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  • 1.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Forskning kring svenska som målspråk: fonologi1984In: Nordens språk som målspråk: Forskning och undervisning / [ed] Kenneth Hyltenstam, Katrin Maandi, Stockholm: Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för lingvistik , 1984, 40-60 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Viberg, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Forskning kring svenska som målspråk: Två forskningsöversikter: 1. Grammatik och ordförråd (Åke Viberg)2. Fonologi (Björn Hammarberg)1984Report (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Svartholm, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Döva och samhällets skrivna språk: En forskningsöversikt och en tillbakablick1984Report (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Svartholm, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Ge alla döva samma chans - satsa på komvux1984In: SDR-kontakt, ISSN 0036-1194, no 10/11, 36-37 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5.
    Svartholm, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Svenska som målspråk för döva - presentation av ett projekt1984In: Svenskans beskrivning 14 / [ed] Jörgensen, N., Lund: Lunds universitet , 1984, 72-81 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Articulatory and perceptual factors controlling the age- and sex-conditioned variability in formant frequencies of vowels1984In: Speech Communication, ISSN 0167-6393, E-ISSN 1872-7182, Vol. 3, no 1, 49-61 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Speech sounds, as heard by listeners, contain phonetic, personal, and transmission information. The differences between the formant frequencies of vowels spoken by men, women, and children show a fairly uniform tendency in several studies and languages, and they are regarded as personal quality differences. The differences between the sexes are mainly due to the descent of the larynx in males during puberty. The observed tendency in female/male formant frequency ratios is reproduced in a calculation taking into account the physiological consequences of larynx descent and assuming that the vowel specific neural commands to the articulators remain unchanged. The perception of phonetic quality is seen as a process of tonotopic gestalt recognition. The tonality (=critical-band rate) distances between the formants in phonetically identical vowels are claimed and shown to be invariant as long as they are smaller than 6 Bark. The absolute position of the formants allows personal variation. The tonality distance between the first formant and the fundamental is smaller in most vowels spoken by women than in those by men and children. As for the role of the fundamental in this connection, some alternative hypotheses are discussed.

  • 7.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Die spektrale Auflösung bei der Wahrnehmung der Klangfarbe von Vokalen1984In: Acta Acoustica united with Acustica, ISSN 1610-1928, E-ISSN 1861-9959, Vol. 54, 237-246 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The distances between neighbouring partials of vowels are in many cases larger than the bendwidths of the formants and also often larger than the critical bandwidth (1 Bark). Several results of different experiments with synthetic one- and two-formant vowels suggest that an efficient bandwidth of resolution of roughly 3 Bark is basic to the perception of spectral features of vowels. A corresponding spectral dispersion or integration did not, however, appear in experiments with non-speech harmonic sounds. K. Benedini investigated the timbre differences between harmonic sounds with up to six harmonics of 100 Hz. An analysis of the estimated timbre differences shows that both the bandwidth of resolution and the perceptual weight of the partials is proportional to their frequency. The weight of the fundamental is, however, substantially increased in comparisons between residual and complete harmonic sounds. Further, the perceived difference between two sounds turns out to be dependent on the remaining sounds presented in a perceptual experiment. The timbre differences between low-passed harmonic sounds of different width can be accounted for exclusively on the basis of the tono-topical distances between the upper flanks of these sounds. It is concluded that the judgement of differences in timble involves the prior extraction, induced by context, of relevant dimensions. The bandwidth of spectral resolution that appears with the perception of vowel-like sounds may in part be due to an intrincsic inacuity to the phonetic templates supposedly stored in memory.

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