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  • 1.
    Allertz, Frida
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Att motivera och/eller manipulera: En begreppsutredande litteraturstudie2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to theoretically investigate the concepts of the interpersonal actions 'to motivate' and 'to manipulate' and also to examine possible differences and similarities between the two. The method used is a conceptual review based on the Self-Determination Theory, related to the concept of motivation, and Machiavellianism, related to the concept of manipu-lation. The results show that 'to motivate', according to Self-Determination Theory, concerns influencing the intrinsic or extrinsic motivation, where intrinsic motivation is related to the feeling of self-determination, inner locus of causality, being or feeling competent and exercise activities for the pleasure of it, whilst extrinsic motivation is related to external locus of cau-sality, external pressure and engaging in activities for the purpose of reaching a goal or re-ward. 'To manipulate' is according to Machiavellianism based on the manipulator doing whatever it takes to reach a certain goal and gain something for himself with no regard of what methods being used. The comparative analysis showed that the crucial difference in how an behaviour is interpreted as either, or both, motivating and manipulative is based on who is doing the interpretation, what information she has and which aspects that are focused on.

  • 2.
    Englund Dimitrova, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, The Institute for Interpretation and Translation Studies.
    Expertise and Explicitation in the Translation Process2005Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book addresses the complexities of the translation process. Informed by theoretical and methodological advances in translation studies, research on writing and the expertise paradigm, it explores translation as a text reproduction task. With triangulation of data from Russian-Swedish translation – think-aloud-methodology and computer logging of the writing process - it makes a cross-sectional comparison of subjects with different amount of translation experience, highlighting crucial aspects of professional competence and expertise in translation. The book also elaborates a method for a combined product and process analysis, applying it to the study of one type of explicitation: increased cohesive explicitness of the target text. The results have implications for translation theory and pedagogy.

  • 3.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Perception of vocal effort and distance from the speaker on the basis of vowel utterances.2002In: Percept Psychophys, ISSN 0031-5117, Vol. 64, no 1, p. 131-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sound pressure level of vowels reflects several non-linguistic and linguistic factors: distance from the speaker, vocal effort, and vowel quality. Increased vocal effort also involves an emphasis of higher frequency components and increases in F0 and F1. This should allow listeners to distinguish it from decreased distance, which does not have these additional effects. It is shown that listeners succeed in doing so on the basis of single vowels if phonated, but not if whispered. The results agree with a theory according to which listeners demodulate speech signals and evaluate the properties of the carrier signal, which reflects most of the para- and extra-linguistic information, apart from those of its linguistic modulation. It is observed that listeners allow for between-vowel variation, but tend to substantially underestimate changes in both kinds of distance.

  • 4.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Autism-spectrum traits predict humor styles in the general population2013In: Humor: An International Journal of Humor Research, ISSN 0933-1719, E-ISSN 1613-3722, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 461-475Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research shows that individuals with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism tend to have impaired processing of humor and laugh at things that are not commonly found funny. Here the relationship between humor styles and the broader autism phenotype was investigated in a sample of the general population. The autism-spectrum quotient (AQ) and the humor styles questionnaire (HSQ) were administered to six hundred US participants recruited through an Internet-based service. On the whole, high scores on AQ were negatively related to positive humor styles and unrelated to negative humor styles. However, AQ subscales representing different autism-spectrum traits exhibited different patterns. In particular, the factor poor mind-reading was associated with higher scores on negative humor styles and the factor attention to detail was associated with higher scores on all humor styles, suggesting a more nuanced picture of the relationship between autism-spectrum traits and humor.

  • 5. Fahey, Richard P
    et al.
    Diehl, Randy L
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Perception of back vowels: effects of varying F1 - F0 Bark distance.1996In: J Acoust Soc Am, ISSN 0001-4966, Vol. 99, no 4 Pt 1, p. 2350-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a study of vowel height perception using front vowels, Hoemeke and Diehl [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 96, 661 - 674 (1994)] found that F1 - F0 distance was the best predictor of perceived vowel height for the phonological distinction [+/-high], while for two other vowel height distinctions F1 alone was the best predictor. Further, the [+/-high] identification function was defined by a sharp boundary located at 3 to 3.5 Bark F1-F0 distance. One hypothesis offered was that F1 - F0 distance had cue value for the [+/-high] distinction because of an underlying quantal region on the F1 - F0 distance dimension. However, the results are also predicted if it is supposed that F1 - F0 distance is a cue for vowel height only for pure height distinctions. The present study further tested these possibilities, using back vowels. The results allowed us to reject both as general explanations of vowel height perception. However, the results were consistent with a third possible explanation, namely, that phonetic quality is determined by the tonotopic distances between any adjacent spectral peaks (e.g., F3 - F2, F2 - F1, and F1 - F0), with greater perceptual weight accorded to smaller distances.

  • 6.
    Hayakawa Thor, Masako
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Thinking and seeing for speaking: The viewpoint preference in Swedish/Japanese monolinguals and bilinguals2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    “Linguistic relativity” has been studied for a long time. Many empirical studies have been conducted on cross-linguistic differences to find support for the influence of language on thought. This study proposes viewpoint (defined as the point from which the conceptualizer sees and construes the event) as a cross-linguistic difference, and explores whether the linguistic constraint and preference of subjective/objective construal can affect one’s cognitive activity as viewpoint. As Japanese is a subjectivity-prominent language whereas Swedish is not, data elicited from monolingual adolescences (aged 12-16) in Japan and Sweden were compared. A set of tasks which consisted of non-verbal tasks (scene-visualisation) and verbal tasks (narrative of comic strips) was performed in order to elicit the participants’ viewpoints. The same set of tasks was assigned to simultaneous Swedish-Japanese bilingual adolescences in Sweden. The bilinguals took the set of non-verbal and verbal tasks twice, once in Swedish and once in Japanese. The results demonstrated a clear difference between the monolingual groups both in the non-verbal and verbal tasks. The Japanese monolinguals showed a higher preference for subjective viewpoint. The bilinguals’ viewpoint preference had a tendency to fall between that of monolinguals of both languages. This finding indicates that the bilinguals’ viewpoint preference may be influenced by both languages. This study demonstrates for the first time that the speaker’s viewpoint can be affected not only in verbal tasks but also in non-verbal tasks. The findings suggest that a language may influence the speaker’s way of construing events. It is also implied that the influences from different languages in bilinguals can be bidirectional. However, the influence does not seem to be all or nothing. Regardless of the language, one’s event construal is more or less the same. Nevertheless, the findings indicate that the linguistic subjectivity in a language tends to counteract the universal construal.

  • 7.
    Junefelt, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Mikhail Bakhtin - A missing link in hypothesis about children's linguistic and cognitive development.2008In: Perspectives and Limits of Dialogism in Mikhail Bakhtin.: Applications in Psychology, Education, Art and Culture. / [ed] Marios A. Pourkos, Crete, Greece: University of Crete , 2008, p. 197-213Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Junefelt, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Nordin, PiaStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Proceedings from the Second International Interdisciplinary Conference on Perspectives and Limits of Dialogism in Mikhail Bakhtin, 3-5 June, 20092010Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    (Preface) This conference focused on the core of Bakhtin’s theory, which concerns dialogue and dialogicality. The conference themes reflected his notion that the “I” and the “self”, the “you” and the “other” are embedded in each other so that each affects the other and as a whole they create a centrifugal force around which communication and life circle. The choice of the two-faced Janus figure as the symbol of the conference reflects the inward and outward aspects of communication’s inherent dialogue and dialogicality. As an ancient Roman god of beginnings and doorways, of the rising and setting sun, looking in opposite directions, Janus has been associated with polarities, that is, seeing different and contrasting aspects and characteristics. As a metaphor it describes Bakhtin’s view on dialogues and dialogicality within or between “selves” and “others”. As a metaphorical symbol it captured the intent, purpose and outcome of the conference as reflected in this collection of papers.

  • 9.
    Kurnik, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Bilingual Lexical Access in Reading: Analyzing the Effect of Semantic Context on Non-Selective Access in Bilingual Memory2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Recent empirical studies about the neurological executive nature of reading in bilinguals differ in their evaluations of the degree of selective manifestation in lexical access as implicated by data from early and late reading measures in the eye-tracking paradigm. Currently two scenarios are plausible: (1) Lexical access in reading is fundamentally language non-selective and top-down effects from semantic context can influence the degree of selectivity in lexical access; (2) Cross-lingual lexical activation is actuated via bottom-up processes without being affected by top-down effects from sentence context. In an attempt to test these hypotheses empirically, this study analyzed reader-text events arising when cognate facilitation and semantic constraint interact in a 22 factorially designed experiment tracking the eye movements of 26 Swedish-English bilinguals reading in their L2. Stimulus conditions consisted of high- and low-constraint sentences embedded with either a cognate or a non-cognate control word. The results showed clear signs of cognate facilitation in both early and late reading measures and in either sentence conditions. This evidence in favour of the non-selective hypothesis indicates that the manifestation of non-selective lexical access in reading is not constrained by top-down effects from semantic context.

  • 10.
    Montero-Melis, Guillermo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Non-native (and native) adaptation to recent input during motion event lexicalizationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Montero-Melis, Guillermo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Speakers in motion: The role of speaker variability in motion encodingManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Montero-Melis, Guillermo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism.
    Thoughts in Motion: The Role of Long-Term L1 and Short-Term L2 Experience when Talking and Thinking of Caused Motion2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about whether language affects thinking. It deals with the linguistic relativity hypothesis, which proposes that the language we speak influences the way we think. This hypothesis is investigated in the domain of caused motion (e.g., ‘The man rolled the tyre into the garage’), by looking at Spanish and Swedish, two languages that show striking differences in how motion events are encoded. The thesis consists of four studies. The first two focus on native speakers of Spanish and Swedish. Study I compares how Spanish and Swedish speakers describe the same set of caused motion events, directing the spotlight at how variable the descriptions are in each language. The results confirm earlier findings from semantic typology regarding the dominant ways of expressing the events in each language: Spanish behaves like a verb-framed language and Swedish like a satellite-framed language (Talmy, 2000). Going beyond previous findings, the study demonstrates—using the tools of entropy and Monte Carlo simulations—that there is markedly more variability in Spanish than in Swedish descriptions. Study II tests whether differences in how Spanish and Swedish speakers describe caused motion events are reflected in how they think about such events. Using a novel similarity arrangement task, it is found that Spanish and Swedish speakers partly differ in how they represent caused motion events if they can access language during the task. However, the differences disappear when the possibility to use language is momentarily blocked by an interference task. The last two studies focus on Swedish learners of Spanish as a second language (L2). Study III explores how Swedish learners (compared to native Spanish speakers) adapt their Spanish motion descriptions to recently encountered input. Using insights from the literature on structural priming, we find that Swedish learners initially expect to encounter in their L2, Spanish, those verb types that are typical in Swedish (manner verbs like ‘roll’) but that, with increasing proficiency, their expectations become increasingly attuned to the typical Spanish pattern of using path verbs (like ‘enter’).  These expectations are reflected in the way L2 learners adapt their own production to the Spanish input. Study IV asks whether recent linguistic experience in an L2 can affect how L2 learners think about motion events. It is found that encountering motion descriptions in the L2 that emphasize different types of information (path or manner) leads L2 speakers to perceive similarity along different dimensions in a subsequent similarity arrangement task. Taken together, the thesis argues that the study of the relation between language and thought affords more valuable insights when not posed as an either-or question (i.e., does language affect thought or not?). In this spirit, the thesis contributes to the wider aim of investigating the conditions under which language does or does not affect thought and explores what the different outcomes tell us about language, thought, and the intricate mechanisms that relate them.

  • 13. Perego, Elisa
    et al.
    Del Missier, Fabio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. University of Trieste, Italy.
    Bottiroli, Sara
    Dubbing versus subtitling in young and older adults: cognitive and evaluative aspects2015In: Perspectives: studies in translatology, ISSN 0907-676X, E-ISSN 1747-6623, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Empirical evidence on the cognitive and evaluative effects of viewing a dubbed versus a subtitled film is limited, theoretical views on the subject are mainly speculative, and age-related differences have not been investigated in this sphere. To fill these gaps, we carried out two studies contrasting the effects of viewing a dubbed versus subtitled version of the same film excerpt in young and older adults, using a comprehensive array of verbal and visual measures. The findings clearly show that dubbing does not provide a cognitive or evaluative advantage over subtitling. Moreover, subtitling seems to be more effective than dubbing in supporting the lexical aspects of performance. Finally, although older adults always performed worse than young adults on all cognitive measures, they did not show a specific impairment in the subtitling condition. The results support the view that subtitled films are processed effectively and appreciated equally by both young and older adults.

  • 14.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Analytical expressions for the tonotopic sensory scale1990In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, Vol. 88, no 1, p. 97-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accuracy and simplicity of analytical expressions for the relations between frequency and critical bandwidth as well as critical-band rate (in Bark) are assessed for the purpose of applications in speech perception research and in speech technology. The equivalent rectangular bandwidth (ERB) is seen as a measure of frequency resolution, while the classical critical-band rate is considered a measure of tonotopic position. For the conversion of frequency to critical-band rate, and vice versa, the inversible formula z=[26.81/(1+1960/f )]–0.53 is proposed. Within the frequency range of the perceptually essential vowel formants (0.2–6.7 kHz), it agrees to within ±0.05 Bark with the Bark scale, originally published in the form of a table.

  • 15.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Auditory scales of frequency representation1997Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is an on-line tutorial.

  • 16.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Demodulation, mirror neurons and audiovisual perception nullify the motor theory2007In: Fonetik 2007: TMH-QPSR 50 (1), 2007, p. 17-20Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the Motor Theory of Speech Perception (MTSP), listeners perceive speech by way of the articulatory gestures they would perform themselves in producing a similar signal. The theory postulates a module that allows extracting gestural information from the signal. The gestures constitute the event perceived.

    According to the Modulation Theory (MDT), speech is modulated voice. Listeners perceive it by demodulating the signal. The properties of the voice convey nonlinguistic information while the linguistically coded information is conveyed by its modulation. The modulation pattern constitutes the linguistic event perceived.

    The theories agree in requiring a linkage or mapping between perception and production. According to MDT, phonetically labeled links between exteroception and proprioception (mirror and echo neurons) are established in the brain during speech acquisition. The set of links embodies the knowledge of the relation. While MDT describes the device that MTSP would need in order to be implemented, it makes it redundant to recruit the motor system. Demodulation is also necessary in speechreading and in order to perceive sign language, when a face or body is 'modulated’ instead of a voice. In audiovisual speech perception, there are two percepts: a normally dominant vocal one and a gestural one that does not need to agree with it. MTSP knows of only one of these. It is concluded that all the specific claims of MTSP are false while MDT rests on ‘first principles’.

  • 17.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Die spektrale Auflösung bei der Wahrnehmung der Klangfarbe von Vokalen1984In: Acta Acoustica united with Acustica, ISSN 1610-1928, E-ISSN 1861-9959, Vol. 54, p. 237-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The distances between neighbouring partials of vowels are in many cases larger than the bendwidths of the formants and also often larger than the critical bandwidth (1 Bark). Several results of different experiments with synthetic one- and two-formant vowels suggest that an efficient bandwidth of resolution of roughly 3 Bark is basic to the perception of spectral features of vowels. A corresponding spectral dispersion or integration did not, however, appear in experiments with non-speech harmonic sounds. K. Benedini investigated the timbre differences between harmonic sounds with up to six harmonics of 100 Hz. An analysis of the estimated timbre differences shows that both the bandwidth of resolution and the perceptual weight of the partials is proportional to their frequency. The weight of the fundamental is, however, substantially increased in comparisons between residual and complete harmonic sounds. Further, the perceived difference between two sounds turns out to be dependent on the remaining sounds presented in a perceptual experiment. The timbre differences between low-passed harmonic sounds of different width can be accounted for exclusively on the basis of the tono-topical distances between the upper flanks of these sounds. It is concluded that the judgement of differences in timble involves the prior extraction, induced by context, of relevant dimensions. The bandwidth of spectral resolution that appears with the perception of vowel-like sounds may in part be due to an intrincsic inacuity to the phonetic templates supposedly stored in memory.

  • 18.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Evidence for demodulation in speech perception2000In: Proceedings of the 6th ICSLP, 2000, p. 790-793Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the Modulation Theory, speakers modulate their voice with linguistic gestures, and listeners demodulate the signal in order to separate the linguistic from the expressive and organic information. Listeners tune in to the carrier (the voice) on the basis of an analysis of a stretch of speech and they evaluate its modulation. This is reflected in many perceptual experiments that involved manipulated introductory phrases, blocked vs. randomized speakers, and other non-linguistic variables.

  • 19.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Perception of speaker sex, age, and vocal effort1997In: Fonetik 1997: Phonum 4, 1997, p. 183-186Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Speech material recorded for the purpose of studying the acoustic properties of speech as a function of speaker sex, age, and vocal effort (induced by varying the distance between the speaker and the person spoken to over a wide range) was used in perception experiments in which the subjects had to rate either the distance between speaker and adressee or the age and the sex of the speaker. The correlations between these percepts and gross spectral and temporal properties of the utterances, such as the mean values of F0, F1, and F3, spectral emphasis and utterance duration were analysed.

  • 20.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Perception of timbre:: evidence for spectral resloution bandwidth different from critical band?1982In: The Representation of Speech in the Peripheral Auditory System, Elsevier Biomed. Press, Amsterdam , 1982, p. 103-108Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Phase vowels1987In: The psychophysics of speech perception: Proceedings of the NATO advanced research workshop on "The psychophysics of speech perception" / [ed] M.E.H. Schouten, Dordrecht: Nijhoff in cooperation with NATO Scientific Affairs Division , 1987, p. 377-384Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    The role of F0 in vowel perception1998Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is an on-line auditory demonstration.

  • 23.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    The perceptual evaluation of F0 excursions in speech as evidenced in liveliness estimations.1995In: J Acoust Soc Am, ISSN 0001-4966, Vol. 97, no 3, p. 1905-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to learn how listeners evaluate F0 excursions, a set of experiments was performed in which subjects had to estimate the liveliness of utterances. The stimuli were obtained by LPC analysis of one natural utterance that was modified by resynthesizing F0 , the formant frequencies, and the time scale in order to simulate some of the natural extra- and paralinguistic variations that affect F0 and/or liveliness, namely the speaker's age, sex, articulation rate, and voice register. In each case, the extent of the F0 excursions was varied in seven steps. The results showed that, as long as the stimuli appeared to have been produced in the modal register (of men, women, and children), listeners judged F0 intervals to be equivalent if they were equal in semitones. When the voice register was shifted without adjustment in articulation , listeners appeared to judge the F0 excursions in relation to the spectral space available below F1 . The liveliness ratings were found to be strongly dependent on articulation rate and to be affected by the perceived age of the speaker which, with the manipulated stimuli used here, turned out to be significantly affected by the sex of the listener.

  • 24.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    van Bezooijen, Renée
    The auditory perception of children’s age and sex1994In: Proceedings ICSLP-94, 1994, p. vol. 3: 1171-1174Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The experiments reported here provided some data on the accuracy with which listeners rate the age of speakers, and some knowledge about the relative contributions of underlying factors such as F0, the formant frequencies, and the 'verbal maturation' of children. The speech material consisted of excerpts from interviews with boys and girls in the age groups 5, 7, 9, and 11 years. Utterances which contained verbal cues to age were eliminated after presenting written versions to a panel of judges. The retained utterances were LPC-analyzed and resynthesized with modifications, to obtain (1) natural speech, (2) whispered speech, (3) speech of 9 year olds with F0, formants, and speech rate modified as at an age of 5, 7, 9, and 11 years, and (4) whispered versions of (3). The listeners agreed in their age ratings with an SD that increased from 1.3 at 5 to 1.8 at 11 years. The differences in SD between the four types of speech were small, but there was a bias toward 8 to 9 years in the modified versions. Multidimensional regression analysis showed the perceptual weight of the factors to decrease slightly in the order (1) verbal maturation, (2) formants (and rate), (3) F0. As for the distinction boy/girl, there was a slight improvement in correctness with age and a general bias to classify the younger children as girls and the older ones as boys.

  • 25.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Öhrström, Niklas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Audiovisual perception of openness and lip rounding in front vowels2007In: Journal of Phonetics, Vol. 35, p. 244-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish nonsense syllables /gig/, /gyg/, /geg/ and /gøg/, produced by four speakers, were video-recorded and presented to male and female subjects in auditory, visual and audiovisual mode and also in cross-dubbed audiovisual form with incongruent cues to vowel openness, roundedness, or both. With audiovisual stimuli, subjects perceived openness nearly always by ear. Most subjects perceived roundedness by eye rather than by ear although the auditory conditions were optimal and the sensation was an auditory one. This resulted in fused percepts such as when an acoustic /geg/ dubbed onto an optic /gyg/ was predominantly perceived as /gøg/. Since the acoustic cues to openness are prominent, while those to roundedness are less reliable, this lends support to the “information reliability hypothesis” in multisensory perception: The perception of a feature is dominated by the modality that provides the more reliable information. A mostly male minority relied less on vision. The between-gender difference was significant. Presence of lip rounding (a visibly marked feature) was noticed more easily than its absence. The influence of optic information was not fully explicable on the basis of the subjects’ success rates in lipreading compared with auditory perception. It was highest in stimuli produced by a speaker who smiled.

  • 26. von Mentzer, Cecilia Nakeva
    et al.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Sahlén, Birgitta
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Lindgren, Magnus
    Ors, Marianne
    Kallioinen, Petter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Uhlén, Inger
    Computer-assisted reading intervention with a phonics approach for children using cochlear implants or hearing aids2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 55, no 5, p. 448-455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examined computer-assisted reading intervention with a phonics approach for deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) children in Sweden using cochlear implants or hearing aids, or a combination of both. The study included 48 children, 5, 6 and 7years of age. Sixteen children with normal hearing (NH) served as a reference group. The first purpose of the study was to compare NH and DHH children's reading ability at pre and post-intervention. The second purpose was to investigate effects of the intervention. Cognitive and demographic factors were analyzed in relation to reading improvement. Results showed no statistically significant difference for reading ability at the group level, although NH children showed overall higher reading scores at both test points. Age comparisons revealed a statistically significant higher reading ability in the NH 7-year-olds compared to the DHH 7-year-olds. The intervention proved successful for word decoding accuracy, passage comprehension and as a reduction of nonword decoding errors in both NH and DHH children. Reading improvement was associated with complex working memory and phonological processing skills in NH children. Correspondent associations were observed with visual working memory and letter knowledge in the DHH children. Age was the only demographic factor that was significantly correlated with reading improvement. The results suggest that DHH children's beginning reading may be influenced by visual strategies that might explain the reading delay in the older children.

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Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf