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  • 1.
    Aare, Kätlin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Respiratory patterns and turn-taking in spontaneous Estonian: Inhalation amplitude in multiparty conversations2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores the relationship between inhalation amplitude and turn-taking in spontaneous multiparty conversations held in Estonian. Respiratory activity is recorded with Respiratory Inductance Plethysmography. The main focus is on how inhalation amplitude varies between the inhalations produced directly before turn onset compared to the following inhalations within the same speaking turn. The results indicate a significant difference in amplitude, realised mainly by an increase in inhalation end lung volume values. One of the possible functions of this pattern is to signal an intention of taking the conversational turn. Another could be a phrasing or grouping function connected to lower inhalation amplitudes within turns.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Stina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Repetitioner i barnriktat tal under det första levnadsåret2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A high proportion of repetitions is one of the distinctive features of child-directed speech (CDS). Research has shown that the percentage of repetitions in CDS varies over time depending on the age of the child. In addition, it is suggested that repetitions in CDS correlate with child language development. The aim of the study was to investigate the possible variations over time in the percentage of repetitions in CDS during the child’s first year, and to try to find a connection between repetitions and the child’s language development. Repetitions in parent speech in ten parent-child dyads as the children were 3, 6, 9 and 12 months old were investigated quantitatively. Exact and varying self-repetitions and exact and varying repetitions of the child’s utterances were investigated and compared to the same children’s linguistic level at 18 months of age. The results showed that the percentage of exact self-repetitions was more than 30 percent lower at the age of 12 months than at 3, 6 and 9 months of age. The total percentage of repetitions of the child’s utterances increased more than four times from 3 to 12 months of age. A connection was found between the repetitions during the child’s first year and the child’s language development, indicating that a low percentage of exact self-repetitions at 6 to 9 months of age correlated with a high vocabulary at 18 months of age. A link between the expressive language of the child and the repetitions in parents’ speech was suggested.

  • 3.
    Aronsson, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Institute for Interpreting and Translation Studies.
    I dialog med tid och rum: Anföring, interpunktion och interjektioner i en kommenterad översättning av Yasutaka Tsutsuis ungdomsroman 時をかける少女 (Toki wo kakeru shoujo)2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master’s thesis consists of a translation from Japanese to Swedish of Yasutaka Tsutsui’s Toki wo kakeru shoujo (The girl who leapt through time), and a commentary of the translation process. The purpose is to examine which problems may arise when translating reported discourse, punctuation and interjections, and what strategies can be used to solve these problems. The translation is performed with an orientation towards acceptability and the target culture, to try and conform the text to the norms and expectations of the target culture.

  • 4.
    Bartkowiak, Paulina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Slavic and Baltic Studies, Finish, Dutch and German.
    Język polonijny w Szwecji: Przeskok kodowy w rozmowach na temat pracy2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 5.
    Benediktsdottir, Ásdis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Institute for Interpreting and Translation Studies.
    Analysing a Harvest Moon: On the translation of role language in Bokujō Monogatari: Hajimari no Daichi for the Nintendo 3DS2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis seeks to introduce the concept of role language in translation in the context of video game localisation. There is very little written on the subject of role language in translation from Japanese to English, and none which pertains to role language in video games. There is also a seeming deficiency of reliable literature regarding the product of translation in video game localisation, analysing what was done and what effects it may have had on the finished product. By analysing the particular role language profiles of selected characters from Bokujō Monogatari: Hajimari no Daichi for the Nintendo 3DS, this thesis hopes to serve as a stepping stone towards a new area of video game localisation.

    Eight non-playable characters, four male and four female, were analysed to create their respective role language profiles. Four scenarios were chosen for each character: the first and last heart event, the love confession and the married life sequence. The translations of each of these scenarios were analysed, along with how the respective characters were linguistically portrayed.

    The study found that although many characters were found to retain most of their original linguistic profiling in translation, there were instances where misconception of the source text could have been a factor. The translations where this rather than a different linguistic profile altered the character’s perception, the translations were often ST-oriented. In translations where the characterisation had been unaltered, predominantly it seemed the result of a critical distance from the ST and willingness on the translator’s part to take creative liberties.

    Role language is an integral feature of Japanese popular fiction, and it would seem that the fictional realms of video games are no exception. Although this thesis has studied only a limited sample, it would not be entirely out of line to draw the initial conclusion that to take a step back from the source material and instead focus on conveying a perception of a character rather than follow the written script, seems to result in a character portrayal in the target text similar to that in the source text.

  • 6.
    Björklund, Ylva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Att hantera referenser: En jämförande fallstudie med särskilt fokus på teckenspråksanvändare med sen inlärning av sitt förstaspråk2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Med denna jämförande studie vill jag se och jämföra hur tre individer med olika språklig bakgrund och olika förutsättningar att lära svenskt teckenspråk hanterar referenser i en narrativ berättelse. Med särskilt fokus på en döv informant som lärt sig teckenspråk först i vuxen ålder och i jämförelse med en döv med tidig inlärning av teckenspråk som förstaspråk samt en hörande som lärt sig teckenspråk som andraspråk som vuxen har jag tittat på teckenspråkets olika sätt att referera. De tre informanterna har återberättat samma korta filmklipp vilket underlättat en någorlunda rättvis jämförelse. Syftet är att se vilka likheter och skillnader de har i referenshanteringen. Filmerna har transkriberats i ELAN för att sedan plocka ut de olika sätten att referera och jämföra dem inbördes. Resultatet visar på både skillnader och likheter mellan de tre informanterna. Resultatet bekräftar till viss del tidigare forskning och visar att det finns relevant referensmarkering särskilt i de imiterande delarna, i modifierade verb och i blickvridning och kroppsvridning.

  • 7.
    Blanquet, Sarah Martine Dominique
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Puentes interculturales: Implicaciones de las creencias sobre la competencia intercultural de profesores en formación pertenecientes al máster MULTIELE2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Within the Erasmus Mundus program for Teaching and Learning Spanish in Multilingual and International Contexts (MULTIELE), pre-service teachers from different backgrounds participate in academic stays in several universities located in different countries and complete their internships in an external context. This research paper seeks to analyze the beliefs of seven pre-service teachers regarding intercultural competence, taking into account their life experiences and the master’s program. Through the qualitative study of seven semi-structured interviews, results show a lack of definition in the concept of intercultural competence and its teaching, a tight link between life experiences and the conception of this competence and a need for theoretical training during the master’s program regarding this topic. The discussion and conclusions offer some proposals based on these observations and suggest further research lines. 

  • 8.
    Borking, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Institute for Interpreting and Translation Studies.
    Donaldson på Hellsingska: en komparativ fallstudie: Julia Donaldsons engelska bilderböcker i svensk översättning av Lennart Hellsing2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master’s thesis looks at the translation of Julia Donaldson’s English picture books into Swedish by the Swedish children’s author Lennart Hellsing. The main aim of the study is to determine whether the translation of the original (source) texts involves the transference of Hellsing’s writing style into the translated (target) texts. Earlier research, carried out by Kåreland (2002), is employed in order to pinpoint Hellsing’s distinctive style as a writer. The style variables apparent in Hellsing’s own writing were thereby identified and these are applied to the analysed target texts in this case study. The theoretical framework is based on descriptive translation studies (DTS) and the use of Toury’s model (1995) for reconstructing translational norms allows the source texts (ST) and target texts (TT) to be put into a sociocultural context. By working within this framework a descriptive analysis is used to describe and compare the ST and TT and the concept of translation as a practice governed by certain translational norms at a certain moment in time and within a certain culture is applied. The findings show that Hellsing’s style as a writer can also be detected in his translations of Donaldson’s picture books. The results of this case study also indicate that the translation of these texts can be considered to be a target culture oriented practice.  

  • 9.
    Bysell, Lina Emilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Institute for Interpreting and Translation Studies.
    En revolutionerande översättning: En översättningsteoretisk uppsats om att översätta en skildring av det ryska inbördeskriget2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay covers the translation of a fictional prose text from Russian to Swedish, the source text being the first chapter of Aleksey Tolstoy’s Chmuroe utro (Bleak Morning), the third part of his trilogy Choždenie po mukam (The Ordeal). A commentary of this translation is provided, where the linguistic abstractions encountered throughout the process are documented.

    My methodology attempts to emulate that of Eugene Nida and his principle of “Dynamic Equivalence”. This procedure is addressed in the commentary, as I explain how utilisation of Nida's theories can assist in overcoming the numerous peculiarities inherent to translation.

    I also deal with the issue regarding the first two books of the trilogy, which have already been translated into Swedish by another translator. In my work, I explain how and why I have chosen to relate to the earlier translation. 

  • 10.
    Carlberg, Matilda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Att förstärka sinnelag och sinnesstämning: En korpusstudie av förstärkande förled hos svenska adjektiv2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is no description in the Swedish grammar regarding how adjectives can be reinforced with prefixes, also known as intensifiers. Research shows that this phenomenon have recieved greater attention in other languages. The purpose of this study was to describe and map the use of prefix reinforcements, and see if any patterns or rules could be found. The quantitative research is based on statistical data collected from informal blog texts in two Swedish corpora. Adjectives on two types of mood, solid and temporary, as well as positive and negative, were investigated. The results showed that some types were more inclined to take reinforcements than others. Temporary adjectives took on more than solid ones, negative more than positive, as well as the short and frequent adjectives where more often reinforced than the longer and uncommon ones

  • 11.
    Damberg, Victor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Institute for Interpreting and Translation Studies.
    Returning Loanwords: Translation of Western Loanwords in Japanese to English2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Although the similarities between the English language and the Japanese language are few, the two have influenced each other profoundly in the last century. The category of words called gairaigo in the Japanese language mostly consist of loanwords from Western languages – in particular English. But what happens when translators translate these originally English words in Japanese back to English? This thesis sought to examine what kind of local strategies Japanese-to-English translators use when translating gairaigo, if these strategies vary depending on the text type and whether or not there is a correlation between the local strategies and the word class of the gairaigo. Three different kinds of texts were examined; a novel, several newspaper articles and an operation manual. By comparing the source texts with their corresponding target texts, it was possible to determine six different local strategies used to translate gairaigo – omission, returning, transposition, modulation, equivalence and paraphrase.

  • 12.
    Dietrich, Jelscha Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    La influencia interlingüística en el aprendizaje de español como tercera lengua de aprendices brasileños2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the findings of a study that examined the type of cross-linguistic influence (CLI) present in the oral speech production of Brazilian university students of L3 Spanish with L2 English. The study was guided by two research questions: the first asked which background language (L1 vs. L2) would be activated as source of CLI. The second addressed the effect of the proficiency factor and self-perceived proficiency as well as learner external factors such as prior foreign language learning experience and stays abroad in a Spanish speaking country on the amount and type of CLI. The speech production samples were elicited by means of a picture story telling task. The data obtained were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. The results suggest that the amount of CLI decreases with increasing proficiency. At the same time, learners with prior foreign language experience and / or with stays in Spanish.speaking countries tend to transfer less than learners without these experiences. With respect to the type of CLI, the overall trend shows a decrease of form-based CLI as the proficiency level in the target language increases. Regarding the meaning-based CLI, the results suggest an increase in occurrence as proficiency increases. 

  • 13.
    Eklås Tejman, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Automatisk citatidentifiering för nyhetstext på svenska2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The strategies for marking quotations in Swedish differ from most other European languages. Since most systems for quotation identification are developed for English, there was a need for a quotation identification system specifically adapted for Swedish. A gold standard of 100 quotes from SUC 3.0 and 206 quotes from unformatted, web crawled news data was compiled to analyse the syntactic structures and marking patterns of Swedish quotation. A rule based system for quotation identification based on the patterns was developed. It achieved an F-score of 0.79 for the raw news data that contained the gold standard quotes and was able to identify 13 of 19 marking patterns. It could not determine whether the quotes ended after the reporting phrase or not, since the raw text data lacked formatting for most common way to mark the end of a quote in Swedish.

  • 14.
    Hammar, Tabea
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Personliga pronomen i pidginspråk: En jämförande undersökning2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Pidgins are contact languages that emerge under strained sociolinguistic circumstances. They are seen as the most reduced linguistic system that can still enable successful communication in a specific social context. To this date there is a lack of research investigating how pidgins form their linguistic systems. The present study is intended to be a step towards extended knowledge within the field and aims to investigate how pidgins form their personal pronoun paradigms. The occurrence of nine different grammatical features in 18 pidgins, their lexifiers and most important substrates has been surveyed. The data was collected through literature search and compiled in tables in the computer program Excel. The results show that all surveyed features occur among the pidgins but the frequencies vary. The data indicates that the substrates have a prominent role in the process of pidgins forming their personal pronoun paradigms.

  • 15.
    Johansson, Lina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Institute for Interpreting and Translation Studies.
    Vem i hela världen säger så?: Normer vid översättning av könskodad dialog i manga2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay investigates norms in translation of gender stereotype language. Gender Studies has for many years claimed that gender stereotypes in language not only maintain gender stereotypes but also reinforce them. Because of this feminist translation theorists stress the importance of being aware of what stereotypes translation can and do transfer between cultures. In this essay the gender stereotypes that are dealt with are the ones of characters in Japanese comics, so called manga. With a methodology from Translations Studies, coupled pairs, it compares Japanese source texts with Swedish target texts. The results shows that almost all of the gender stereotype language in the source texts has been omitted in the target texts. Even though this makes the language less stereotype, it does not make all of the characters less stereotype. One character is even more stereotype in the target text than in the source text. This probably shows that the omissions are not a choice made by the translator to reduce stereotypes. The reason for the omissions seems instead to be that it is a norm in translation of manga to omit a certain amount of the character specific language.

  • 16.
    Kalamakis, Sara Zoi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Contradicciones interpretativas de la imagen pública entre analistas de la conversación y alocutores: Estudio de una entrevista semiformal al presidente de la República Oriental del Uruguay, José Alberto “Pepe” Mujica2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [es]

    En esta investigación nos ocupamos de estudiar las interpretaciones, por parte de los analistas de la conversación y los participantes alocutores, sobre la imagen pública de un político uruguayo, dentro de comportamientos (des)corteses, lingüísticos y no lingüísticos, en apartados concretos de una entrevista semiformal. La hipótesis es que un análisis de la conversación no es siempre suficiente para interpretar la imagen pública que transmiten los usuarios del lenguaje, ya que las interpretaciones pueden variar según el conocimiento previo de una imagen pública de los interlocutores a pesar de las diferencias socioculturales e ideológicas. El estudio que se lleva a cabo es cualitativo y para la recopilación de información se usan cuestionarios a tres grupos de informantes: analistas conversacionales, uruguayos e hispanohablantes internacionales, estando conformados estos dos últimos grupos por personas de diferentes edades, clases y simpatías ideológicas. Las cuestiones que esta tesis se ocupa de estudiar son: ¿De qué forma se perciben las respuestas y enunciados del político entre los grupos que saben y aquellos que no saben nada sobre el mismo?, ¿de qué manera interpretan la imagen social del político los uruguayos?, ¿se ve afectada esta interpretación por una posible ideología subyacente a los participantes? y por último, ¿coinciden o se diferencian las interpretaciones entre analistas y alocutores? Nuestros resultados muestran que el análisis de un discurso es una tarea multidisciplinaria que precisa llevarse a cabo con mucho cuidado, ya que la imagen pública de un hablante se interpreta de formas variadas por los múltiples interlocutores y observadores, donde tanto el conocimiento previo de la imagen del hablante como las creencias ideológicas son factores fundamentales que afectan la interpretcaión.

  • 17.
    Knuchel, Dominique
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    A comparative study of egophoric marking: Investigating its relation to person and epistemic marking in three language families2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Egophoric marking as a potentially categorical expression in language is conceived of as a binary semantic contrast that marks an event as either involving one of the speech act participants (egophoric), or as one that does not (non-egophoric). Prima facie, the egophoric marking pattern resembles person indexing and has been interpreted as such. However, it appears that what is marked does not simply correspond to indexing the speech act roles of speaker and addressee. Rather, egophoric marking appears to encode the speech participant’s respective access to events/information in terms of ‘involvement’ and is therefore more akin to epistemic categories, such as evidentiality.

    This thesis presents a comparative study of egophoric marking on the basis of data from descriptions of relevant languages from the Barbacoan (South America), Nakh-Daghestanian (Caucasus) and Tibeto-Burman (Himalaya) language families. The study covers grammatical and functional properties, as well as diachronic aspects of egophoric marking systems. The findings are discussed in relation to typological studies on person and evidentiality in order to determine similarities and differences between egophoric marking and these associated categories. 

  • 18.
    Lange, Noa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Nominal plurality in languages of the Greater Hindukush2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Greater Hindukush is an area that stretches from northwestern–central Afghanistan, through Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Gilgit–Baltistan of Pakistan and to Kashmir in northwestern India. It is home to some fifty languages of various genera including Indo-Aryan, Iranian, Nuristani, Tibeto- Burman, Turkic and the isolate Burushaski. It has long been of interest in areal typology, and there has been some discussion of phonological and lexical features shared between the languages, presumed to have evolved due to language contiguity and contact. The purpose of the present study is to research a grammatical feature, namely the plural marking of common nouns, in a selection of languages spoken in the Greater Hindukush area, and to discuss its salience as an areal or sub-areal feature. Several grammars have been consulted in the extraction and analysis of all relevant information on nominal plurality in the languages. The results indicate a correlation between stem modification as a means of marking nouns for plural, as well as optionality in the overt plural marking, and the contiguity of some languages. Conclusively, stem change as a method of expression displays some moderate degree of areality, while optionality of nominal plural marking in particular is suggested as a sub-areal feature of the area.

  • 19.
    Lindmark, Carolina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Hungrig som en gnu och snäll som en karamell: En korpusstudie över nutida liknelser i svenska bloggtexter2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien kartlägger vanliga adjektivliknelser i svenska bloggtexter ur två aspekter, vilka adjektiv och substantiv som förekommer tillsammans i konstruktionen ADJEKTIV som en/ett SUBSTANTIV samt deras grad av konventionalisering. Tidigare forskning visar att liknelser är svårdefinierade, vilket tas upp i bakgrunden. Materialet är hämtat från fem korpusar med svensk bloggtext. Resultaten visar att de vanligaste adjektivliknelserna föredrar att knyta an till ett eller några substantiv. Däremot finns det visst utrymme för produktivitet. Studien är en preliminär kartläggning över hur pass konventionaliserade liknelserna är. Möjliga källor för uppkomst av liknelserna diskuteras i diskussionen. Resultaten belyser även att det finns en ytterligare dimension i definitionen av liknelser utöver kontinuumet mellan bokstavlighet och figurativitet, nämligen en distinktion mellan exaktare måttangivelse och figurativitet.

  • 20.
    Lindström, Mathias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Automatic Segmentation of Swedish Medical Words with Greek and Latin Morphemes: A Computational Morphological Analysis2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Raw text data online has increased the need for designing artificial systems capable of processing raw data efficiently and at a low cost in the field of natural language processing (NLP). A well-developed morphological analysis is an important cornerstone of NLP, in particular when word look-up is an important stage of processing. Morphological analysis has many advantages, including reducing the number of word forms to be stored computationally, as well as being cost-efficient and time-efficient. NLP is relevant in the field of medicine, especially in automatic text analysis, which is a relatively young field in Swedish medical texts. Much of the stored information is highly unstructured and disorganized.

    Using raw corpora, this paper aims to contribute to automatic morphological segmentation by experimenting with state-of-art-tools for unsupervised and semi-supervised word segmentation of Swedish words in medical texts. The results show that a reasonable segmentation is more dependent on a high number of word types, rather than a special type of corpora. The results also show that semi-supervised word segmentation in the form of annotated training data greatly increases the performance.

  • 21.
    Luzhkova, Elena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Ongoing Semantic Change in Seven Swedish Words: A questionnaire-based study2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The lexical semantics of a language is an area of linguistics that has many important implications for the life of modern society. It is important to understand how language change works and why this change occurs. Thus the aim of the work described in the thesis was to examine how six Swedish words, fett, fräsch, fräck, grym, häftig, and tajt are used by five different age groups of Swedish people in Uppsala region. To accomplish the aim of the study an appropriate questionnaire was compiled and used by the author. The questionnaire asked for information about the respondents as well as about the usage of each studied word. Analogous previous studies of the ongoing semantic change are reported in literature, frequently in regard to the words from English language. My results show that most of the chosen words are used differently by different age groups. Some words change their usage only slightly while other words experience larger metamorphose. The investigated words do not change their meaning completely, however some meanings do become more or less frequent. The results also show that the usage of the words does not always correlate to their dictionary definitions. Overall it can be concluded that semantic change for the considered words is a gradual ongoing process.

  • 22.
    Marttinen Larsson, Matti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    El trabajo delante suyo: Un estudio diacrónico y diatópico de la variación en el uso de las locuciones adverbiales locativas2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [es]

    El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo investigar el uso de la construcción morfosintáctica adverbio locativo + pronombre posesivo (“delante suyo”), que alterna con la normativamente recomendada adverbio locativo + [preposición de + pronombre personal] (“delante de él”). El estudio proporciona un panorama de su distribución histórica y geográfica, un tema que anteriormente no ha sido abordado con profundidad en trabajos lingüísticos. El material analizado consiste en los tres corpus principales de la lengua española (CORDE, CREA y CORPES XXI), que en su conjunto aportan alrededor de 424 000 000 de formas, a partir de los cuales se ha construido una base de datos consistente con las ocurrencias de las construcciones en cuestión. Se ha partido de la hipótesis de que, en el caso del uso del posesivo, se trata de un fenómeno muy extendido por todo el ámbito hispánico y que, más recientemente, ha ido difundiéndose, compitiendo así con la construcción preposicional. Con base en el banco de datos elaborado, y considerando estudios anteriores que aluden al fenómeno, se ha logrado comprobar que la forma posesiva se registra en casi todo el mundo hispánico, pero que presenta una tradición de uso más larga en España – país donde se ha originado – y Argentina, siendo el último país el que presenta la frecuencia de uso más alta.

  • 23.
    Nilsson, Jorunn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Institute for Interpreting and Translation Studies.
    Rollspråk i dubbning och undertextning: En analys av rollspråket i den japanska undertextningen och dubbningen av en svensk barnfilm2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Japan so called role language, i.e. stereotypical language associated with a certain type of character, frequently occurs in material for children such as children’s films. Role language is a fairly new area of research but despite this, there are a few studies dealing with role language in literary translation, subtitling and dubbing into Japanese. However, few or none of these examine how role language influences characterisation in the subtitles and dubbing of the same film.

    This thesis analyses the Japanese subtitling and dubbing of the Swedish children’s film Du är inte klok, Madicken and finds that both versions use role language in a similar way to simplify characterisation and emphasize the femininity of female characters through the use of feminine sentence-final particles, pronouns, verb forms and interjections etc.

  • 24.
    Nordén, Anton Harry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Adjektiv i hög grad: En korpusstudie av förstärkares distribution i svenska2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study is a corpus-based investigation of how bloggers usually reinforce adjectives in Swedish, and if the intensification varies according to the adjectives and nouns that are being modified. Earlier literature shows for example how intensification of adjectives may depend on semantic and contextual factors and how intensifiers often undergo grammaticalization. The study aims to descriptively contribute to earlier observations, by analysis of more data than used in comparable studies of Swedish. The data comes from the corpus Swedish Blog Sentences (>6 billion tokens). All adjectival compounds, adverbs preceding adjectives, and similes (”ADJ som en/ett N”) were automatically extracted. Then the 20 most frequent reinforcing left parts of compounds, adverbs and similes, totally as well as for 26 chosen adjectives, were manually listed. ”Reinforcement” was defined as an expression of ’high degree’ of the feature that the adjective expresses. The results showed that the left parts along with the adverbs follow a Zipfian distribution, in total and often for individual adjectives. Moreover, it was shown that adjectives are more or less reinforced, and by different reinforcers. The results are seen as supporting theories about affixoids and grammaticalization, and also gradability in adjectives. It is suggested that future bigger studies would illuminate the difference between lexically specific and general reinforcers. Finally, it is argued that similes serve the same reinforcing function as the left parts and adverbs.

  • 25.
    Olsson, Linus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Form and function of reduplicated nouns in Japanese2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the form and function of reduplication in nouns in Japanese. Three main areas were investigated: meaning, morphosyntactic behavior, and register. The study was conducted with informants participating in meetings which were audio recorded. The informants were asked to describe a number of reduplicated nouns belonging to three categories: concrete nouns, abstract nouns, and nouns relating to time. A number of pseudo forms were also included to see if similar patterns could be observed in nouns that did not belong to the regular lexicon. The results were analyzed for possible patterns relating to meaning, morphosyntactic behavior, and register across the three noun categories. Primarily two patterns were observed: 1. the reduplicated forms of concrete nouns tended to have a meaning of plurality and maintain their noun status, and 2. the reduplicated forms of nouns relating to time tended to acquire a sensation of extended time and frequency, and change word class into adverbs. These patterns were not observed as strongly among the pseudo forms. In addition to these patterns, other phenomena were observed among the reduplicated nouns that could not be categorized as belonging to specific patterns and should be investigated in further studies.

  • 26.
    Pagmar, David
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Noun Phrase Anaphora and Referential Behaviour in Child-Directed Speech During the Child’s First Year2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    “Anaphora” is a label used for a referential expression that connects one entity (e.g. a pronoun) to another previously established entity (e.g. a proper name). The previously established entity is called an antecedent. The use of anaphora will, in this study, be referred to as referential behaviour. The study was based around audio and video recordings of free play between a Swedish parent and his/her child. 10 parents and their children were recorded. The referential behaviour of the parents was analysed. The sessions took place when the children were 3, 6, 9 and 12 months old. Recent studies indicate that speech directed at children during a child's first six months contains a larger amount of pronouns than the speech directed at children between 6 and 12 months of age. The purpose of the study was to examine if the decline of pronouns was visible in Swedish child- directed speech, and to see how different types of anaphora appeared in the same speech. Correlations between the visible changes of different types of referential expressions were also examined. A drop in the use of anaphoric pronoun with an explicit antecedent was found for the last two ages, which confirmed the study’s hypothesis. The results were also compared to each child’s vocabulary development. 

  • 27.
    Palm, Clara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Buscamos profesor@s: Un estudio del género gramatical en anuncios de trabajo y dentro del profesorado sueco2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [es]

    El objetivo del presente estudio es investigar el uso preferido del género gramatical y en particular el genérico masculino. Muchos son los estudios realizados sobre el genérico masculino en otras lenguas, pero pocos los que se han centrado en describir el uso en el español. Es por ello que pretendemos profundizar el entendimiento de este campo mediante un análisis del género gramatical usado para denominar profesiones y cargos en bolsas de trabajo en la página web española, y además cómo el profesorado sueco lo aplica cuando refieren a alumnos oralmente o por escrito y cómo prefieren que otros hagan referencia a su propia profesión. El corpus consta de títulos de 265 anuncios de cuatro profesiones de cuatro sitios web españoles y 69 respuestas de un cuestionario compartido en un grupo para profesores de español en Facebook. Es un estudio del tipo cuantitativo y se analiza el resultado según el uso del género gramatical. Partimos de la hipótesis de que hay una gran variedad de uso; en gran parte arbitraria, pero también que se organiza el uso según los estereotipos. Los hallazgos principales son que en el 69 % de los anuncios de trabajo el uso más frecuente no es el genérico masculino sino la inclusión de las dos formas gramaticales, hecha de varias maneras y en el uso entre los profesores el genérico masculino es el más usado, no obstante, hay una multitud de preferencias y para resumir constatamos que hay una gran variedad en el uso en los contextos investigados.

  • 28.
    Rask, Linnea
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Prosodic Features in Child-directed Speech during the Child's First Year2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates prosodic features of child-directed speech during the child’s first year, using the automated prosodic annotation software Prosogram. From previous studies on first language acquisition and child-directed speech we know that speech directed to infants and small children is characterised by exaggerated use of several prosodic features, including a higher pitch, livelier pitch movement and slower speech rate. Annotation of these phenomena has previously been done manually, which is time consuming and includes a risk of circularity. If we can use semi-automated systems to carry out this task, it would be a huge methodological gain. This study analysed recordings of 10 parent-child pairs at four occasions (3, 6, 9 and 12 months of age) for a total of 40 recordings. The audio files were analysed in Prosogram in order to detect possible differences depending on the child’s age. The results showed a noticeable change in child-directed speech over the first year of the child’s life. A change in several characteristic prosodic features was noted to occur between the ages of 6 and 9 months. Pitch levels decreased, and articulation rate increased. Additionally, parents seemed to use pitch values much higher than their mean pitch speaking to children aged 3 and 6 months than to children aged 9 and 12 months. Despite using a relatively small sample, the results show several interesting trends in the usage of child-directed speech. Furthermore, this study shows that Prosogram is a useful tool for automatic analysis of child-directed speech.

  • 29.
    Rönnqvist, Hanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Fusion, exponence, and flexivity in Hindukush languages: An areal-typological study2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Surrounding the Hindukush mountain chain is a stretch of land where as many as 50 distinct languages varieties of several language meet, in the present study referred to as “The Greater Hindukush” (GHK). In this area a large number of languages of at least six genera are spoken in a multi-linguistic setting. As the region is in part characterised by both contact between languages as well as isolation, it constitutes an interesting field of study of similarities and diversity, contact phenomena and possible genealogical connections. The present study takes in the region as a whole and attempts to characterise the morphology of the many languages spoken in it, by studying three parameters: phonological fusion, exponence, and flexivity in view of grammatical markers for Tense-Mood-Aspect, person marking, case marking, and plural marking on verbs and nouns. The study was performed with the perspective of areal typology, employed grammatical descriptions, and was in part inspired by three studies presented in the World Atlas of Language Structures (WALS). It was found that the region is one of high linguistic diversity, even if there are common traits, especially between languages of closer contact, such as the Iranian and the Indo-Aryan languages along the Pakistani-Afghan border where purely concatenative formatives are more common. Polyexponential formatives seem more common in the western parts of the GHK as compared to the eastern. High flexivity is a trait common to the more central languages in the area. As the results show larger variation than the WALS studies, the question was raised of whether large-scale typological studies can be performed on a sample as limited as single grammatical markers. The importance of the region as a melting-pot between several linguistic families was also put forward.

  • 30.
    Svärd, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Grammatical gender in New Guinea2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates the gender systems of 20 languages in the New Guinea region, an often overlooked area in typological research. The languages were classified with five criteria used by Di Garbo (2014) to classify gender systems of African languages. The results showed that the gender systems were diverse, although around half of the languages have two-gendered sex-based systems with semantic assignment, more than four gender-indexing targets, and no gender marking on nouns. The gender systems of New Guinea are remarkably representative of the world, although formal assignment is much less common. However, the gender systems of New Guinea and Africa are very different. The most significant difference isthe prevalence of non-sex-based gender systems and gender marking on nouns in Africa, whereas the opposite is true in New Guinea. However, gender in Africa is also less diverse largely due to the numerous Bantu languages. Finally, four typologically rare characteristics were found in the sample: (1) size and shape as important criteria of gender assignment, with large/long being masculine and small/short feminine, (2) the presence of two separate nominal classification systems, (3) no gender distinctions in pronouns, and (4) verbs as the most common indexing target. 

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