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  • 1.
    Allertz, Frida
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Att motivera och/eller manipulera: En begreppsutredande litteraturstudie2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to theoretically investigate the concepts of the interpersonal actions 'to motivate' and 'to manipulate' and also to examine possible differences and similarities between the two. The method used is a conceptual review based on the Self-Determination Theory, related to the concept of motivation, and Machiavellianism, related to the concept of manipu-lation. The results show that 'to motivate', according to Self-Determination Theory, concerns influencing the intrinsic or extrinsic motivation, where intrinsic motivation is related to the feeling of self-determination, inner locus of causality, being or feeling competent and exercise activities for the pleasure of it, whilst extrinsic motivation is related to external locus of cau-sality, external pressure and engaging in activities for the purpose of reaching a goal or re-ward. 'To manipulate' is according to Machiavellianism based on the manipulator doing whatever it takes to reach a certain goal and gain something for himself with no regard of what methods being used. The comparative analysis showed that the crucial difference in how an behaviour is interpreted as either, or both, motivating and manipulative is based on who is doing the interpretation, what information she has and which aspects that are focused on.

  • 2.
    Aras, Elizabet
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Early Opportunities for Quality Learning: A Comparative Study of Swedish Preschools' Language Practice2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish preschool is internationally known for its high quality. Children in Sweden are given early educational opportunities to learn and develop prior to their school start. The Swedish preschool activity should include an overall language developmental approach; however, studies show that the children's conditions for language instruction vary intra-nationally. While the Swedish preschool curriculum reflects on children's desire to learn, the preschool staff should be aware of their own practical theory in order to arrange for learning. Research show that early childhood education of high quality benefits children's future school results. Thus, this research aims at studying children's opportunities for quality learning and development in the Swedish preschool, by exploring the content of preschool teaching. The role of the preschool is to provide all children with an education of high quality. This study aims at investigating what quality can mean in terms of preschool language instruction. To generate an understanding of quality, the study focuses on the structure and process inputs in six public preschools and two municipalities. To provide insights about the preschools' practices, a qualitative approach has been used to conduct interviews with preschool heads and employees from education administrations, as well as questionnaires with preschool staff and observations of learning environments. As the quality inputs vary between the preschools and municipalities it affects the outputs of the children's language development. This research makes it evident that the outcomes are mainly dependent on the preschool staff's abilities and competences of implementing development.

  • 3.
    Cleve, Linn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    "Det ingår liksom att anstränga sig lite": En studie om pedagogers förhållningssätt och tankar om språkstimulerande arbetssätt för flerspråkiga barn i förskolan.2010Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien syftade till att belysa hur några pedagoger med olika typ av bakgrund, verksamma i ett homogent svensktalande respektive ett mer mångkulturellt område, tänker om och arbetar med flerspråkiga barn i förskolan. Frågeställningarna rörde pedagogernas syn på hur en språkstimulerande miljö bör utformas, positiva samt negativa aspekter i arbetet med flerspråkiga förskolebarn, samt om skillnader i uttalanden hos de olika yrkesrollerna kunde utrönas. Jag ville också ta reda på om barnens modersmål talades i verksamheten eller om dess ursprung lyftes fram på något annat vis. Jag använde mig av intervjuer som forskningsmetod.

    Min resultatanalys visade att samtliga pedagoger betonar användandet av ett nyanserat, rikt och benämnande språk i det vardagliga talet, under alla situationer i verksamheten. För barn med annat modersmål än svenska blir det extra viktigt med stöd i form av bilder och konkret material, enligt pedagogerna. Problematiska aspekter med att tala flera olika språk i verksamheten, som lyftes fram var dels organisatoriska - att erhålla pedagoger med en viss flerspråkig kompetens - och dels att hålla en sund balans där också det svenska språket ska betonas. På två av förskolorna talar pedagogerna andra språk än svenska i den dagliga verksamheten. De gör detta med hänvisning till de positiva kognitiva effekter barnet får. Tvärtemot detta har en förskollärare på en annan förskola valt att inte tala flera olika språk i verksamheten. Hon menar att detta sänder ut negativa signaler till de barn vars modersmål inte talas av någon av pedagogerna. Generellt sett framkom en ståndpunkt hos pedagogerna om att problem och svårigheter ingår i yrket, det ingår att anstränga sig, varför exempelvis språkförbistringar egentligen inte anses vara jobbigt.

  • 4.
    Cárcamo García, Marina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    Las actitudes y creencias de aprendientes brasileños de ELE hacia las variedades diatópicas del español: El caso de las formas de tratamiento2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [es]

    En Brasil, la variación lingüística diatópica adquiere relevancia en la enseñanza de español como lengua extranjera, debido a la situación geográfica del país entre Hispanoaméricana y a causa de sus relaciones económicas y culturales, por una parte, con los demás países latinoamericanos, cuya lengua oficial es el español, y por otra, con España. El presente trabajo se centra en el estudio de las actitudes y creencias lingüísticas hacia las variedades diatópicas del español por parte de estudiantes universitarios brasileños de ELE, ya que dichas actitudes y creencias desempeñan un importante papel en la motivación que tienen por aprender, y por ende, en su grado de adquisición de la lengua extranjera. Además de estudiar sistemáticamente las percepciones y las actitudes en relación con las variedades del español, este estudio busca investigar concretamente las actitudes hacia las formas de tratamiento en español (tú, vos, usted, vosotros y ustedes), ya que suponen realizaciones lingüísticas ciertamente variables, tanto geográfica como estilísticamente. Asimismo, contemplamos analizar si existen relaciones entre la proficiencia lingüística de los encuestados, su perfil académico y el contacto que tienen con hablantes de variedades de español y las actitudes generales que declaran tener hacia tales variedades. En base a datos empíricos, consideramos las implicaciones que tienen los resultados para la enseñanza de ELE en un contexto en el que el español se concibe como una lengua pluricéntrica. Para investigar estas variables, utilizamos un cuestionario, que suministramos a 60 estudiantes que cursan español en el Centro de Ensino de Línguas de la Universidade Estadual de Campinas y que, además, realizan sus estudios en esta misma universidad. A través de técnicas de observación de actitudes tanto directas como indirectas, y mediante el estudio cuantitativo y cualitativo de las variables que analizamos, concluimos que existe una prevalencia por las variedades latinoamericanas con respecto a la variedad peninsular por parte de los estudiantes brasileños de ELE, lo cual supone un contraste con investigaciones previas realizadas en este ámbito. En el caso de las actitudes hacia las formas de tratamiento, los resultados de la investigación muestran que no existe una correspondencia de estas actitudes con las actitudes generales hacia las variedades diatópicas, puesto que la forma vos, característica exclusivamente de variedades latinoamericanas, se concibe como una de las menos utilizadas y una de las más innecesarias en el uso de la lengua española.

  • 5.
    De Matos Lundström, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    Los aspectos pragmáticos en manuales suecos de español como lengua extranjera: Su contribución al desarrollo de la competencia pragmática en el bachillerato2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [es]

    El objetivo de esta monografía es tratar de determinar en qué medida y de qué manera cuatro manuales didácticos suecos de español como lengua extranjera (ELE), usados en la enseñanza en el nivel de bachillerato, tratan aspectos pragmáticos. Además, evaluaremos el potencial y la relevancia de la información metapragmática y las actividades relacionadas a los aspectos pragmáticos para el proceso de adquisición de una competencia tanto metapragmática como pragmática. En este estudio se parte de la noción de la competencia pragmática como una destreza orientada a saber crear y comprender significados en la interacción de manera eficaz (Thomas, 1995), que supone, más que los conocimientos lingüísticos en una interacción intercultural, los conocimientos extralingüísticos (cf. Bravo, 2005). La hipótesis de partida de este trabajo postula que los manuales no explican a fondo por qué cierto lenguaje se utiliza en ciertos contextos y que el contenido pragmático sería poco variado y difícil de asimilar y que los ejercicios no estarían diseñados principalmente para desarrollar la competencia pragmática. Hasta cierta medida se puede decir que los resultados de esta investigación confirman la hipótesis: los manuales podrían efectivamente ser más exhaustivos en cuanto a los temas que abarcan, asimismo podrían variar y explicar más a fondo aquellos temas. No obstante, parece haber un esfuerzo de incorporar actividades comunicativas e información extralingüística, sin embargo, hace falta una conceptualización y progresión en cuanto a cómo tratar estos temas como el propósito principal. Ni siquiera se ofrecen en las guías del profesor modelos didácticos o información adicional, y por lo general, no se combina la información metapragmática en los manuales con actividades complementarias que pretenden desarrollar las destrezas comunicativas.

  • 6.
    Hayakawa Thor, Masako
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Thinking and seeing for speaking: The viewpoint preference in Swedish/Japanese monolinguals and bilinguals2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    “Linguistic relativity” has been studied for a long time. Many empirical studies have been conducted on cross-linguistic differences to find support for the influence of language on thought. This study proposes viewpoint (defined as the point from which the conceptualizer sees and construes the event) as a cross-linguistic difference, and explores whether the linguistic constraint and preference of subjective/objective construal can affect one’s cognitive activity as viewpoint. As Japanese is a subjectivity-prominent language whereas Swedish is not, data elicited from monolingual adolescences (aged 12-16) in Japan and Sweden were compared. A set of tasks which consisted of non-verbal tasks (scene-visualisation) and verbal tasks (narrative of comic strips) was performed in order to elicit the participants’ viewpoints. The same set of tasks was assigned to simultaneous Swedish-Japanese bilingual adolescences in Sweden. The bilinguals took the set of non-verbal and verbal tasks twice, once in Swedish and once in Japanese. The results demonstrated a clear difference between the monolingual groups both in the non-verbal and verbal tasks. The Japanese monolinguals showed a higher preference for subjective viewpoint. The bilinguals’ viewpoint preference had a tendency to fall between that of monolinguals of both languages. This finding indicates that the bilinguals’ viewpoint preference may be influenced by both languages. This study demonstrates for the first time that the speaker’s viewpoint can be affected not only in verbal tasks but also in non-verbal tasks. The findings suggest that a language may influence the speaker’s way of construing events. It is also implied that the influences from different languages in bilinguals can be bidirectional. However, the influence does not seem to be all or nothing. Regardless of the language, one’s event construal is more or less the same. Nevertheless, the findings indicate that the linguistic subjectivity in a language tends to counteract the universal construal.

  • 7.
    Kurnik, Mattias
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Bilingual Lexical Access in Reading: Analyzing the Effect of Semantic Context on Non-Selective Access in Bilingual Memory2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Recent empirical studies about the neurological executive nature of reading in bilinguals differ in their evaluations of the degree of selective manifestation in lexical access as implicated by data from early and late reading measures in the eye-tracking paradigm. Currently two scenarios are plausible: (1) Lexical access in reading is fundamentally language non-selective and top-down effects from semantic context can influence the degree of selectivity in lexical access; (2) Cross-lingual lexical activation is actuated via bottom-up processes without being affected by top-down effects from sentence context. In an attempt to test these hypotheses empirically, this study analyzed reader-text events arising when cognate facilitation and semantic constraint interact in a 22 factorially designed experiment tracking the eye movements of 26 Swedish-English bilinguals reading in their L2. Stimulus conditions consisted of high- and low-constraint sentences embedded with either a cognate or a non-cognate control word. The results showed clear signs of cognate facilitation in both early and late reading measures and in either sentence conditions. This evidence in favour of the non-selective hypothesis indicates that the manifestation of non-selective lexical access in reading is not constrained by top-down effects from semantic context.

  • 8.
    Lindahl, Carolina
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten, Juridiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    English in the Swedish Legal System and University Law Programme2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 30 poäng / 45 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a critical overview of the current use of English within legal education and the legal profession in Sweden. In addition, it attempts to characterize attitudes towards the use of English within Swedish law practice. The paper will make use of information obtained from a selection of law firms, the Swedish National Courts Administration and the Swedish Public Office of Prosecution. It will also make use of comments and information from a selection of professionals and other bodies such as the European Commission, the Swedish Language Council and the Swedish Bar Association.  The central aim of this essay is to present a clear picture of the extent to which English is actually used within current Swedish legal practice. It directly addresses the question of whether the level of English that Swedish law graduates are exposed to in their legal studies adequately provides them with the skills required by the professional legal world.

    It is claimed that there is an apparent miscommunication between legal education and its corresponding profession, which is creating a very unfortunate situation for students. In addition, it is suggested that redesigning the Swedish law programme, as a response to the demands of English within the Swedish legal profession, is necessary to properly prepare students for legal practise in Sweden. The law programme must function as a platform for theoretical growth as well as the future, practical success of students. Striving for excellence among students should not be restricted to the theoretical aspect of a subject but must include the ability of students to put their theoretical knowledge to practical use. It is argued that English is a needed supplement in the successful practise of law in Sweden and as such must be an integrated part of the legal education program.

  • 9.
    Spetz, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    L’anxiété langagière et la production orale: Une étude sur les étudiants suédois de français langue étrangère à l’université2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to investigate foreign language anxiety at the university level. The

    concept of language anxiety is well-established within the second language

    research community, and is considered a distinct, measurable phenomenon. The

    pioneering research by Horwitz et al (1986), upon which much of the previous

    research on language anxiety is based, proposes that three categories make up

    language anxiety: communication apprehension, test anxiety, and fear of negative

    evaluation. Their framework and questionnaire for measuring students’ levels of

    language anxiety (1986) have been used in this study to investigate to what extent

    students of French, in three different courses, suffer from language anxiety, and

    what the nature of their anxiety is in relation to these three categories. The results

    show that a sizable proportion of the students of French at the university level feel

    a moderate level of language anxiety, with the highest levels of anxiety being

    recorded for communication apprehension in the beginners’ course. Another

    significant finding is that anxiety does not seem to decrease when fluency levels

    increase. Furthermore, this paper investigates anxious students’ own ideas of what

    might be done to relieve their speaking anxiety. Students were found to believe in

    a correlation between having speaking anxiety and a lack of language proficiency,

    too little speaking practice, not being well-prepared, and anxiety-inducing teaching

    practices.

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