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  • 1.
    Addo, Rebecka N.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Nord, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Olfactory Functions in Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorders2017In: Perception, ISSN 0301-0066, E-ISSN 1468-4233, Vol. 46, no 3-4, p. 530-537Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are often characterized by atypical sensory behavior (hyperor hyporeactivity) although evidence is scarce regarding olfactory abilities in ASD; 16 adults with high-functioning ASD (mean age: 38.2, SD: 9.7) and 14 healthy control subjects (mean age: 42.0 years, SD: 12.5) were assessed in odor threshold, free and cued odor identification, and perceived pleasantness, intensity, and edibility of everyday odors. Although results showed no differences between groups, the Bayes Factors (close to 1) suggested that the evidence for no group differences on the threshold and identification tests was inconclusive. In contrast, there was some evidence for no group differences on perceived edibility (BF01 = 2.69) and perceived intensity (BF01 = 2.80). These results do not provide conclusive evidence for or against differences between ASD and healthy controls on olfactory abilities. However, they suggest that there are no apparent group differences in subjective ratings of odors.

  • 2.
    Alvarsson, Jesper J.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stress Recovery during Exposure to Nature Sound and Environmental Noise2010In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 1036-1046Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research suggests that visual impressions of natural compared with urban environments facilitate recovery after psychological stress. To test whether auditory stimulation has similar effects, 40 subjects were exposed to sounds from nature or noisy environments after a stressful mental arithmetic task. Skin conductance level (SCL) was used to index sympathetic activation, and high frequency heart rate variability (HF HRV) was used to index parasympathetic activation. Although HF HRV showed no effects, SCL recovery tended to be faster during natural sound than noisy environments. These results suggest that nature sounds facilitate recovery from sympathetic activation after a psychological stressor.

  • 3.
    Anders, Silke
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. University of Tübingen, Germany; University of Lübeck, Germany.
    Eippert, Falk
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Birbaumer, Niels
    Lotze, Martin
    Wildgruber, Dirk
    When seeing outweighs feeling: a role for prefrontal cortex in passive control of negative affect in blindsight2009In: Brain, ISSN 0006-8950, E-ISSN 1460-2156, Vol. 132, no 11, p. 3021-3031Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Affective neuroscience has been strongly influenced by the viewthat a ‘feeling’ is the perception of somatic changesand has consequently often neglected the neural mechanisms thatunderlie the integration of somatic and other information inaffective experience. Here, we investigate affective processingby means of functional magnetic resonance imaging in nine corticallyblind patients. In these patients, unilateral postgeniculatelesions prevent primary cortical visual processing in part ofthe visual field which, as a result, becomes subjectively blind.Residual subcortical processing of visual information, however,is assumed to occur in the entire visual field. As we have reportedearlier, these patients show significant startle reflex potentiationwhen a threat-related visual stimulus is shown in their blindvisual field. Critically, this was associated with an increaseof brain activity in somatosensory-related areas, and an increasein experienced negative affect. Here, we investigated the patients’response when the visual stimulus was shown in the sighted visualfield, that is, when it was visible and cortically processed.Despite the fact that startle reflex potentiation was similarin the blind and sighted visual field, patients reported significantlyless negative affect during stimulation of the sighted visualfield. In other words, when the visual stimulus was visibleand received full cortical processing, the patients’ phenomenalexperience of affect did not closely reflect somatic changes.This decoupling of phenomenal affective experience and somaticchanges was associated with an increase of activity in the leftventrolateral prefrontal cortex and a decrease of affect-relatedsomatosensory activity. Moreover, patients who showed strongerleft ventrolateral prefrontal cortex activity tended to showa stronger decrease of affect-related somatosensory activity.Our findings show that similar affective somatic changes canbe associated with different phenomenal experiences of affect,depending on the depth of cortical processing. They are in linewith a model in which the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortexis a relay station that integrates information about subcorticallytriggered somatic responses and information resulting from in-depthcortical stimulus processing. Tentatively, we suggest that theobserved decoupling of somatic responses and experienced affect,and the reduction of negative phenomenal experience, can beexplained by a left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex-mediatedinhibition of affect-related somatosensory activity.

  • 4.
    Cosme, Danielle
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. University of Oregon, USA.
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Self-Reported Trait Mindfulness and Affective Reactivity: A Motivational Approach Using Multiple Psychophysiological Measures2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 3, article id e0119466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a form of attention, mindfulness is qualitatively receptive and non-reactive, and is thought to facilitate adaptive emotional responding. One suggested mechanism is that mindfulness facilitates disengagement from an affective stimulus and thereby decreases affective reactivity. However, mindfulness has been conceptualized as a state, intervention, and trait. Because evidence is mixed as to whether self-reported trait mindfulness decreases affective reactivity, we used a multi-method approach to study the relationship between individual differences in self-reported trait mindfulness and electrocortical, electrodermal, electromyographic, and self-reported responses to emotional pictures. Specifically, while participants (N = 51) passively viewed pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant IAPS pictures, we recorded high-density (128 channels) electrocortical, electrodermal, and electromyographic data to the pictures as well as to acoustic startle probes presented during the pictures. Afterwards, participants rated their subjective valence and arousal while viewing the pictures again. If trait mindfulness spontaneously reduces general emotional reactivity, then for individuals reporting high rather than low-mindfulness, response differences between emotional and neutral pictures would show relatively decreased early posterior negativity (EPN) and late positive potential (LPP) amplitudes, decreased skin conductance responses, and decreased subjective ratings for valence and arousal. High mindfulness would also be associated with decreased emotional modulation of startle eyeblink and P3 amplitudes. Although results showed clear effects of emotion on the dependent measures, in general, mindfulness did not moderate these effects. For most measures, effect sizes were small with rather narrow confidence intervals. These data do not support the hypothesis that individual differences in self-reported trait mindfulness are related to spontaneous emotional responses during picture viewing.

  • 5. Critchley, Hugo D
    et al.
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rotshtein, Pia
    Ohman, Arne
    Dolan, Raymond J
    Neural systems supporting interoceptive awareness.2004In: Nat Neurosci, ISSN 1097-6256, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 189-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Influential theories of human emotion argue that subjective feeling states involve representation of bodily responses elicited by emotional events. Within this framework, individual differences in intensity of emotional experience reflect variation in sensitivity to internal bodily responses. We measured regional brain activity by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during an interoceptive task wherein subjects judged the timing of their own heartbeats. We observed enhanced activity in insula, somatomotor and cingulate cortices. In right anterior insular/opercular cortex, neural activity predicted subjects' accuracy in the heartbeat detection task. Furthermore, local gray matter volume in the same region correlated with both interoceptive accuracy and subjective ratings of visceral awareness. Indices of negative emotional experience correlated with interoceptive accuracy across subjects. These findings indicate that right anterior insula supports a representation of visceral responses accessible to awareness, providing a substrate for subjective feeling states.

  • 6.
    Eklund, Rasmus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Gerdfeldter, Billy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Effects of a Manual Response Requirement on Early and Late Correlates of Auditory Awareness2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 2083Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In hearing, two neural correlates of awareness are the auditory awareness negativity (AAN) and the late positivity (LP). These correlates of auditory awareness are typically observed with tasks in which subjects are required to report their awareness with manual responses. Thus, the correlates may be confounded by this manual response requirement. We manipulated the response requirement in a tone detection task (N = 52). Tones were presented at each subject’s individual awareness threshold while high-density electroencephalography (EEG) activity was recorded. In one response condition, subjects pushed a button if they were aware of the tone and withheld responding if they were unaware of the tone. In the other condition, subjects pushed a button if they were unaware of the tone and withheld responding if they were aware of the tone. To capture AAN and LP, difference waves were computed between aware and unaware trials, separately for trials in which responses were required and trials in which responses were not required. Results suggest that AAN and LP are unaffected by the response requirement. These findings imply that in hearing, early and late correlates of awareness are not confounded by a manual response requirement. Furthermore, the results suggest that AAN originates from bilateral auditory cortices, supporting the view that AAN is a neural correlate of localized recurrent processing in early sensory areas.

  • 7.
    Eklund, Rasmus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Auditory awareness negativity is an electrophysiological correlate of awareness in an auditory threshold task2019In: Consciousness and Cognition, ISSN 1053-8100, E-ISSN 1090-2376, Vol. 71, p. 70-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One theory of visual awareness proposes that electrophysiological activity related to awareness occurs in primary visual areas approximately 200 ms after stimulus onset (visual awareness negativity: VAN) and in fronto-parietal areas about 300 ms after stimulus onset (late positivity: LP). Although similar processes might be involved in auditory awareness, only sparse evidence exists for this idea. In the present study, we recorded electrophysiological activity while subjects listened to tones that were presented at their own awareness threshold. The difference in electrophysiological activity elicited by tones that subjects reported being aware of versus unaware of showed an early negativity about 200 ms and a late positivity about 300 ms after stimulus onset. These results closely match those found in vision and provide convincing evidence for an early negativity (auditory awareness negativity: AAN), as well as an LP. These findings suggest that theories of visual awareness are also applicable to auditory awareness.

  • 8.
    Eklund, Rasmus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Visual awareness negativity is an early neural correlate of awareness: A preregistered study with two Gabor sizes2018In: Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, ISSN 1530-7026, E-ISSN 1531-135X, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 176-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrophysiological recordings are commonly used to study the neural correlates of consciousness in humans. Previous research is inconsistent as to whether awareness can be indexed with visual awareness negativity (VAN) at about 200 ms or if it occurs later. The present study was preregistered with two main aims: First, to provide independent evidence for or against the presence of VAN, and second, to study whether stimulus size may account for the inconsistent findings. Subjects were shown low-contrast Gaussian filtered gratings (Gabor patches) in the four visual quadrants. Gabor size (large and small) was varied in different sessions and calibrated to each subject’s threshold of visual awareness. Event-related potentials were derived from trials in which subjects localized the Gabors correctly to capture the difference between trials in which they reported awareness versus no awareness. Bayesian analyses revealed very strong evidence for the presence of VAN for both Gabor sizes. However, there was no evidence for or against an effect of stimulus size. The present findings provide evidence for VAN as an early neural correlate of awareness.

  • 9.
    Gavazzeni, Joachim
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Andersson, Tom
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Bäckman, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Age, Gender, and Arousal in Recognition of Negative and Neutral Pictures 1 Year Later2012In: Psychology and Aging, ISSN 0882-7974, E-ISSN 1939-1498, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 1039-1052Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Compared with nonarousing stimuli, arousing stimuli enhance memory performance. The most robust effects have been reported for negative stimuli, "the negativity effect," although a number of mediating factors prevent definitive conclusions, for example, age, gender, memory task, retention period, and alternative arousal measures. To clarify whether the negativity effect is robust across age, gender, and time, we studied incidental recognition of neutral and negative pictures from the International Affective Picture System (Lang, Bradley, & Cuthbert, 1999) in healthy younger and older adults-women and men-after a 1-year retention interval. Memory performance was related to 2 arousal measures at encoding, skin conductance response (SCR), and intensity rating of unpleasantness. The results showed weaker overall memory performance for older adults compared with younger adults. The negativity effect on accuracy (d') was gender dependent and age independent. In contrast, the negativity effect on response bias (c) interacted with age, but not gender, being weaker for older adults. Despite significant differences in arousal (SCR and arousal rating) between negative and neutral pictures, the correlations between arousal measures and memory performance were weak. Controlling for age and gender, a small negative partial correlation was found between arousal ratings and accuracy. The results extend previous studies by relating long-term recognition to both age and gender as well as to arousal at encoding.

  • 10.
    Gavazzeni, Joachim
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholm University.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Age effects to negative arousal differ for self-report and electrodermal activity.2008In: Psychophysiology, ISSN 0048-5772, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 148-51Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11. Gray, Marcus A
    et al.
    Harrison, Neil A
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Critchley, Hugo D
    Modulation of emotional appraisal by false physiological feedback during fMRI.2007In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 2, no 6, p. e546-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    James and Lange proposed that emotions are the perception of physiological reactions. Two-level theories of

    emotion extend this model to suggest that cognitive interpretations of physiological changes shape self-reported emotions.

    Correspondingly false physiological feedback of evoked or tonic bodily responses can alter emotional attributions. Moreover,

    anxiety states are proposed to arise from detection of mismatch between actual and anticipated states of physiological

    arousal. However, the neural underpinnings of these phenomena previously have not been examined. Methodology/

    Principal Findings. We undertook a functional brain imaging (fMRI) experiment to investigate how both primary and secondorder

    levels of physiological (viscerosensory) representation impact on the processing of external emotional cues. 12

    participants were scanned while judging face stimuli during both exercise and non-exercise conditions in the context of true

    and false auditory feedback of tonic heart rate. We observed that the perceived emotional intensity/salience of neutral faces

    was enhanced by false feedback of increased heart rate. Regional changes in neural activity corresponding to this behavioural

    interaction were observed within included right anterior insula, bilateral mid insula, and amygdala. In addition, right anterior

    insula activity was enhanced during by asynchronous relative to synchronous cardiac feedback even with no change in

    perceived or actual heart rate suggesting this region serves as a comparator to detect physiological mismatches. Finally, BOLD

    activity within right anterior insula and amygdala predicted the corresponding changes in perceived intensity ratings at both

    a group and an individual level. Conclusions/Significance. Our findings identify the neural substrates supporting

    behavioural effects of false physiological feedback, and highlight mechanisms that underlie subjective anxiety states,

    including the importance of the right anterior insula in guiding second-order ‘‘cognitive’’ representations of bodily arousal

    state.

  • 12.
    Heinisch, C.
    et al.
    Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany.
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gründl, M.
    University of Regensburg, Germany.
    Juckel, G.
    Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany.
    Brüne, M.
    Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany.
    Self-face recognition in schizophrenia is related to insight2013In: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, ISSN 0940-1334, E-ISSN 1433-8491, Vol. 263, no 8, p. 655-662Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A core feature of schizophrenia is the breakdown of the sense of self. A widespread clinical consequence of impaired self-awareness is a lack of insight. Self-face recognition is regarded as one aspect of self-awareness; how this relates to other self-referential processes such as insight into the disorder is as yet unknown. Nineteen patients with schizophrenia performed a facial recognition task using video morphings during which an average face gradually transformed into one’s own, a famous or an unfamiliar face (and vice versa). Reaction times to detect faces during the transitions were compared between patients and a matched control group. In the patient group, we also examined correlations between face recognition and insight, psychopathology, and self-evaluation. Both patients with schizophrenia and controls recognised their own faces faster than unfamiliar faces. Whereas healthy subjects recognised a famous face at an intermediate speed that did not differ significantly from the recognition of one’s own and unfamiliar faces, schizophrenia patients recognised the famous face, similar to their own face, significantly faster than an unfamiliar face. Moreover, in the patient group, higher insight correlated with faster reaction times in distinguishing one’s own from famous faces. Patients with schizophrenia seem to distinguish less than controls between their own and a famous face relative to an unfamiliar face. Patients with good insight into the disorder, however, were better able to differentiate between their own and a famous face. This study supports the view that self-face recognition is an indicator for higher-order self-awareness.

  • 13. Iannilli, Emilia
    et al.
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Arshamian, Artin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Seo, Han-Seok
    A spatiotemporal comparison between olfactory and trigeminal event-related potentials2013In: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 77, p. 254-261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study compared the temporal and spatial aspects of human olfactory and trigeminal processing. A relatively selective trigeminal stimulus, CO2, and a relatively selective olfactory stimulus, H2S, were delivered with an olfactometer to young, healthy volunteers. The analysis was performed in a classical (5-electrode, main ERPs peaks) and modern approach (high topographical resolution, inverse solution, source localization). Results of microstate segmentation highlighted 5 maps that generally described the two processes at cerebral level. The trigeminal response differed from the olfactory response up to 300 ms after stimulus onset. In this time range, source analysis pointed out that the olfactory stimulation involved olfactory related areas, while trigeminal stimulation involved noxious/somatosensoiy specific brain areas. Moreover, from 300 ms on our data showed a similarity between the two processes. Statistical parametrical mapping of the differences between conditions suggested greater activation in a specific motor/sniffing network for the CO2 stimulation (probably related to a regulation of the potential noxious stimulus) and a greater activation of the ipsilateral primary olfactory cortex for H2S.

  • 14.
    Larsson, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Tirado, Carlos
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    A Meta-Analysis of Odor Thresholds and Odor Identification in Autism Spectrum Disorders2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, article id 679Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are often accompanied by atypical visual, auditory, and tactile sensory behavior. Evidence also suggests alterations of the olfactory system, but the pattern of findings appears mixed. To quantify this pattern systematically, we conducted a meta-analysis. Studies were included if they examined olfactory function (i.e., odor threshold, or odor identification) in ASD compared with healthy age-matched control groups. We also coded for the potential moderators gender, age, and IQ. Articles were identified through computerized literature search using Web of Science, PubMed, and Scopus databases. A total of 11 articles compared odor threshold and/or odor identification between cases and controls (for threshold, n = 143 ASD and 148 controls; and for identification, n = 132 ASD and 139 controls). Effects sizes showed a substantial heterogeneity. As a result, the 95% prediction intervals were wide and ranged between a large negative and a large positive effect size for odor threshold, [-1.86, 2.05], and for odor identification, [-1.51, 2.52]. Exploratory analyses suggested that age and IQ may be potential moderators. To conclude, the large heterogeneity is consistent with the notion of both hyposensitivity and hypersensitivity in individuals with ASD. However, future research needs to predict and test the specific direction of the effect to provide convincing evidence for atypical olfactory functions in ASD.

  • 15.
    Lovén, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Rehnman, Jenny
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Peira, Nathalie
    Herlitz, Agneta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Who are you looking at?: The influence of face gender on visual attention and memory for own- and other-race faces2012In: Memory, ISSN 0965-8211, E-ISSN 1464-0686, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 321-331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research suggests that the own-race bias (ORB) in memory for faces is a result of other-race faces receiving less visual attention at encoding. As women typically display an own-gender bias in memory for faces and men do not, we investigated whether face gender and sex of viewer influenced visual attention and memory for own- and other-race faces, and if preferential viewing of own-race faces contributed to the ORB in memory. Participants viewed pairs of female or male own- and other-race faces while their viewing time was recorded. Afterwards, they completed a surprise memory test. We found that (1) other-race males received the initial focus of attention, (2) own-race faces were viewed longer than other-race faces over time, although the difference was larger for female faces, and (3) even though longer viewing time increased the probability of remembering a face, it did not explain the magnified ORB in memory for female faces. Importantly, these findings highlight that face gender moderates attentional responses to and memory for own- and other-race faces.

  • 16.
    Maurex, Liselotte
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Zaboli, Ghazal
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Åsberg, Marie
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Leopardi, Rosario
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Öhman, Arne
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Emotionally controlled decision-making and a gene variant related to serotonin synthesis in women with borderline personality disorder2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 5-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) was used to examine (i) social decision-making in women with borderline personality disorder (BPD), and (ii) the relationship between impaired decision-making and the tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (TPH-1) gene, involved in serotonin synthesis. Forty-two women with BPD and a history of suicide attempts were genotyped, and the frequency of a TPH-1 haplotype previously uniquely associated with BPD was calculated. The BPD group scored significantly lower than a control group in the IGT. Furthermore, the TPH-1 haplotype displayed a significantly higher frequency in BPD participants with impaired decision making, compared to BPD participants with normal scores. These findings suggest that impaired decision-making as determined by the IGT is a feature of BPD and may be (i) associated with serotonin dysfunction, and (ii) possibly relevant for suicidal behavior.

  • 17.
    Norberg, Joakim
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Peira, Nathalie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Never mind the spider: Late positive potentials to phobic threat at fixation are unaffected by perceptual load2010In: Psychophysiology, ISSN 0048-5772, E-ISSN 1469-8986, Vol. 47, no 6, p. 1151-1158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research suggests that processing of emotional stimuli may be eliminated if a concurrent task places sufficient demands on attentional resources. To test whether this holds for stimuli with strong emotional significance, pictures of spiders as well as mushrooms were presented at fixation to spider-fearful and non-fearful participants. Concurrently, perceptual load was manipulated in two levels with a peripheral letter discrimination task. Results of event-related potentials showed that, compared with non-fearful participants, spider-fearful participants showed greater late positive potentials (LPP) to spiders than mushrooms, which provides a manipulation check that spiders were emotionally meaningful to spider-fearful participants. Critically, this effect was not affected by level of perceptual load. These findings suggest that strong emotional stimuli at fixation may resist manipulations of perceptual load.

  • 18.
    Norberg, Joakim
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Similar effects of manipulations of attention on processing of phobic and nonphobic picturesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies showed reduced amplitudes of the early posterior negativity (EPN) and late positive potential (LPP) to emotional pictures when their location was task irrelevant. Perceptual load showed mixed effects on ERPs to emotional pictures. The present study investigated whether effects of spatial attention and perceptual load on emotional ERPs differed between phobic and other highly negative but nonphobic stimuli. Results confirmed that participants with phobia showed greater EPN and LPP to phobic and nonphobic, negative pictures than to neutral pictures. Critically, when the location of emotional pictures was task-irrelevant, LPP was reduced similarly to both phobic and nonphobic negative pictures (EPN was unaffected). Perceptual load had no effects on emotional ERPs to either phobic or nonphobic negative pictures. Our findings suggest that effects of spatial attention and perceptual load on emotional ERPs are comparable for phobic and other highly negative but nonphobic stimuli.

  • 19.
    Norberg, Joakim
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Spiders leave no one untouched: Spider pictures increase emotional ERPs beyond arousal and valenceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    People with phobias show enhanced amplitudes on emotional event-related potentials (ERPs) to phobic stimuli. Yet, it is unresolved whether there are independent contributions on the emotional ERPs that cannot be explained by ratings of high arousal and negative valence. We recorded ERPs as participants with and without spider phobia viewed spider pictures, highly negative pictures, and neutral pictures. Participants with phobia showed larger amplitudes in the early posterior negativity (EPN) and the early interval of the late positive potential (LPP) to spider than negative pictures. Importantly, participants without phobia also showed larger amplitudes to spider than neutral pictures even though they rated spiders and neutral pictures as equally neutral in valence and equally low in arousal. These findings suggest two effects of spider pictures on attention: One effect of emotion (valence and arousal) that influences only participants with phobia. The other effect influences both participants with and without phobia. We suggest that this is an effect of evolutionary threat. But, because this effect was present in participants with and without phobia, it is unlikely to play a role in the etiology of phobia.

  • 20.
    Nordström, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Emotional event-related potentials are larger to figures than scenes but are similarly reduced by inattention2012In: BMC neuroscience (Online), ISSN 1471-2202, E-ISSN 1471-2202, Vol. 13, p. 49-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In research on event-related potentials (ERP) to emotional pictures, greater attention to emotional than neutral stimuli (i.e., motivated attention) is commonly indexed by two difference waves between emotional and neutral stimuli: the early posterior negativity (EPN) and the late positive potential (LPP). Evidence suggests that if attention is directed away from the pictures, then the emotional effects on EPN and LPP are eliminated. However, a few studies have found residual, emotional effects on EPN and LPP. In these studies, pictures were shown at fixation, and picture composition was that of simple figures rather than that of complex scenes. Because figures elicit larger LPP than do scenes, figures might capture and hold attention more strongly than do scenes. Here, we showed negative and neutral pictures of figures and scenes and tested first, whether emotional effects are larger to figures than scenes for both EPN and LPP, and second, whether emotional effects on EPN and LPP are reduced less for unattended figures than scenes.

    Results: Emotional effects on EPN and LPP were larger for figures than scenes. When pictures were unattended, emotional effects on EPN increased for scenes but tended to decrease for figures, whereas emotional effects on LPP decreased similarly for figures and scenes.

    Conclusions: Emotional effects on EPN and LPP were larger for figures than scenes, but these effects did not resist manipulations of attention more strongly for figures than scenes. These findings imply that the emotional content captures attention more strongly for figures than scenes, but that the emotional content does not hold attention more strongly for figures than scenes.

  • 21.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gospic, Katarina
    Petrovic, Predrag
    Ingvar, Martin
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Effects of oxazepam on affective perception, recognition, and event-related potentials2011In: Psychopharmacology, ISSN 0033-3158, E-ISSN 1432-2072, Vol. 215, no 2, p. 301-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Little is known about how rapid electrocortical responses (event-related potentials; ERPs) to affective pictures are modulated by benzodiazepine agonists. The present study investigated effects of oxazepam (20 mg p.o.) on behavioral measures and ERPs associated with affective picture processing during perception and recognition memory retrieval. Methods Forty-three healthy young adults were given oxazepam or placebo treatment under a double-blind experimental procedure. Affective pictures (negatively arousing or neutral) elicited ERP responses and participants rated pictures for emotionality (during incidental encoding) and recognition. Results Oxazepam did not affect perceptual (P1, P2) or emotional (early posterior negativity and late parietal positivity) ERPs or ratings during perception. However, oxazepam impaired recognition performance and decreased positive mid-frontal ERP component at 420-450 ms for old vs. new pictures. The memory impairment was retained at the delayed memory test. Conclusions Oxazepam does not selectively influence electrocortical or perceptual indexes of emotional perception or emotional memory. Rather, it blocks memory consolidation independent of valence category. These findings indicate that ERPs can be of use in assessing effects of benzodiazepines on memory-related processes.

  • 22.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet.
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Hedner, Margareta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Odor identification impairment in carriers of ApoE-epsilon 4 is independent of clinical dementia2010In: Neurobiology of Aging, ISSN 0197-4580, E-ISSN 1558-1497, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 567-577Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ApoE acme is expressed in olfactory brain structures and is believed to play a role in neuronal regenerative processes as well as in development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia The epsilon 4 allele lots been reported to be associated with compromised odor identification ability in the elderly, and this deficit has been interpreted as a sign of pre-diagnostic AD However, because it has not been demonstrated that the relationship between the epsilon 4 allele and odor identification is mediated by dementia, it is possible that the epsilon 4 allele may have an effect on odor identification over and above any effects of dementia. The present study investigated effects of ApoE-status on odor identification in a lame, population-based sample (n =1236) of adults (45-80 years), who were assessed for dementia at time of testing and 5 years later The results showed that the epsilon 4 allele was associated with an odor identification deficit among, elderly participants (75-80) Critically. this effect remained after current and pre-diagnostic dementia, vocabulary, global cognitive status and health variables were partialled out The present results suggest that the ApoE gene plays a role in olfactory functioning that is independent of dementia conversion within 5 years

  • 23.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Syrjänen, Elmeri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Ekström, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Fast Versus Slow Word Integration of Visual and Olfactory Objects: EEG Biomarkers of Decision Speed Variability2018In: Behavioral Neuroscience, ISSN 0735-7044, E-ISSN 1939-0084, Vol. 132, no 6, p. 587-594Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In psychological experiments, behavioral speed varies across trials, and this variation is often associated with corresponding fluctuations in cortical activity. Little is known about such cortical variations in semantic priming tasks where target words are matched with preceding sensory object cues. Here, two visually presented target words (pear and lilac) were repeatedly cued by corresponding odors or pictures, and the participants were to indicate matching or nonmatching combinations. Data were split in behaviorally fast versus slow trials. We hypothesized that slow trials would be associated with higher prestimulus alpha activity and reduced ERP amplitudes, and that response-time differences between odor-cued and picture-cued trials would be especially large in slow behavioral trials. Results confirmed that slow trials showed increased alpha-band activity prior to word target onset, as well as amplitude decreases in the sensory P1 and semantic N400 components. However, no interactions between cue-modality and processing speed were observed. Instead, odor-cue integration responses were uniquely delayed on incongruent trials, a novel behavioral effect that was not observed in EEG measures. The results show that semantic integration speed is reflected in cortical activity before and during stimulus processing. Behavioral interactions with cue modality did not correspond to observed cortical activity changes, perhaps because olfactory circuits are not readily observed in scalp-recorded EEG. We conclude that combining behavioral speed variability and cortical EEG measures is useful in understanding the fluctuating nature of cognitive processing sequences.

  • 24.
    Peira, Nathalie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Golkar, Armita
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    What you fear will appear: Detection of schematic spiders in spider fear2010In: Experimental psychology (Göttingen), ISSN 1618-3169, E-ISSN 2190-5142, Vol. 57, no 6, p. 470-475Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Various experimental tasks suggest that fear guides attention. However, because these tasks often lack ecological validity, it is unclear to what extent results from these tasks can be generalized to real-life situations. In change detection tasks, a brief interruption of the visual input (i.e., a blank interval or a scene cut) often results in undetected changes in the scene. This setup resembles real-life viewing behavior and is used here to increase ecological validity of the attentional task without compromising control over the stimuli presented. Spider-fearful and nonfearful women detected schematic spiders and flowers that were added to one of two identical background pictures that alternated with a brief blank in between them (i.e., flicker paradigm). Results showed that spider-fearful women detected spiders (but not flowers) faster than did nonfearful women. Because spiders and flowers had similar low-level features, these findings suggest that fear guides attention on the basis of object features rather than simple low-level features.

  • 25.
    Peira, Nathalie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Golkar, Armita
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Öhman, Arne
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Silke, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Emotional responses in spider fear are closely related to picture awareness:  2012In: Cognition & Emotion, ISSN 0269-9931, E-ISSN 1464-0600, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 252-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theories of emotion propose that responses to emotional pictures can occur independently of whether or not people are aware of the picture content. Because evidence from dissociation paradigms is inconclusive, we manipulated picture awareness gradually and studied whether emotional responses varied with degree of awareness. Spider fearful and non-fearful participants viewed pictures of spiders and flowers at four levels of backward masking while electrodermal activity and heart rate were measured continuously. Recognition ratings confirmed that participants’ picture awareness decreased with masking. Critically, effects of spider fear on emotion ratings and heart rate also decreased with masking. These findings suggest that effects of spider fear on emotion ratings and heart rate are closely related to picture awareness.

  • 26.
    Sand, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Processing of unattended, simple negative pictures resists perceptual load2011In: NeuroReport, ISSN 0959-4965, E-ISSN 1473-558X, Vol. 22, no 7, p. 348-352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As researchers debate whether emotional pictures can be processed irrespective of spatial attention and perceptual load, negative and neutral pictures of simple figure-ground composition were shown at fixation and were surrounded by one, two, or three letters. When participants performed a picture discrimination task, there was evidence for motivated attention; that is, an early posterior negativity (EPN) and late positive potential (LPP) to negative versus neutral pictures. When participants performed a letter discrimination task, the EPN was unaffected whereas the LPP was reduced. Although performance decreased substantially with the number of letters (one to three), the LPP did not decrease further. Therefore, attention to simple, negative pictures at fixation seems to resist manipulations of perceptual load.

  • 27.
    Ströberg, Kim
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Andersen, Lau M.
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Electrocortical N400 Effects of Semantic Satiation2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, article id 2117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Semantic satiation is characterised by the subjective and temporary loss of meaning after high repetition of a prime word. To study the nature of this effect, previous electroencephalography (EEG) research recorded the N400, an ERP component that is sensitive to violations of semantic context. The N400 is characterised by a relative negativity to words that are unrelated vs. related to the semantic context. The semantic satiation hypothesis predicts that the N400 should decrease with high repetition. However, previous findings have been inconsistent. Because of these inconsistent findings and the shortcomings of previous research, we used a modified design that minimises confounding effects from non-semantic processes. We recorded 64-channel EEG and analysed the N400 in a semantic priming task in which the primes were repeated 3 or 30 times. Critically, we separated low and high repetition trials and excluded response trials. Further, we varied the physical features (letter case and format) of consecutive primes to minimise confounding effects from perceptual habituation. For centrofrontal electrodes, the N400 was reduced after 30 repetitions (vs. 3 repetitions). Explorative source reconstructions suggested that activity decreased after 30 repetitions in bilateral inferior temporal gyrus, the right posterior section of the superior and middle temporal gyrus, right supramarginal gyrus, bilateral lateral occipital cortex, and bilateral lateral orbitofrontal cortex. These areas overlap broadly with those typically involved in the N400, namely middle temporal gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus. The results support the semantic rather than the perceptual nature of the satiation effect.

  • 28.
    Svärd, Joakim
    et al.
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet.
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Superior recognition performance for happy masked and unmasked faces in both younger and older adults2012In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the aging literature it has been shown that even though emotion recognition performance decreases with age, the decrease is less for happiness than other facial expressions. Studies in younger adults have also revealed that happy faces are more strongly attended to and better recognized than other emotional facial expressions. Thus, there might be a more age independent happy face advantage in facial expression recognition. By using a backward masking paradigm and varying stimulus onset asynchronies (17–267 ms) the temporal development of a happy face advantage, on a continuum from low to high levels of visibility, was examined in younger and older adults. Results showed that across age groups, recognition performance for happy faces was better than for neutral and fearful faces at durations longer than 50 ms. Importantly, the results showed a happy face advantage already during early processing of emotional faces in both younger and older adults. This advantage is discussed in terms of processing of salient perceptual features and elaborative processing of the happy face. We also investigate the combined effect of age and neuroticism on emotional face processing. The rationale was previous findings of age-related differences in physiological arousal to emotional pictures and a relation between arousal and neuroticism. Across all durations, there was an interaction between age and neuroticism, showing that being high in neuroticism might be disadvantageous for younger, but not older adults’ emotion recognition performance during arousal enhancing tasks. These results indicate that there is a relation between aging, neuroticism, and performance, potentially related to physiological arousal.

  • 29.
    Syrjanen, Elmeri
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gender moderates valence effects on the late positive potential to emotional distracters2013In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 551, p. 89-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Attention is captured more strongly by emotional pictures than by neutral pictures. This allocation of attention to emotional pictures is commonly indexed by the late positive potential (LPP). This event-related potential (ERP) is larger for negative and positive pictures than for neutral pictures. However, findings are mixed in regards to valence effects, that is, whether the LPP is larger for negative pictures than for positive pictures (negativity bias) or vice versa (positivity bias). Additionally, previous ERP studies have not explicitly considered a moderating effect of gender. In the present study, positive, negative, and neutral pictures were shown at fixation but were always task-irrelevant. Results showed that LPP amplitudes for the positive and negative distracters were moderated by gender. Men showed a positivity bias on the LPP (i.e., larger amplitudes for positive pictures than for negative pictures). Women did not show a clear valence bias on the LPP, but they showed a negativity bias on picture ratings. These gender differences for the LPP did not habituate, as they were obtained even for pictures that were repeated 20 times. Because previous studies with other measures suggest a positivity bias for men and a negativity bias for women, the present findings extend these studies suggesting that attention allocation for emotional pictures of different valence is similarly moderated by gender.

  • 30.
    Syrjänen, Elmeri
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Zakrzewska, Marta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Wartel, Andreas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Background Odors Modulate N170 ERP Component and Perception of Emotional Facial Stimuli2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 1000Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Successful social interaction relies on the accurate decoding of other peoples' emotional signals, and their contextual integration. However, little is known about how contextual odors may lead to modulation of cortical processing in response to facial expressions. We investigated how unpleasant and pleasant contextual background odors affected emotion perception and cortical event-related potential (ERP) responses to pictures of faces expressing happy, neutral and disgusted facial expressions. Faces were, regardless of expression, rated more positively in the pleasant odor condition and more negatively in the unpleasant odor condition. Faces were overall rated as more emotionally arousing in the presence of an odor, irrespective of its valence. Contextual odors also interacted with facial expressions, such that happy faces were rated as especially non-arousing in the unpleasant odor condition. The early, face-sensitive N170 ERP component also displayed an interaction effect. Here, disgusted faces were affected by the odor context such that the N170 revealed a relatively larger negativity in the context of a pleasant odor compared with an unpleasant odor. There were no odor effects on the responses to faces in other measured ERP components (P1, VPP, P2, and LPP). These results suggest that odors bias socioemotional perception early stages of the visual processing stream. However, effects may vary across emotional expressions and measurements.

  • 31.
    Szychowska, Malina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Eklund, Rasmus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Effects of sound pressure level and visual perceptual load on the auditory mismatch negativity2017In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 640, p. 37-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Auditory change detection has been studied extensively with mismatch negativity (MMN), an event-related potential. Because it is unresolved if the duration MMN depends on sound pressure level (SPL), we studied effects of different SPLs (56, 66, and 76 dB) on the duration MMN. Further, previous research suggests that the MMN is reduced by a concurrent visual task. Because a recent behavioral study found that high visual perceptual load strongly reduced detection sensitivity to irrelevant sounds, we studied if the duration MMN is reduced by load, and if this reduction is stronger at low SPLs. Although a duration MMN was observed for all SPLs, the MMN was apparently not moderated strongly by SPL, perceptual load, or their interaction, because all 95% CIs overlapped zero. In a contrast analysis of the MMN (across loads) between the 56-dB and 76-dB groups, evidence (BF = 0.31) favored the null hypothesis that duration MMN is unaffected by a 20-dB increase in SPL. Similarly, evidence (BF = 0.19) favored the null hypothesis that effects of perceptual load on the duration MMN do not change with a 20-dB increase in SPL. However, evidence (BF = 3.12) favored the alternative hypothesis that the effect of perceptual load in the present study resembled the overall effect in a recent meta-analysis. When the present findings were combined with the meta-analysis, the effect of load (low minus high) was −0.43 μV, 95% CI [−0.64, −0.22] suggesting that the duration MMN decreases with load. These findings provide support for a sensitive monitoring system of the auditory environment.

  • 32.
    Tillman, Carin M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Behavioral and ERP indices of response conflict in Stroop and flanker tasks2011In: Psychophysiology, ISSN 0048-5772, E-ISSN 1469-8986, Vol. 48, no 10, p. 1405-1411Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated effects of different proportions of incongruent trials on behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) interference measures associated with response conflict in the Stroop and flanker task. From the literature, we hypothesized that response conflict is greater when incongruent trials are rare compared to when incongruent trials are frequent. In support, the behavioral results on both tasks and the ERP results on the Stroop task (N450) showed that interference effects were significantly larger when incongruent trials were rare than frequent. In contrast, the ERP results on the flanker task N200 showed a larger interference effect when incongruent trials were frequent than rare. Because results for the flanker N200 were opposite to behavioral effects and theoretical predictions, our findings challenge the notion of the flanker N200 as a valid index of response conflict.

  • 33.
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Current concerns in visual masking.2006In: Emotion, ISSN 1528-3542, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 675-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theories of emotion postulate that emotional input is processed independently from perceptual awareness.

    Although visual masking has a long tradition in studying whether emotional pictures are processed

    below a supposed threshold of perceptual awareness (subliminal perception), a consensus has yet to be

    reached. This article reviews current concerns in the use of visual masking. These include a reliable

    presentation method, the role of masking pictures, common definitions of awareness and their problems,

    current models of awareness, and neural mechanisms. A useful strategy may be the study of dose–

    response relationships between awareness and emotion processing that avoids a dichotomous view of

    awareness and allows conclusions about the relative independence of emotional processing from

    awareness.

  • 34.
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Current Concerns in Visual Masking.2006In: Emotion, ISSN 1528-3542, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 675-680Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theories of emotion postulate that emotional input is processed independently from perceptual awareness. Although visual masking has a long tradition in studying whether emotional pictures are processed below a supposed threshold of perceptual awareness (subliminal perception), a consensus has yet to be reached. This article reviews current concerns in the use of visual masking. These include a reliable presentation method, the role of masking pictures, common definitions of awareness and their problems, current models of awareness, and neural mechanisms. A useful strategy may be the study of dose–response relationships between awareness and emotion processing that avoids a dichotomous view of awareness and allows conclusions about the relative independence of emotional processing from awareness.

  • 35.
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Interoception in emotional experience.2005In: Curr Opin Neurol, ISSN 1350-7540, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 442-7Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many theories of emotion have postulated a close

    relationship of the feedback of physiological changes and

    their perception with emotional experience. This paper

    reviews recent advances in theory and brain-imaging

    research on this topic of interoception and describes a

    hypothetical model of the potential mechanisms.

    Recent findings

    Research from patients with spinal-cord injuries and pure

    autonomic failure suggests that emotion-related peripheral

    autonomic changes are not necessary for emotional

    experience. However, in support of a role for centrally

    integrated feedback from the whole body, imaging studies

    found that activations in areas commonly associated with

    interoception and emotion (anterior insula and anterior

    cingulate) were correlated with individual differences in

    interoception (heartbeat detection) and trait measures of

    emotion. Because recent theory distinguishes between two

    levels of emotional experience (phenomenology and

    awareness), this paper proposes a hypothetical model of

    the effects of interoception on phenomenology and

    awareness. This model classifies interoception into the

    central representation of feedback from the whole body, the

    perception of actual physiological changes as well as the

    perception of illusory changes.

    Summary

    Consistent with recent theories of emotion, evidence from

    brain imaging supports the notion that centrally integrated

    feedback from the whole body plays a role in emotional

    experience. Because research on neural correlates of

    emotional experience is at an early stage, the hypothesized

    model of potential causal links between interoception and

    emotional experience might serve as a helpful guide to

    future research.

  • 36.
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Is perceptual awareness objective or subjective?2006In: Visual masking and the dynamics of vision and consciousness at Hanse Wissenschaftskolleg: 27-30 June, 2006. Delmenhorst, Germany., 2006Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    When pictures are masked, people can discriminate among them even though they may claim that they are not consciously aware of the pictures. In deciding whether people are actually aware of the pictures, it is debated whether measures based on discrimination ability (objective measures) are preferable to measures of self-reported subjective experience (subjective measures). The present paper discusses commonly used indexes and relates them to contemporary concepts of phenomenal, access, and reflexive consciousness. Because objective and subjective measures capture different aspects of consciousness, their comprehensive use is recommended.

  • 37.
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Perceptual awareness and responses to fear and faces.2006In: Alpine Brain Imaging Meeting: Champéry, Switzerland. 22-26 January, 2006., 2006Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Because evidence for subliminal perception of fearful faces is mixed, we used event-related fMRI (N = 29) to study activations of amygdala and fusiform gyrus to backward masked fearful, neutral, and scrambled target faces. Scrambled faces served as masks to isolate responses to fearful expressions (fearful vs. neutral) and faces (fearful and neutral vs. scrambled). To manipulate perceptual awareness, targets were masked at four durations (10, 20, 30, and 60 ms). During scanning, participants responded whether they detected a face. After scanning, participants performed objective tasks to measure their abilities in face detection and fear discrimination at the four target durations. Results showed that perceptual awareness varied substantially over target durations. Only left amygdala (MNI = -28, -4, -24) showed a main effect for fear across target durations. This response to fear was small and varied little over target durations, but was stronger for men and correlated with face detection. In contrast, regions in bilateral amygdala (-16, 2, -16; 28, -4, -18) and fusiform gyrus (-40, -60, -18; 38, -62, -16) showed a main effect for faces across target durations. This response to faces was large at 60 ms and dropped substantially at shorter durations. All regions showed this pattern. Results suggest that responses to fear and faces vary with perceptual awareness and that behavioral indexes of awareness are more sensitive than functional imaging.

  • 38.
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Remain aware of awareness .2006In: Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 6, 2006Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Hannula, Simons, and Cohen1 advocate several changes for future imaging research of implicit perception. First, a reliable display technology should be used, and behavioural and imaging data should be acquired for the same participants under identical conditions. Because a valid masking set-up is now available for imaging2, 3, future studies can realize these recommendations. Second, in terms of assessing unawareness, the authors maintain that, as in behavioural research, subjective (self-report) measures should be abandoned in favour of objective measures that demonstrate an absence of discrimination ability. That is, it is irrelevant whether participants claim that they are not aware of the pictures (subjective unawareness); instead, participants should not be able to discriminate them beyond chance (objective unawareness).

    Although it is true that most imaging studies might have inadvertently established subjective unawareness, behavioural researchers do not generally agree that objective measures are more valid measures of awareness4, 5, 6. The debate persists because there is no conclusive evidence that either subjective or objective measures satisfy the requirements for a valid index of awareness — that they capture all aspects of conscious processing (exhaustive) but no non-conscious processing (exclusive)7, 8. Because stronger masking is typically required for objective unawareness than subjective unawareness9, this finding is often interpreted as evidence that subjective measures are affected by response biases10 and, therefore, are less sensitive than objective measures11. However, the principal drawback of objective measures is that they ignore the principally subjective nature of awareness. That is, because awareness is a subjective experience, it is more relevant to index what people notice subjectively than what they can discriminate objectively5, 12. In analogy, the experience of pain cannot be indexed in terms of whether people can discriminate stimuli objectively, but whether they experience them subjectively as painful. Therefore, there is no evidence that objective measures fulfill validity requirements of exhaustiveness and exclusiveness better than subjective measures, so the discussion cannot be considered resolved in favour of objective measures. Furthermore, whereas the authors imply that methodological issues will disappear once imaging studies use objective measures, the results of behavioural research suggest that this conclusion is unwarranted. First, even for signal-detection measures, it is unclear what objective measure should be used (for example, face detection versus discrimination). Indeed, if discrimination ability per se is considered proof for awareness, implicit perception (for example, blindsight) is logically impossible5, 12. Second, because unawareness is demonstrated by null sensitivity, this procedure attempts to prove the null (absence of awareness), and so depends on power13. However, there are no generally accepted criteria (such as number of trials, or alpha level). Third, if pictures are presented below subjective awareness, participants might have no motivation to perform the task14. If so, they might respond randomly, and, as a result, an objective measure would assess only subjective unawareness13. So, objective measures ignore the subjective nature of awareness and have additional problems.

    Until the debate concerning a valid index of awareness is resolved, researchers are advised to adopt an eclectic approach using signal-detection measures to characterize unawareness comprehensively in terms of subjective and objective unawareness15.

  • 39.
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Subliminal emotion perception in brain imaging: findings, issues, and recommendations.2006In: Prog Brain Res, ISSN 0079-6123, Vol. 156, p. 105-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many theories of emotion propose that emotional input is processed preferentially due to its

    relevance for the organism. Further, because consciousness has limited capacity, these considerations imply

    that emotional input ought to be processed even if participants are perceptually unaware of the input

    (subliminal perception). Although brain imaging has studied effects of unattended, suppressed (in binocular

    rivalry), and visually masked emotional pictures, conclusions regarding subliminal perception have been

    mixed. The reason is that subliminal perception demands a concept of an awareness threshold or limen, but

    there is no agreement on how to define and measure this threshold. Although different threshold concepts

    can be identified in psychophysics (signal detection theory), none maps directly onto perceptual awareness.

    Whereas it may be tempting to equate unawareness with the complete absence of objective discrimination

    ability (d0 ¼ 0), this approach is incompatible with lessons from blindsight and denies the subjective nature

    of consciousness. This review argues that perceptual awareness is better viewed as a continuum of sensory

    states than a binary state. When levels of awareness are characterized carefully in terms of objective

    discrimination and subjective experience, findings can be informative regarding the relative independence of

    effects from awareness and the potentially moderating role of awareness in processing emotional input.

    Thus, because the issue of a threshold concept may never be resolved completely, the emphasis is to not

    prove subliminal perception but to compare effects at various levels of awareness.

  • 40.
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Subliminal emotion perception in brain imaging: Findings, issues, and recommendations.2006In: Understanding Emotions, Elsevier , 2006, p. 105-121Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many theories of emotion propose that emotional input is processed preferentially due to its relevance for the organism. Further, because consciousness has limited capacity, these considerations imply that emotional input ought to be processed even if participants are perceptually unaware of the input (subliminal perception). Although brain imaging has studied effects of unattended, suppressed (in binocular rivalry), and visually masked emotional pictures, conclusions regarding subliminal perception have been mixed. The reason is that subliminal perception demands a concept of an awareness threshold or limen, but there is no agreement on how to define and measure this threshold. Although different threshold concepts can be identified in psychophysics (signal detection theory), none maps directly onto perceptual awareness. Whereas it may be tempting to equate unawareness with the complete absence of objective discrimination ability (d′=0), this approach is incompatible with lessons from blindsight and denies the subjective nature of consciousness. This review argues that perceptual awareness is better viewed as a continuum of sensory states than a binary state. When levels of awareness are characterized carefully in terms of objective discrimination and subjective experience, findings can be informative regarding the relative independence of effects from awareness and the potentially moderating role of awareness in processing emotional input. Thus, because the issue of a threshold concept may never be resolved completely, the emphasis is to not prove subliminal perception but to compare effects at various levels of awareness.

  • 41.
    Wiens, Stefan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fransson, Peter
    Dietrich, Thomas
    Lohmann, Peter
    Ingvar, Martin
    Ohman, Arne
    Keeping it short: A comparison of methods for brief picture presentation.2004In: Psychol Sci, ISSN 0956-7976, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 282-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown that backward masking is a

    powerful tool for studying unconscious mental processes.

    Whereas studies have traditionally presented stimuli using

    cathode-ray tube (CRT) monitors or mechanical shutters together

    with slide projectors, recent studies (mainly in functional

    magnetic resonance imaging, fMRI) have begun to use methods

    based on liquid crystal displays (LCDs) and thin-film transistor

    (TFT) technology. However, because of differences in technology,

    all methods may not be equally suited for masking. When

    methods were compared for their accuracy in presenting pictures

    at short durations, LCD and TFT presentations had poor

    accuracy, but shutter and CRT presentations had better accuracy.

    Because CRTs interfere with the imaging process in fMRI,

    we recommend the use of mechanical shutters. However, our

    results may not generally apply to all displays, so we advise

    researchers to validate the presentation parameters of their

    displays. The procedure described here may be useful for that

    purpose.

  • 42.
    Wiens, Stefan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Molapour, Tanaz
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Overfeld, Judith
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sand, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    High negative valence does not protect emotional event-related potentials from spatial inattention and perceptual load2012In: Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, ISSN 1530-7026, E-ISSN 1531-135X, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 151-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research suggests that intense, emotional pictures at fixation elicit an early posterior negativity (EPN) and a late positive potential (LPP) despite manipulations of spatial inattention and perceptual load. However, if high emotional intensity protects against such manipulations, then these manipulations should reduce emotional effects on EPN and LPP more strongly for medium than for intense emotional pictures. To test this prediction, pictures that were high negative, medium negative, or neutral were shown at fixation, and a small letter string was superimposed on the picture center. When participants attended the pictures, there were clear emotional effects on EPN and LPP. When participants attended the letter string, the emotional effects on LPP decreased; this decrease was smaller for medium than for high negative pictures. Thus, opposite of predictions, spatial inattention reduced the emotional effects more strongly for high than for medium negative pictures. As a manipulation of perceptual load, participants performed the letter task with one, three, or six relevant letters. Irrespective of load, EPN and LPP were similar for high and medium negative pictures. Our findings suggest that high negative valence does not protect EPN and LPP more strongly from effects of spatial inattention and perceptual load than does medium negative valence.

  • 43.
    Wiens, Stefan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Performing Contrast Analysis in Factorial Designs: From NHST to Confidence Intervals and Beyond2017In: Educational and Psychological Measurement, ISSN 0013-1644, E-ISSN 1552-3888, Vol. 77, no 4, p. 690-715Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Because of the continuing debates about statistics, many researchers may feel confused about how to analyze and interpret data. Current guidelines in psychology advocate the use of effect sizes and confidence intervals (CIs). However, researchers may be unsure about how to extract effect sizes from factorial designs. Contrast analysis is helpful because it can be used to test specific questions of central interest in studies with factorial designs. It weighs several means and combines them into one or two sets that can be tested with t tests. The effect size produced by a contrast analysis is simply the difference between means. The CI of the effect size informs directly about direction, hypothesis exclusion, and the relevance of the effects of interest. However, any interpretation in terms of precision or likelihood requires the use of likelihood intervals or credible intervals (Bayesian). These various intervals and even a Bayesian t test can be obtained easily with free software. This tutorial reviews these methods to guide researchers in answering the following questions: When I analyze mean differences in factorial designs, where can I find the effects of central interest, and what can I learn about their effect sizes?

  • 44.
    Wiens, Stefan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ohman, Arne
    Visual masking in magnetic resonance imaging.2005In: Neuroimage, ISSN 1053-8119, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 465-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When a brief target picture is followed by another picture (mask),

    people often report that they are not consciously aware of the target.

    Thus, visual masking can be used to manipulate perceptual awareness

    of target pictures. To avoid interference with magnetic resonance

    imaging, pictures have been presented on liquid crystal device (LCD)

    and thin film transistor (TFT) projectors that were placed outside of the

    scanner room. However, we found that display devices with LCD/TFT

    technology exhibit poor accuracy in presenting pictures at brief

    durations [Wiens, S., Fransson, P., Dietrich, T., Lohmann, P., Ingvar,

    M., O¨ hman, A., 2004. Keeping it short: A comparison of methods for

    brief picture presentation. Psychological Science, 15, 282–285]. In this

    paper, we present a reliable and valid masking procedure involving two

    LCD/TFT projectors in combination with mechanical shutters. Because

    LCD/TFT projectors present pictures in steady state at longer durations

    (e.g., after 70 ms), picture presentation is more ecologically valid than

    for common cathode ray tube (CRT) monitors that present pictures in

    multiples of refresh cycles. Also, because picture presentation with

    mechanical shutters is instantaneous and reliable in terms of onset, rise

    time, and duration, shutters can be used to control picture durations

    precisely in steps of milliseconds. In this paper, we also discuss risks for

    confounding effects from unreliable picture presentations in masking.

    Our findings and arguments recommend the use of mechanical shutters

    in front of LCD/TFT projectors in imaging studies of visual masking.

  • 45.
    Wiens, Stefan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Peira, Nathalie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Golkar, Armita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Öhman, Arne
    Recognizing masked threat: Fear betrays, but disgust you can trust2008In: Emotion, ISSN 1528-3542, E-ISSN 1931-1516, Vol. 8, no 6, p. 810-819Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    If emotions guide consciousness, people may recognize degraded objects in center view more accurately if they either fear the objects or are disgusted by them. Therefore, we studied whether recognition of spiders and snakes correlates with individual differences in spider fear, snake fear, and disgust sensitivity. Female students performed a recognition task with pictures of spiders, snakes, flowers, and mushrooms as well as blanks. Pictures were backward masked to reduce picture visibility. Signal detection analyses showed that recognition of spiders and snakes was correlated with disgust sensitivity but not with fear of spiders or snakes. Further, spider fear correlated with the tendency to misinterpret blanks as threatening (response bias). These findings suggest that effects on recognition and response biases to emotional pictures vary for different emotions and emotional traits. Whereas fear may induce response biases, disgust may facilitate recognition.

  • 46.
    Wiens, Stefan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sand, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Norberg, Joakim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Andersson, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Emotional event-related potentials are reduced if negative pictures presented at fixation are unattended2011In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 495, no 3, p. 178-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Viewing of emotional pictures elicits two event-related potentials (ERPs) to emotional versus neutral pictures: an early posterior negativity (EPN) and a late positive potential (LPP). Because it is unresolved whether these indexes of emotional processing are reduced to task-irrelevant pictures at fixation, negative and neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture Set (IAPS) were shown at fixation together with 6 letters that surrounded the pictures. In separate tasks, participants were instructed to attend either the pictures or the letters. When the pictures were task relevant, results showed an EPN and LPP. In contrast, when the pictures were task irrelevant, the EPN was eliminated and the LPP reduced. Performance was high in both tasks (hit rates > 87%), but somewhat better when the pictures were relevant. However, analyses showed no relationship between this performance difference and the differences in EPN and LPP between tasks. These results suggest that emotional processing of strong, negative pictures is sensitive to manipulations of attention even if the pictures are shown at fixation.

  • 47.
    Wiens, Stefan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sand, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nonemotional features suppress early and enhance late emotional electrocortical responses to negative pictures2011In: Biological Psychology, ISSN 0301-0511, E-ISSN 1873-6246, Vol. 86, no 1, p. 83-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emotional processing of emotional pictures is often indexed by two electrocortical responses: the early posterior negativity (EPN) and the late positive potential (LPP). Because emotional pictures often vary in nonemotional features (e.g., composition, human content, spatial frequency), researchers often match pictures on nonemotional features to avoid their confounding effects on the EPN and LPP. However, this matching is tedious and might be unnecessary if the confounding effects could be shown to be negligible. In an item-analysis of mean amplitudes to 400 negative to neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS), nonemotional features had larger effects on EPN than LPP. Picture composition suppressed the relationship between emotion and EPN. Further, data simulations showed that for small picture sets, nonemotional features inflated the correlation between emotion and LPP. Therefore, nonemotional features suppress the EPN and enhance the LPP, particularly so in small picture sets.

  • 48.
    Wiens, Stefan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Syrjänen, Elmeri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Directed attention reduces processing of emotional distracters irrespective of valence and arousal level2013In: Biological Psychology, ISSN 0301-0511, E-ISSN 1873-6246, Vol. 94, no 1, p. 44-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emotional stimuli tend to capture attention, and this so-called motivated attention is commonly measured using the early posterior negativity (EPN) and the late positive potential (LPP). We hypothesized that voluntary, directed attention reduces motivated attention more strongly for highly than moderately arousing pleasant or unpleasant pictures. Participants were instructed to direct their attention to either a picture at fixation or the letters flanking the picture. Pictures varied substantially in arousal and valence. When the pictures were attended to, EPN and LPP increased linearly with arousal. When the letters were attended to, these linear effects decreased in the EPN for pleasant and unpleasant pictures and in the LPP for pleasant pictures. Thus, directed attention decreases processing of emotional distracters more strongly for highly than moderately arousing pleasant and unpleasant pictures. These results are consistent with the view that directed attention decreases emotion effects on sensory gain.

  • 49.
    Wiens, Stefan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Szychowska, Malina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Eklund, Rasmus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Data on the auditory duration mismatch negativity for different sound pressure levels and visual perceptual loads2017In: Data in Brief, E-ISSN 2352-3409, Vol. 11, p. 159-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The data presented in this article are related to our research article entitled “Effects of sound pressure level and visual perceptual load on the auditory mismatch negativity” (M. Szychowska, R. Eklund, M.E. Nilsson, S. Wiens, 2016) [1]. The duration MMN was recorded at three sound pressure levels (SPLs) during two levels of visual perceptual load. In an oddball paradigm (standard=75 ms, deviant=30 ms, within-subjects design), participants were presented with tones at 56, 66, or 76 dB SPL (between-subjects design). At the same time, participants focused on a letter-detection task (find X in a circle of six letters). In separate blocks, perceptual load was either low (the six letters were the same) or high (the six letters differed). In the first data collection, tones had only 76 dB SPL [2]. In a follow-up data collection with exactly the same procedure, tones had 56 and 66 dB SPL [1]. Here, we report the procedure, the recording of electroencephalography (EEG) and its preprocessing in terms of event-related potentials (ERPs), the preprocessing of behavioral data, as well as the grand mean ERPs in figures. For each participant, the reported ERP data include mean amplitudes for standards, deviants, and the difference wave (MMN) at Fz (with tip of nose as a reference), separately for the combinations of SPL and load. Reported behavioral data include the signal-detection measure d’ as an index of detection performance.

  • 50.
    Wiens, Stefan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Szychowska, Malina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eklund, Rasmus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    van Berlekom, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Cascade and no-repetition rules are comparable controls for the auditory frequency mismatch negativity in oddball tasks2019In: Psychophysiology, ISSN 0048-5772, E-ISSN 1469-8986, Vol. 56, no 1, article id e13280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mismatch negativity (MMN) has been widely studied with oddball tasks to index processing of unexpected auditory change. The MMN is computed as the difference of deviant minus standard and is used to capture the pattern violation by the deviant. However, this oddball MMN is confounded because the deviant differs physically from the standard and is presented less often. To improve measurement, the same tone as the deviant is presented in a separate condition. This control tone is equiprobable with other tones and is used to compute a corrected MMN (deviant minus control). Typically, the tones are in random order except that consecutive tones are not identical (no-repetition rule). In contrast, a recent study on frequency MMN presented tones in a regular up-and-down sequence (cascade rule). If the cascade rule is detected more easily than the no-repetition rule, there should be a lower risk of a confounding MMN within the cascade condition. However, in previous research, the cascade and no-repetition conditions differed not only in the regularity of the tone sequence but also in number of tones, frequency range, and proportion of tones. We controlled for these differences to isolate effects of regularity in the tone sequence. Results of our preregistered analyses provided moderate evidence (BF01>6) that the corrected MMN did not differ between cascade and no-repetition conditions. These findings imply that no-repetition and cascade rules are processed similarly and that the no-repetition condition provides an adequate control in frequency MMN.

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