Change search
Refine search result
1 - 21 of 21
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Del Missier, Fabio
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology. University of Trieste, Italy.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Coni, Valentina
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Multiple routes from memory to decision making2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We present two individual-differences investigations, carried out with the aim of identifying the memory correlates of decision-making skills. The investigations were carried out on population-based Swedish samples between 25 and 80 years of age (n > 500). Study 1 showed selective relations between memory processes (i.e., semantic, episodic, and working memory) and diverse aspects of decision-making competence as measured with the A-DMC battery. The age-related declines observed in the more cognitively-demanding decision-making tasks were mediated by the age-related differences in working memory or episodic memory. Study 2 confirmed the findings even when controlling for the influence of processing speed and sensory functioning. Overall, the results showed that different memory processes fulfill different functional roles in diverse judgment and decision-making tasks.

  • 2.
    Del Missier, Fabio
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology. University of Trieste, Italy.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Parker, Andrew M.
    Bruine de Bruin, Wändi
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Unraveling the Aging Skein: Disentangling Sensory and Cognitive Predictors of Age-related Differences in Decision Making2017In: Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, ISSN 0894-3257, E-ISSN 1099-0771, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 123-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Age-related differences in sensory functioning, processing speed, and working memory have been identified as three significant predictors of the age-related performance decline observed in complex cognitive tasks. Yet, the assessment of their relative predictive capacity and interrelations is still an open issue in decision making and cognitive aging research. Indeed, no previous investigation has examined the relationships of all these three predictors with decision making. In an individual-differences study, we therefore disentangled the relative contribution of sensory functioning, processing speed, and working memory to the prediction of the age-related decline in cognitively demanding judgment and decision-making tasks. Structural equation modeling showed that the age-related decline in working memory plays an important predictive role, even when controlling for sensory functioning, processing speed, and education. Implications for research on decision making and cognitive aging are discussed.

  • 3.
    Del Missier, Fabio
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    De Bruin, Wändi Bruine
    Decision-making Competence, Executive Functioning, and General Cognitive Abilities2012In: Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, ISSN 0894-3257, E-ISSN 1099-0771, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 331-351Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although previous studies investigated the relationship between general cognitive abilities and decision making, few have characterized specific cognitive abilities underlying decision-making competence. In this paper, we focus on executive functionscontrol processes involved in the regulation of cognition. Specifically, we report on an individual-differences study that investigated the relationship of executive functioning (EF) and general cognitive abilities (fluid intelligence and numeracy) with different aspects of decision-making competence. Individual differences in EF components explained aspects of decision-making competence even after controlling for fluid intelligence and numeracy. However, different aspects of decision-making competence varied in the extent to which they relied on different executive functions. In particular, resistance to framing effects, the ability to apply decision rules, and successful engagement in cognitive reflection partially depend on individual differences on the monitoring/inhibition dimension of EF. The ability to provide consistent judgments in risk perception is related to the shifting aspect of EF. The ability to recognize social norms and resistance to sunk costs were not significantly related to EF, thus supporting the idea that executive control is not a major determinant of these aspects of decision-making competence. Finally, substantial variance in some of the decision-making tasks remained unexplained, suggesting that other cognitive or non-cognitive abilities need to be considered in future studies.

  • 4. Del Missier, Fabio
    et al.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Bruine de Bruin, Wändi
    Parker, Andrew M.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Predictors of Decision Making Across the Adult Life-Span: An Individual-Differences Study2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Age-related decline in complex cognitive tasks has been explained by changes in sensory functioning, processing speed, and working memory. However, there is still no agreement on the relative importance of these factors, and their relative role in decision making has not been investigated. In an individual-difference study on a population-based Swedish sample of adults (N = 563, age range 30-89), we disentangled the contribution of sensory decline, processing speed, and working memory measures to age-related changes in three cognitively-demanding decision-making tasks of the Adult Decision-Making Competence Battery (Resistance to Framing, Applying Decision Rules, Under/Overconfidence). Structural equation modeling showed that working memory is a significant predictor even when the influence of sensory variables, processing speed, and education (as a control for cohort effects) is taken into account. Moreover, the effects of sensory functioning and processing speed on decision making were mediated by working memory. These findings indicate that the age-related decline in complex decision-making tasks may not be entirely explained by changes in lower-level processes, highlighting the functional role of working memory processes.

  • 5.
    Del Missier, Fabio
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm Brain Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hansson, Patrik
    de Bruin, Wändi Bruine
    Parker, Andrew M.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Multifold Relationship Between Memory and Decision Making: An Individual-Differences Study2013In: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory and Cognition, ISSN 0278-7393, E-ISSN 1939-1285, Vol. 39, no 5, p. 1344-1364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several judgment and decision-making tasks are assumed to involve memory functions, but significant knowledge gaps on the memory processes underlying these tasks remain. In a study on 568 adults between 25 and 80 years of age, hypotheses were tested on the specific relationships between individual differences in working memory, episodic memory, and semantic memory, respectively, and 6 main components of decision-making competence, In line with the hypotheses, working memory was positively related with the more cognitively demanding tasks (Resistance to Framing, Applying Decision Rules, and Under/Overconfidence), whereas episodic memory was positively associated with a more experience-based judgment task (Recognizing Social Norms). Furthermore, semantic memory was positively related with 2 more knowledge-based decision-making tasks (Consistency in Risk Perception and Resistance to Sunk Costs). Finally, the age-related decline observed in some of the decision-making tasks was (partially or totally) mediated by the age-related decline in working memory or episodic memory. These findings are discussed in relation to the functional roles fulfilled by different memory processes in judgment and decision-making tasks.

  • 6.
    Del Missier, Fabio
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology. University of Trieste, Italy.
    Sassano, Alessia
    Coni, Valentina
    Salomonsson, Martina
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Blocked vs. interleaved presentation and proactive interference in episodic memory2018In: Memory, ISSN 0965-8211, E-ISSN 1464-0686, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 697-711Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although a number of theoretical accounts of proactive interference (PI) in episodic memory have been proposed, existing empirical evidence does not support conclusively a single view yet. In two experiments we tested the predictions of the temporal discrimination theory of PI against alternative accounts by manipulating the presentation schedule of study materials (lists blocked by category vs. interleaved). In line with the temporal discrimination theory, we observed a clear buildup of (and release from) PI in the blocked condition, in which all the lists of the same category were presented sequentially. In the interleaved condition, with alternating lists of different categories, a more gradual and smoother buildup of PI was observed. When participants were left free to choose their presentation schedule, they spontaneously adopted an interleaved schedule, resulting again in more gradual PI. After longer delays, we observed recency effects at the list level in overall recall and, in the blocked condition, PI-related effects. The overall pattern of findings agrees with the predictions of the temporal discrimination theory of PI, complemented with categorical processing of list items, but not with alternative accounts, shedding light on the dynamics and underpinnings of PI under diverse presentation schedules and over different time scales.

  • 7.
    Kubik, Veit
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Todorov, Ivo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Del Missier, Fabio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology. University of Trieste, Italy.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Multiple deadlines in metric space: Multitasking reflects selectively coordinate, but not categorical, spatial processing2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We often need to monitor and coordinate multiple deadlines. One way to handle these temporal demands might be to represent future deadlines as a pattern of spatial relations. More specifically, we tested the hypothesis that multitasking reflects selective effects of coordinate (i.e., metric) relational processing. Participants completed two multitasking sessions under concurrent processing demands of coordinate versus categorical spatial information. We expected and observed that multitasking impairs concurrent coordinate, rather than categorical, spatial processing. In Experiment 1, coordinate-task performance was selectively decreased, while multitasking performance was equal under both load conditions. When emphasizing equal (primary/secondary) task-importance in Experiment 2, it was only multitasking performance that was selectively reduced under the coordinate-load condition. Thus, effective multitasking may partly reflect coordinate-relational processing.

  • 8.
    Larsson Sundqvist, Max
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Assessing Boundary Conditions of the Testing Effect: On the Relative Efficacy of Covert vs. Overt Retrieval2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, article id 1018Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Repeated testing during learning often improves later memory, which is often referred to as the testing effect. To clarify its boundary conditions, we examined whether the testing effect was selectively affected by covert (retrieved but not articulated) or overt (retrieved and articulated) response format. In Experiments 1 and 2, we compared immediate (5 min) and delayed (1 week) cued recall for paired associates following study-only, covert, and overt conditions, including two types of overt articulation (typing and writing). A clear testing effect was observed in both experiments, but with no selective effects of response format. In Experiments 3 and 4, we compared covert and overt retrieval under blocked and random list orders. The effect sizes were small in both experiments, but there was a significant effect of response format, with overt retrieval showing better final recall performance than covert retrieval. There were no significant effects of blocked versus random list orders with respect to the testing effect produced. Taken together, these findings suggest that, under specific circumstances, overt retrieval may lead to a greater testing effect than that of covert retrieval, but because of small effect sizes, it appears that the testing effect is mainly the result of retrieval processes and that articulation has fairly little to add to its magnitude in a paired-associates learning paradigm.

  • 9. Lind, Martina
    et al.
    Visentini, Mimi
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Del Missier, Fabio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology. University of Trieste, Italy.
    Choice-Supportive Misremembering: A New Taxonomy and Review2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, article id 2062Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the literature on the influence of memory on decisions is well developed, research on the effects of decision making on memory is rather sparse and scattered. Choice-supportive misremembering (i.e., misremembering choice-related information that boosts the chosen option and/or demotes the foregone options) has been observed in several studies and has the potential to affect future choices. Nonetheless, no attempt has been made to review the relevant literature, categorize the different types of choice-supportive misremembering observed, and critically appraise the existing evidence and proposed explanations. Thus, starting from a new theoretically motivated and empirically grounded taxonomy, we review the current research. Our taxonomy classifies choice-supportive misremembering into four conceptually distinct types: misattribution is when information is attributed to the wrong source, fact distortion when the facts are remembered in a distorted manner, false memory when items that were not part of the original decision scenarios are remembered as presented and, finally, selective forgetting is when information is selectively forgotten. After assessing the impact of various potentially moderating factors, we evaluate the evidence for each type of misremembering and conclude that the support for the phenomenon is solid in relation to misattribution when recognition memory is assessed, but significantly weaker for the other three types, and when other memory tests are used to assess memory. Finally, we review the cognitive and emotional explanations proposed for choice-supportive misremembering in the light of the available evidence and identify the main gaps in the current knowledge and the more promising avenues for future research.

  • 10.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gender Differences in Multitasking Reflect Spatial Ability2013In: Psychological Science, ISSN 0956-7976, E-ISSN 1467-9280, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 514-520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Demands involving the scheduling and interleaving of multiple activities have become increasingly prevalent, especially for women in both their paid and unpaid work hours. Despite the ubiquity of everyday requirements to multitask, individual and gender-related differences in multitasking have gained minimal attention in past research. In two experiments, participants completed a multitasking session with four gender-fair monitoring tasks and separate tasks measuring executive functioning (working memory updating) and spatial ability (mental rotation). In both experiments, males outperformed females in monitoring accuracy. Individual differences in executive functioning and spatial ability were independent predictors of monitoring accuracy, but only spatial ability mediated gender differences in multitasking. Menstrual changes accentuated these effects, such that gender differences in multitasking (and spatial ability) were eliminated between males and females who were in the menstrual phase of the menstrual cycle but not between males and females who were in the luteal phase. These findings suggest that multitasking involves spatiotemporal task coordination and that gender differences in multiple-task performance reflect differences in spatial ability.

  • 11.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Coni, Valentina
    Kubik, Veit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Todorov, Ivo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Del Missier, Fabio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology. University of Trieste, Italy.
    Time takes space: selective effects of multitasking on concurrent spatial processing2017In: Cognitive Processing, ISSN 1612-4782, E-ISSN 1612-4790, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 229-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many everyday activities require coordination and monitoring of complex relations of future goals and deadlines. Cognitive offloading may provide an efficient strategy for reducing control demands by representing future goals and deadlines as a pattern of spatial relations. We tested the hypothesis that multiple-task monitoring involves time-to-space transformational processes, and that these spatial effects are selective with greater demands on coordinate (metric) than categorical (nonmetric) spatial relation processing. Participants completed a multitasking session in which they monitored four series of deadlines, running on different time scales, while making concurrent coordinate or categorical spatial judgments. We expected and found that multitasking taxes concurrent coordinate, but not categorical, spatial processing. Furthermore, males showed a better multitasking performance than females. These findings provide novel experimental evidence for the hypothesis that efficient multitasking involves metric relational processing.

  • 12.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Del Missier, Fabio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. University of Trieste, Italy.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Age Differences in Multiple Outcome Measures of Time-Based Prospective Memory2009In: Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition, ISSN 1382-5585, E-ISSN 1744-4128, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 708-720Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined time-based prospective memory performance in relation to age, monitoring strategy, response accuracy, and dual-task demands. Young, middle-aged and older adults (N = 115) completed a prospective memory task, in which they indicated the passing of time every 5 min while listening to a short story (low task demands) or completing a series of cognitive tasks (high task demands). Young and older adults showed similar patterns of monitoring behavior, with low rates of clock checking during the early phase of each 5-min interval, followed by linearly accelerating monitoring functions. However, to obtain the same level of prospective memory performance older adults needed more frequent clock checks than young adults. Furthermore, older adults' compensatory monitoring strategy was associated with an additional cost in primary task performance. Finally, increased primary task demands shifted age differences in prospective memory from monitoring frequency to response accuracy. These findings suggest that goal-directed behavior requires efficient task coordination and resource allocation, and that age-related differences in time-based prospective memory should be evaluated by using multiple outcome measures.

  • 13.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Todorov, Ivo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Questioning Anecdotal Beliefs and Scientific Findings: A Reply to Strayer, Medeiros-Ward, and Watson (2013)2013In: Psychological Science, ISSN 0956-7976, E-ISSN 1467-9280, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 811-812Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Todorov, Ivo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Kubik, Veit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Del Missier, Fabio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology. University of Trieste, Italy.
    Deadlines in Space: Selective Effects of Coordinate Spatial Processing in Multitasking2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many everyday activities require coordination and monitoring of multiple deadlines. One way to handle these temporal demands might be to represent future goals and deadlines as a pattern of spatial relations. We examined the hypothesis that spatial ability, in addition to executive functioning, contributes to individual differences in multitasking. Participants completed a multitasking session in which they monitored four digital clocks running at different rates. We predicted and found that individual differences in spatial ability and executive functions were independent predictors of multiple-task performance. Individual differences in spatial ability were also selectively related to multiple-task performance, as only coordinate spatial processing, but not categorical, predicted multitasking, even beyond executive functioning and numeracy. Furthermore, males outperformed females in spatial ability and multitasking and these sex differences generalized to a complex simulation of everyday multitasking. Menstrual changes moderated these effects in that sex differences in coordinate spatial processing and multitasking were observed between males and females in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, but not between males and females at menses. Overall, these findings suggest that multiple task performance reflects independent contributions of spatial ability and executive functioning. Furthermore, our results support the distinction of categorical vs. coordinate spatial processing, and suggest that these two basic relational processes are selectively affected by female sex hormones and differentially effective in transforming and handling temporal patterns as spatial relations in the context of multitasking.

  • 15. Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Del Missier, Fabio
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    The Fatalistic Decision Maker: Time Perspective, Working Memory, and Older Adults' Decision-Making Competence2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 2038Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior research indicates that time perspective (TP; views of past, present, and future) is related to decision-making style. By contrast, no prior study considered relations between TP and decision-making competence. We therefore investigated associations between dimensions of the Swedish Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (S-ZTPI) and performance on the Adult Decision-Making Competence (A-DMC) battery in a sample of older adults (60-90 years, N = 346). A structural equation model involving four A-DMC components as indicators of a general DMC factor and the six TP dimensions as the predictors revealed a significant negative association between the Present Fatalistic dimension and DMC. Given that age-related differences were apparent in DMC and that Present Fatalistic orientation increased with age, we tested a model by which the age-related differences in DMC were mediated by age-related differences in Present Fatalistic attitudes and in working memory. The results were consistent with full mediation of the age effects, with Present Fatalistic and working memory jointly accounting for a substantial amount of the variance in DMC (51%). The finding that DMC among older adults, in particular more cognitively demanding aspects such as applying decision rules, can be undermined by increased present fatalistic attitudes and declines in working memory is discussed in terms of theoretical frameworks highlighting the contribution of both motivational and cognitive factors to effective decision making.

  • 16.
    Todorov, Ivo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Del Missier, Fabio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. University of Trieste, Italy.
    Andersson Konke, Linn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Deadlines in space: Selective effects of coordinate spatial processing in multitasking2015In: Memory & Cognition, ISSN 0090-502X, E-ISSN 1532-5946, Vol. 43, no 8, p. 1216-1228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many everyday activities require coordination and monitoring of multiple deadlines. One way to handle these temporal demands might be to represent future goals and deadlines as a pattern of spatial relations. We examined the hypothesis that spatial ability, in addition to executive functioning, contributes to individual differences in multitasking. In two studies, participants completed a multitasking session in which they monitored four digital clocks running at different rates. In Study 1, we found that individual differences in spatial ability and executive functions were independent predictors of multiple-task performance. In Study 2, we found that individual differences in specific spatial abilities were selectively related to multiple-task performance, as only coordinate spatial processing, but not categorical, predicted multitasking, even beyond executive functioning and numeracy. In both studies, males outperformed females in spatial ability and multitasking and in Study 2 these sex differences generalized to a simulation of everyday multitasking. Menstrual changes moderated the effects on multitasking, in that sex differences in coordinate spatial processing and multitasking were observed between males and females in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, but not between males and females at menses. Overall, these findings suggest that multiple-task performance reflects independent contributions of spatial ability and executive functioning. Furthermore, our results support the distinction of categorical versus coordinate spatial processing, and suggest that these two basic relational processes are selectively affected by female sex hormones and differentially effective in transforming and handling temporal patterns as spatial relations in the context of multitasking.

  • 17.
    Todorov, Ivo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Del Missier, Fabio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. University of Trieste, Italy.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Age-related differences in multiple task monitoring2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 9, article id e107619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coordinating multiple tasks with narrow deadlines is particularly challenging for older adults because of age related decline in cognitive control functions. We tested the hypothesis that multiple task performance reflects age- and gender-related differences in executive functioning and spatial ability. Young and older adults completed a multitasking session with four monitoring tasks as well as separate tasks measuring executive functioning and spatial ability. For both age groups, men exceeded women in multitasking, measured as monitoring accuracy. Individual differences in executive functioning and spatial ability were independent predictors of young adults' monitoring accuracy, but only spatial ability was related to sex differences. For older adults, age and executive functioning, but not spatial ability, predicted multitasking performance. These results suggest that executive functions contribute to multiple task performance across the adult life span and that reliance on spatial skills for coordinating deadlines is modulated by age.

  • 18.
    Todorov, Ivo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Kubik, Veit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology. Humboldt University, Germany.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Del Missier, Fabio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology. University of Trieste, Italy.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Spatial offloading in multiple task monitoring2018In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 230-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coordinating multiple tasks requires a high degree of cognitive control, and individuals with limited executive functions often show difficulties in everyday multitasking. We tested the hypothesis that demands on executive control can be alleviated by internally representing the temporal pattern of goals and deadlines as spatial relations. In two experiments, participants completed a multitasking session by monitoring deadlines of four clocks running at different rates, along with separate tasks of executive functioning and spatial ability. In Experiment 1, individual and gender-related differences in spatial ability (mental rotation) predicted multitasking performance, beyond the contributions of both the updating and inhibition components of executive functioning, and even when spatial cues were eliminated from the layout of the monitoring task. Experiment 2 extended these findings by showing that concurrent spatial load impaired task monitoring accuracy, and that these detrimental effects were accentuated when spatial abilities were compromized due to fluctuation in female sex hormones. These findings suggest that multiple task monitoring involves working memory-related functions, but that these cognitive control demands can be offloaded by relying on spatial relation processes.

  • 19.
    Todorov, Ivo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Kubik, Veit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Del Missier, Fabio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology. University of Trieste, Italy.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Disrupting the pattern: Further testing of the spatiotemporal hypothesis of multitasking2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We tested the spatiotemporal hypothesis of multitasking, which posits that under high temporal load, individuals with better spatial abilities are better at multitasking. A computerized multitasking simulation was administered under three different conditions, one ordinary and two conditions with additional concurrent spatial load. Participants were assigned to one of three groups, luteal females, menstrual females and males. Based on the literature, these groups differ in spatial abilities because of hormonal fluctuations linked to the menstrual cycle. Across all three versions of the multitasking simulation, the performance of the luteal group was lowest, while the menstrual and the male group did not differ significantly from each other. The results support the notion that participants with better spatial ability are better multitaskers.

  • 20.
    Zimmermann, Marius
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Kubik, Veit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology. Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany; Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Germany.
    Persson, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Örebro University, Sweden.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Monitoring Multiple Deadlines Relies on Spatial Processing in Posterior Parietal Cortex2019In: Journal of cognitive neuroscience, ISSN 0898-929X, E-ISSN 1530-8898, Vol. 31, no 10, p. 1468-1483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proactively coordinating one's actions is an important aspect of multitasking performance due to overlapping task sequences. In this study, we used fMRI to investigate neural mechanisms underlying monitoring of multiple overlapping task sequences. We tested the hypothesis that temporal control demands in multiple-task monitoring are offloaded onto spatial processes by representing patterns of temporal deadlines in spatial terms. Results showed that increased demands on time monitoring (i.e., responding to concurrent deadlines of one to four component tasks) increasingly activated regions in the left inferior parietal lobe and the precuneus. Moreover, independent measures of spatial abilities correlated with multiple-task performance beyond the contribution of working memory. Together, these findings suggest that monitoring and coordination of temporally overlapping task timelines rely on cortical processes involved in spatial information processing. We suggest that the precuneus is involved in tracking of multiple task timelines, whereas the inferior parietal lobe constructs spatial representations of the temporal relations of these overlapping timelines. These findings are consistent with the spatial offloading hypothesis and add new insights into the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying the coordination of multiple tasks.

  • 21.
    Zimmermann, Marius
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Kubik, Veit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology. Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany.
    Persson, Jonas
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Neural mechanisms underlying multiple task coordination2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large body of research referred to as “multitasking” is based on dual-task paradigms, focusing on cognitive bottlenecks and crosstalk between perceptual encoding and response selection processes. However, everyday multitasking is different from the microstructure of rapid switching between laboratory tasks, and cognitive bottlenecks may be avoided by scheduling and interleaving deadlines and other task constraints in order to achieve multiple goals. 

    We suggest that executive control demands of coordinating multiple ongoing activities can be alleviated by representing patterns of temporal deadlines in spatial relations. This spatial offloading hypothesis is consistent with observations showing that temporal relations are often represented in spatial terms. Our own behavioural studies show that spatial ability (mental rotation) predicts multitasking, but not dual-task, performance beyond individual differences in executive functions. 

    Here, we test central predictions of the spatial offloading hypothesis using functional neuroimaging. We expect that cortical areas associated with spatial processing are selectively activated during multitasking. Moreover, these effects should reflect temporal task complexity, with accentuated patterns of activation in multiple tasks, but not in single- and dual-task performance, in which demands on cognitive control and temporal coordination are reduced. 

    Twenty-four healthy, young adults completed a time-based monitoring task with varying number of component tasks (single, dual and multiple series of letters, running at different rates), while neural activity was measured using fMRI.

    Results show increased activation with increasing number of component tasks in posterior parietal brain regions related to spatial processing. These findings suggest that multitasking involves spatial abilities and their underlying neural correlates.

1 - 21 of 21
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf