in previous research to describe students’ personal contexts for study. It has been argued that these personal contexts arise through a ‘complex negotiation process’ between students’ learning orientations and their perceptions of the educational setting. The thesis suggests that this negotiation process can be conceptualised as a process of contextualisation involving beliefs about both cognitive and situational/cultural aspects of studies, working as intrinsic and/or extrinsic determinants of the students’ actions.

  • 28.
    Scheja, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Delayed Understanding and Staying in Phase: Students’ Perceptions of their Study Situation2006In: Higher Education, ISSN 0018-1560, Vol. 52, no 3, p. 421-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Findings are presented from a study of undergraduate students’ experiences of understanding in first-year engineering. At the end of their first year of study 86 Swedish students of electrical engineering and computer science were asked to reflect in writing on their experiences of studying and learning. Fifteen of them also took part in interviews which explored in some detail their experiences of understanding in relation to perceived constraints of the teaching-learning environment. The analyses of the students’ written accounts and the interview data focused on the students’ experiences of studying and of understanding in relation to course work in engineering. The majority of the students reported problematic first-year experiences and testified to a sensation of ‘falling out of phase’ with their studies. This sensation was frequently coupled with a lag in coming to understand course material, which may be characterised in terms of delayed understanding. The notion of delayed understanding is discussed in relation to ideas about students’ perceptions of the learning environment and the impact that those perceptions might have on students’ opportunities to reflect on learning material and develop a solid understanding of course material in engineering education. In conclusion, it is suggested that the the notion of delayed understanding captures the complications of a study situation in which a perceived lack of time to reflect on learning material obstructs students’ understanding of course material in engineering, and also points up a more general aspect of learning observing that time to reflect on previous experiences is an essential component of the process of coming to understand learning material in a particular educational setting.

  • 29.
    Scheja, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Delayed understanding in higher education2003In: Proceedings of the 10th European Conference for Research on Learning and Instruction, 2003, p. 604-05Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Findings are presented from a study of undergraduate students’ experiences of understanding in first-year engineering. At the end of their first year of study 86 Swedish students of electrical engineering and computer science were asked to reflect in writing on their experiences of studying and learning. Fifteen of them were selected for subsequent interview which explored in greater detail their experiences of understanding in relation to perceived constraints of the teaching-learning environment. The analyses of the data focused on the students’ experiences of understanding in relation to studying in first-year engineering. Of particular interest was that students who were struggling to keep up with what they perceived to be an excessive teaching pace also reported experiences of a ‘delayed understanding’ in relation to learning from coursework in computer science and calculus. This finding is discussed in relation to ideas about students’ perceptions of the learning environment, and the impact that those perceptions might have on students’ opportunities to reflect on learning material and develop a personal understanding of course material in engineering education.

  • 30.
    Scheja, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Determinants of action as conceptual devices for analysing learning activities in formal educational settings2001In: Intentionell analys, Pedagogiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet, Stockholm , 2001, p. 19-34Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Scheja, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    En tänkare i tiden2007In: Pedagogiska magasinet, ISSN 1401-3320, no 4, p. 80-83Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 32.
    Scheja, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Experiences of understanding in higher education2002In: The British Psychological Society Education Section Conference Proceedings, 2002, p. 9-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Findings are presented from a study of undergraduate students’ experiences of understanding in first-year engineering. At the end of their first year of study 86 Swedish students of electrical engineering and computer science were asked to reflect in writing on their experiences of studying and learning. Fifteen of them were selected for subsequent interview, which explored in greater detail their experiences of understanding in relation to perceived constraints of the learning environment. The analyses of the data focused on the students’ experiences of understanding in relation to their personal views of studying in first-year engineering. Of particular interest was that students who reported difficulty in coping with the course demands, also testified to experiences of a ‘delayed understanding’, which implied a notion of an instant understanding involving a demand for a direct assimilation of the learning material to stay in phase with the course schedule and with the curriculum as a whole. The results are discussed in relation to ongoing research on student learning which points up the importance of bringing about a synchronisation between students’ learning goals and curricular aims.

  • 33.
    Scheja, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Exploring potentialities for cosmopolitan learning in Swedish teacher education.2015In: Policy Futures in Education, ISSN 1478-2103, E-ISSN 1478-2103, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 775-787Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to explore student teachers’ experiences of learning in teacher education, with a focus on how students describe their ways of thinking about their own learning in relation to their future professional role as teachers and how these descriptions relate to emerging cosmopolitan visions for student learning in teacher education. Data were collected through qualitative interviews with a small sample of student teachers at two Swedish universities. Thirty student teachers writing their final exam papers were invited to participate in an interview. Of these, 14 volunteered for audio-recorded, individual interviews exploring the students’ experiences of studying and learning. The analysis drew on a conceptual framework developed in research on students’ approaches to studying and learning and focused on how students described their experiences of learning in the course of studying, with an emphasis on the ways in which students reflected on their own emergent understandings of knowledge that they believe to be central to the process of becoming a professional teacher. These reflective accounts were subsequently analysed with a focus on the ways in which they connect to current philosophical ideas of cosmopolitan learning in teacher education. While the student teachers did not explicitly link their own understandings of what is involved in becoming a teacher to any cosmopolitan views raised in their teacher education, their ways of thinking about their own emergent professional understanding of teaching revealed a certain reflexive potential that can be linked to ideas of cosmopolitan learning in teacher education. This study contributes to educational research by linking an empirically derived conceptualisation of student learning in higher education to broader philosophical visions of higher education specifically addressing the challenges that teacher education faces in the light of the globalisation of society as a whole.

  • 34.
    Scheja, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Inlärningsforskning lär oss mer om lärandet1995In: Skolvärlden, no 16Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 35.
    Scheja, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Intentionell analys: En empirisk belysning av ett forskningsperspektiv1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The thesis describes and discusses an intentional perspective on learning in formal settings. An empirical study is presented where two groups of 4-6 undergraduate students of education discuss a task confronting them with the concept of probability. The group-discussions were recorded, transcribed, and analysed from an intentional perspective, i.e. a perspective focussing on the meaning-making process in which students ascribe meaning to the task. The study is a critical replication of a study by Kahneman & Tversky (1982) who presented college-students with the same task. It was found that 50% of the students failed to solve the task in accordance with the rules of probability, a fallacy that was explained in terms of "errors of understanding" or "errors of application" committed by the students in their problem-solving.

    In this study an alternative interpretation of the outcome is offered. It is shown how different ways of contextualising the task yield different interpretations of the concept of probability, and hence of the task as a problem: a set-theoretical contextualisation where the task is handled as a logical problem, a 'good-reason-assay contextualisation' where the task is solved as an everyday-problem of the likelihood of events, and a 'survey contextualisation' where the task is dealt with as a statistical problem. Against this background, it is proposed that the 'fallacy' observed by Kahneman & Tversky (1982) can be seen, not necessarily as a result of the students' lack of understanding of elementary probability, but as difficulties in contextualising the task as a problem of probability.

  • 36.
    Scheja, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Och ett år gick...: En utvärdering av det första läsåret på projektlinjen i matematik, fysik och matematisk statistik1996Report (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Scheja, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Pluggets pedagogiska paradoxer2002In: Svenska Dagbladet: Under strecketArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 38.
    Scheja, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Tid för lärande: En empirisk belysning av studenters studiesituation på utbildningsprogrammen datateknik och elektroteknik1997Report (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Scheja, Max
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Bonnevier, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Conceptualising students' experiences of understanding in medicine2010In: Psychology: The journal of the Hellenic Psychological Society, ISSN 1106-5737, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 243-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper draws on ongoing work into student learning in higher education to consider a basis for conceptualising students' experiences of understanding in medicine. Starting with a modest overview of research on the nature of students' experiences of understanding the paper goes on to consider research on students' personal understandings in terms of knowledge objects. Linking on to research on students' epistemological beliefs the paper forges connections to recent research on threshold concepts and related research on conceptual change. Against the background of this brief overview the paper surveys the research on medical education, and then draws on interview data, currently being collected in a Swedish research project to offer a preliminary conceptualisation of students' experiences of understanding in medicine.

  • 40.
    Scheja, Max
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Pettersson, Kerstin
    Transformation and contextualisation: conceptualising students' conceptual understandings of threshold concepts in calculus2010In: Higher Education, ISSN 0018-1560, E-ISSN 1573-174X, Vol. 59, no 2, p. 221-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on student learning in higher education suggests that threshold concepts within various disciplines have the capacity to transform students' understanding. The present study explores students' understanding in relation to particular threshold concepts in mathematics-integral and limit-and tries to clarify in what sense developing an understanding of those threshold concepts involves a transformation of understanding in relation to ways of thinking in mathematics. Drawing on data collected in interviews with students taking a basic course on calculus the analysis offers an initial characterisation of students' understandings as algorithmic. It then proceeds to construct a more fine-grained theoretical account for how these understandings develop in the course of the interview, suggesting that the transformative aspects of threshold concepts may be conceptualised in terms of shifts in students' contextualisations allowing the development of conceptions at different levels of abstraction simultaneously interacting to shape students' awareness of the ways of thinking and practising in the subject.

  • 41.
    Scheja, Max
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wilhelmsson, Niklas
    Josephsson, Anna
    Lonka, Kirsti
    Experiences of learning anatomy in higher education2004In: AMEE-conference Proceedings, 2004, p. 105-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The presentation will describe medical students’

    experiences of studying and learning anatomy, and explore

    ways in which students understand and approach the subject

    of anatomy.

    Summary of work: Data collected through individual interviews

    with 13 students enrolled in the medical programme at a large

    Swedish medical university, were subjected to a qualitative

    content analysis bringing to the fore dominant themes in the

    students’ accounts illustrating how they had set about studying

    and learning.

    Summary of results: The analysis revealed that the students’

    accounts revolved around four main themes addressing

    different aspects of the process of studying and learning

    anatomy: 1) the nature of anatomical knowledge describing

    variations in the students’ conceptions of anatomy; 2) the

    development of anatomical understanding, identifying different

    kinds of anatomical understanding sought after by students; 3)

    the role of anatomical dissections, focusing on dissection as a

    tool for developing a professional identity; and 4) the relation

    between teaching and examination, addressing the need for

    assessment procedures congruous with the forms of

    understanding encouraged in teaching.

    Conclusions: These findings will be discussed in relation to

    current research on learning in higher education, and will

    subsequently inform the development of a national inventory

    of medical students’ ways of studying and learning.

  • 42. Weurlander, Maria
    et al.
    Scheja, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Hult, Håkan
    Wernerson, Annika
    Emotionally challenging learning situations: Medical students' experiences of autopsies2012In: International Journal of Medical Education, ISSN 2042-6372, E-ISSN 2042-6372, Vol. 3, p. 63-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To explore medical students' experiences of an emotionally challenging learning situation: the autopsy.

    Methods: Qualitative data were collected by means of written accounts from seventeen students after their first and third autopsies and a group interview with seven students after their first autopsy. Data was interpreted using inductive thematic analysis.

    Results: Students experienced the autopsy in three ways: as an unnatural situation, as a practical exercise, and as a way to learn how pathologists work. Most students found the situation unpleasant, but some were overwhelmed. Their experiences were characterised by strong unpleasant emotions and closeness to the situation. The body was perceived as a human being, recently alive. Students who experienced the autopsy as a practical exercise saw it mainly as a part of the course and their goal was to learn anatomy and pathology. They seemed to objectify the body and distanced themselves from the situation. Students who approached the autopsy as a way to learn how pathologists work concentrated on professional aspects of the autopsy. The body was perceived as a patient rather than as a biological specimen.

    Conclusions: Autopsies are emotionally challenging learning situations. If students attend autopsies, they need to participate in several autopsies in order to learn about procedures and manifestations of pathological changes. Students need opportunities to discuss their experiences afterwards, and teachers need to be aware of how different students perceive the autopsies, and guide students through the procedure. Our findings emphasize the importance of investigating emotional aspects of medical education.

  • 43. Weurlander, Maria
    et al.
    Scheja, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Hult, Håkan
    Wernerson, Annika
    The struggle to understand: exploring medical students' experiences of learning and understanding during a basic science course2016In: Studies in Higher Education, ISSN 0307-5079, E-ISSN 1470-174X, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 462-477Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the research reported in this paper was to explore students' journey' towards conceptual understanding during an undergraduate course. The task that medical students face - to learn a substantial quantity of detailed knowledge and integrate into a coherent whole in a limited time frame - is demanding. Seven students were interviewed in a group, and 17 students gave their reflections in writing. Data was gathered from both groups on five separate occasions. The findings suggest that students seek different kinds of understandings as they get to grips with their studies. The forms of understanding were: understanding as knowing the language', knowing the map', knowing the catalogue' and experiencing an integrated whole'. Students first appeared to focus on the first two forms, and later in the course, as they learned more, they focused on the catalogue' or the integrated whole'. The findings point to potential pathways students might take towards gaining deeper understanding.

  • 44. Weurlander, Maria
    et al.
    Soderberg, Magnus
    Scheja, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Hult, Hakan
    Wernerson, Annika
    Exploring formative assessment as a tool for learning: students' experiences of different methods of formative assessment2012In: Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, ISSN 0260-2938, E-ISSN 1469-297X, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 747-760Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to provide a greater insight into how formative assessments are experienced and understood by students. Two different formative assessment methods, an individual, written assessment and an oral group assessment, were components of a pathology course within a medical curriculum. In a cohort of 70 students, written accounts were collected from 17 students and group interviews were carried out to explore the students' experiences of these two forms of assessment. All students were engaged in both assessment methods, which were conducted a few weeks apart, and data were collected soon after each assessment. Our findings suggest that formative assessments motivate students to study, make them aware of what they have learned and where they need to study more. Thus, formative assessment can act as a tool for learning, contributing to the process and outcomes of learning. A closer look at students' experiences of each form of assessment reveals interesting differences.

  • 45. Wilhelmsson, Niklas
    et al.
    Dahlgren, Lars Owe
    Hult, Håkan
    Scheja, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lonka, Kirsti
    Josephson, Anna
    The anatomy of learning anatomy2010In: Advances in Health Sciences Education, ISSN 1382-4996, E-ISSN 1573-1677, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 153-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The experience of clinical teachers as well as research results about senior medical students' understanding of basic science concepts has much been debated. To gain a better understanding about how this knowledge-transformation is managed by medical students, this work aims at investigating their ways of setting about learning anatomy. Second-year medical students were interviewed with a focus on their approach to learning and their way of organizing their studies in anatomy. Phenomenographic analysis of the interviews was performed in 2007 to explore the complex field of learning anatomy. Subjects were found to hold conceptions of a dual notion of the field of anatomy and the interplay between details and wholes permeated their ways of studying with an obvious endeavor of understanding anatomy in terms of connectedness and meaning. The students' ways of approaching the learning task was characterized by three categories of description; the subjects experienced their anatomy studies as memorizing, contextualizing or experiencing. The study reveals aspects of learning anatomy indicating a deficit in meaningfulness. Variation in approach to learning and contextualization of anatomy are suggested as key-elements in how the students arrive at understanding. This should be acknowledged through careful variation of the integration of anatomy in future design of medical curricula.

  • 46.
    Öhrstedt, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Scheja, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Psychology students’ perceptions of the correspondence between approaches to learning and outcomes2015In: EARLI 2015 Book of Abstracts, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychology students' perceptions of the correspondence between approaches to learning and academic outcome were mapped and compared with actual influence. Both quantitative and qualitative data were analysed. Preliminary results suggest a successive homogenization of student activities related to coursework. The perception of applying more "efficient" ways of dealing with coursework, corresponding better to examination demands, was identified as an important driver. Although the development towards perceived efficacy could be described as students successively adopting higher levels of surface approaches to learning, students in general judged such approaches as resulting in poorer examination grades, compared to deep approaches. However, surface approaches to learning were negatively correlated to examination grades, but to a lesser extent than students thought, while deep approaches turned out to be less influential. Strategic approaches to learning stood out as having the most positive impact on course grades, both as judged by the students and in actual fact.

  • 47.
    Öhrstedt, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Scheja, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Targeting efficient studying ­­– first-semester psychology students’ experiences2018In: Educational research (Windsor. Print), ISSN 0013-1881, E-ISSN 1469-5847, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 80-96Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous research indicates that critical student features, such as approaches to learning and decisions of how to organise studying activities, develops in bi-directional interactions between personal and learning environmental factors. However, attempts to influence students’ studying activities in certain directions by manipulating the learning environment often prove unsuccessful. A deeper analysis of the student perspective is needed, since students’ subjective perceptions of the learning environment to a great extent will influence their individual ways of going about studying and learning.  In particular, we need to clarify which aspects steer students’ towards focusing on certain studying activities in a particular course context.

    Purpose: This study aimed at elaborating the student perspective of the process of selection of studying activities by searching for similarities in references to factors perceived as guiding this process among students representing very different combinations of approaches to learning.

    Sample, design and methods: Students’ approaches to learning were evaluated with the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST) in two successive psychology introductory courses (N=261). A random (N=5) and a purposive (N=6) student sample was then selected and interviewed. Seven of the students also took part in follow-up interviews six months later. The qualitative analysis aimed at mapping and extracting similarities in students’ perceptions of and dealing with the selection of studying activities.

    Results: Despite great differences in students’ approaches to learning and reported actual studying activities, all students interviewed referred to a common set of reference points perceived as guiding their ways of studying, i.e. their perception of 1) previous studying experiences, 2) course recommendations, 3) learning outcomes, 4) assessment demands, and 5) time and effort spent on studying.

    Conclusions: Students’ selections of studying activities are suggested to be seen as a process of negotiation based on input from certain reference points. In the course context under study the targeting process resulted in a general homogenization of studying activities and permitted students to feel they were studying efficiently. Although possible generalization of the results remains to be investigated, it is suggested that understanding students’ perceptions of reference points and general understanding of the targeting process could contribute to a better grasp of how student factors, course contexts, and students’ perceptions of these, interact.

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