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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Age of onset and nativelike L2 ultimate attainment of morphosyntactic and phonetic intuition2012In: Studies in Second Language Acquisition, ISSN 0272-2631, E-ISSN 1470-1545, Vol. 34, no 2, 187-214 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has consistently shown there is a negative correlation between age of onset (AO) of acquisition and ultimate attainment (UA) of either pronunciation or grammar in a second language (L2). A few studies have indeed reported nativelike behavior in some postpuberty learners with respect to either phonetics/phonology or morphosyntax, a result that has sometimes been taken as evidence against the critical period hypothesis (CPH). However, in the few studies that have employed a wide range of linguistic tests and tasks, adult learners have not exhibited nativelike L2 proficiency across the board of measures, which, according to some, suggests that the hypothesis still holds. The present study investigated the relationship between AO and UA and the incidence of nativelikeness when measures of phonetic and grammatical intuition are combined. An additional aim was to investigate whether children and adults develop the L2 through fundamentally different brain mechanisms-namely, whether children acquire the language (more) implicitly as an interdependent whole, whereas adults learn it (more) explicitly as independent parts of a whole.

  • 2.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Critical Period Hypothesis (CPH)2013In: Routledge Encyclopedia of Second Language Acquisition / [ed] Peter Robinson, London: Routledge, 2013, 146-151 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Development and recoverability of L2 codas: A longitudinal study of Chinese/Swedish interphonology2003In: Studies in Second Language Acquisition, ISSN 0272-2631, E-ISSN 1470-1545, Vol. 25, no 3, 313-349 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with the development and recoverability of word-final codas in Chinese-Swedish interlanguage. The relation between consonant deletion and vowel epenthesis is investigated from both a developmental perspective and a grammatical-functional one. Longitudinal, conversational data from three Chinese beginner learners of Swedish were analyzed. First, it is shown that for these learners the acquisition of Swedish codas was U-shaped rather than linear such that they exhibited relatively high accuracy rates at early stages, lower accuracy rates at later stages, and again high accuracy rates at more advanced stages. It is also demonstrated that the epenthesis-deletion differential is closely related to second language proficiency in that the proportion of epenthesis to deletion errors increases over time. Furthermore, the data show that word-final codas that are relatively important for the retention of semantically relevant information generate lower overall frequencies of simplification and greater epenthesis-deletion proportions than codas containing information that is relatively recoverable from other segments or features in the context.

  • 4.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Developmental sequences2013In: Routledge Encyclopedia of Second Language Acquisition / [ed] Peter Robinson, London: Routledge, 2013, 173-177 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Phonological acquisition2012In: The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics / [ed] C. A. Chapelle, Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    U-shaped learning and overgeneralization2013In: Routledge Encyclopedia of Second Language Acquisition / [ed] Peter Robinson, London: Routledge, 2013, 663-665 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Vowel epenthesis of /sC(C)/ onsets in Spanish/Swedish inter­phonology: A longitudinal case study1999In: Language learning, ISSN 0023-8333, E-ISSN 1467-9922, Vol. 49, no 3, 473-508 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies showed that vowel epenthesis of initial /sC(C)/ clusters in the L2 production of L1 Spanish speakers is conditioned by several variable constraints, such as preceding environment, onset length, and sonority relations among onset members. This case study was designed to investigate whether the patterns obtained from elicited speech also hold for conversational data. A longitudinal corpus of spontaneous/natural speech from 1 adult L1 Spanish learner of L2 Swedish was used. The study confirmed most of the results from previous research, for example, that the frequency of epenthesis varies with preceding phonetic environment. However, the study suggested that a lowering effect of preceding vowels must be present, not just the enhancing effect of preceding consonants suggested by Carlisle (1997).

  • 8.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Andraspråksinlärning och förstaspråksutveckling i en andraspråkskontext2012In: Flerspråkighet – en forskningsöversikt / [ed] Kenneth Hyltenstam, Monica Axelsson, Inger Lindberg, Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet , 2012, 153-246 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Age of L2 acquisition and degree of nativelikeness – listener perception versus linguistic scrutiny.2009In: Language learning, ISSN 0023-8333, E-ISSN 1467-9922, Vol. 59, no 2, 249-306 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The incidence of nativelikeness in adult second language acquisition is a controversial issue in SLA research. Although some researchers claim that any learner, regardless of age of acquisition, can attain nativelike levels of second language (L2) proficiency, others hold that attainment of nativelike proficiency is, in principle, impossible. The discussion has traditionally been framed within the paradigm of a critical period for language acquisition and guided by the question of whether SLA is constrained by the maturation of the brain. The work presented in this article can be positioned among those studies that have focused exclusively on the apparent counterexamples to the critical period. We report on a large-scale study of Spanish/Swedish bilinguals (n = 195) with differing ages of onset of acquisition (<1–47 years), all of whom identify themselves as potentially nativelike in their L2. Listening sessions with native-speaker judges showed that only a small minority of those bilinguals who had started their L2 acquisition after age 12, but a majority of those with an age of onset below this age, were actually perceived as native speakers of Swedish. However, when a subset (n = 41) of those participants who did pass for native speakers was scrutinized in linguistic detail with a battery of 10 highly complex, cognitively demanding tasks and detailed measurements of linguistic performance, representation, and processing, none of the late learners performed within the native-speaker range; in fact, the results revealed also that only a few of the early learners exhibited actual nativelike competence and behavior on all measures of L2 proficiency that were employed. Our primary interpretation of the results is that nativelike ultimate attainment of a second language is, in principle, never attained by adult learners and, furthermore, is much less common among child learners than has previously been assumed.

  • 10.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Age of onset and nativelikeness in a second language: listener perception versus linguistic scrutiny2009In: Language learning, ISSN 0023-8333, E-ISSN 1467-9922, Vol. 59, no 2, 249-306 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, KennethStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    High-Level L2 Acquisition, Learning, and Use: Special Issue2012Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Inlärningsålder och uppfattad inföddhet i andraspråket – lyssnarexperiment med avancerade L2-talare av svenska2006In: Nordand: nordisk tidsskrift for andrespråksforskning, ISSN 0809-9227, Vol. 1, no 1, 9-36 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Mognadsbegränsningar och den kritiska perioden för andraspråksinlärning2013In: Svenska som andraspråk: i forskning, undervisning och samhälle / [ed] Hyltenstam, Kenneth & Lindberg, Inger, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2013, 2. uppl., 221-257 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    The robustness of aptitude effects in near-native second language acquisition2008In: Studies in Second Language Acquisition, ISSN 0272-2631, E-ISSN 1470-1545, Vol. 30, no 4, 481-509 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Results from a number of recent studies suggest that nativelike adult second language (L2) learners possess a high degree of language learning aptitude, the positive effects of which may have compensated for the negative effects of a critical period in these learners. According to the same studies, child learners seem to attain a nativelike command of the L2 regardless of high or low aptitude, which has led researchers to conclude that this factor plays no role in early acquisition. The present study investigates the L2 proficiency and language aptitude of 42 near-native L2 speakers of Swedish (i.e., individuals whom actual mother-tongue speakers of Swedish believe are native speakers). The results confirm previous research suggesting that a high degree of language aptitude is required if adult learners are to reach a L2 proficiency that is indistinguishable from that of native speakers. However, in contrast to previous studies, the present results also identify small yet significant aptitude effects in child SLA. Our findings lead us to the conclusions that the rare nativelike adult learners sometimes observed would all turn out to be exceptionally talented language learners with an unusual ability to compensate for maturational effects and, consequently, that their nativelikeness per se does not constitute a reason to reject the critical period hypothesis.

  • 15.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    The robustness of aptitude effects in near-native second language acquisition2008In: Studies in Second Language Acquisition, ISSN 0272-2631, E-ISSN 1470-1545, Vol. 30, no 4, 481-509 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Agbetsoamedo, Yvonne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics. University of Ghana.
    Noun classes in Sɛlɛɛ2014In: Journal of West African Languages, ISSN 0022-5401, Vol. XLI, no 1, 95-124 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the noun class system of Sl, a Na-Togo, Kwa (Niger-Congo) language spoken in the Volta Region of Ghana. As shown in this paper, Sl hasa noun class system with an equal number of singular and plural classes that are paired inirregular ways. The singular-plural pairs are referred to as genders. Nouns normally agreewith certain modifiers within the noun phrase. The agreement targets are determiners,numerals, interrogative pronouns and some adjectives. Outside the noun phrase, nounclasses may be indexed on the verb to signal long distance anaphora, a strategy thatspeakers rarely use. The paper provides a detailed account of possible semantic andcultural motivations for the assignment of nouns to a particular gender and/or class.

  • 17.
    Agbetsoamedo, Yvonne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics. University of Ghana.
    Standard negation in SɛlɛɛIn: Afrika und Übersee, ISSN 0002-0427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses standard negation in Sɛlɛɛ. Sɛlɛɛ is a Ghana-Togo Mountain (GTM) Language of the Kwa group of the Niger Congo family. Standard negation is the negation of declarative verbal clauses. Different strategies are used in Sɛlɛɛ to negate declarative verbal main clauses depending on the tense and aspect category of the verb. The basic negation strategy used in standard negation is tonal alternation, with or without other negation markers. The other strategies are the use of portmanteau morphemes, affixes and vowel lengthening. Interestingly, in one and the same tense paradigm, different persons can select different negation strategies. There is syncretism among the 1st person singular forms of the negative recent past, the negative habitual and the negative perfect.

  • 18. Agbetsoamedo, Yvonne
    et al.
    Ameka, Felix
    Atintono, Samuel
    Koptjevskaja Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Temperature terms in the Ghanaian languages in a typological perspective2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This talk deals with the conceptualisation of temperature in some of the Ghanaian languages as reflected in their systems of central temperature terms, such as hot, cold, to freeze, etc. We will discuss these systems in the light of a large-scale cross-linguistic collaborative project, involving 35 researchers (including the present authors) and covering more than 50 genetically, areally and typologically diverse languages (Koptjevskaja-Tamm ed. 2015). The key questions addressed here are how the different languages carve up the temperature domain by means of their linguistic expressions, and how the temperature expressions are used outside of the temperature domain. Languages cut up the temperature domain among their expressions according to three main dimensions: TEMPERATURE VALUES (e.g., warming vs. cooling temperatures, or excessive heat vs. pleasant warmth), FRAMES OF TEMPERATURE EVALUATION (TACTILE, The stones are cold; AMBIENT, It is cold here; and PERSONAL-FEELING, I am cold), and ENTITIES whose “temperature” is evaluated.  Although the temperature systems are often internally heterogeneous, we may still talk about the main temperature value distinctions for the whole system. The Ghanaian languages favour the cross-linguistically preferred two-value systems, with water often described by a more elaborated system. An interesting issue concerns conventionalisation and frequency of expressions with a primary meaning outside of the temperature domain, for temperature uses. For instance, the conventionalised expressions for talking about ‘warm/hot’ in Ewe involve sources of heat (‘fire’) and bodily exuviae (‘sweat’). The Ghanaian languages often manifest numerous extended uses of their temperature terms. However, strikingly, none of them conforms to one of the most widely quoted conceptual metaphors, “affection is warmth” (Lakoff & Johnson 1999:50), which is also true for many other languages in (West) Africa and otherwise.

  • 19.
    Agbetsoamedo, Yvonne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics. University of Ghana, Ghana.
    Di Garbo, Francesca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Sɛlɛɛ2015In: Edinburgh handbook of evaluative morphology / [ed] Nicola Grandi, Livia Kortvelyessy, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2015, 487-495 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Agbetsoamedo, Yvonne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics. University of Ghana, Ghana.
    Di Garbo, Francesca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Unravelling temperature terms in Sɛlɛɛ2015In: The linguistics of temperature / [ed] Maria Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2015, 107-127 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the encoding of temperature in Sɛlɛɛ, a Niger-Congo language of the Kwa group, spoken in Ghana. The lexicon of temperature in Sɛlɛɛ consists of six central and two non-central temperature terms, distributed among the word classes of nouns, adjectives and verbs. The grammatical constructions associated with temperature evaluation vary according to the word-class status of each temperature term and its contexts of use. The distribution of the different grammatical constructions according to different types of temperature evaluation is discussed in the paper. Metaphorical uses of temperature-related terms are also discussed in the context of neighbouring and highly related languages. Finally, special patterns of temperature evaluation in connection with water are surveyed.

  • 21.
    Ahlgren, Katrin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    "Språket – en biljett till frihet": narrativ identitet i en migrationskontext2016In: Nordand: nordisk tidsskrift for andrespråksforskning, ISSN 0809-9227, Vol. 11, no 2, 143-173 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article highlights and discusses a young woman’s experience of language use and language development. The woman’s story, which spans a period of fifteen years, starts with her escape from Afghanistan and illustrates her socialisation into Swedish society. The analysis is based on Paul Ricœur’s theoretical framework that is grounded in hermeneutic and phenomenological traditions. Ricœur tries to capture our experiencesof being the same person though we are constantly changing, making his thoughts onstorytelling and identity creation interesting to apply to the experiences of migration. Drawing on the concept of narrative identity, the article points to how narration connects time, how it expresses ethical dimensions and how the woman, little by little, develops an increasingly transnational and inclusive identity. The value of studying new arrivals in a longitudinal perspective also becomes clear as the analysis includes crucial turning points in terms of attitudes and strategies in relation to second language use.

  • 22.
    Aktürk Drake, Memet
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Language dominance as a factor in loanword phonology2017In: International Journal of Bilingualism, ISSN 1367-0069, E-ISSN 1756-6878, Vol. 21, no 5, 584-599 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to examine the role of language dominance in loanword phonology. It is investigated how onset clusters in loanwords are integrated into Turkish by two groups: English-Turkish bilinguals in Turkey and Swedish-Turkish bilinguals in Sweden. It is hypothesised that the bilinguals in Sweden will display significantly higher rates of cluster adoption because Turkish is not the dominant language there.

    The data were collected through an oral loanword elicitation task, a text recitation task in the second languages and a questionnaire on language proficiency and use.

    The study had 53 participants (24 in Turkey and 29 in Sweden). The material consisted of 29 loanwords from English and French, and of 50 structurally comparable words in the bilinguals’ second languages. The data were analysed auditively by the author and subjected to an interrater reliability test.

    The results confirmed the hypothesis as the bilinguals in Sweden displayed significantly higher cluster adoption rates. The difference between the groups’ medians was 36.5 percentage points. Furthermore, it was shown that in individual speakers the combination of accurate second-language pronunciation, and clearly higher proficiency in the second language (corresponding to the donor language) compared to the L1 (i.e. the recipient language) guaranteed very high cluster adoption rates.

    This paper provides the first rigorous quantitative proof for the theoretical assumption that accurate pronunciation is not sufficient for structural adoption in loanword phonology but needs to be complemented with sociolinguistic variables. Furthermore, it demonstrates in greater detail than before how societal and individual dominance are connected and through which channels they impact loanword integration.

    Self-reported relative proficiency in the donor language was shown to be a powerful predictor of the sociolinguistic incentive to adopt and could therefore be used as a quick and reliable alternative to elaborate and time-consuming attitude investigations in loanword phonology.

  • 23.
    Aktürk-Drake, Memet
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Phonological and sociolinguistic factors in the integration of /l/ in Turkish in borrowings from Arabic and Swedish2010In: Turkic languages, ISSN 1431-4983, Vol. 14, no 2, 153-191 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the phonological integration of the front coda /l/ after a back vowel in the final rime of words borrowed from Arabic and Swedish into Turkish. This original donor structure is interesting because it in conflict with the core rules of Turkish phonology. Several sub-disciplines of linguistics have dealt with the role of different phonological and sociolinguistic factors in the phonological integration of lexical borrowings but there is no consensus on their respective weights in borrowing and on how their interaction is to be conceptualised. The Arabic data in the study are based on historical loanwords while the Swedish data have been obtained through an experiment. The focus of the article is the choice between adoption and adaptation as integration strategies and how different factors interact in producing the attested integration patterns. The results show that adoption is predominantly preferred to adaptation in both cases due to the dominant status of the donor languages in the contexts of borrowing. Hence, it is argued that sociolinguistic factors play the main role in these two particular cases.

  • 24.
    Aktürk-Drake, Memet
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    The role of perceptual salience in bilingual speakers' integration of illicit long segments in loanwords2014In: Lingua, ISSN 0024-3841, E-ISSN 1872-6135, Vol. 143, 162-186 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates how bilingual borrowers integrate originally long vowels and consonants in loanwords from Arabic and Swedish into Turkish in illicit positions. Both historical corpus data and data from an elicitation task are used. The main focus is on the role of perceptual salience and the choice between adaptation and adoption as different integration strategies. The results show that length is accurately perceived in both cases of borrowing due to the particular linguistic and extra-linguistic contexts of second language acquisition. Phonologically long Arabic vowels and consonants as well as not phonologically but phonetically long Swedish vowels with high salience are adopted as innovations by the bilingual borrowers. The latter adoption confirms that the input to loanword integration is not phonological but phonetic in nature, i.e. the surface form. Phonologically long Swedish consonants with low salience due to short duration are, instead, adapted through shortening. This adaptation is done in production through a process called filtering in with the help of feedback from perception. The paper proposes that perceptual salience plays an important role not only in monolingual but also in bilingual borrowing by concluding that high perceptual salience is necessary but not sufficient for adoption in bilingual borrowing.

  • 25.
    Alemán Bañón, José
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. Basque Center on Cognition, Brain and Language, Spain.
    Miller, David
    Rothman, Jason
    Morphological variability in second language learners: An examination of electrophysiological and production data2017In: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory and Cognition, ISSN 0278-7393, E-ISSN 1939-1285, Vol. 43, no 10, 1509-1536 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined potential sources of morphological variability in adult L1‑English L2‑Spanish learners, with a focus on L1‑L2 similarity, morphological markedness, and knowledge type (receptive vs. expressive). Experiment 1 uses event‑related potentials to examine noun‑adjective number (present in L1) and gender agreement (absent in L1) in online sentence comprehension (receptive knowledge). For each feature, markedness was manipulated, such that half of the critical noun‑adjective combinations were feminine (marked) and the other half, masculine; half were used in the plural (marked) and the other half in the singular. With this set‑up, we examined learners’ potential overreliance on unmarked forms or “defaults” (singular/masculine). Experiment 2 examines similar dependencies in spoken sentence production (expressive knowledge). Results showed that learners (n=22) performed better with number than gender overall, but their brain responses to both features were qualitatively native‑like (i.e., P600), even though gender was probed with nouns that do not provide strong distributional cues to gender. In addition, variability with gender agreement was better accounted for by lexical (as opposed to syntactic) aspects. Learners showed no advantage for comprehension over production. They also showed no systematic evidence of reliance on morphological defaults, although their online processing was sensitive to markedness in a native‑like manner. Overall, these results suggest that there is facilitation for properties of the L2 that exist in the L1 and that markedness impacts L2 processing, but in a native‑like manner. These results also speak against proposals arguing that adult L2ers have deficits at the level of the morphology or the syntax.

  • 26.
    Alm-Arvius, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Semantics and pragmatics2008In: Linguistics Applied, ISSN 1689-7765, Vol. 1, no 1, 29-36 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Christina Alm-Arvius

    English Department,

    Stockholm University

    SE106 91 Stockholm

    Sweden

    Christina.Alm-Arvius@English.su.se

    http://www.english.su.se/

     

     

    Semantics and Pragmatics

     

    Abstract:

    Meanings in natural language use can be either systematic or incidental, but all the same it does not appear possible to identify a set of consistent and non-contradictory criteria for distinguishing two general contrasting meaning categories termed semantics and pragmatics respectively. Instead the most valid theoretical description seems to be to include any possible meanings of a language, or its use, in the qualitative notion of semantics, and, in addition, recognise the occurrence of incidental pragmatic meaning variations and additions. In other words, semantics is the wider or superordinate category, encompassing all and any language meanings, while pragmatics is a smaller, subordinate category, including only situationally induced or personally variable meaning aspects.

     

    Key words: deixis, implicatures, pragmatics, presuppositions, reference, semantics, semantics of understanding, speech acts, truth-conditional semantics

  • 27.
    Alvarez López, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies, Portuguese.
    200 años de herencia lingüística afrolatina: descendientes de Ansina y otros soldados de Artigas en el Paraguay2013In: Moderna Språk, ISSN 2000-3560, E-ISSN 2000-3560, Vol. 107, no 1, 1-10 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [es]

    Los datos lingüísticos analizados provienen en parte de comunidades afroparaguayas fundadas por los descendientes de esclavos libertos que fueron soldados de José Artigas, el "libertador y héroe nacional" del Uruguay. El objetivo del artículo es comparar los datos afroparaguayos analizados por Lipski (2009) con datos de variedades del español y portugués en contacto con lenguas africanas en Uruguay y Brasil para ver si coinciden o no. Con base en datos lingüísticos y socio-históricos, se argumenta que tal vez existan tantas o más similitudes con variedades de portugués afrobrasileño que con los datos sobre el habla de los afrouruguayos en los siglos XVIII y XIX. Esto puede explicarse a través de hechos históricos y sociales.

  • 28.
    Alvarez López, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies.
    A alternância /d/, /l/ e /r/ em variedades linguísticas afrolatinas2010In: Journal of Portuguese and Spanish lexically-based creoles, ISSN 1646-7000, Vol. 2, no 1, 1-27 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [pt]

    Este trabalho é uma análise da alternância entre /l/, /r/ e/d/ na linguagem de comunidades latino-americanas de forte presença africana ouafrodescendente. Os dados examinados provêm de uma série de estudos linguísticosanteriores e fontes literárias em espanhol e em português que incluemrepresentações da fala de africanos e seus descendentes. Duas perguntasnorteiam o presente estudo: Quais são os fonemas que se “confundem” e em queposições? Até que ponto a “confusão” é frequente nas variedades em questão? Apartir destas perguntas discutem-se explicações para esta mudança baseadas emdados que apontam seja para a deriva ou evolução natural das variedadesibéricas, seja para o contato entre línguas ibéricas e africanas. A análise dosdados revela que alguns destes fonemas são trocados de forma sistemática emposições específicas unicamente em variedades de espanhol e português queevoluíram em contato com línguas africanas.

  • 29.
    Alvarez López, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies.
    Como avançar no estudo do léxico de origem africana na América Latina?2012In: Revista da Abralin, ISSN 2178-7603, Vol. 11, no 2, 203-225 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The text discusses adequate methodologies for the development of a database including lexicon of African origin in varieties of Latin American Spanish and Portuguese. The aim is to start a discussion about the elaboration of theoretical and methodological approaches to be applied in future research. It also points out the possibility of articulation of various work fronts operating at the same time for which it will become necessary to perform lexicographical and metalexicographical pilot studies alongside the development of the database. The idea is to test a set of hypotheses and elaborate theoretical and methodological approaches that result suitable for a systematic and comprehensive study of the lexicon of African origin in Latin America using the available sources.

  • 30.
    Alvarez López, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Quem eram os minas?: Notas sobre a 'nação' mina no sul do Brasil e no Prata no século XIX2015In: Dinâmicas Afro-Latinas: Língua(s) e História(s) / [ed] Juanito Ornelas de Avelar & Laura Álvarez López, Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2015, 1, 43-63 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The collection covers topics of interest to both the historical and linguistic study of the contacts between speakers of African and Iberian languages in the constitution of Latin American societies. Supported by historical and demographic data, the twelve chapters cover topics of interest to the discussion on the formation of Latin American varieties of Portuguese and Spanish. Moreover, the book draws attention to the need to articulate the fields of Linguistics and History and contributes to the discussion on the formation of varieties of Latin American Portuguese and Spanish.

  • 31.
    Alvarez López, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    SARAVÁ ZIFIU!: A integração do prefixo ZI em Afro-variedades do português2013In: Cadernos de Estudos Lingüísticos, ISSN 0102-5767, Vol. 55, no 2, 7-23 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the research on the participation of Africans and their descendants in the formation of Brazilian Portuguese, the aim of this paper is to analyze occurrences of the prefix z/zi , as well as its variant ji , in oral and written representations of speech of Africans and their descendants in Brazil as well as in Africa. The main issues are: a) what is the origin of this particle and how was it integrated into varieties of Brazilian and African Portuguese? It is argued that the particle zi  is a remnant of a Bantu noun class prefix which has lost its grammatical function

  • 32.
    Alvarez López, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    The dialect of São João da Chapada: possible remains of a mining language in Minas Gerais, BrazilIn: International Journal of the Sociology of Language, ISSN 0165-2516, E-ISSN 1613-3668Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the analysis of a specific vocabulary, possibly the remains of a mining language spoken by descendants of Africans. It analyzes 149 lexical items that were registered in the 1920s in a rural region of Minas Gerais, near the city of Diamantina. Based on earlier historical and linguistic studies, as well as on dictionaries of relevant African languages, the lexical study aims to analyze 149 words and expressions in order to verify the etymologies, and determine whether they fit the demographic data available on the origins of the slave population in this area. The second aim is to analyze the distribution of the lexical items in different semantic domains and word classes and compare the observed tendencies, as well as other linguistic characteristics and social functions, with other mining languages and/or similar Afro-Brazilian and Afro-European varieties. The results indicate that Umbundu maintained a high status in the area, and that this variety was not limited to mining activities, but was probably used in everyday life as a secret code that was part of the strategies of resistance among slaves. 

  • 33.
    Alvarez López, Laura
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies.
    Bertolotti, Virginia
    Universidad de la República.
    Usos americanos de su merced en el siglo XIX2013In: Lexis, ISSN 0254-9239, Vol. XXXVII, no 1, 5-32 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is an empirical study of the presence of the address form su merced in the XIX century, particularly in Latin American literary texts representing the speech of Africans and their descendants, based on examples taken from Lipski (2005a, 2005b) and texts included in CORDE. Based on data found in other corpora, the discussion also includes uses of su merced in official written communication. It reviews earlier studies about su merced in Latin America and concludes that this address form appears in the context of asymmetrical social relations between groups and especially in the speech of Africans and their descendants.

  • 34.
    Alvarez López, Laura
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Jon-And, Anna
    Afro-Brazilian Cupópia: lexical and morphosyntactic features of a lexically driven in-group code2017In: Journal of Pidgin and Creole languages ( Print), ISSN 0920-9034, E-ISSN 1569-9870, Vol. 32, no 1, 75-103 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper focuses on the speech of a rural Afro-Brazilian community called Cafundó, situated 150 km from São Paulo. In 1978, when linguistic data were collected, the community constituted approximately eighty individuals, descendants of two slave women who inherited their owners’ proprieties. According to earlier studies, when the inhabitants of Cafundó spoke in their supposed ‘African language,’ Cupópia, they used structures borrowed from Portuguese and a vocabulary of possible African origin. A lexical analysis shows that the etymologies match historical and demographical data, indicating that speakers of varieties of Kimbundu, Kikongo and Umbundu dominated in the community. Through a morphosyntactic analysis, specific features were found in the data, such as copula absence and variable agreement patterns. By showing that some of Cupópia’s specific grammatical features are not derived from the Portuguese spoken by the same speakers but are instead shared with more restructured varieties, this paper defends the hypothesis that this lexically driven in-group code is not simply a regional variety of Portuguese with a number of African-derived words.

  • 35.
    Alvarez López, Laura
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Seiler Brylla, CharlottaStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Baltic Languages, Finnish and German.Shaw, PhilipStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Computer mediated discourse across languages2013Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 36. Andersson, Marta
    ‘I know that women don’t like me!’.: Presuppositions in therapeutic discourse.2009In: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 41, no 4, 721-737 p.Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Andersson, Marta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Spenader, Jennifer
    University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.
    RESULT and PURPOSE relations with and without 'so'2014In: Lingua, ISSN 0024-3841, E-ISSN 1872-6135, Vol. 148, 1-27 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coherence relations differ in their tendency to be explicitly marked. How such relations are recognized and what determines their tendency to be marked is a matter of debate. The connective so represents a special case: it can be used to signal RESULT coherence relations and the more specific cause-effect relation of PURPOSE, but overt marking has been claimed to be required for PURPOSE and optional for RESULT. We present written corpus and experimental results on the use of so that show that RESULT and PURPOSE with this connective can be reliably distinguished from each other, and that the modal auxiliaries can/could and will/would are strongly associated with PURPOSE. In the corpus study, PURPOSE always occurs with explicit so, while RESULT is often left unmarked. These results are in line with recent claims based on annotated corpus data that implicit (unmarked) and explicit (marked) coherence relations can be qualitatively different (e.g. Sporleder and Lascarides, 2008; Webber, 2009). However, in our experiments using strongly purposive event pairs, 35-40% of examples were identified as PURPOSE without a connective or a modal verb cue. We argue that the difference between the corpus results and the experimental results can be explained as a difference between the tasks of speakers and hearers, and we outline an explanation for how marking can be obligatory for PURPOSE relations and yet optional for RESULT. We also propose that nonveridicality seems to play a key role in a marking requirement for PURPOSE, and explain why the unusual marking pattern found makes it difficult to give a pragmatic account similar to more well-known language asymmetries.

  • 38. Aronsson, Berit
    et al.
    Fant, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Boundary tones in non-native speech: The transfer of pragmatic strategies from L1 Swedish into L2 Spanish2014In: Intercultural Pragmatics, ISSN 1612-295X, E-ISSN 1613-365X, Vol. 11, no 2, 159-198 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pragmatic functions of pitch at tone unit boundaries are studied in L2 Spanish spoken by Swedish learners, as compared to L1 Swedish and L1 Spanish. The data are recordings of a task in which the subjects - 10 learners of Spanish and 13 native controls - make a restaurant booking on the phone in Spanish, and the Swedish subjects also perform this task in their L1. The tone unit boundary rises and falls produced have been analyzed with special focus on rises and their accompanying vowel duration patterns. The turn-regulating functions of signaling turn-continuation vs. transition-relevance are contrasted with intersubjectivity-regulating signals, namely (non-) prompts for information and ( non-) prompts for interpersonal acceptance. Since open-ended yes/no-questions are signaled by rises in Spanish, though not in Swedish, and since declaratives carrying a positive politeness value tend to end in rises (the tail flick) in Swedish, though not in Spanish, various types of potential negative transfer could be predicted for Swedish learners' L2 Spanish. It is shown that L1 Spanish speakers consistently use moderate rises for turn-keeping and high rises for information-seeking, and that this pattern has no equivalence in the L2 Spanish data. Conversely, rises in L2 Spanish frequently occur where L1 Spanish speakers prefer falls. These rises, interpreted as tail flicks,also occur in L1 Swedish, but they are far more frequent in the L2 Spanish data. Thus, clear transfer patterns are found, which are further reinforced by - insecurity effects due to L2 speaking.

  • 39. Athanasopoulos, Panos
    et al.
    Damjanovic, Ljubica
    Burnand, Julie
    Bylund, Emanuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Learning to Think in a Second Language: Effects of Proficiency and Length of Exposure in English Learners of German2015In: The Modern language journal, ISSN 0026-7902, E-ISSN 1540-4781, Vol. 99, 138-153 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the current study is to investigate motion event cognition in second language learners in a higher education context. Based on recent findings that speakers of grammatical aspect languages like English attend less to the endpoint (goal) of events than do speakers of nonaspect languages like Swedish in a nonverbal categorization task involving working memory (Athanasopoulos & Bylund, 2013; Bylund & Athanasopoulos, 2015), the current study asks whether native speakers of an aspect language start paying more attention to event endpoints when learning a nonaspect language. Native English and German (a nonaspect language) speakers, and English learners of L2 German, who were pursuing studies in German language and literature at an English university, were asked to match a target scene with intermediate degree of endpoint orientation with two alternate scenes with low and high degree of endpoint orientation, respectively. Results showed that, compared to the native English speakers, the learners of German were more prone to base their similarity judgements on endpoint saliency, rather than ongoingness, primarily as a function of increasing L2 proficiency and year of university study. Further analyses revealed a nonlinear relationship between length of L2 exposure and categorization patterns, subserved by a progressive strengthening of the relationship between L2 proficiency and categorization as length of exposure increased. These findings present evidence that cognitive restructuring may occur through increasing experience with an L2, but also suggest that this relationship may be complex and unfold over a long period of time.

  • 40.
    Axelsson, Monica
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Juvonen, PäiviStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Nyanlända barn och ungdomar i de nordiska länderna2016Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Bakker, Peter
    et al.
    Research Centre for Grammar and Language Use, Aarhus University .
    Daval-Markussen, Aymeric
    Research Centre for Grammar and Language Use, Aarhus University.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Plag, Ingo
    Universität Siegen.
    Creoles are typologically distinct from non-creoles2011In: Journal of Pidgin and Creole languages ( Print), ISSN 0920-9034, E-ISSN 1569-9870, Vol. 26, no 1, 5-42 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In creolist circles, there has been a long-standing debate whether creoles differ structurally from non-creole languages and thus would form a special class of languages with specific typological properties. This debate about the typological status of creole languages has severely suffered from a lack of systematic empirical study. This paper presents for the first time a number of large-scale empirical investigations of the status of creole languages as a typological class on the basis of different and well-balanced samples of creole and non-creole languages. Using statistical modeling (multiple regression) and recently developed computational tools of quantitative typology (phylogenetic trees and networks), this paper provides robust evidence that creoles indeed form a structurally distinguishable subgroup within the world's languages. The findings thus seriously challenge approaches that hold that creole languages are structurally indistinguishable from non-creole languages.

  • 42. Bakker, Peter
    et al.
    Daval-Markussen, Aymeric
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Plag, Ingo
    Creoles are typologically distinct from non-creoles2013In: Creole languages and linguistic typology / [ed] Parth Bhatt, Tonjes Veenstra, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2013, 9-45 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 43. Barddal, Johanna
    et al.
    Smitherman, Thomas
    Bjarnadottir, Valgerdur
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Baltic Languages, Finnish and German.
    Danesi, Serena
    Jenset, Gard B.
    McGillivray, Barbara
    Reconstructing constructional semantics: The dative subject construction in Old Norse-Icelandic, Latin, Ancient Greek, Old Russian and Old Lithuanian2012In: Studies in Language, ISSN 0378-4177, E-ISSN 1569-9978, Vol. 36, no 3, 511-547 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the historical linguistic community is well aware, reconstructing semantics is a notoriously difficult undertaking. Such reconstruction has so far mostly been carried out on lexical items, like words and morphemes, and has not been conducted for larger and more complex linguistic units, which intuitively seems to be a more intricate task, especially given the lack of methodological criteria and guidelines within the field. This follows directly from the fact that most current theoretical frameworks are not construction-based, that is, they do not assume that constructions are form-meaning correspondences. In order to meet this challenge, we present an attempt at reconstructing constructional semantics, and more precisely the semantics of the Dative Subject Construction for an earlier stage of Indo-European. For this purpose we employ lexical semantic verb classes in combination with the semantic map model (Bar partial derivative dal 2007, Bar partial derivative dal, Kristoffersen & Sveen 2011), showing how incredibly stable semantic fields may remain across long time spans, and how reconstructing such semantic fields may be accomplished

  • 44.
    Bardel, Camilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages.
    La connaissance d’une langue étrangère romane favorise-t-elle l’acquisition d’une autre langue romane?: influences translinguistiques dans la syntaxe d’une L32006In: AILE : Acquisition et interaction en langue étrangère, ISSN 1243-969X, Vol. 24, 149-179 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper considers cross-linguistic influence from previously acquired second languages (L2) into L3 syntax. The object under study is the acquisition of the pre-verbal placement of sentence negation in Italian L3. Data was collected from a group of 16 year-old learners of Italian in a Swedish high school; all were native speakers of Swedish, a language with post-verbal negation in the main clause. One third of the learners only had knowledge of Germanic background languages (Swedish L1, English and German L2), while the other two thirds had studied French or Spanish, instead of German. Since negation is positioned differently in all the previously acquired non-native languages (English, German, French and Spanish), and Spanish is the only of these languages that precisely reflects the pre-verbal placement of negation in the TL, sentence negation offers an interesting opportunity to test the role of the different L2s in relation to the typology factor. The results point at positive transfer from Spanish L2 into Italian L3: the group that had studied Spanish produced only pre-verbal negation, while the students who only had experience of Germanic languages (Swedish, English and German) before learning Italian, produced mainly post-verbal negation together with non thematic verbs. Post-verbal negation was also found among students that had studied French, however to a lesser extent than among those who only had experience of Germanic languages.

  • 45.
    Bardel, Camilla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Falk, Ylva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    The L2 status factor and the declarative/procedural distinction2012In: Third language acquisition in adulthood / [ed] Cabrelli Amaro, Jennifer, Flynn, Suzanne & Rothman, Jason, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2012, 61-78 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Bardel, Camilla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages.
    Falk, Ylva
    The role of the second language in third language acquisition: the case of Germanic syntax2007In: Second Language Research, ISSN 0267-6583, Vol. 23, no 4, 459-484 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study of the placement of sentence negation in third language acquisition (L3), we argue that there is a qualitative difference between the acquisition of a true second language (L2) and the subsequent acquisition of an L3. Although there is considerable evidence for L2 influence on vocabulary acquisition in L3, not all researchers believe that such influence generalizes to morphosyntactic aspects of the grammar. For example, Håkansson et al. (2002) introduce the Developmentally Moderated Transfer Hypothesis (DMTH), which incorporates transfer in Processability Theory (PT). They argue against syntactic transfer from L2 to L3. The present study presents counter-evidence to this hypothesis from two groups of learners with different L1s and L2s acquiring Swedish or Dutch as L3. The evidence clearly indicates that syntactic structures are more easily transferred from L2 than from L1 in the initial state of L3 acquisition. The two groups behave significantly differently as to the placement of negation, a difference that can be attributed to the L2 knowledge of the learners in interaction with the typological relationship between the L2 and the L3.

  • 47.
    Bardel, Camilla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Gudmundson, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages.
    Lindqvist, Christina
    Aspects of lexical sophistication in advanced learners' oral production vocabulary acquisition and use in l2 french and italian2012In: Studies in Second Language Acquisition, ISSN 0272-2631, E-ISSN 1470-1545, Vol. 34, no 2, 269-290 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports on the design and use of a profiler for lexical sophistication (i.e., use of advanced vocabulary), which was created to assess the lexical richness of intermediate and advanced Swedish second language (L2) learners' French and Italian. It discusses how teachers' judgments (TJs) of word difficulty can contribute to the methodology for lexical profiling and compares two methods, one purely frequency based and one modified on the basis of TJs of word difficulty. It has been suggested elsewhere that factors other than frequency play an important role in vocabulary acquisition. Here it is argued that cognates and thematic vocabulary related to teaching materials, although infrequent in target language (TL) corpora, should not necessarily be considered advanced and that analyses of learners' lexical sophistication would benefit from integrating these aspects. In this study, the frequency-based method normally used in lexical profiling was modified by recategorizing some low-frequency words considered easy by many teachers. On the basis of the TJs, a basic vocabulary, which consisted mainly of high-frequency words but also of cognates and thematic words, was defined, which was based on the fact that teachers judged certain low-frequency cognates and thematic words as relatively easy. Using the modified method, learners' lexical profiles were found to be more homogeneous within groups of learners at specific proficiency levels. The superiority of the new method over the purely frequency-based one was shown when comparing effect sizes. It is argued that this method gives a more correct picture of advanced L2 lexical profiles.

  • 48.
    Bardel, Camilla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Lindqvist, ChristinaUppsala University.Laufer, BatiaUniversity of Haifa.
    L2 vocabulary acquisition, knowledge and use: New perspectives on assessment and corpus analysis.2013Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book is intended for researchers and students in the field of second language (L2) acquisition. As its title suggests, the book discusses L2 vocabulary acquisition, knowledge and use, and examines them from the perspectives of assessment and corpus analysis. The chapters also address some additional central research issues: the role of word frequency in the input, the difference between single words and multi-word units, and the distinction between vocabulary of oral and written language. The first three chapters of the book present critical reviews of different aspects of vocabulary acquisition. The other four chapters contain empirical studies that relate to the central themes of the book. The data in the studies draw on a variety of source and target languages: English, French, Italian, Swedish, Hebrew and Japanese. The book offers some new insights into the field of vocabulary and suggests avenues of research.

  • 49.
    Bardel, Camilla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Sánchez, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    The L2 status factor hypothesis revisited: The role of metalinguistic knowledge, working memory, attention and noticing in third language learning2017In: L3 Syntactic Transfer: Models, New Developments and Implications / [ed] Tanja Angelovska, Angela Hahn, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2017, 85-101 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter provides a nuanced view of the L2 status factor model, emphasizing explicit metalinguistic knowledge as the key factor governing transfer, together with individual differences in working memory and the operations associated with it. We argue that individual differences regarding the degree of explicit metalinguistic knowledge attained either in L1 or in L2 and differences when it comes to working memory, attention and noticing should be taken in consideration when accounting for transfer from previously acquired or learned languages in L3 learning.

  • 50.
    Bartning, Inge
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The functions of a high-frequency collocation in native and learner discourse: the case of French c’est and Swedish det är2007In: International Review of Applied Linguistics, Vol. 45, no 1, 1-43 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
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