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  • 1.
    Erik, Rosshagen
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för mediestudier.
    Sync Event: The Ethnographic Allegory of Unsere Afrikareise2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis aims at a critical reflexion on experimental ethnography with a special focus on the role of sound. A reassessment of its predominant discourse, as conceptualized by Cathrine Russell, is paired with a conceptual approach to film sound and audio-vision. By reactivating experimental filmmaker Peter Kubelka’s concept sync event and its aesthetic realisation in Unsere Afrikareise (Our Trip to Africa, Peter Kubelka, 1966) the thesis provide a themed reflection on the materiality of film as audiovisual relation. Sync event is a concept focused on the separation and meeting of image and sound to create new meanings, or metaphors. By reintroducing the concept and discussing its implication in relation to Michel Chion’s audio-vision, the thesis theorizes the audiovisual relation in ethnographic/documentary film more broadly. Through examples from the Russian avant-garde and Surrealism the sync event is connected to a historical genealogy of audiovisual experiments. With James Clifford’s notion ethnographic allegory Unsere Afrikareise becomes a case in point of experimental ethnography at work. The sync event is comprehended as an ethnographic allegory with the audience at its focal point; a colonial critique performed in the active process of audio-viewing film.

  • 2. Janson, Tobias
    et al.
    Wahlberg, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Filmvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Tv-pionjärer och fria filmare2008Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 3. Källman, Jenny
    et al.
    Rian, Jeff
    Wahlberg, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för mediestudier.
    Surveillance2012Bok (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 4.
    Noheden, Kristoffer
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för mediestudier.
    Haloed Objects on Mental Parade: Myth and Magic in Post-War Surrealist Cinema2015Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Following the end of World War II, the surrealist founder André Breton organized the exhibition Le Surréalisme en 1947. In conjunction with it, he announced a “change in direction” for surrealism, towards the search for a new myth, replete with magic. This dissertation examines post-war surrealist cinema in the light of these changing priorities. Earlier scholarship on surrealist cinema has predominantly focused on a few canonized films from the interwar period. Similarly, scholarship across the disciplines has tended to all but ignore surrealism’s continued existence and development after 1939. This dissertation draws on recent tendencies in interdisciplinary surrealism scholarship, in order to expand the perspectives on both surrealist cinema and the wider meaning and implications of the movement’s turn to myth and magic. It takes a broadly comparative, interdisciplinary, and intermedial approach, and situates surrealist cinema in the context of surrealist art, exhibitions, literature, and theoretical writings. The surrealist change in direction was also bound up with a little-explored sensory dimension, the dissertation argues. Accordingly, it seeks to give particular attention to the embodied and sensory aspects of the films it discusses, and so constructs a theoretical framework in which Walter Benjamin, Gaston Bachelard, and embodied film theory are central components.

    The dissertation is organized into four case studies. The first two of these treat films from the immediate post-war era, and comprise the Danish artist Wilhelm Freddie’s forays into filmmaking, and the French poet Benjamin Péret’s contribution to the 1953 documentary film L’Invention du monde. The remaining two case studies cover films from the late 1960s and onwards, and treat the Argentinean-born director Nelly Kaplan’s feature films, and the Czech artist and animator Jan Švankmajer’s short and feature films. These films are all analysed as being interventions in and contributions to the surrealist search for a new myth. The nature of this search, the dissertation shows, varies depending on the historical and cultural contexts that the respective filmmakers have worked in. In that sense, the analyses of the films also expand the inquest into surrealism’s change in direction to other national contexts than France. While Breton never managed to locate the new myth that he was searching, this dissertation shows that these examples of post-war surrealist cinema are bound up with some of the central pursuits the new myth gravitated around, including initiation, esotericism, and an appeal to “primitive” cultures.

  • 5.
    Pereira, Carlos
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Filmvetenskapliga institutionen.
    The End Has No End: Framing Death and the Phenomenology of Dying in Documentary Cinema2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 80 poäng / 120 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In a world denying and deconstructing mortality, the intersection between the phenomenology of image and death and the phenomenology of time consciousness seems to call for new attention in contemporary media culture. The recurrent motif of death in fictive film narratives is opposed to its far more complex and controversial counterpart in documentary cinema. In documentary, the framing of death and dying is immediately ethically charged and the image of death tends to be socially defined as obscene. At the same time, indexical moving-images of death have throughout film history achieved significance as spectacular screen attractions, where the immanent voyeurism of the film experience is linked to an intricate fascination for the real.

    Through dying as a documentary screen event, our perceptual modalities and self- awareness towards the inexorable end are at stake. Turning to the film Near Death (Frederick Wiseman, 1989) as a conceptual example, the present thesis will attempt to theorize the cinematic perception and invoked affects of dying as an immediate and visceral reminder of our limited time. 

  • 6.
    Podlesnigg, Clara
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för mediestudier, Filmvetenskap.
    Preserving Life and Resurrecting the Dead: Toward a Theory of the Biodoc2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Every life tells a story. Film has proven to be a worthwhile medium in which individual lives can be told and thereby will be remembered. In recent years biographical documentaries telling significant life-stories, such as Amy (Asif Kapadia 2015), Kurt Cobain: Montage of Heck (Brett Morgen, 2015) and Senna (Asif Kapadia, 2010) have taken over our screens. While their narrative style often alludes to common compositions of the fictional biopic, their foundation on indexical sound and imagery makes them differ radically. In this thesis theoretical implications on how to approach and understand biographical documentary within the lager scope of biographical filmmaking are discussed. Subsequently the term biodoc is suggested. It implies a close relation to the biopic without compromising documentary film's autonomy compared to fiction film. Furthermore, this thesis sets out to move toward a theory of the biodoc. By putting together a catalog of key aspects and elements common for the biodoc and discussing them in close relation to contemporary examples of the genre, this thesis provides a first theorization of a diverse and growing phenomenon in contemporary film culture.

  • 7.
    Rossipal, Christian
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för mediestudier, Filmvetenskap. NYU Tisch School of the Arts.
    Looking Back: Racializing Assemblages and the Biopolitics of Resistance2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The topic of this thesis is the biopolitics of video activism vis-à-vis racialized police violence. It is written against the backdrop of recent developments in the critique of two central concepts in field of biopolitics, namely Giorgio Agamben’s bare life and Michel Foucault’s biopower. Offsetting their respective framework, Alexander G. Weheliye (et al.) has introduced the imposition of race onto bodies as anterior to biopolitics. I incorporate this in a critique of Pasi Väliaho’s notion of biopolitical screens.

    To facilitate grounded theorizing, a field study of police accountability video activist groups in the United States was conducted. I argue that their observed practices should be seen as forms of embodied counter-surveillance and I situate them in the racially saturated field of visibility specific to the U.S. context. Moreover, I argue that the practices entail an extension of corporealities which is not inherently political in the sense of overt discursive iconography. It is, however, ideologically disrupting in how it networks politicized bodies through time and space.

    I conclude that raising the video camera to “look back” in the face of racializing assemblages constitutes a rights claim to a political subjectivity, however not necessarily in terms of polity or citizenship. Instead, the media practices are transversal and hold the potential to entail a political subjectivity ontologically anterior to state sovereignty.

  • 8.
    Snickars, Pelle
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Filmvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Tidiga medieformer: om televisionen då och nu2008Ingår i: TV-pionjärer och fria filmare: en bok om Lennart Ehrenborg / [ed] Tobias Janson & Malin Wahlberg, Stockholm: Statens ljud och bildarkiv , 2008Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 9.
    Wahlberg, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för mediestudier, Filmvetenskap.
    'Leviathan': From sensory ethnography to gallery film2014Ingår i: NECSUS : European Journal of Media Studies, E-ISSN 2213-0217, Vol. Autumn, nr 'War'Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 10.
    Wahlberg, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för mediestudier, Filmvetenskap.
    Adventures in murky waters: The enactment and commemoration of Kon-Tiki2013Ingår i: Journal of Scandinavian Cinema, ISSN 2042-7891, E-ISSN 2042-7905, Vol. 3, nr 2, 141-149 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1947, Thor Heyerdahl and five crewmembers accomplished a 6900 km sea voyage on a reconstructed balsa wood raft to prove that Peruvian Indians could have settled in Polynesia. The article addresses the meanings of authenticity, enactment and cultural memory in relation to the expedition film Kon-Tiki (Heyerdahl and Nordemar, 1950). The film’s production history and its international success are part of a postwar media event, in itself a trans-Atlantic adventure that has only recently been the subject of scholarly attention.

  • 11.
    Wahlberg, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Filmvetenskapliga institutionen.
    YouTube Commemoration: Private Grief and Communal Consolation2009Ingår i: The YouTube reader / [ed] Pelle Snickars & Patrick Vonderau, Stockholm: National Library of Sweden , 2009Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 12.
    Wahlberg, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Filmvetenskapliga institutionen.
    El archivo alternativo en las peliculas amateur: En collage y la huella en "Az Örvény"2009Ingår i: Piedra, Papel Y Tijera: El Collage En El Cine Documental / [ed] Sonia Garcia López & Laura Gómez Vaquero, Madrid: Documenta Madrid , 2009Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 13.
    Wahlberg, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Filmvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Från Rembrandt till Electronics - konstfilmen i tidig svensk television2008Ingår i: Berättande i olika medier, SLBA, Stockholm , 2008Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 14.
    Wahlberg, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Filmvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Smalfilm för bred publik: amatörfilm och filmexperiment i tidig svensk television2008Ingår i: Tv-pionjärer och fria filmare, SLBA, Stockholm , 2008Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 15.
    Wahlberg, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Filmvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Inledning: Filmavdelningen - en historisk översikt2008Ingår i: Tv-pionjärer och fria filmare, SLBA, Stockholm , 2008Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 16.
    Wahlberg, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Filmvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Documentry Time: Film and Phenomenology2008Bok (Refereegranskat)
  • 17.
    Wahlberg, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Filmvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Dokument2008Ingår i: Film och andra rörliga bilder - en introduktion, Raster förlag, Stockholm , 2008Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 18.
    Wahlberg, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för mediestudier, Filmvetenskap.
    Artfilm in prime time: Educational programming, cultural heritage and experimental images in early Swedish television2015Ingår i: Journal of Scandinavian Cinema, ISSN 2042-7891, E-ISSN 2042-7905, Vol. 5, nr 3, 241-258 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Arts television has attracted scholarly attention because of its practice of re-representation, combined with an educational policy that aspired to teach ‘good taste’ to a broader audience. During the 1950s and the early 1960s, the educational and aesthetic merit of ‘art films’ was broadly recognized in Sweden, where a striking number of television programmes were dedicated to visual art. In 1956 an official state report described television as ‘to date [the] most promising tool for art propaganda’. Unlike related productions in the United Kingdom and elsewhere, the presentation of art films in Sweden also depended on a strong concern with film art. In addition to special programmes on art history and individual artists, broadcasts included experimental cinema and amateur competitions. This article accounts for the hybrid aesthetics and the intermedial and transnational appearance of the art film for public television, with special attention to those produced by the Swedish Film Unit. Here, ‘style’ is not only invoked as a matter of form and signature but also as an aesthetic ideal reflecting the educational directions and cultural doxa of early television programming. As a historical case study on media convergence, documentary form and modes of address in early public television, the example of the Swedish Film Unit illuminates a media history that upsets any simple boundary between film and television, recalling the important historical context of film art, documentary media cultures and broadcasting history.

  • 19.
    Wahlberg, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Filmvetenskapliga institutionen.
    The Trace: Framing the Presence of the Past in Free Fall2011Ingår i: Cinema's Alchemist: The Films of Peter Forgacs / [ed] Bill Nichols and Michael Renov, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2011, Vol. 25, 119-134 s.Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 20.
    Wahlberg, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för mediestudier, Filmvetenskap.
    Essäfilmen som mediekritik: Tankar om gränssnittet och bildens otillräcklighet2014Ingår i: Magasinet Walden, ISSN 2002-2891, nr 10Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 21.
    Wahlberg, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för mediestudier.
    "'Det var då i TV2: Vietnamkriget och det politiska sjuttiotalet"2016Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vietnamkriget brukar ju kallas ”det första tevesända kriget”, men de internationella nyhetsbyråerna i fråga (de amerikanska AP och UPI, brittiska Reuters och franska AFP) var ju ensidigt vägledda och informerade av amerikanska intressen i Saigon. Journalister, fotografer och filmare reste på egen bekostnad till Vietnam för att nyansera bilden av kriget och skildra det vietnamesiska motståndet och civilbefolkningens lidande. Vittnesmål i ord och bild från krigszonen spreds över nationsgränser och blev tidigt föremål för filmvisningar och föredrag inom en växande internationell proteströrelse. Tongivande filmreportage som Felix Greenes In North Vietnam (1967) och Roger Pic och Wilfred Burchetts Malgré l’escalade (1967) nådde även tevepubliken i Europeiska länder. Men att den poetiska och djupt USA-kritiska filmen Loin du Vietnam från samma år (av Joris Ivens, Chris Marker mfl) visades i svensk teve redan 1968 är intressant och unikt för just den svenska mediehistorien. Här blev solidaritetsfilmen paradoxalt sätt även ett inslag i den nationella televisionens dokumentära programutbud. Långt innan Olof Palme höll sitt berömda decembertal 1972, var svenska aktivister i kontakt med den sydvietnamesiska befrielsefronten och bidrog aktivt till att Vietnamesiska filmer distribuerades tillsammans med andra uppmärksammade dokumentärfilmer. Från och med 1967 kan man se en gradvis utveckling i det svenska teveutbudet där Vietnam förvandlades från att endast vara föremål för nyhetsinslag, till att bli ämnet för filmer som representerade effekterna av kriget och som uttryckte solidaritet med ”det vietnamesiska folket”. När TV2 öppnade för reguljära sändningar under programåret 1969/70 var de relaterade filmerna och studioprogrammen ofta i linje med de tre övergripande målsättningarna för FNL: ”(1) USA ut ur Vietnam!, (2) Stöd det vietnamesiska folket på deras egna villkor!, (3) Bekämpa den amerikanska imperialismen!”.[1]  

    Som medieforskare intresserar jag mig för produktionshistoria och de dokument och programdetaljer arkiven erbjuder, med syftet att närmare studera den alternativa filmhistoria som Vietnamdokumentärerna utgjorde i Sveriges Radios programtablåer. Tidigare forskning bidrar till att teckna sammanhang och övergripande strukturer, men jag vill även ställa mer övergripande frågor om hur rörliga bilder är formativa för våra föreställningar om det politiska sjuttiotalet. Vari består det historiska värdet i gångna tiders bevakning av ett turbulent världspolitiskt nu?

    [1]/ Kari Andén-Papadopoulos, 145; Se även Åke Kilander, Vietnam var nära. En berättelse om FNL-rörelsen och solidaritetsarbetet i Sverige 1965-1975. Stockholm: Leopard förlag, 2007. 

  • 22.
    Wahlberg, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Filmvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Figures of time: on the phenomenology of cinema and temporality2003Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Image and time represent a favored issue among theorists and practitioners in the history of cinema, where discussion is related to the ingenious machine, the new art, as well as the experience of film. Looking back on this debate, and considering recent accounts of 'time-images,' it is striking to note how the problem has always oscillated between issues of the medium specific and issues of film experience; that is, the ontology of cinema as a time-bound medium, the quality of rhythm, duration, and recorded views, and, not least, the sensory and affective impact of mediated sound-images. The phenomenological tradition in film theory demands recognition in this respect because it contributed, in various ways, to the acknowledgment of film as something other than a static image object or a filmed story. Phenomenology brought attention to the perceptual modalities of the moving image as well as to the pleasures of film viewing. At the point of intersection between the phenomenology of time-images and the phenomenology of time consciousness, cinema already justifies a philosophical perspective. This study suggests a reassessment of cinema and temporality from the perspective of phenomenology. It aims at a conceptualization of this problem and historically maps this issue in theoretical work as well as in the practice of filmmaking. A major argument is that the problem of cinema and temporality in classical film theory deserves critical attention as well as modification in light of contemporary film, video, and multimedia. For example, what are the significations of 'temporalization' in moving images today, what are the possibilities and fallacies of a phenomenological perspective, and how do classical notions of the temporal image and 'film art' correspond to the play with time and space in documentary and experimental cinema? In line with these questions, Figures of Time advances a methodological discussion, where an alternative phenomenological approach is outlined with reference to the context of semiotic phenomenology and, more specifically, a discussion of texts by Paul Ricoeur, Dominique Janicaud, and Erving Goffman. Three themes demarcate the overall structure of this study: the sensory, time measurement, and the trace. Throughout Western philosophy, from Plato and Aristotle to Déscartes, Kant, Husserl, and Merleau-Ponty, 'the sensory' stands out as a crucial theme in aesthetic theory. Its imprecise signification between the quality of a given object and the quality of our perception resonates in classical discussions of the temporal status of photography and film. Aside from this contextualization of the sensory in classical film theory, the theme is also present in contemporary approaches to the tactile and experiential nature of moving images, such as in The Address of the Eye by Vivian Sobchack. 'Time Measurement' matches predominant notions of film as a Zeitobjekt, visualized music and staged rhythm, as well as the production of interval and tempo that were crucial to the avant-garde cinema of the 1920s and 1960s, and which still reverberate in sound-image elaborations of framing, duration, and speed. In this study, and with reference to Dominique Janicaud, 'time measurement' becomes a conceptual theme that stresses temporalization as a figural process realized between the time of the image and the time of film viewing. Accordingly, 'time measurement' is already incorporated in 'the sensory' and vice versa, because the performed meter of a film cannot be isolated from the viewer's sensory judgment of a temporal dimension.'The trace' offers a recurrent theme in French phenomenology in general, and in André Bazin's film criticism in particular. Jean-Paul Sartre, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Roland Barthes, and Paul Ricoeur, all address the semiotic hybridity of this notion between materiality and experience. In the theory of photography it has been regarded as the prerequisite of the photographic image and its uncanny presence of the past. However, as Bernard Stiegler reminds us, the trace-status of photography is not opposed to the suggested Prässenzzeit of moving images. Rather, within our culture of recording and preservation, cinema stands out as a technology of memory, which opens up this account of cinema and temporality to broader issues of media, archive, and the production of historical time. By drawing attention to the ephemeral and concrete work in cinema of mediated rhythm, stasis, and photographic traces of historical time, these themes bring attention to the plastic and expressive nature of temporalization on the screen, as well as the existential dimensions of Time that have always puzzled man.

  • 23.
    Wahlberg, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för mediestudier, Filmvetenskap.
    Vittnesmål och den hörbara tystnaden i 482017Ingår i: Magasinet Walden, ISSN 2002-2891, nr 3/4, 81-87 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 24.
    Wahlberg, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för mediestudier.
    Art Film and Experimental Images in Early Swedish Television: Ten Photographers2017Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    An abstract framing of a bridge (Västerbron in Stockholm) introduces the film Bro, bro och väggar... En film med fotografen Lennart Olsson (made by Lars-Lennart Forsberg for the Swedish Television in 1964). The span of the bridge stretches in a dramatic form, and the tiny figure in the right corner turns out to be the photographer Lennart Olsson. The speaker/Forsberg comments: ‘This is a rather symbolic image. The little man you see in the right corner is a photographer, and the huge bridge is the photographer’s motif.’ Olsson accounts for his passion with bridges and image making, experimental form being a core issue of both narration and montage. Olsson’s photographs are presented in a montage of stills, or by means of the film camera scanning their surface and details of the represented.

     

    The film was part of a TV series entitled ‘Portrait of four photographers,’ and transmitted during November and December 1964. The personal address and the sense of a personal face-to-face encounter is stressed by the effect of recorded sound, the absence of music, and the liveness of ‘talking heads’, instead of the wry factual tone of the voice-over associated with early educational programming. The subordination of images to an explanatory speaker was suddenly in this series replaced by the subject facing the camera in direct address. In Forsberg’s TV series, the combination of lightweight camera and synchronic sound recording stresses the personal address of the film and the framing of a unique craftmanship develops into a personal encounter. The spontaneity and stressed performativity of the TV film results not only from the technological change imposed by direct sound, it accords with documentary ideals that are in fact closer to Jean Rouch than to Pennebaker: To quote Rouch: ‘For me then, the only way to film is to walk with the camera, taking it where it is most effective and improvising another type of ballet with it, trying to make it as alive as the people it is filming.’[1] In Forsberg’s portrait of Lennart Olson, he played with strategies of framing and editing in deliberately filming the photographer in the act of photographing. As a result, the entire series play with visual representation and meta-filmic themes. As Olsson speaks about abstract art and the Swedish artist Olle Bertling, the camera zooms into the image of a bridge, such as the span gradually fills the screen until it is completely black.. A montage of stills illustrates Olsson’s account of a period when he was very influenced by abstract and minimalist photography. The sound persists after a cut to Forsberg and Olsson who sit at a table, listening to the recorded interview. Olsson smiles at a passage on the meaning of photographic form and the infinite formal variations that a camera may inscribe from the implied rhythm and structures of a bridge. There is a close-up of Forsberg’s hand as he turns off the tape-recorder, and then the camera moves from Forsberg to Olsson as he casually asks ‘well, Lennart, will you keep on making bridges then? The filmed conversation stresses the role of both interviewer and interviewee as subjects of the film. Their relaxed way of addressing complex questions differs a lot from the narration provided by the lecturing voice-over of earlier arts programs. In the Swedish television of 1964 – new technology, international influences, and a generous system of freelance filmmaking made way for experimental form and playful short films in the regulated context of public programming.

     

    Arts television has attracted scholarly attention because of its practice of re-representation and educational policy, combined with the intention to teach ”good taste” to a broader audience. During the 1950s and early 1960s, the educational and aesthetic merit of ”art films” was broadly recognized in Sweden, where a striking number of programs were dedicated to visual art. Tracing the ”TV-film” in relation to developments of technology, subjects, and different modes of address will also suggest a history of educational programming that belongs both to the history of documentary cinema and that of public television (Corner, 2008).

    In Sweden as elsewhere, the art film represented an important element in public broadcasting culture during the 1950’s and 1960’s. It concerned primarily documentary films devoted to art and cultural history, which came to represent an important feature in European TV films. The concept also included studio programs about experimental cinema and film history. Short films shot on 16mm made for a decisive part of the scheduled programs during the first decade of public television.

     

    In the following I will account for this media history of filmmaking in early Swedish television, while also addressing the international context of documentary, it’s new technologies, aesthetic ideals, social commitment and changing modes of address in the early and mid-sixties. More specifically, my example will focus on the production context of the Swedish Radio Film Unit and the collaboration with the group “Ten Photographers”, which throughout the sixties resulted in about 200 TV-films.

    [1]/ Jean Rouch, ‘The Camera and Man,’ in Steven Feld (ed.), Ciné-Ethnography Jean Rouch (Minneapolis and London: University of Minnesota Press, 2003), 38-39. 

  • 25.
    Wahlberg, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för mediestudier.
    Solidarity films on prime time: Vietnam war testimonies and the alternative archive of the Swedish Radio Control Board2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 26.
    Wahlberg, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för mediestudier.
    “From Talking Head To Social Gesture: Direct Address and The Frame-Breaking Event of Mistranslation” at “Face Value” Workshop I, Trondheim, May 9, 20142014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 27.
    Wahlberg, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för mediestudier.
    Scarred Voices, Speaking Bodies: Memory Work in Documentary Re-Enactment2014Ingår i: Face Value, Workshop II. Köpenhamn, 9-10 okt, 2014, 2014, 1-15 s.Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Roland Barthes refers to speech as the theatrical and unpredictable other of the written word, freed of the former’s “tactical” feature. The semiotic conclusion is that the written word introduces “a new image-repertoire, that of ‘thought’” (Barthes, “The Grain of the Voice”). In our encounter with documentary film and media, the experience of first person testimony, framed confessions and forged memory work present us with an “aesthetics of ambiguity” (Waughan, 1999) where the logics of Barthes’ binary is upset, if not ruled out. It is very often the case that the documentary attraction of framed speech, or of an unfolding confession, is invoked by the paradoxical combine of the spontaneous gesture of the filmed subject, and the intentional framing and editorial control of the filmmaker. What is often at stake in the experienced realm of cinema is precisely, as Jean Epstein suggested, “a certain degree of contradiction between image and speech, of falsehood between the eye and the ear”, and, we may add, between what the person says and her gestures, between the words and the character of the voice (Epstein, 1955).

    The aim of my paper will be to exemplify documentary approaches to memory work where strategies of re-enactment provide a means to escape the conventions of the talking head. Instead, closer attention is paid to the unfolding of speech, the drama of body language and telling moments of silence, the texture and character of a specific voice, and the filmmaker-subject encounter, which may not be seen or heard, but which may add to the experience of the film. References to scholarly work on the aesthetics and ethics of documentary film and media (Renov, Honess Roe, Sobchack, Marks, Piotrowska, Wahlberg) will meet with my Epstein-inspired notion of phonogénie which I discuss in relation to the gallery films by the Swedish artist Tova Mozard, in particular Stora Scenen (2011) and Repertoar/Repertoire (Tova Mozard, 2013).    

  • 28.
    Wahlberg, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för mediestudier.
    The documentary call for action: solidarity films, media activism and public broadcasting in Sweden during the Vietnam war2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1970 on the evening of March 10, the Swedish TV audience was presented with an in-house documentary entitled 7 ton bomber per person (”7 tons of bombs per person”). The traces of five years of intense bombing over North Vietnam appeared in the framings of ruins and bomb craters, and through filmed testimonies of everyday life in the shadow of war.

    Departing from a case study on the Swedish context of media activism and public television, this paper offers a conceptual account of the “solidarity films” of this era. A related problem is the articulated subjectivity of first person documentary. As Michael Chanan reminds us, the style and ideals of cinéma vérité coincided with “the television reporter crossing the gap from the voice-over to the talking head in front of the camera”, and, we may add, with the appearance of ordinary people in close-up, the intimacy of the small screen, and the domestic screen culture of television.[1]

    [1]/ Michael Chanan, ”The Role of History in the Individual”, in Alisa Lebow ed., The Cinema of Me, p. 24.

  • 29.
    Wahlberg, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för mediestudier.
    Sounding Scenes of Recollection: Duration, Voice, and the Forging of Silence2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Voices from Chernobyl (Alexievich, 1997) is at once a novel and a record of the 1986 Chernobyl tragedy, told through a patchwork of written accounts; re-arranged fragments of oral history. A poignant detail in Alexievich’s poetic re-enactment of collected life stories is her choice to keep the three dots for many of the interviewees pauses and moments of hesitation – this detail of her original transcripts, the penned trace of ethnographic fieldwork, of listening and taking down the spoken accounts of her encounters with life history and lived time. The author’s deliberate choice, editing and re-phrasings of the authentic testimonies collected includes this technical detail of the transcript, this documentary marker of a performative act of speaking and relational aspect of personal address and attentive listening. What in Alexievich’s prose signals authenticity, enhances the moment which in cinema tends to coincide with a compelling moment of speaking bodies, silence, and framed vulnerability. Three dots to invoke the sounding scene of restrained memory work. The “complex set of relations between the visible and the invisible, the said, and the unsaid” are immanent to the testimonial act, but has always been key to the ethical and affective concerns of framed testimonies in documentary (Rancière, 2011; Renov, 2004). Shifting attention from the enactment of the (visual) trace, to the sounding of silence and time passing in filmed testimony, this paper proposes a reflection in the venue of documentary theory and film phenomenology. Departing from Alexievich’s orchestration of oral history (often referred to as “polyphonic writing”), and with references to experimental documentary and conceptual approaches to voice and listening, I aim at a conceptualization of duration, voice and the “aurality” of silence in documentary memory work. Scholarly work on film sound (Weiss and Belton, 1985; Chion, 1999), sonic objects and audiovisuality in film and video (Birtwistle, 2010 and Honess Roe, 2013), and “voice” in first person documentary (Lebow ed., 2012) will meet in this reflection on documentary scenes of recollection, where telling moments of silence are key, and where memory work often seems to operate beyond narrative enclosure and static subject-object relations.

     

  • 30.
    Wahlberg, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för mediestudier.
    Filmen som arkiv och minnesarbete2017Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 31.
    Wahlberg, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för mediestudier.
    "Inscription and Re-framing:: At the Editing Table of Harun Farocki"2004Ingår i: Konsthistorisk tidskrift, Vol. 73, nr 1, 15-26 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 32.
    Wahlberg, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för mediestudier.
    "Youtube Commemoration": "Private Grief and Communal Consolation"2009Ingår i: The YOuTube Reader / [ed] Snickars, Pelle and Vonderau, Patrick, Stockholm: Kungliga Biblioteket , 2009, 218-235 s.Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 33.
    Wahlberg, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för mediestudier.
    "Wonders of Cinematic Attraction": "J.C. Mol and the Aesthetic Experience of Science Film"2006Ingår i: Screen, ISSN 0036-9543, E-ISSN 1460-2474, nr 3, 273-289 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 34.
    Wahlberg, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för mediestudier.
    "El archivo alternativo en las peliculas amateur: En collage y la huella en Az Örvény"2009Ingår i: El Collage en el Cine Documental / [ed] Piedra, Papel Y Tijera, Madrid: Documenta , 2009Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 35.
    Wahlberg, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för mediestudier.
    "Wonders of Cinematic Abstraction: J.C. Mol and the Aesthetic Experience of Science Film"2006Ingår i: Screen, ISSN 0036-9543, E-ISSN 1460-2474, Vol. 47, nr 3, 273-289 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 36.
    Wahlberg, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för mediestudier.
    Sounding Scenes of Recollection in Documentary Memory Work2017Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    National libraries, museums, and archives are potential sites for knowledge production and shared memory work, but they tend also to be monuments of state power, of selection and exclusion. Film and moving images have always played a formative role in cultural commemoration, and the resistance of cinematic counter-memories has also famously illuminated the critical potential of montage as a historiographical tool. Along with reflections of the theory and practice of political art these thoughts on knowledge production and the politics of media commemoration resonate in contemporary artistic projects that attempt to give voice to a conflicted past, and to make venues for shared memory work; venues that appear in the interstice between excavated and re-framed archival traces and the poetics of narrative imagination and cinematic time-images. I propose to shift our attention from the historical themes per se, to address aesthetic strategies to de-colonize history, and to bridge between the present and the past beyond the structure of an enclosed narrative. The framing and re-framing of compelling traces of the past in cinema also encompass oral history and recorded voices. 

  • 37.
    Wahlberg, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för mediestudier.
    "In the Wake of a Postwar Adventure: Myth and Media Technologies in the Making of KOn-Tiki"2017Ingår i: Small Country, Long Journeys: Norwegian Expedition Films / [ed] Eirik Frisvold Hanssen, Maria Fosheim Lund, Oslo: (Nota Bene 10, Oslo: National Library of Norway , 2017Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 38.
    Wahlberg, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för mediestudier, Filmvetenskap.
    Archives of the present − memory work in the making: ‘Transmission from the Liberated Zones’ (Filipa César, 2015)2017Ingår i: NECSUS : European Journal of Media Studies, E-ISSN 2213-0217, nr SpringArtikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 39.
    Wahlberg, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för mediestudier.
    Solidarity Films on Prime Time: Vietnam War Testimonies and the Alternative Archive of the Swedish Radio Control Board2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 40.
    Wahlberg, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för mediestudier.
    From Talking Head to Social Gesture: Direct Address and the Frame-Breaking Event of Mistranslation2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    From the early years of broadcasting culture, the talking head (in live transmission or

    in the “real time approximation” of TV films made to look like live television) was established as an authoritative marker of veracity, information, and knowledge: The face of an educated lecturer or TV personality, or the pretty face of a girl announcing the next program. Documentary portraits did already present compelling framings of people, but these images were often in the regime of ethnographic cinema: Exotic images of people and places that tended to be subordinated to the narrative conventions of educational programming, or the artistic ambitions and subjective imagination of amateur filmmakers and skillful photographers. By the mid-sixties, the recent technological innovations of portable camera equipment and synchronized sound had radically changed the premises of documentary filmmaking, and did also result in new modes of address, new voices and faces in television.

    The case study of this paper will account for the intimate format of television and the mediated face in relation to the moment in media history when the “World-at-your-door” attraction of predominant educational programming met with the agency of the committed documentary. The establishment of the “talking head” as a convention of factual television, the 16mm aesthetics of direct address, the imperfection of direct sound, and the supposedly revolutionary image of the handheld camera – these are the proverbial qualities of authenticity that we usually ascribe to the documentary of the 1960s and 1970s. I intend to look beyond the familiar characteristics of cinéma vérité and direct cinema, to consider how the new technology of sound recording and synchronized sound made way for the testimonial act as a component of media activism. In particular, I am interested in problems of the voice and strategies of re-enactment that infused the solidarity film of this era and, assumingly, the reception of mediated recollections and lived experience in the immediate presence of war and political struggle. Examples from the Swedish context of solidarity programming will reassess the trope of the talking head, in order to also discuss the problematic aspects of translation and mistranslation that are often poignant in documentary processes of framing and re-enactment, and perhaps most notably so in the context of public television.

    A more conceptual aim of this paper will be to pin down what I would label “the social gesture” of direct address and TV testimonies, while also aiming at a reflection on the mediated face and the emotional event of the testimonial act in documentary more broadly. The expression of “the social gesture” build on the phenomenological notion in classical film theory (Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Roger Leenhardt, André Bazin) regarding the ways in which the cinematic face may ideally invoke the human gesture. The related arguments regarding the importance of scale and duration still holds true for the present context of TV documentaries and solidarity films, although the ideological aspects of framing and the social and cultural realm of voice and performativity bring attention to still overlooked aspects of sound and re-enactment in documentary theory. 

     

    References:

    Chion, Michel, ”Le son et la voix dans le cinéma documentaire. Entretien avec Michel Chion par Jean-Louis Comolli”. Images documentaires 55/56, 47-59.

    Chanan, Michael, The Politics of Documentary. London: BFI, 2007.

    Chion, Michel, The Voice in Cinema. Trans. Claudia Gorbman. New York: Columbia University Press, 1999.

    Kahana, Jonathan, Intelligence Work. The Politics of American Documentary. New York: Columbia University Press, 2008

    Waughan, Dai, ”The Aesthetics of Ambiguity”, in For Documentary. Twelve Essays (Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, 1999)

     

  • 41.
    Wahlberg, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för mediestudier.
    Negotiated Images of War and Political Protest: Solidarity Programming and the Documentary Call for Action2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper relates to an archive project where I try to map and to contextualize the appearance, in the Swedish television of the sixties and seventies, of international solidarity films and in-house productions made to sympathize with political movements and resistance to war and imperialism all around the world.[1] The Swedish case belongs to a transnational media history of committed documentaries, distributed for and beyond television during the period of 1965-75. In terms of national TV history, the radical broadcasting culture asks for special attention, because here the activist scene and the public, regulated sphere of television did overlap in fascinating ways.

     

    *I would like to make ”solidarity”, in the sense of a unifying purpose, the point of departure and to do so in concert with a more general reflection on the crucial combine of agency and affect in solidarity films, and the challenges of both filmmakers and scholars engaged in projects to commemorate a political past, to represent, re-enact, narrate past events, and to imagine moments of collective resistance and uprisings. In a TV-interview for the Swedish Radio, filmed at the Venice Film Festival in 1966, Gillo Pontecorvo reflects on the revolutionary event and the imaginative and symbolical aspect of its political enactment in cinema:

    We live in times of change and in a moment that witness the birth of new nations. Everything is possible. A social movement may develop and grow underground, it may be defeated and everything, but in the moment it really gets started, it is like a river that may flow and apparently disappear but which eventually, no matter what, it will reach the ocean. This is actually the rational subject of the film. The emotional theme of the film is this moving, shared direction towards one specific goal. This collective passion, the hope and the despair – this I found to be the most fascinating.

    In 1967, the film was, together with solidarity films such as Far From Vietnam, of great importance for the Vietnam movement in Sweden and elsewhere. In March 1972, it was typically part of the films selected and programmed for the second, recently opened, TV channel of the Swedish Radio. Reviewers acknowledged the film in terms of its “notable documentary style”, “its brutal power and invoked authenticity which makes it one of the most important political-historical re-enactments ever.”

    The years of 1967 and 1972, here symbolically introduced by the release and transmission of The Battle of Algiers, will in the following be singled out as historical nodes of specific importance for an account of war witnessing, agency, and regulation in the Swedish context of solidarity programming.

      

  • 42.
    Wahlberg, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för mediestudier.
    Beyond Faces in Close-up: Scarred Voices, Speaking Bodies2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Roland Barthes refers to speech as the theatrical and unpredictable other of the written word, freed of the former’s “tactical” feature. The semiotic conclusion is that the written word introduces “a new image-repertoire, that of ‘thought’” (Barthes, “The Grain of the Voice”). In our encounter with documentary film and media, the experience of first person testimony, framed confessions and forged memory work present us with an “aesthetics of ambiguity” (Waughan, 1999) where the logics of Barthes’ binary is upset, if not ruled out. It is very often the case that the documentary attraction of framed speech, or of an unfolding confession, is invoked by the paradoxical combine of the spontaneous gesture of the filmed subject, and the intentional framing and editorial control of the filmmaker. What is often at stake in the experienced realm of cinema is precisely, as Jean Epstein suggested, “a certain degree of contradiction between image and speech, of falsehood between the eye and the ear”, and, we may add, between what the person says and her gestures, between the words and the character of the voice (Epstein, 1955).

    The aim of my paper will be to exemplify documentary approaches to memory work where strategies of re-enactment provide a means to escape the conventions of the talking head. Instead, closer attention is paid to the unfolding of speech, the drama of body language and telling moments of silence, the texture and character of a specific voice, and the filmmaker-subject encounter, which may not be seen or heard, but which may add to the experience of the film. References to scholarly work on the aesthetics and ethics of documentary film and media (Renov, Honess Roe, Sobchack, Marks, Piotrowska, Wahlberg) will meet with my Epstein-inspired notion of phonogénie which I discuss in relation to the gallery films by the Swedish artist Tova Mozard, in particular Stora Scenen (2011) and Repertoar/Repertoire (Tova Mozard, 2013).    

     

    References

    Barthes, Roland, “The Grain of the Voice”, in Image, Music, Text. Essays Selected and Translated by Stephen Heath. London: Fontana Press, 1977

    Chion, Michel, The Voice in Cinema. New York: Columbia University Press, 1999

    Epstein, Jean, “The Counterpoint of Sound”. Translated by Franck Le Gac, in Keller Sarah and Paul, Jason N. eds., Jean Epstein. Critical Essays and New Translations. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2012.

    Honess Roe, Bella, Animated Documentary. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.

    Marks, Laura U., Sensuous Theory and Multisensory Media.

    Piotrowska, Agnieszka, Psychoanalysis and Ethics in Documentary Film.

    Renov, Michael, “Art, Documentary as Art” in Winston, Brian ed., The Documentary Film Book. London: BFI, 2013.

  • 43.
    Wahlberg, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för mediestudier, Filmvetenskap.
    The revelation of TV memories in The Black Power Mixtape 1967-19752012Ingår i: Journal of Scandinavian Cinema, ISSN 2042-7891, E-ISSN 2042-7905, Vol. 2, nr 2, 113-119 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The timely subject of revolutionary struggle and the exotic record of films intended for a Swedish TV audience propelled the recent success of The Black Power Mixtape 1967–1975 by Göran Hugo Olsson (2011). The film exemplifies the processes of selection and re-enactment that are immanent to compilation aesthetics, while drawing attention to the overlooked archive memory of public television.

  • 44.
    Wahlberg, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för mediestudier, Filmvetenskap.
    The documentary film book2015Ingår i: NECSUS : European Journal of Media Studies, E-ISSN 2213-0217, Vol. 4, nr 1, 215-219 s.Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 45.
    Wahlberg, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för mediestudier.
    The revelation of TV memories in The black power mixtape 1967-19752012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Black Power Mixtape 1967-1975 (Göran Hugo Olsson, Sweden, 2011) presents fragmentary glimpses of black power history; images that were shot by Swedish filmmakers in the US for public broadcast in Sweden. This internationally praised compilation film has been a revelation to critics and audiences in terms of how an exotic, Swedish perspective on the black power movement produced a record that differed from related media representations in the American context. Even in Sweden the collage of archival material stands out as a reminder of the overlooked history of public television, and of the documentaries that brought narratives about war and international conflicts — via the two existing TV channels — into the homes of many Swedes.

    The Black Power Mixtape depends on material compiled from the work by 27 filmmakers and reporters. Unfortunately, aside from these fragments, their points of view and their experiences as foreign filmmakers are only hinted at in the opening of the film. How was their working conditions and relationship to the Swedish broadcast corporation?

    What propelled their interest in the Vietnam War and the civil right movement? These are interesting questions, indicating a blank not only in The Black Power Mixtape, but, more alarmingly, in the scholarly work on Swedish film and television history.

    This paper aims at a correction of this situation. Aside from a closer view of Swedish documentaries made in the era of the Vietnam War, the contemporary production saga of The Black Power Mixtape will provide the point of departure for a more general reflection on compilation film, historical enactment, and social memory.

  • 46.
    Wahlberg, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för mediestudier, Filmvetenskap.
    Vietnam in transmission: Documentary Film and Solidarity programming in Swedish Broadcasting Culture (1967-72)2017Ingår i: Journal of Scandinavian Cinema, ISSN 2042-7891, E-ISSN 2042-7905, Vol. 7, nr 1, 43-64 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A case study of the Swedish and transnational context of film, media activism and public broadcasting culture in the late 1960s and early 1970s, this article suggests a reassessment of the ‘solidarity film’ as a TV genre in the era of the Vietnam War. In 1969-70, in the two public channels of Swedish Television, the anti-war narrative would typically appear as a compilation of activist footage in obvious sympathy with the Vietnamese National Liberation Front, or as the reporter’s first-person impressions of everyday life and the traces of war in North Vietnamese villages. The activist material of the former and the subjective perspective of the latter provoked a heated media debate in Sweden, where journalists contested the simplistic and naïve feature of ‘documentary’ narratives, where activists deplored the cautious position of public TV producers, and where programme material was frequently criticized as either politically biased or visually offensive to the TV audience. Images of protest and a Swedish production history of ‘solidarity programming’ illuminate the paradoxical interrelations between the Vietnam movement and the negotiation of radical content in public television, particularly during the years 1967-72.

  • 47.
    Wahlberg, Malin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för mediestudier.
    Hongisto, Ilona
    Macquarie University.
    Scandinavian Documentary Cinema: Special Issue, Journal of Scandinavian Cinema, Vol. 6, no 22017Ingår i: 73-200 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
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