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  • 1.
    Beskow, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Carlson, Rolf
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Edlund, Jens
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Granström, Björn
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Heldner, Mattias
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Hjalmarsson, Anna
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Skantze, Gabriel
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Multimodal Interaction Control2009In: Computers in the Human Interaction Loop / [ed] Waibel, Alex and Stiefelhagen, Rainer, Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2009, p. 143-158Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Beskow, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Edlund, Jens
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Gustafson, Joakim
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Heldner, Mattias
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Hjalmarsson, Anna
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    House, David
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Research focus: Interactional aspects of spoken face-to-face communication2010In: Proceedings from Fonetik 2010, Lund: Lund University , 2010, p. 7-10Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Börstell, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Iconic Locations in Swedish Sign Language: Mapping Form to Meaning with Lexical Databases2017In: Proceedings of the 21st Nordic Conference on Computational Linguistics, NoDaLiDa / [ed] Jörg Tiedemann, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2017, p. 221-225, article id 026Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we describe a method for mapping the phonological feature location of Swedish Sign Language (SSL) signs to the meanings in the Swedish semantic dictionary SALDO. By doing so, we observe clear differences in the distribution of meanings associated with different locations on the body. The prominence of certain locations for specific meanings clearly point to iconic mappings between form and meaning in the lexicon of SSL, which pinpoints modalityspecific properties of the visual modality.

  • 4. Cap, Fabienne
    et al.
    Adesam, Yvonne
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Borin, Lars
    Bouma, Gerlof
    Forsberg, Markus
    Kann, Viggo
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Smith, Aaron
    Wirén, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Nivre, Joakim
    SWORD: Towards Cutting-Edge Swedish Word Processing2016In: Proceedings of SLTC 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite many years of research on Swedish language technology, there is still no well-documented standard for Swedish word processing covering the whole spectrum from low-level tokenization to morphological analysis and disambiguation. SWORD is a new initiative within the SWE-CLARIN consortium aiming to develop documented standards for Swedish word processing. In this paper, we report on a pilot study of Swedish tokenization, where we compare the output of six different tokenizers on four different text types. For one text type (Wikipedia articles), we also compare to the tokenization produced by six manual annotators.

  • 5.
    Edlund, Jens
    et al.
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Gustafson, Joakim
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Heldner, Mattias
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Hjalmarsson, Anna
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Towards human-like spoken dialogue systems2008In: Speech Communication, ISSN 0167-6393, E-ISSN 1872-7182, Vol. 50, no 8-9, p. 630-645Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an overview of methods that can be used to collect and analyse data on user responses to spoken dialogue system components intended to increase human-likeness, and to evaluate how well the components succeed in reaching that goal. Wizard-of-Oz variations, human-human data manipulation, and micro-domains are discussed ill this context, as is the use of third-party reviewers to get a measure of the degree of human-likeness. We also present the two-way mimicry target, a model for measuring how well a human-computer dialogue mimics or replicates some aspect of human-human dialogue, including human flaws and inconsistencies. Although we have added a measure of innovation, none of the techniques is new in its entirely. Taken together and described from a human-likeness perspective, however, they form a set of tools that may widen the path towards human-like spoken dialogue systems.

  • 6.
    Edlund, Jens
    et al.
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Heldner, Mattias
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Exploring prosody in interaction control2005In: Phonetica, ISSN 0031-8388, E-ISSN 1423-0321, Vol. 62, no 2-4, p. 215-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates prosodic aspects of turn-taking in conversation with a view to improving the efficiency of identifying relevant places at which a machine can legitimately begin to talk to a human interlocutor. It examines the relationship between interaction control, the communicative function of which is to regulate the flow of information between interlocutors, and its phonetic manifestation. Specifically, the listener's perception of such interaction control phenomena is modelled. Algorithms for automatic online extraction of prosodic phenomena liable to be relevant for interaction control, such as silent pauses and intonation patterns, are presented and evaluated in experiments using Swedish map task data. We show that the automatically extracted prosodic features can be used to avoid many of the places where current dialogue systems run the risk of interrupting their users, as well as to identify suitable places to take the turn.

  • 7.
    Edlund, Jens
    et al.
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Heldner, Mattias
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Underpinning /nailon/: automatic estimation of pitch range and speaker relative pitch2007In: Speaker Classification II / [ed] Müller, Christian, Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2007, p. 229-242Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Edlund, Jens
    et al.
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Heldner, Mattias
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Al Moubayed, Samer
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Gravano, Agustìn
    Hirschberg, Julia
    Columbia University Computer Science.
    Very short utterances in conversation2010In: Proceedings from Fonetik 2010, Lund: Lund University , 2010, p. 11-16Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Edlund, Jens
    et al.
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Heldner, Mattias
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Hirschberg, Julia
    Columbia University Computer Science.
    Pause and gap length in face-to-face interaction2009In: Proceedings of Interspeech 2009, Brighton, UK: ISCA , 2009, p. 2779-2782Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Edlund, Jens
    et al.
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Heldner, Mattias
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Pelcé, Antoine
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Prosodic features of very short utterances in dialogue2009In: Nordic Prosody: Proceedings of the Xth Conference, Helsinki 2008, Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2009, p. 57-68Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Ek, Adam
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Wirén, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Nilsson Björkenstam, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Grigonytė, Gintarė
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Gustafson Capková, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Identifying Speakers and Addressees in Dialogues Extracted from Literary Fiction2018In: 11th edition of the Language Resources and Evaluation Conference, European Language Resources Association, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes an approach to identifying speakers and addressees in dialogues extracted from literary fiction, along with a dataset annotated for speaker and addressee. The overall purpose of this is to provide annotation of dialogue interaction between characters in literary corpora in order to allow for enriched search facilities and construction of social networks from the corpora. To predict speakers and addressees in a dialogue, we use a sequence labeling approach applied to a given set of characters. We use features relating to the current dialogue, the preceding narrative, and the complete preceding context. The results indicate that even with a small amount of training data, it is possible to build a fairly accurate classifier for speaker and addressee identification across different authors, though the identification of addressees is the more difficult task.

  • 12.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Charlatanry in forensic speech science: A problem to be taken seriously2007In: International Journal of Speech, Language and the Law: (formerly Forensic Linguistics: ISSN 1350-1771), ISSN 1748-8885, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 169-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A lie detector which can reveal lie and deception in some automatic and perfectly reliable way is an old idea we have often met with in science fiction books and comic strips. This is all very well. It is when machines claimed to be lie detectors appear in the context of criminal investigations or security applications that we need to be concerned. In the present paper we will describe two types of ‘deception’ or ‘stress detectors’ (euphemisms to refer to what quite clearly are known as ‘lie detectors’). Both types of detection are claimed to be based on voice analysis but we found no scientific evidence to support the manufacturers’ claims. Indeed, our review of scientific studies will show that these machines perform at chance level when tested for reliability. Given such results and the absence of scientific support for the underlying principles it is justified to view the use of these machines as charlatanry and we argue that there are serious ethical and security reasons to demand that responsible authorities and institutions should not get involved in such practices.

  • 13. Friedlaender, Jonathan S
    et al.
    Hunley, Keith
    University of New Mexico.
    Dunn, Michael
    Radboud University; Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics.
    Terrill, Angela
    Radboud University.
    Lindström, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Friedlaender, Françoise
    Linguistics More Robust Than Genetics: (Letter to the editors)2009Other (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Grigonyté, Gintaré
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Nilsson Björkenstam, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Language-independent exploration of repetition and variation in longitudinal child-directed speech: A tool and resources2016In: Proceedings of the joint workshop on NLP for Computer Assisted Language Learning and NLP for Language Acquisition at SLTC, Umeå, 16th November 2016 / [ed] Elena Volodina, Gintarė Grigonytė, Ildikó Pilán, Kristina Nilsson Björkenstam, Lars Borin, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016, p. 41-50Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a language-independent tool, called Varseta, for extracting variation sets in child-directed speech. This tool is evaluated against a gold standard corpus annotated with variation sets, MINGLE-3-VS, and used to explore variation sets in 26 languages in CHILDES-26-VS, a comparable corpus derived from the CHILDES database. The tool and the resources are freely available for re-search.

  • 15.
    Gustafson, Joakim
    et al.
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Heldner, Mattias
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Edlund, Jens
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Potential benefits of human-like dialogue behaviour in the call routing domain2008In: Perception in Multimodal Dialogue Systems, Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2008, p. 240-251Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a Wizard-of-Oz (Woz) experiment in the call routing domain that took place during the development of a call routing system for the TeliaSonera residential customer care in Sweden. A corpus of 42,000 calls was used as a basis for identifying problematic dialogues and the strategies used by operators to overcome the problems. A new Woz recording was made, implementing some of these strategies. The collected data is described and discussed with a view to explore the possible benefits of more human-like dialogue behaviour in call routing applications.

  • 16.
    Heldner, Mattias
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Detection thresholds for gaps, overlaps and no-gap-no-overlaps2011In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, Vol. 130, no 1, p. 508-513Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Detection thresholds for gaps and overlaps, that is acoustic and perceived silences and stretches of overlapping speech in speaker changes, were determined. Subliminal gaps and overlaps were cate- gorized as no-gap-no-overlaps. The established gap and overlap detection thresholds both corre- sponded to the duration of a long vowel, or about 120 ms. These detection thresholds are valuable for mapping the perceptual speaker change categories gaps, overlaps, and no-gap-no-overlaps into the acoustic domain. Furthermore, the detection thresholds allow generation and understanding of gaps, overlaps, and no-gap-no-overlaps in human-like spoken dialogue systems.

  • 17.
    Heldner, Mattias
    et al.
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Edlund, Jens
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Pauses, gaps and overlaps in conversations2010In: Journal of Phonetics, ISSN 0095-4470, E-ISSN 1095-8576, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 555-568Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores durational aspects of pauses gaps and overlaps in three different conversational corpora with a view to challenge claims about precision timing in turn-taking Distributions of pause gap and overlap durations in conversations are presented and methodological issues regarding the statistical treatment of such distributions are discussed The results are related to published minimal response times for spoken utterances and thresholds for detection of acoustic silences in speech It is shown that turn-taking is generally less precise than is often claimed by researchers in the field of conversation analysis or interactional linguistics These results are discussed in the light of their implications for models of timing in turn-taking and for interaction control models in speech technology In particular it is argued that the proportion of speaker changes that could potentially be triggered by information immediately preceding the speaker change is large enough for reactive interaction controls models to be viable in speech technology.

  • 18.
    Heldner, Mattias
    et al.
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Edlund, Jens
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Carlson, Rolf
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Interruption impossible2006In: Nordic Prosody: Proceedings of the IXth Conference, Lund 2004, Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2006, p. 97-105Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Heldner, Mattias
    et al.
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Edlund, Jens
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Hirschberg, Julia
    Columbia University Computer Science.
    Pitch similarity in the vicinity of backchannels2010In: Proceedings Interspeech 2010, Makuhari, Japan: ISCA , 2010, p. 3054-3057Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Heldner, Mattias
    et al.
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Edlund, Jens
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Hjalmarsson, Anna
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Laskowski, Kornel
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Very short utterances and timing in turn-taking2011In: Proceedings Interspeech 2011, Florence, Italy: ISCA , 2011, p. 2837-2840Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Heldner, Mattias
    et al.
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Edlund, Jens
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Laskowski, Kornel
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Pelcé, Antoine
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Prosodic features in the vicinity of silences and overlaps2009In: Nordic Prosody: Proceedings of the Xth Conference, Helsinki 2008, Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang , 2009, p. 95-105Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Hunley, Keith
    et al.
    University of New Mexico.
    Dunn, Michael
    Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics.
    Lindström, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Reesink, Ger
    Terrill, Angela
    Radboud University.
    Inferring Prehistory from Genetic, Linguistic, and Geographic Variation2007In: Genes, Language, and Culture History in the Southwest Pacific / [ed] Friedlaender, Jonathan S, New York: Oxford University Press , 2007, p. 141-154Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Hörnstein, Jonas
    et al.
    Institute for System and Robotics (ISR), Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Santos-Victor, José
    Institute for System and Robotics (ISR), Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Multimodal Word Learning from Infant Directed Speech2009In: The 2009 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent RObots and Systems: IROS 2009 / [ed] Nikos Papanikolopoulos, Shigeki Sugano, Stefano Chiaverini, Max Meng, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When adults talk to infants they do that in a different way compared to how they communicate with other adults. This kind of Infant Directed Speech (IDS) typically highlights target words using focal stress and utterance final position. Also, speech directed to infants often refers to objects, people and events in the world surrounding the infant. Because of this, the sound sequences the infant hears are very likely to co-occur with actual objects or events in the infant's visual field. In this work we present a model that is able to learn word-like structures from multimodal information sources without any pre-programmed linguistic knowlege, by taking advantage of the characteristics of IDS. The model is implemented on a humanoid robot platform and is able to extract word-like patterns and associating these to objects in the visual surrounding.

  • 24.
    Jansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Strimling, Pontus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Modeling the Evolution of Creoles2015In: Language Dynamics and Change, ISSN 2210-5824, E-ISSN 2210-5832, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 1-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Various theories have been proposed regarding the origin of creole languages. Describing a process where only the end result is documented involves several methodological difficulties. In this paper we try to address some of the issues by using a novel mathematical model together with detailed empirical data on the origin and structure of Mauritian Creole. Our main focus is on whether Mauritian Creole may have originated only from a mutual desire to communicate, without a target language or prestige bias. Our conclusions are affirmative. With a confirmation bias towards learning from successful communication, the model predicts Mauritian Creole better than any of the input languages, including the lexifier French, thus providing a compelling and specific hypothetical model of how creoles emerge. The results also show that it may be possible for a creole to develop quickly after first contact, and that it was created mostly from material found in the input languages, but without inheriting their morphology.

  • 25.
    Laskowski, Kornel
    et al.
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Edlund, Jens
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Heldner, Mattias
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    A single-port non-parametric model of turn-taking in multi-party conversation2011In: Proceedings ICASSP 2011, Prague, Czech Republic: ICASSP , 2011, p. 5600-5603Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Laskowski, Kornel
    et al.
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Edlund, Jens
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Heldner, Mattias
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    An instantaneous vector representation of delta pitch for speaker-change prediction in conversational dialogue systems2008In: Proceedings of ICASSP 2008, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA: ICASSP , 2008, p. 5041-5044Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Laskowski, Kornel
    et al.
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Edlund, Jens
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Heldner, Mattias
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Incremental learning and forgetting in stochastic turn-taking models2011In: Proceedings Interspeech 2011, Florence, Italy: ISCA , 2011, p. 2069-2072Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Laskowski, Kornel
    et al.
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Edlund, Jens
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Heldner, Mattias
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Machine learning of prosodic sequences using the fundamental frequency variation spectrum2008In: Proceedings of the Speech Prosody 2008 Conference, Campinas, Brazil: Editora RG/CNPq , 2008, p. 151-154Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Laskowski, Kornel
    et al.
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Edlund, Jens
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Heldner, Mattias
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    The fundamental frequency variation spectrum2008In: Proceedings FONETIK 2008, Gothenburg: Göteborg University , 2008, p. 29-32Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Laskowski, Kornel
    et al.
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Heldner, Mattias
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Edlund, Jens
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    A general-purpose 32 ms prosodic vector for hidden Markov modeling2009In: Proceedings Interspeech 2009, Brighton, UK: ISCA , 2009, p. 724-727Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Laskowski, Kornel
    et al.
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Heldner, Mattias
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Edlund, Jens
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Exploring the prosody of floor mechanisms in English using the fundamental frequency variation spectrum2009In: Proceedings of EUSIPCO 2009, Glasgow, Scotland: ISCA , 2009, p. 2539-2543Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A basic requirement for participation in conversation is the ability to jointly manage interaction, and to recognize the attempts of interlocutors to do same. Examples of management activity include efforts to acquire, re-acquire, hold, release, and acknowledge floor ownership, and they are often implemented using dedicated dialog act types. In this work, we explore the prosody of one class of such dialog acts, known as floor mechanisms, using a methodology based on a recently proposed representation of fundamental frequency variation. Models over the representation illustrate significant differences between floor mechanisms and other dialog act types, and lead to automatic detection accuracies in equal-prior test data of up to 75%. description of floor mechanism prosody. We note that this work is also the first attempt to compute and model FFV spectra for multiparty rather than two-party conversation, as well as the first attempt to infer dialogue structure from non-anechoic-chamber recordings.

  • 32.
    Laskowski, Kornel
    et al.
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Edlund, Jens
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    On the dynamics of overlap in multi-party conversation2012In: INTERSPEECH 2012: vol.1, Portland, USA: Curran Associates, Inc , 2012, p. 846-849Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Overlap, although short in duration, occurs frequently in multi- party conversation. We show that its duration is approximately log-normal, and inversely proportional to the number of simul- taneously speaking parties. Using a simple model, we demon- strate that simultaneous talk tends to end simultaneously less frequently than in begins simultaneously, leading to an arrow of time in chronograms constructed from speech activity alone. The asymmetry is significant and discriminative. It appears to be due to dialog acts which do not carry propositional content, and those which are not brought to completion. 

  • 33.
    Laskowski, Kornel
    et al.
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Wölfel, Matthias
    Heldner, Mattias
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Edlund, Jens
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Computing the fundamental frequency variation spectrum in conversational spoken dialogue systems2008In: Proceedings of the 155th Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America, 5th EAA Forum Acusticum, and 9th SFA Congrés Français d'Acoustique (Acoustics2008), Paris, France: ASA , 2008, p. 3305-3310Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Continuous modeling of intonation in natural speech has long been hampered by a focus on modeling pitch, of which several normative aspects are particularly problematic. The latter include, among others, the fact that pitch is undefined in unvoiced segments, that its absolute magnitude is speaker-specific, and that its robust estimation and modeling, at a particular point in time, rely on a patchwork of long-time stability heuristics. In the present work, we continue our analysis of the fundamental frequency variation (FFV) spectrum, a recently proposed instantaneous, continuous, vector-valued representation of pitch variation, which is obtained by comparing the harmonic structure of the frequency magnitude spectra of the left and right half of an analysis frame. We analyze the sensitivity of a task-specific error rate in a conversational spoken dialogue system to the specific definition of the left and right halves of a frame, resulting in operational recommendations regarding the framing policy and window shape.

  • 34.
    Lindberg, Inger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Education in Languages and Language Development.
    Johansson Kokkinakis, Sofie
    Word Type Grouping in Secondary School Textbooks.2008In: Proceedings on TaLC 8, the 8th Teaching and Language Corpora Conference, Lisbon, 2008, p. 4-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to second language research (Saville-Troike 1984), vocabulary size is the single most determinant factor for second language students in order to be successful in a school setting. This has to do with the close relationship between reading comprehension and vocabulary knowledge (Read 2000). The persistent gap between reading performance of first and second language students observed in many studies (Taube 2002) is thus intimately related to low vocabulary among second language students. According to some estimates, differences in vocabulary size between first and second language students at school start may amount to several thousand words and tend to increase over the school years (Verhoeven & Vermeer 1985). According to some researchers there is a yearly increase of approximately 3000 words in the vocabulary size of school children in general (Viberg 1993). This means that many second language students face the task of trying to close a gap in vocabulary size of thousands of words while at the same time trying to keep up with the extensive vocabulary growth of first language students.

    But much could be done to make vocabulary instruction more systematic and efficient if we knew more about the vocabulary needs for successful learning in different subjects at school. Schoolbook texts constitute important data for finding answers to questions like What characterizes the vocabulary of schoolbook texts in general and in different subjects at different levels? and Which words present particular problems for students studying in their second language? To answer such and other questions related to school related vocabulary and second language learning we have compiled and analyzed a corpus of secondary school textbooks of one million words (OrdiL) with texts from eight different school subjects (Lindberg & Johansson Kokkinakis 2007). To identify and categorize various types of words in textbooks from a second language perspective, we propose a model based on earlier research by Coxhead & Nation (2001) and Hyland & Tse (2007) modified to account for all the word types of potential difficulty for second language secondary school students.

  • 35.
    Lindström, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Some Uses of Demonstratives in Spoken Swedish2000In: Corpus-based and Computational Approaches to Discourse Anaphora / [ed] Botley, S.P. & McEnery, A.M., Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2000, p. 107-128Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents work in progress on some aspects of the use of one set of demonstrative expressions in a corpus of conversational Swedish. The demonstratives under study are the compound forms den här and den där (Eng. approx. ‘this’, ‘that’), both as pronouns and determiners. These forms belong mainly to the spoken language, and have not received much attention in previous studies of Swedish. Typical cases of deictic, first-mention and anaphoric uses are illustrated, and cases that cause problems for the distinction between first mention and anaphor are discussed. A surprisingly large number of first mentions with demonstratives were found, many of which are used in what is here called the “you know” function of demonstratives, i.e., a means for the speaker of signalling his or her assumption of the listener having a previous representation of the intended referent. Among anaphoric uses, some interesting occurrences are discussed, which resemble cases previously described as ‘identificationally overspecified’ (Maes and Noordman, 1995).

  • 36.
    Nilsson Björkenstam, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    What is a corpus and why are corpora important tools?2013In: How can we use sign language corpora?: Papers from Nordic seminar ”How can we use sign language corpora?” 12–13 December 2013, Copenhagen, Denmark / [ed] Tommy Lyxell, Stockholm: Språkrådet , 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Nilsson Björkenstam, Kristina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Grigonyté, Gintaré
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Trump säger det igen, igen och igen2017In: Språktidningen, ISSN 1654-5028, no 2, p. 24-27Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 38.
    Nilsson Björkenstam, Kristina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Wirén, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Multimodal Annotation of Synchrony in Longitudinal Parent–Child Interaction2014In: MMC 2014 Multimodal Corpora: Combining applied and basic research targets: Workshop at LREC 2014, European Language Resources Association, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the multimodal annotation of speech, gaze and hand movement in a corpus of longitudinal parent–child interaction,and reports results on synchrony, structural regularities which appear to be a key means for parents to facilitate learning of new conceptsto children. The results provide additional support for our previous finding that parents display decreasing synchrony as a function ofthe age of the child.

  • 39.
    Nilsson Björkenstam, Kristina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Wirén, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Reference to Objects in Longitudinal Parent-Child Interaction2012In: Workshop on Language, Action and Perception (APL), 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A cognitive model of language learning needs to be dialogue-driven and multimodal to reflect how parent and child interact, using words, eye gaze, and object manipulation.

    In this paper, we present a scheme for multimodal annotation of parent-child interaction. We use this annotation for studying invariance across modalities. Our basic hypothesis is that perception of invariance (or synchrony) in multimodal patterns in auditory-visual speech is the device primarily used to reduce complexity in language learning.

    To this end, we have added verbal and non-verbal annotation to a corpus of longitudinal video and sound recordings of parent-child dyads. We use this data to try to determine if the amount of synchrony across modalities of parent-child interaction decreases as the child grows older and learns more language and gestures.

  • 40.
    Nilsson Björkenstam, Kristina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Wirén, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Variation sets in child-directed speech2015In: / [ed] Ellen Marklund, Iris-Corinna Schwarz, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Nilsson Björkenstam, Kristina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Wirén, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Modelling the informativeness and timing of non-verbal cues in parent–child interaction2016In: The 54th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Proceedings of the 7th Workshop on Cognitive Aspects of Computational Language Learning, Stroudsburg, PA, USA: Association for Computational Linguistics, 2016, p. 82-90Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How do infants learn the meanings of their first words? This study investigates the informativeness and temporal dynamics of non-verbal cues that signal the speaker's referent in a model of early word–referent mapping. To measure the information provided by such cues, a supervised classifier is trained on information extracted from a multimodally annotated corpus of 18 videos of parent–child interaction with three children aged 7 to 33 months. Contradicting previous research, we find that gaze is the single most informative cue, and we show that this finding can be attributed to our fine-grained temporal annotation. We also find that offsetting the timing of the non-verbal cues reduces accuracy, especially if the offset is negative. This is in line with previous research, and suggests that synchrony between verbal and non-verbal cues is important if they are to be perceived as causally related.

  • 42.
    Nilsson Björkenstam, Kristina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Wirén, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Modelling the informativeness of different modalities in parent-child interaction2015In: Workshop on Extensive and Intensive Recordings of Children's Language Environment / [ed] Alex Cristia, Melanie Soderstrom, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Schneider, Gerold
    et al.
    Institute of Computational Linguistics, University of Zurich, Switzerland.
    Grigonyté, Gintaré
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Using an automatic parser as a language learner model2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Sjons, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Bjerva, Johannes
    Articulation rate in Swedish child-directed speech increases as a function of the age of the child even when surprisal is controlled for2017In: Proceedings of the 18th Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association (INTERSPEECH 2017) / [ed] Marcin Włodarczak, Stockholm: The International Speech Communication Association (ISCA), 2017, p. 1794-1798Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45. Volodina, Elena
    et al.
    Grigonyté, GintaréStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.Pilán, IldikóNilsson Björkenstam, KristinaStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.Borin, Lars
    Proceedings of the joint workshop on NLP for Computer Assisted Language Learning and NLP for Language Acquisition at SLTC: Umeå 16th November 20162016Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Westerståhl, Dag
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Philosophy.
    Constant Operators: Partial Quantifiers2012In: From Quantification to Conversation / [ed] Lars Borin and Staffan Larsson, London: College Publications, 2012Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper begins to explore what it means for an operator to be *constant*, roughly in the sense of meaning the same on every universe. We consider total as well as partial operators of various types, with special focus on generalized quantifiers.

  • 47.
    Wirén, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Nilsson Björkenstam, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Grigonytė, Gintarė
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Cortes, Elisabet Eir
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Longitudinal Studies of Variation Sets in Child-directed Speech2016In: The 54th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Proceedings of the 7th Workshop on Cognitive Aspects of Computational Language Learning, Stroudsburg, PA, USA: Association for Computational Linguistics, 2016, p. 44-52Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the characteristics of child-directed speech is its high degree of repetitiousness. Sequences of repetitious utterances with a constant intention, variation sets, have been shown to be correlated with children’s language acquisition. To obtain a baseline for the occurrences of variation sets in Swedish, we annotate 18 parent–child dyads using a generalised definition according to which the varying form may pertain not just to the wording but also to prosody and/or non-verbal cues. To facilitate further empirical investigation, we introduce a surface algorithm for automatic extraction of variation sets which is easily replicable and language-independent. We evaluate the algorithm on the Swedish gold standard, and use it for extracting variation sets in Croatian, English and Russian. We show that the proportion of variation sets in child-directed speech decreases consistently as a function of children's age across Swedish, Croatian, English and Russian.

  • 48.
    Wirén, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Nilsson Björkenstam, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Modelling the Informativeness of Non-Verbal Cues in Parent–Child Interaction2017In: Proceedings of the 18th Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association (INTERSPEECH 2017), Stockholm: The International Speech Communication Association (ISCA), 2017, p. 2203-2207, article id 1143Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-verbal cues from speakers, such as eye gaze and hand positions, play an important role in word learning. This is consistent with the notion that for meaning to be reconstructed, acoustic patterns need to be linked to time-synchronous patterns from at least one other modality. In previous studies of a multimodally annotated corpus of parent–child interaction, we have shown that parents interacting with infants at the early word-learning stage (7–9 months) display a large amount of time-synchronous patterns, but that this behaviour tails off with increasing age of the children. Furthermore, we have attempted to quantify the informativeness of the different nonverbal cues, that is, to what extent they actually help to discriminate between different possible referents, and how critical the timing of the cues is. The purpose of this paper is to generalise our earlier model by quantifying informativeness resulting from non-verbal cues occurring both before and after their associated verbal references.

  • 49.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Stagger: A modern POS tagger for Swedish2012In: / [ed] Pierre Nugues, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Word order typology through multilingual word alignment2015In: The 53rd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 7th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing of the Asian Federation of Natural Language Processing: Proceedings of the Conference, Volume 2: Short Papers, 2015, p. 205-211Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With massively parallel corpora of hundreds or thousands of translations of the same text, it is possible to automatically perform typological studies of language structure using very large language samples. We investigate the domain of wordorder using multilingual word alignment and high-precision annotation transfer in a corpus with 1144 translations in 986 languages of the New Testament. Results are encouraging, with 86% to 96% agreementbetween our method and the manually created WALS database for a range of different word order features. Beyond reproducing the categorical data in WALS and extending it to hundreds of other languages, we also provide quantitative data for therelative frequencies of different word orders, and show the usefulness of this for language comparison. Our method has applications for basic research in linguistic typology, as well as for NLP tasks like transfer learning for dependency parsing, which has been shown to benefit from word order information.

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