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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Age of onset and nativelike L2 ultimate attainment of morphosyntactic and phonetic intuition2012Ingår i: Studies in Second Language Acquisition, ISSN 0272-2631, E-ISSN 1470-1545, Vol. 34, nr 2, s. 187-214Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has consistently shown there is a negative correlation between age of onset (AO) of acquisition and ultimate attainment (UA) of either pronunciation or grammar in a second language (L2). A few studies have indeed reported nativelike behavior in some postpuberty learners with respect to either phonetics/phonology or morphosyntax, a result that has sometimes been taken as evidence against the critical period hypothesis (CPH). However, in the few studies that have employed a wide range of linguistic tests and tasks, adult learners have not exhibited nativelike L2 proficiency across the board of measures, which, according to some, suggests that the hypothesis still holds. The present study investigated the relationship between AO and UA and the incidence of nativelikeness when measures of phonetic and grammatical intuition are combined. An additional aim was to investigate whether children and adults develop the L2 through fundamentally different brain mechanisms-namely, whether children acquire the language (more) implicitly as an interdependent whole, whereas adults learn it (more) explicitly as independent parts of a whole.

  • 2.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    But first, let's think again!2018Ingår i: Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, ISSN 1366-7289, E-ISSN 1469-1841Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 3.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Development and recoverability of L2 codas: A longitudinal study of Chinese/Swedish interphonology2003Ingår i: Studies in Second Language Acquisition, ISSN 0272-2631, E-ISSN 1470-1545, Vol. 25, nr 3, s. 313-349Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with the development and recoverability of word-final codas in Chinese-Swedish interlanguage. The relation between consonant deletion and vowel epenthesis is investigated from both a developmental perspective and a grammatical-functional one. Longitudinal, conversational data from three Chinese beginner learners of Swedish were analyzed. First, it is shown that for these learners the acquisition of Swedish codas was U-shaped rather than linear such that they exhibited relatively high accuracy rates at early stages, lower accuracy rates at later stages, and again high accuracy rates at more advanced stages. It is also demonstrated that the epenthesis-deletion differential is closely related to second language proficiency in that the proportion of epenthesis to deletion errors increases over time. Furthermore, the data show that word-final codas that are relatively important for the retention of semantically relevant information generate lower overall frequencies of simplification and greater epenthesis-deletion proportions than codas containing information that is relatively recoverable from other segments or features in the context.

  • 4.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Natural phonology and second language acquisi­tion: problems and consequences1996Ingår i: Toegepaste taalwetenschap in artikelen, ISSN 0169-7420, E-ISSN 2213-4883, nr 55, s. 9-22Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 5.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Some observations of child-adult differences in second language pronunciation.1994Ingår i: Scandinavian Working Papers on Bilingualism, Vol. 9, s. 1-15Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 6.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Vowel epenthesis of /sC(C)/ onsets in Spanish/Swedish inter­phonology: A longitudinal case study1999Ingår i: Language learning, ISSN 0023-8333, E-ISSN 1467-9922, Vol. 49, nr 3, s. 473-508Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies showed that vowel epenthesis of initial /sC(C)/ clusters in the L2 production of L1 Spanish speakers is conditioned by several variable constraints, such as preceding environment, onset length, and sonority relations among onset members. This case study was designed to investigate whether the patterns obtained from elicited speech also hold for conversational data. A longitudinal corpus of spontaneous/natural speech from 1 adult L1 Spanish learner of L2 Swedish was used. The study confirmed most of the results from previous research, for example, that the frequency of epenthesis varies with preceding phonetic environment. However, the study suggested that a lowering effect of preceding vowels must be present, not just the enhancing effect of preceding consonants suggested by Carlisle (1997).

  • 7.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Age of onset and nativelikeness in a second language: listener perception versus linguistic scrutiny2009Ingår i: Language learning, ISSN 0023-8333, E-ISSN 1467-9922, Vol. 59, nr 2, s. 249-306Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 8.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Inlärningsålder och uppfattad inföddhet i andraspråket – lyssnarexperiment med avancerade L2-talare av svenska2006Ingår i: Nordand: nordisk tidsskrift for andrespråksforskning, ISSN 0809-9227, Vol. 1, nr 1, s. 9-36Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 9.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    The robustness of aptitude effects in near-native second language acquisition2008Ingår i: Studies in Second Language Acquisition, ISSN 0272-2631, E-ISSN 1470-1545, Vol. 30, nr 4, s. 481-509Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Results from a number of recent studies suggest that nativelike adult second language (L2) learners possess a high degree of language learning aptitude, the positive effects of which may have compensated for the negative effects of a critical period in these learners. According to the same studies, child learners seem to attain a nativelike command of the L2 regardless of high or low aptitude, which has led researchers to conclude that this factor plays no role in early acquisition. The present study investigates the L2 proficiency and language aptitude of 42 near-native L2 speakers of Swedish (i.e., individuals whom actual mother-tongue speakers of Swedish believe are native speakers). The results confirm previous research suggesting that a high degree of language aptitude is required if adult learners are to reach a L2 proficiency that is indistinguishable from that of native speakers. However, in contrast to previous studies, the present results also identify small yet significant aptitude effects in child SLA. Our findings lead us to the conclusions that the rare nativelike adult learners sometimes observed would all turn out to be exceptionally talented language learners with an unusual ability to compensate for maturational effects and, consequently, that their nativelikeness per se does not constitute a reason to reject the critical period hypothesis.

  • 10. Airey, John
    et al.
    Lauridsen, Karen M.
    Räsänen, Anne
    Salö, Linus
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Schwach, Vera
    The expansion of English-medium instruction in the Nordic countries: Can top-down university language policies encourage bottom-up disciplinary literacy goals?2017Ingår i: Higher Education, ISSN 0018-1560, E-ISSN 1573-174X, Vol. 73, nr 4, s. 561-576Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, in the wake of the Bologna Declaration and similar international initiatives, there has been a rapid increase in the number of university courses and programmes taught through the medium of English. Surveys have consistently shown the Nordic countries to be at the forefront of this trend towards English-medium instruction (EMI). In this paper, we discuss the introduction of EMI in four Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden). We present the educational setting and the EMI debate in each of these countries and summarize relevant research findings. We then make some tentative suggestions for the introduction of EMI in higher education in other countries. In particular, we are interested in university language policies and their relevance for the day-to-day work of faculty. We problematize one-size-fits-all university language policies, suggesting that in order for policies to be seen as relevant they need to be flexible enough to take into account disciplinary differences. In this respect, we make some specific suggestions about the content of university language policies and EMI course syllabuses. Here we recommend that university language policies should encourage the discussion of disciplinary literacy goals and require course syllabuses to detail disciplinaryspecific language-learning outcomes.

  • 11.
    Aktürk Drake, Memet
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Language dominance as a factor in loanword phonology2017Ingår i: International Journal of Bilingualism, ISSN 1367-0069, E-ISSN 1756-6878, Vol. 21, nr 5, s. 584-599Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to examine the role of language dominance in loanword phonology. It is investigated how onset clusters in loanwords are integrated into Turkish by two groups: English-Turkish bilinguals in Turkey and Swedish-Turkish bilinguals in Sweden. It is hypothesised that the bilinguals in Sweden will display significantly higher rates of cluster adoption because Turkish is not the dominant language there.

    The data were collected through an oral loanword elicitation task, a text recitation task in the second languages and a questionnaire on language proficiency and use.

    The study had 53 participants (24 in Turkey and 29 in Sweden). The material consisted of 29 loanwords from English and French, and of 50 structurally comparable words in the bilinguals’ second languages. The data were analysed auditively by the author and subjected to an interrater reliability test.

    The results confirmed the hypothesis as the bilinguals in Sweden displayed significantly higher cluster adoption rates. The difference between the groups’ medians was 36.5 percentage points. Furthermore, it was shown that in individual speakers the combination of accurate second-language pronunciation, and clearly higher proficiency in the second language (corresponding to the donor language) compared to the L1 (i.e. the recipient language) guaranteed very high cluster adoption rates.

    This paper provides the first rigorous quantitative proof for the theoretical assumption that accurate pronunciation is not sufficient for structural adoption in loanword phonology but needs to be complemented with sociolinguistic variables. Furthermore, it demonstrates in greater detail than before how societal and individual dominance are connected and through which channels they impact loanword integration.

    Self-reported relative proficiency in the donor language was shown to be a powerful predictor of the sociolinguistic incentive to adopt and could therefore be used as a quick and reliable alternative to elaborate and time-consuming attitude investigations in loanword phonology.

  • 12.
    Aktürk-Drake, Memet
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Adoption in Loanword Phonology: Looking Beyond Linguistic CompetenceArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates how linguistic competence and sociolinguistic incentive contribute to the preference for adopting illicit onset clusters in established loanwords in Turkish. The participants are English-Turkish bilinguals in Turkey and Swedish-Turkish bilinguals in Sweden. Competence is measured through second-language pronunciation and incentive is operationalised through second-language dominance and degree of Turkish use. The data comprise French and English loanwords that are embedded in an oral fill-in-the-blanks test and that have phonetically similar counterparts in English and Swedish. The results show that the bilinguals in Sweden have significantly higher cluster adoption rates than the bilinguals in Turkey due to an overlap of high competence and high incentive in the Swedish context where Turkish is a minority language. Statistical analyses show that incentive has greater impact than competence in this sample.

  • 13.
    Aktürk-Drake, Memet
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Det flerspråkiga Konstantinopel2010Ingår i: Dragomanen, ISSN 1402-358X, Vol. 13, s. 28-35Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna artikel ger en översikt över den språkliga mångfalden i Konstantinopel mellan åren 330 och 1930 samt belyser de faktorer som har påverkat flerspråkigheten i staden.

  • 14.
    Aktürk-Drake, Memet
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Phonological and sociolinguistic factors in the integration of /l/ in Turkish in borrowings from Arabic and Swedish2010Ingår i: Turkic languages, ISSN 1431-4983, Vol. 14, nr 2, s. 153-191Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the phonological integration of the front coda /l/ after a back vowel in the final rime of words borrowed from Arabic and Swedish into Turkish. This original donor structure is interesting because it in conflict with the core rules of Turkish phonology. Several sub-disciplines of linguistics have dealt with the role of different phonological and sociolinguistic factors in the phonological integration of lexical borrowings but there is no consensus on their respective weights in borrowing and on how their interaction is to be conceptualised. The Arabic data in the study are based on historical loanwords while the Swedish data have been obtained through an experiment. The focus of the article is the choice between adoption and adaptation as integration strategies and how different factors interact in producing the attested integration patterns. The results show that adoption is predominantly preferred to adaptation in both cases due to the dominant status of the donor languages in the contexts of borrowing. Hence, it is argued that sociolinguistic factors play the main role in these two particular cases.

  • 15.
    Aktürk-Drake, Memet
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    The role of perceptual salience in bilingual speakers' integration of illicit long segments in loanwords2014Ingår i: Lingua, ISSN 0024-3841, E-ISSN 1872-6135, Vol. 143, s. 162-186Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates how bilingual borrowers integrate originally long vowels and consonants in loanwords from Arabic and Swedish into Turkish in illicit positions. Both historical corpus data and data from an elicitation task are used. The main focus is on the role of perceptual salience and the choice between adaptation and adoption as different integration strategies. The results show that length is accurately perceived in both cases of borrowing due to the particular linguistic and extra-linguistic contexts of second language acquisition. Phonologically long Arabic vowels and consonants as well as not phonologically but phonetically long Swedish vowels with high salience are adopted as innovations by the bilingual borrowers. The latter adoption confirms that the input to loanword integration is not phonological but phonetic in nature, i.e. the surface form. Phonologically long Swedish consonants with low salience due to short duration are, instead, adapted through shortening. This adaptation is done in production through a process called filtering in with the help of feedback from perception. The paper proposes that perceptual salience plays an important role not only in monolingual but also in bilingual borrowing by concluding that high perceptual salience is necessary but not sufficient for adoption in bilingual borrowing.

  • 16.
    Alemán Bañón, José
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Fiorentino, Robert
    Gabriele, Alison
    Using event-related potentials to track morphosyntactic development in second language learners: The processing of number and gender agreement in Spanish2018Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 7, artikel-id e0200791Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We used event-related potentials to investigate morphosyntactic development in 78 adult English-speaking learners of Spanish as a second language (L2) across the proficiency spectrum. We examined how development is modulated by the similarity between the native language (L1) and the L2, by comparing number (a feature present in English) and gender agreement (novel feature). We also investigated how development is impacted by structural distance, manipulating the distance between the agreeing elements by probing both within-phrase (fruta muy jugosafruit(-FEM-SG) very juicy(-FEM-SG)) and across-phrase agreement (fresa es acida strawberry(-FEM-SG) is tart(-FEM-SG)). Regression analyses revealed that the learners' overall proficiency, as measured by a standardized test, predicted their accuracy with the target properties in the grammaticality judgment task (GJT), but did not predict P600 magnitude to the violations. However, a relationship emerged between immersion in Spanish-speaking countries and P600 magnitude for gender. Our results also revealed a correlation between accuracy in the GJT and P600 magnitude, suggesting that behavioral sensitivity to the target property predicts neurophysiological sensitivity. Subsequent group analyses revealed that the highest-proficiency learners showed equally robust P600 effects for number and gender. This group also elicited more positive waveforms for within- than across-phrase agreement overall, similar to the native controls. The lowest-proficiency learners showed a P600 for number overall, but no effects for gender. Unlike the highest-proficiency learners, they also showed no sensitivity to structural distance, suggesting that sensitivity to such linguistic factors develops over time. Overall, these results suggest an important role for proficiency in morphosyntactic development, although differences emerged between behavioral and electrophysiological measures. While L2 proficiency predicted behavioral sensitivity to agreement, development with respect to the neurocognitive mechanisms recruited in processing only emerged when comparing the two extremes of the proficiency spectrum. Importantly, while both L1-L2 similarity and hierarchical structure impact development, they do not constrain it.

  • 17.
    Alemán Bañón, José
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Miller, David
    Rothman, Jason
    Morphological variability in second language learners: An examination of electrophysiological and production data2017Ingår i: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory and Cognition, ISSN 0278-7393, E-ISSN 1939-1285, Vol. 43, nr 10, s. 1509-1536Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined potential sources of morphological variability in adult L1‑English L2‑Spanish learners, with a focus on L1‑L2 similarity, morphological markedness, and knowledge type (receptive vs. expressive). Experiment 1 uses event‑related potentials to examine noun‑adjective number (present in L1) and gender agreement (absent in L1) in online sentence comprehension (receptive knowledge). For each feature, markedness was manipulated, such that half of the critical noun‑adjective combinations were feminine (marked) and the other half, masculine; half were used in the plural (marked) and the other half in the singular. With this set‑up, we examined learners’ potential overreliance on unmarked forms or “defaults” (singular/masculine). Experiment 2 examines similar dependencies in spoken sentence production (expressive knowledge). Results showed that learners (n=22) performed better with number than gender overall, but their brain responses to both features were qualitatively native‑like (i.e., P600), even though gender was probed with nouns that do not provide strong distributional cues to gender. In addition, variability with gender agreement was better accounted for by lexical (as opposed to syntactic) aspects. Learners showed no advantage for comprehension over production. They also showed no systematic evidence of reliance on morphological defaults, although their online processing was sensitive to markedness in a native‑like manner. Overall, these results suggest that there is facilitation for properties of the L2 that exist in the L1 and that markedness impacts L2 processing, but in a native‑like manner. These results also speak against proposals arguing that adult L2ers have deficits at the level of the morphology or the syntax.

  • 18. Athanasopoulos, Panos
    et al.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Does Grammatical Aspect Affect Motion Event Cognition? A Cross-Linguistic Comparison of English and Swedish Speakers2013Ingår i: Cognitive science, ISSN 0364-0213, E-ISSN 1551-6709, Vol. 37, nr 2, s. 286-309Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we explore whether cross-linguistic differences in grammatical aspect encoding may give rise to differences in memory and cognition. We compared native speakers of two languages that encode aspect differently (English and Swedish) in four tasks that examined verbal descriptions of stimuli, online triads matching, and memory-based triads matching with and without verbal interference. Results showed between-group differences in verbal descriptions and in memory-based triads matching. However, no differences were found in online triads matching and in memory-based triads matching with verbal interference. These findings need to be interpreted in the context of the overall pattern of performance, which indicated that both groups based their similarity judgments on common perceptual characteristics of motion events. These results show for the first time a cross-linguistic difference in memory as a function of differences in grammatical aspect encoding, but they also contribute to the emerging view that language fine tunes rather than shapes perceptual processes that are likely to be universal and unchanging.

  • 19. Athanasopoulos, Panos
    et al.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    The ‘thinking’ in thinking-for-speaking: Where is it?2013Ingår i: Language, Interaction, and Acquisition, ISSN 1879-7865, Vol. 4, nr 1, s. 91-100Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the thinking-for-speaking (TFS) hypothesis, speakers of different languages think differently while in the process of mentally preparing content for speech. The aim of the present paper is to critically discuss the research carried out within the TFS paradigm, against the background of the basic tenets laid out by the proponents of this framework. We will show that despite substantial progress in the investigation of crosslinguistic differences in the organisation of information in discourse, the studies that actually examine the cognitive aspects of speech production are, to date, vanishingly few. This state of affairs creates a gap in our knowledge about the thought processes that co-occur with speech production during language use and acquisition. We will argue that in order to reach a more comprehensive picture of the cognitive processes and outcomes of speech production, methodologies additional to the analysis of information organisation must be used.

  • 20. Athanasopoulos, Panos
    et al.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Montero-Melis, Guillermo
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Damjanovic, Ljubica
    Schartner, Alina
    Kibbe, Alexandra
    Riches, Nick
    Thierry, Guillaume
    Two Languages, Two Minds: Flexible Cognitive Processing Driven by Language of Operation2015Ingår i: Psychological Science, ISSN 0956-7976, E-ISSN 1467-9280, Vol. 26, nr 4, s. 518-526Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    People make sense of objects and events around them by classifying them into identifiable categories. The extent to which language affects this process has been the focus of a long-standing debate: Do different languages cause their speakers to behave differently? Here, we show that fluent German-English bilinguals categorize motion events according to the grammatical constraints of the language in which they operate. First, as predicted from cross-linguistic differences in motion encoding, bilingual participants functioning in a German testing context prefer to match events on the basis of motion completion to a greater extent than do bilingual participants in an English context. Second, when bilingual participants experience verbal interference in English, their categorization behavior is congruent with that predicted for German; when bilingual participants experience verbal interference in German, their categorization becomes congruent with that predicted for English. These findings show that language effects on cognition are context-bound and transient, revealing unprecedented levels of malleability in human cognition.

  • 21. Athanasopoulos, Panos
    et al.
    Damjanovic, Ljubica
    Burnand, Julie
    Bylund, Emanuel
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Learning to Think in a Second Language: Effects of Proficiency and Length of Exposure in English Learners of German2015Ingår i: The Modern language journal, ISSN 0026-7902, E-ISSN 1540-4781, Vol. 99, s. 138-153Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the current study is to investigate motion event cognition in second language learners in a higher education context. Based on recent findings that speakers of grammatical aspect languages like English attend less to the endpoint (goal) of events than do speakers of nonaspect languages like Swedish in a nonverbal categorization task involving working memory (Athanasopoulos & Bylund, 2013; Bylund & Athanasopoulos, 2015), the current study asks whether native speakers of an aspect language start paying more attention to event endpoints when learning a nonaspect language. Native English and German (a nonaspect language) speakers, and English learners of L2 German, who were pursuing studies in German language and literature at an English university, were asked to match a target scene with intermediate degree of endpoint orientation with two alternate scenes with low and high degree of endpoint orientation, respectively. Results showed that, compared to the native English speakers, the learners of German were more prone to base their similarity judgements on endpoint saliency, rather than ongoingness, primarily as a function of increasing L2 proficiency and year of university study. Further analyses revealed a nonlinear relationship between length of L2 exposure and categorization patterns, subserved by a progressive strengthening of the relationship between L2 proficiency and categorization as length of exposure increased. These findings present evidence that cognitive restructuring may occur through increasing experience with an L2, but also suggest that this relationship may be complex and unfold over a long period of time.

  • 22.
    Bijvoet, Ellen
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Fraurud, Kari
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Studying high-level (L1-L2) development and use among young people in multilingual Stockholm: the role of perceptions of ambient sociolinguistic variation2012Ingår i: Studies in Second Language Acquisition, ISSN 0272-2631, E-ISSN 1470-1545, Vol. 34, nr 2, s. 291-319Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article makes a case for studying the perceptions that young people have of the ways of speaking of both themselves and others on the supposition that constructions of ambient sociolinguistic variation have an impact on the language development and use of individual language users. Such a study is particularly relevant in multilingual contexts in which differences with regard to social as well as ethnic and linguistic background may generate significantly different perceptions. In a speaker evaluation study, Swedish speech stimuli from 12 young Stockholmers were evaluated by 343 listeners from different backgrounds. The results show that young people may divide and relate to the linguistic space of Stockholm in very different ways and that they vary in their degree of accuracy regarding linguistic self-perception.

  • 23.
    Bijvoet, Ellen
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Fraurud, Kari
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Svenskan i dagens flerspråkiga storstadsmiljöer:: en explorativ studie av unga stockholmares perceptioner av variation och varieteter2008Ingår i: Nordand: nordisk tidsskrift for andrespråksforskning, ISSN 0809-9227, Vol. 3, nr 2, s. 7-38Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 24. Bijvoet, Ellen
    et al.
    Fraurud, Kari
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    What's the target? A folk linguistic study of young Stockholmers' constructions of linguistic norm and variation2016Ingår i: Language Awareness, ISSN 0965-8416, E-ISSN 1747-7565, Vol. 25, nr 1-2, s. 17-39Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To account for the full range of language use in contemporary multilingual urban contexts, the notion of target language (TL) needs to be reconsidered. In studies of second language acquisition and language variation, taking TL for granted implies that people agree on what constitutes 'good' language, or the standard norm. The TL of language learners and users is, however, more heterogeneous than is often assumed. To gain insight into what people are actually targeting in their language development and use, we need to study their perceptions of ambient sociolinguistic variation. In this folk linguistic listener study involving 343 upper secondary school students, a range of data types were analysed: attitude scales, variety labelling, and assessments of speakers' social and linguistic backgrounds. This article highlights some results pointing to a considerable divergence in the listeners' perceptions, in particular with regard to speech representing what is here characterised as migration-related social dialects. Several listeners labelled these samples as 'good' Swedish, possibly suggesting that they do not simply aim at or even relate to a TL identical with the dominating monolingual norm, but may instead have a less narrow view of the kind of Swedish they consider appropriate for use in more formal situations.

  • 25.
    Blåsjö, Mona
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Svenska/Nordiska språk.
    Johansson, Sofia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet.
    Jonsson, Carla
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Sannholm, Raphael
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Tolk- och översättarinstitutet.
    Fasta regler för fri kommunikation2017Ingår i: Nio-fem: tidskrift om arbetsliv & profession, ISSN 2001-9688, nr 2, s. 20-23Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    I dag jobbar många hemma eller på resande fot, och allt färre har ett fast skrivbord. Hur påverkar det förutsättningarna för kommunikationen? Hur ser kommunikationen ut jämfört med arbetsplatser där man fortfarande har eget skrivbord? I den här artikeln tar några språkvetenskapliga forskare från Stockholms universitet upp aktuella fynd från olika forskningsprojekt om kommunikation i arbetslivet.

  • 26.
    Botsis, Hannah
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning. University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa.
    Bradbury, Jill
    Metaphorical sense-making: visual-narrative language portraits of South African students2018Ingår i: Qualitative Research in Psychology, ISSN 1478-0887, E-ISSN 1478-0895, Vol. 15, nr 2-3, s. 412-430Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reflects on a creative visual-narrative approach to understanding South African students' lived experiences of languages. Data were collected in two interviews: the first entailing a biographical history and the drawing of a linguistic portrait on a simple body outline and the second a narrative interview utilising the portrait generated in the first as a basis for talking about language and identity. Framing the research process in this creative visual mode shifts the focus of narrative talk, simultaneously grounding it in affective, embodied experience, and enabling a reflexive position from which to analyse the taken-for-granted role of language in the minutiae of everyday life. The theoretical lenses of identity and subjectivity are invigorated through these metaphorical representations, and new creative possibilities are released for analysing the role of language in mediating shifting power dynamics in post-apartheid and postcolonial South African life.

  • 27.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Effects of age of L2 acquisition on L1 event conceptualization patterns2009Ingår i: Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, ISSN 1366-7289, E-ISSN 1469-1841, Vol. 12, nr 3, s. 305-322Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the effects that the age of onset (AO) of second language (L2) acquisition exerts on the attrition of first language (L1) event conceptualization patterns. The subjects studied are L1 Spanish–L2 Swedish bilinguals living in Sweden. The specific research questions addressed in the study concern the role of AO in endpoint encoding and temporal perspectivation in goal-oriented motion events. In view of previous findings on age effects in attrition, it is hypothesized that deviations from Spanish monolingual patterns of conceptualization would be limited basically to subjects whose AO is below 12 years of age. The analyses show that subjects with AO > 12 converge with Spanish monolingual controls on both endpoint encoding and temporal perspectivation strategies, whereas deviations from the controls' performance are found exclusively in subjects with AO < 12. It is suggested, in view of these findings, that subjects with early AO are more dependent on advantageous socio-psychological circumstances such as L1 contact and use in order to fully acquire/maintain Spanish event conceptualization patterns, while L1 maintenance in subjects with late AO is less dependent on these factors. It is concluded that patterns of event conceptualization are affected by age in the same way as formal language skills.

  • 28.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Maturational constraints and first language attrition2009Ingår i: Language learning, ISSN 0023-8333, E-ISSN 1467-9922, Vol. 59, nr 3, s. 687-715Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the article is to examine how first language attrition research on maturational constraints interprets and links its findings to current views on maturation in the field of second language acquisition. It is argued that attrition research exhibits certain inconsistencies in the interpretation of the structural characteristics of the critical period and the interplay between maturation and nonmaturational factors in attrition. In view of findings from first language relearning/reactivation and theoretical-methodological advances in second language research on maturation, the article proposes a reinterpretation of maturational constraints in language attrition that, first, emphasizes the gradual decline of susceptibility to attrition and, second, puts forth the conditioning function that the maturational constraints have on nonmaturational factors.

  • 29.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Segmentation and temporal structuring of events in early Spanish-Swedish bilinguals2011Ingår i: International Journal of Bilingualism, ISSN 1367-0069, E-ISSN 1756-6878, Vol. 15, nr 1, s. 56-84Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to examine patterns of segmentation and temporal structuring of events in early bilinguals. The participant group consists of 25 L1 Spanish - L2 Swedish adult bilinguals residing in Sweden, with ages of L2 acquisition ranging from 1 to 11 years. There were 15 native speakers of Swedish and 15 native speakers of Spanish engaged as monolingual controls. The participants provided online-retellings in both languages of an excerpt from the film Modern Times. The bilinguals' L1 and L2 retellings were compared with those of the monolingual speakers of the respective languages. The results indicated that the bilinguals resorted to the same event segmentation strategies in both L1 and L2, opting for an intermediate degree of event resolution. This behavior fell in between the monolingual Spanish high degree of resolution and the monolingual Swedish low degree of resolution. As for temporal structuring patterns, the results showed that the bilinguals in their L2 converged with the Swedish monolingual controls, linking the events by means of anaphoric adverbials (i.e., 'x then y'). The bilinguals also converged with the Spanish-speaking controls in their L1 perspectivation patterns, as both groups left the temporal relation between the events to be inferred and focused on ongoingness (i.e., now x, now y). These findings are discussed in terms of convergence and co-existence of conceptual patterns (Pavlenko, 1999, 2008).

  • 30.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Unomathotholo or i-radio? Factors predicting the use of English loanwords among L1 isiXhosa - L2 English bilinguals2014Ingår i: Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, ISSN 0143-4632, E-ISSN 1747-7557, Vol. 35, nr 2, s. 105-120Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the use of English loanwords in L1 isiXhosa-L2 English bilinguals living in Cape Town, South Africa. The specific aim of the study is to investigate which individual background factors may increase or reduce the presence of English loanwords in a L1 isiXhosa speaker's repertoire. Data on English loanword use and individual background were collected through a picture naming task and a background questionnaire, respectively. Results showed that those speakers who frequently used English for interactive purposes were more prone to using English loanwords when naming pictures in isiXhosa. Moreover, it was documented that those who arrived at an early age in Cape Town (from the isiXhosa-dominant Eastern Cape Province) were also less prone to using isiXhosa words in the naming task. Marginal, negative effects were found for non-interactive isiXhosa use (i.e. radio, books, etc.) and attitudes towards English, such that those speakers with high indices on these variables used more often English loanwords. A marginal, positive effect of the presence of isiXhosa in primary and secondary school on the use of isiXhosa words was also found.

  • 31.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning. University of the Western Cape, South Africa.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Does first language maintenance hamper nativelikeness in a second language? A study of ultimate attainment in early bilinguals2012Ingår i: Studies in Second Language Acquisition, ISSN 0272-2631, E-ISSN 1470-1545, Vol. 34, nr 2, s. 215-241Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the field of SLA, the incidence of nativelikeness in second language (L2) speakers has typically been explained as a function of age of acquisition. An alternative interpretation, however, is that L2 learners do not attain nativelike proficiency because of first language (L1) maintenance. This interpretation has nevertheless remained mostly theoretical due to the lack of empirical evidence. This study sets out to address the role of L1 proficiency in L2 ultimate attainment by examining L1 and L2 proficiency in 30 early L1 Spanish–L2 Swedish bilinguals. Language proficiency was assessed through grammaticality judgment tests and cloze tests, and additional data on language aptitude were collected through the Swansea Language Aptitude Test (v.2.0; Meara, Milton, & Lorenzo-Dus, 2002). The results showed positive correlations between nativelike L1 and L2 behavior. Additionally, it was found that language aptitude was positively correlated with nativelike L1 and L2 performance. In view of these findings, it is suggested that (a) L1 maintenance does not hamper L2 nativelikeness and (b) language aptitude is an important factor for bilingual ultimate attainment.

  • 32.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    The role of language aptitude in first language attrition: The case of prepubescent attriters2010Ingår i: Applied Linguistics, ISSN 0142-6001, E-ISSN 1477-450X, Vol. 31, nr 3, s. 443-464Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    While language aptitude has been investigated actively within second language research, there is a current dearth of research on the effects of aptitude in cases of attrition. The aim of the present investigation was to explore the role of language aptitude for L1 proficiency in speakers who experienced a break with their L1 setting prior to puberty. Twenty-five L1 SpanishL2 Swedish bilinguals residing in Sweden participated in the study, and 15 native speakers of Spanish living in Chile were recruited as controls. The L1 proficiency was measured by means of a grammaticality judgement test (GJT) and language aptitude data were obtained through the Swansea Language Aptitude Test (Meara et al. <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="B36">2003</xref>). Results showed a positive correlation between GJT performance and language aptitude. More specifically, the bilinguals with above-average aptitude were more likely to score within the native range on the GJT than those with below-average aptitude. It was also seen that among the participants with below-average aptitude, GJT scores were related to daily L1 use. In view of these findings, we suggest that language aptitude has a compensatory function in language attrition, helping the attriter to retain a high level of L1 proficiency despite reduced L1 contact.

  • 33.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Norrman, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Revisiting the bilingual lexical deficit: The impact of age of acquisition2019Ingår i: Cognition, ISSN 0010-0277, E-ISSN 1873-7838, nr 182, s. 45-49Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Whereas the cognitive advantages brought about by bilingualism have recently been called into question, the socalled‘lexical deficit’ in bilinguals is still largely taken for granted. Here, we argue that, in analogy with cognitiveadvantages, the lexical deficit does not apply across the board of bilinguals, but varies as a function ofacquisition trajectory. To test this, we implement a novel methodological design, where the variables of bilingualismand first/second language status have been fully crossed in four different groups. While the resultsconfirm effects of bilingualism on lexical proficiency and processing, they show more robust effects of age ofacquisition. We conclude that the traditional view of the linguistic costs of bilingualism need to give way to anew understanding of lexical development in which age of acquisition is seen as a major determinant.

  • 34.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Athanasopoulos, Panos
    Language and thought in a multilingual context: The case of isiXhosa2014Ingår i: Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, ISSN 1366-7289, E-ISSN 1469-1841, Vol. 17, nr 2, s. 431-441Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Situated within the grammatical aspect approach to motion event cognition, this study takes a first step in investigating language and thought in functional multilinguals by studying L1 isiXhosa speakers living in South Africa. IsiXhosa being a non-aspect language, the study investigates how the knowledge and use of additional languages with grammatical aspect influence cognition of endpoint-oriented motion events among L1 isiXhosa speakers. Results from a triads-matching task show that participants who often used aspect languages and had greater exposure to English in primary education were less prone to rely on endpoints when categorising motion events.

  • 35.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Athanasopoulos, Panos
    Linguistic relativity in SLA: Towards a new research programme2014Ingår i: Language learning, ISSN 0023-8333, E-ISSN 1467-9922, Vol. 64, nr 4, s. 952-985Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the current article is to support the investigation of linguistic relativity in second language acquisition and sketch methodological and theoretical prerequisites toward developing the domain into a full research program. We identify and discuss three theoretical-methodological components that we believe are needed to succeed in this enterprise. First, we highlight the importance of using nonverbal methods to study linguistic relativity effects in second language (L2) speakers. The use of nonverbal tasks is necessary in order to avoid the circularity that arises when inferences about nonverbal behavior are made on the basis of verbal evidence alone. Second, we identify and delineate the likely cognitive mechanisms underpinning cognitive restructuring in L2 speakers by introducing the theoretical framework of associative learning. By doing so, we demonstrate that the extent and nature of cognitive restructuring in L2 speakers is essentially a function of variation in individual learners’ trajectories. Third, we offer an in-depth discussion of the factors (e.g., L2 proficiency and L2 use) that characterize those trajectories, anchoring them to the framework of associative learning, and reinterpreting their relative strength in predicting L2 speaker cognition.

  • 36.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Athanasopoulos, Panos
    Motion event categorisation in a nativised variety of South African English2015Ingår i: International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, ISSN 1367-0050, E-ISSN 1747-7522, Vol. 18, nr 5, s. 588-601Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study seeks to expand the current focus on acquisition situations in linguistic relativity research by exploring the effects of nativisation (the process by which a L2 is acquired as a L1) on language-specific cognitive behaviour. Categorisation preferences of goal-oriented motion events were investigated in South African speakers who learnt English as a L1 from caregivers who spoke English as a L2 and Afrikaans as a L1. The aim of the study was to establish whether the categorisation patterns found in the nativised English variety: (1) resemble patterns of L2 speakers of English with Afrikaans as a L1, (2) resemble patterns of L1 English speakers of a non-nativised English variety and (3) do not pattern with either of the above, but instead exhibit a distinct behaviour. It was found that simultaneous, functional bilinguals (Afrikaans and nativised English) patterned with L1 Afrikaans speakers, but the extent to which they did so was modulated by their frequency of use of Afrikaans. Functionally monolingual speakers of nativised English, on the other hand, patterned with L1 speakers of British English. This suggests that bilingualism, rather than nativisation, was a reliable predictor of event categorisation preferences.

  • 37.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning. Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Athanasopoulos, Panos
    Televised Whorf: Cognitive Restructuring in Advanced Foreign Language Learners as a Function of Audiovisual Media Exposure2015Ingår i: The Modern language journal, ISSN 0026-7902, E-ISSN 1540-4781, Vol. 99, s. 123-137Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The encoding of goal-oriented motion events varies across different languages. Speakers of languages without grammatical aspect (e.g., Swedish) tend to mention motion endpoints when describing events (e.g., two nuns walk <styled-content style=text-decoration:underline>to a house</styled-content>) and attach importance to event endpoints when matching scenes from memory. Speakers of aspect languages (e.g., English), on the other hand, are more prone to direct attention to the ongoingness of motion events, which is reflected both in their event descriptions (e.g., two nuns <styled-content style=text-decoration:underline>are walking</styled-content>) and in their nonverbal similarity judgements. This study examines to what extent native speakers (L1) of Swedish (n=82) with English as a foreign language (FL) restructure their categorisation of goal-oriented motion as a function of their proficiency and experience with the English language (e.g., exposure, learning history, etc.). Seventeen monolingual native English speakers from the United Kingdom (UK) were recruited for comparison purposes. Data on motion event cognition were collected through a memory-based triads matching task in which a target scene with an intermediate degree of endpoint orientation was matched with two alternative scenes with low and high degrees of endpoint orientation. Results showed that the preference among the Swedish speakers of FL English to base their similarity judgements on ongoingness rather than event endpoints was correlated with exposure to English in everyday life, such that those who often watched television in English approximated the ongoingness preference of the English native speakers. These findings suggest that event cognition patterns may be restructured through exposure to FL audiovisual media. The results add to the emerging picture that learning a new language entails learning new ways of observing and reasoning about reality.

  • 38.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Athanasopoulos, Panos
    The Whorfian Time Warp: Representing Duration Through the Language Hourglass2017Ingår i: Journal of experimental psychology. General, ISSN 0096-3445, E-ISSN 1939-2222, Vol. 146, nr 7, s. 911-916Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    How do humans construct their mental representations of the passage of time? The universalist account claims that abstract concepts like time are universal across humans. In contrast, the linguistic relativity hypothesis holds that speakers of different languages represent duration differently. The precise impact of language on duration representation is, however, unknown. Here, we show that language can have a powerful role in transforming humans' psychophysical experience of time. Contrary to the universalist account, we found language-specific interference in a duration reproduction task, where stimulus duration conflicted with its physical growth. When reproducing duration, Swedish speakers were misled by stimulus length, and Spanish speakers were misled by stimulus size/quantity. These patterns conform to preferred expressions of duration magnitude in these languages (Swedish: long/short time; Spanish: much/small time). Critically, Spanish-Swedish bilinguals performing the task in both languages showed different interference depending on language context. Such shifting behavior within the same individual reveals hitherto undocumented levels of flexibility in time representation. Finally, contrary to the linguistic relativity hypothesis, language interference was confined to difficult discriminations (i.e., when stimuli varied only subtly in duration and growth), and was eliminated when linguistic cues were removed from the task. These results reveal the malleable nature of human time representation as part of a highly adaptive information processing system.

  • 39.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Athanasopoulos, Panos
    Oostendorp, Marcelyn
    Motion event cognition and grammatical aspect: Evidence from Afrikaans2013Ingår i: Linguistics, ISSN 0024-3949, E-ISSN 1613-396X, Vol. 51, nr 5, s. 929-955Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on the relationship between grammatical aspect and motion event construal has posited that speakers of non-aspect languages are more prone to encoding event endpoints than are speakers of aspect languages (e. g., von Stutterheim and Carroll 2011). In the present study, we test this hypothesis by extending this line of inquiry to Afrikaans, a non-aspect language which is previously unexplored in this regard. Motion endpoint behavior among Afrikaans speakers was measured by means of a linguistic retelling task and a non-linguistic similarity judgment task, and then compared with the behavior of speakers of a non-aspect language (Swedish) and speakers of an aspect language (English). Results showed the Afrikaans speakers' endpoint patterns aligned with Swedish patterns, but were significantly different from English patterns. It was also found that the variation among the Afrikaans speakers could be partially explained by taking into account their frequency of use of English, such that those who used English more frequently exhibited an endpoint behavior that was more similar to English speakers. The current study thus lends further support to the hypothesis that speakers of different languages attend differently to event endpoints as a function of the grammatical category of aspect.

  • 40.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning. University of the Western Cape, South Africa.
    Díaz, Manuel
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för spanska, portugisiska och latinamerikastudier.
    The role of heritage language instruction for first language proficiency: a psycholinguistic perspective2012Ingår i: International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, ISSN 1367-0050, E-ISSN 1747-7522, Vol. 15, nr 5, s. 593-609Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the effects of weekly heritage language (HL) classes on first language (L1) proficiency in speakers who arrived in the second language (L2)-dominant setting before the onset of puberty. Two groups of L1 Spanish – L2 Swedish bilingual high school students living in Sweden participated in the study. One group currently attended HL classes once a week, whereas the other group was no longer doing so. The two groups did not differ with regard to the total number of years of HL class attendance, age of arrival in Sweden, length of residence or degree of L1 contact. Results from a grammaticality judgement test and a cloze test showed that the group that currently attended HL classes outperformed the non-attending group. Using a framework that emphasises heightened attrition susceptibility among speakers who lost contact with the L1-dominant setting before puberty, the study suggests that HL classes function as a factor that, all other things being equal, may counterweigh attrition susceptibility. Moreover, it is suggested that the effects of HL classes on L1 proficiency are short term rather than long term. That is to say, once attendance ceases the counterweighing effect is less visible.

  • 41.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Jarvis, Scott
    Dept. of Linguistics, Ohio University.
    L2 effects on L1 event conceptualization patterns2011Ingår i: Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, ISSN 1366-7289, E-ISSN 1469-1841, Vol. 14, nr 1, s. 47-59Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The finding that speakers of aspect languages encode event endpoints to a lesser extent than do speakers of non-aspect languages has led to the hypothesis that there is a relationship between grammatical aspect and event conceptualization (e.g., von Stutterheim and Nüse, 2003). The present study concerns L1 event conceptualization in 40 L1 Spanish – L2 Swedish bilinguals (all near-native speakers of Swedish). Spanish and Swedish differ as regards grammatical aspect: Whereas Swedish lacks this grammatical category, Spanish conveys aspect through verbal morphology and periphrasis. The principal aim of the study was to explore the relationship between event conceptualization patterns and proficiency with aspectual contrasts. The participants were asked to provide oral L1 Spanish descriptions of video clips projecting motion events with different degrees of endpoint orientation (see von Stutterheim, 2003). In addition, they took a grammaticality judgment test concerning verb and gender agreement, verbal clitics and aspectual contrasts. Compared with baseline data from monolingual Spanish speakers, the results on endpoint encoding show that the bilinguals mention the endpoints of motion events to a higher degree than the Spanish control group does. Moreover, it was shown that the weaker the bilinguals’ discrimination of aspectual errors on the grammaticality judgement test, the more prone they were to encoding endpoints. This result consequently furthers the hypothesis about the interconnectedness between grammatical aspect and event conceptualization. It was suggested that this finding indicate that the bilinguals are influenced by the Swedish-like tendency to attend to the boundedness rather than the ongoingness of events.

  • 42.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning. Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Ramirez-Galan, Pedro
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Language Aptitude in First Language Attrition: A Study on Late Spanish-Swedish Bilinguals2016Ingår i: Applied Linguistics, ISSN 0142-6001, E-ISSN 1477-450X, Vol. 37, nr 5, s. 621-638Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Language aptitude remains one of the most understudied predictor variables in L1 attrition research. The current study seeks to address this gap by investigating the effects of language aptitude on L1 retention in late attriters. Forty L1 Spanish - L2 Swedish bilinguals living in Sweden participated in the study, along with 20 functionally monolingual L1 speakers of Spanish. L1 proficiency was measured by means of a grammaticality judgement test (GJT) and language aptitude data were obtained through the LLAMA Language Aptitude Test (Meara 2005). Additional data on the participants' linguistic background were also collected. Results revealed a robust difference in GJT scores between the bilinguals and the control group. However, degree of language aptitude was not found to exert a significant influence on the bilinguals' GJT performance. Instead, the only significant predictor for GJT performance was linguistic identification, showing that those participants with strong L1 identification were more accurate in judging L1 grammaticality. The lack of aptitude effects on L1 attrition is discussed against the background of age-related attrition susceptibility.

  • 43.
    Bylund, Emanuel Spångberg
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Ultimate attainment of event segmentation and temporal structuring patterns in speakers of L2 Swedish2011Ingår i: Vigo International Journal of Applied Linguistics, ISSN 1697-0381, Vol. 8, s. 29-53Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates ultimate attainment of patterns of segmentation and temporal structuring of events in L2 speakers. The participant group consists of 35 L1 Spanish - L2 Swedish adult bilinguals living in Sweden, with ages of L2 acquisition ranging from 1 to 19 years. Fifteen native speakers of Swedish and 15 native speakers of Spanish were engaged as controls. The participants provided online-retellings of a film excerpt. The results showed that the L2 speakers resorted to an event segmentation strategy with an intermediate degree of event resolution, which fell in between the monolingual Spanish high degree of resolution and the monolingual Swedish low degree of resolution. Regarding temporal structuring patterns, the results showed that the L2 speakers converged with the Swedish-speaking controls, linking the events by means of anaphoric adverbials (i.e., x then y). There was no effect of age of L2 acquisition on the L2 speakers' degree of conformity with Swedish native speaker behaviour.

  • 44.
    Bylund Spångberg, Emanuel
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Ultimate attainment of event construal patterns in speakers of L2 Swedish2011Ingår i: Vigo International Journal of Applied Linguistics, ISSN 1697-0381, Vol. 8, s. 28-53Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates ultimate attainment of patterns of segmentation and temporal structuring of events in L2 speakers. The participant group consists of 35 L1 Spanish – L2 Swedish adult bilinguals living in Sweden, with ages of L2 acquisition ranging from 1 to 19 years. Fifteen native speakers of Swedish and 15 native speakers of Spanish were engaged as controls. The participants provided online-retellings of a film excerpt. The results showed that the L2 speakers resorted to an event segmentation strategy with an intermediate degree of event resolution, which fell in between the mono lingual Spanish high degree of resolution and the monolingual Swedish low degree of resolution. Regarding temporal structuring patterns, the results showed that the L2 speakers converged with the Swedish-speaking controls, linking the events by means of anaphoric adverbials (i.e., “x then y”). There was no effect of age of L2 acquisition on the L2 speakers’ degree of conformity with Swedish native speaker behaviour.

  • 45.
    Ekberg, Lena
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Flerspråkigheten och den nordiska språkgemenskapen2015Ingår i: Språk i Norden, E-ISSN 2246-1701, s. 9-22Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I artikeln diskuteras vilken roll flerspråkigheten har i nordisk språkpolitik, med utgångspunkt i Deklaration om nordisk språkpolitik. Vidare diskuteras ideologin bakom några av de centrala begreppen i den språkpolitiska diskursen, däribland den nordiska språkgemenskapen. Trots att flerspråkighet är en av fyra arbetsfrågor som pekas ut i deklarationen, är andraspråksperspektivet näst intill osynligt. Målet att alla nordbor i första hand ska kunna kommunicera med varandra på ett skandinaviskt språk ignorerar att runt en fjärdedel inte har ett skandinaviskt språk som modersmål. Slutsatsen är att en översyn av deklarationen är motiverad med hänsyn till de nya immigrationsmönster och språkkontaktsituationer som globaliseringen för med sig.

  • 46.
    Eliaso Magnusson, Josefina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    "Självklart känns det mer tryggt att vara där inne i huset" - om den sociokulturella kontextens betydelse för språkliga repertoarer och identiteter2015Ingår i: Nordand: nordisk tidsskrift for andrespråksforskning, ISSN 0809-9227, nr 1, s. 7-28Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 47.
    Eliaso Magnusson, Josefina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Stroud, Christopher
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning. University of the Western Cape, South Africa.
    High proficiency in markets of performance a sociocultural approach to nativelikeness2012Ingår i: Studies in Second Language Acquisition, ISSN 0272-2631, E-ISSN 1470-1545, Vol. 34, nr 2, s. 321-345Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    High-proficiency second language (L2) learners challenge much theory and methodology in contemporary sociolinguistic and L2 acquisition research, which suggests the need for honest interdisciplinarity when working in the interstices of style, stylization, and advanced acquisition processes. When to consider fluent and highly competent speakers of a language to be language learners in ways relevant to SLA theory is a fraught and contentious issue. This study suggests that highly fluent multilinguals provide key data on notions of nativelikeness and near-nativelikeness that are of value for understanding processes of acquisition and use. It suggests that relative judgments of nativelikeness are interactionally accomplished (membership) categorizations made on the basis of specific linguistic features relative to particular linguistic markets. The data for the study are taken from a unique population-namely, young people from multilingual family backgrounds, born and raised in Sweden, all of whom ethnically self-identify as Assyrian-Syrian but whose repertoires are complexly multilingual. All participants are generally perceived to be native speakers of Swedish on a daily basis. Nevertheless, at certain moments, these young people are reclassified as near-native or native-like. The study analyzes their narrative accounts of metalinguistic reflexivity from occasions and interactional moments when they are classified as nonstandard speakers and, therefore, near-natives or learners. The findings suggest the necessity of revisiting notions of nativelikeness and account for the phenomenon in terms of register, voice, and identity relative to different symbolic and linguistic markets.

  • 48.
    Ganuza, Natalia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Ordföljdvariation som språklig strategi bland ungdomar i flerspråkiga storstadsmiljöer.2008Ingår i: Nordand: nordisk tidsskrift for andrespråksforskning, ISSN 0809-9227, Vol. 2, nr 3, s. 57-81-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 49.
    Ganuza, Natalia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Hedman, Christina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkdidaktik.
    Modersmålsundervisning, läsförståelse och betyg – modersmålsundervisningens roll för elevers skolresultat2018Ingår i: Nordand: nordisk tidsskrift for andrespråksforskning, ISSN 0809-9227, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. 4-22Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie undersöker relationen mellan modersmålsundervisning, elevers läsförståelse och deras skolresultat. Studien utgår från en tidigare undersökning som visade att somalisktalande elever som hade deltagit i modersmålsundervisning presterade bättre på tester av läsning och ordförråd i somaliska i jämförelse med elever i samma åldrar som inte deltagit i undervisningen (Ganuza & Hedman 2017a). I föreliggande studie ingår 36 av deltagarna från den tidigare studien, som alla går i samma skola och som alla har deltagit i modersmålsundervisning i flera år. Eftersom den tidigare studien visade att antalet år som eleverna deltagit i modersmålsundervisning främst bidrog positivt till deras läsförståelse på modersmålet, undersöks här sambandet mellan deltagarnas läsförståelse på somaliska och deras betyg; i ämnena modersmål, svenska som andraspråk, matematik och deras sammantagna betygspoäng i slutet av årskurs 6 och 7. Övergripande pekar resultaten på ett positivt samband mellan deltagarnas läsförståelse på somaliska och deras skolresultat. Sambanden är dessutom starkare och mer omfattande än de som finns mellan elevernas läsförståelse på svenska och deras betyg. I artikeln argumenterar vi för att resultaten indirekt antyder att modersmålsundervisningen har positiv inverkan på elevernas skolprestationer, vilket, om det bekräftas i framtida studier, är anmärkningsvärt med tanke på den begränsade undervisningstiden och ämnets marginaliserade position i det svenska utbildningssystemet.

  • 50.
    Ganuza, Natalia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Hedman, Christina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkdidaktik.
    Struggles for legitimacy in mother tongue instruction in Sweden2015Ingår i: Language and Education, ISSN 0950-0782, E-ISSN 1747-7581, Vol. 29, nr 2, s. 125-139Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on the pedagogical beliefs, practices and ideological assumptions of 15 teachers who work with mother tongue instruction in Sweden. Despite support through provisions in Swedish laws, mother tongue instruction is clearly a marginalized subject, not least due to its non-mandatory status, the limited time allocated for it and the fact that the subject and its teachers are often contested in public debate. In this study, the teachers’ narratives center round issues of legitimacy, both for the subject per se and for the teachers’ right to be viewed as ‘real’ teachers. In this paper, we highlight how the teachers link mother tongue instruction to the notion of a ‘common heritage’ and how they see themselves as advocates and role models for the mother tongue. The teachers raise the status of mother tongue instruction in a transformational way, to a subject that is essential and can have a positive impact for a group of students who would otherwise be at a disadvantage in the school system. The undermining of mother tongue instruction was found to affect the pedagogical practices, as the teachers often took into consideration how their teaching would be viewed by parents and colleagues.

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