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  • 1.
    Bjursäter, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Effekten av fonologisk träning enligt Bornholmsmodellen på elevers tidiga läs- och skrivinlärning i årskurser 1 och 22002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I en longitudinell studie har elever i årskurs 1 och 2 på två olika skolor i Vallentuna kommun undersökts under tre på varandra följande projektår. Huvudsyftet med denna studie var att undersöka huruvida träning i fonologisk medvetenhet enligt den s.k. Bornholmsmodellen under elevernas tid i sexårsklass påverkar deras läs- och skrivinlärning. Tre typer av test användes, under årskurs 1 administrerades UMESOL för kartläggning av fonologisk medvetenhet och ITPA, för kartläggning av psykolingvistiska färdigheter. Under årskurs 2 kartlades elevernas läs- och skrivutveckling med UMESOL, ”läsning och skrivning”. I kontrast med tidigare forskningsresultat som pekade på en fördelaktig användning av Bornholmsmodellen under elevernas förskoleklassår, visade resultaten i denna studie inte på entydiga långsiktiga effekter för de elever som tränats fonologiskt enligt Bornholmsmodellen. Istället verkade den avgörande faktorn för elevernas läs- och skrivutveckling vara skoltillhörighet och pedagogisk ledning under dessa första skolår.

  • 2.
    Bjursäter, Ulla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Koponen, Eeva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Sundberg, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Klintfors, Eeva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Assessing the significance of Tallal's transform2002In: TMH-QPSR 44: Proceedings Fonetik 2002, 141-144, Stockholm, Sweden, 2002, p. 141-144Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The perceptual significance of enhancing amplitude contrasts at the onset of formant transitions in CV-syllables and of reducing the “speaking” tempo was studied with a group of normally developing school children. Natural and synthetic speech stimuli were used in the perception experiments. A total of 83 children, second and third graders, were tested on their ability to discriminate between CV syllables presented in pairs. The results indicate that the children’s discrimination performance resisted acoustic manipulations of both the natural and synthetic stimuli. Neither spectral nor timing manipulations rendered significant differencesin discrimination results.

  • 3.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Grabe, Esther
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Perception of syllable prominence by listeners with and without competence in the tested language2002In: Proceedings of the Speech Prosody 2002 Conference, 2002, p. 275-278Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    In an experiment reported previously, subjects rated perceived syllable prominence in a Swedish utterance produced by ten speakers at various levels of vocal effort. The analysis showed that about half of the variance could be accounted for by acoustic factors. Slightly more than half could be accounted for by linguistic factors. Here, we report two additional ex-periments. In the first, we attempted to eliminate the linguistic factors by repeating the Swedish listening experiment with English listeners who had no knowledge of Swedish. In the second, we investigated the prominence pattern Swedish sub-jects expect by presenting the utterance only in written form. The results from these subjects and from the Swedish listeners were very similar but for two of the syllables where the promi-nence pattern did not coincide with the expectations of the readers. Swedish and English listeners perceived the promi-nence of the syllables to be almost identical in most cases, but where there was a conflict between expected and produced prominence, the Swedish listeners appeared to be influenced by their expectations. There was also a difference in the weights the Swedish and English listeners attached to different acoustic cues in the listening experiments.

  • 4.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Perception of vocal effort and distance from the speaker on the basis of vowel utterances.2002In: Percept Psychophys, ISSN 0031-5117, Vol. 64, no 1, p. 131-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sound pressure level of vowels reflects several non-linguistic and linguistic factors: distance from the speaker, vocal effort, and vowel quality. Increased vocal effort also involves an emphasis of higher frequency components and increases in F0 and F1. This should allow listeners to distinguish it from decreased distance, which does not have these additional effects. It is shown that listeners succeed in doing so on the basis of single vowels if phonated, but not if whispered. The results agree with a theory according to which listeners demodulate speech signals and evaluate the properties of the carrier signal, which reflects most of the para- and extra-linguistic information, apart from those of its linguistic modulation. It is observed that listeners allow for between-vowel variation, but tend to substantially underestimate changes in both kinds of distance.

  • 5. Glahn, Esther
    et al.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Holmen, Anne
    Hvenekilde, Anne
    Håkansson, Gisela
    Lund, Karen
    Pienemanns processabilitetsteori testet på dansk, norsk og svensk2002In: Forskning i nordiske sprog som andet- og fremmedsprog: Rapport fra konference i Reykjavik 23-25 maj 2001 / [ed] Audur Hauksdóttir et al., 2002, p. 31-47Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Assessing F0 patterns in infant-directed speech: A tentative stochastic model2002In: TMH-QPSR Vol. 43 – Fonetik 2002, 2002Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Koptjevskaja Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Possessiva konstruktioner i svenskan i ett kombinerat språktypologiskt och andraspråkligt perspektiv2002In: Forskning i nordiske sprog som andet- og fremmedsprog: Rapport fra konference i Reykjavik 23-25 maj 2001, 2002, p. 64-83Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Adnominal possession: combining typological and second language perspectives2002In: Typology and second language acquisition / [ed] Anna Giacalone Ramat, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2002, p. 125-179Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Helgason, Pétur
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Preaspiration in the Nordic languages: synchronic and diachronic aspects2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Preaspiration—the production of glottal friction at the juncture of a vowel and a consonant—appears to be typologically rare but is an areal linguistic feature of Northwestern Europe. This study contains a survey of the known geographical spread of preaspirated stops, their phonological distribution and phonetic expressions in some Nordic dialects. The study also suggests a reconstruction of the phonetics of the Proto-Nordic stop contrasts based on synchronic data as well as a more general framework of historical sound change.

    Following an introduction (Chapter 1), Chapter 2 deals with the definition and typology of preaspiration presenting a global overview of the known geographical spread of preaspiration. The apparent rarity of preaspiration is considered. Proposed, perceptually based explanations of this rarity are evaluated.

    Chapter 3 offers a fairly detailed account of the known areal spread of preaspiration in Europe. Stop systems of several dialects in which preaspiration occurs are analysed in terms of voicing conditions. These analyses are based mainly on descriptions provided in the dialectological literature.

    Chapter 4 presents data on durational variation and other phonetic patterns of stop production in Central Standard Swedish, Tórshavn Faroese, Gräsö Swedish and Western Åland Swedish. The results reveal a greater degree of phonetic variation than has been assumed to date. In particular, speakers of Central Standard Swedish are shown to use preaspiration as a regular feature in their voiceless stop production.

    In Chapter 5, finally, the results of the data analysis are used in an attempt to reconstruct the phonetic expression of stop contrasts in Proto-Nordic. It is argued that Proto-Nordic stop production was largely similar to the stop production of today’s Central Standard Swedish. As regards phonological structure, however, the Proto-Nordic stop contrasts appear to have been largely preserved in all dialects considered. This conclusion is found to be compatible with an expansion/contraction (E/C) model of historical sound change.

  • 10.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Startålder och slutlig behärsk­ning hos nästan infödda talare av svenska som andraspråk2002In: Forskning i nordiske sprog som andet- og fremmedsprog: rapport fra konference i Reykjavík 23.-25. maj 2001 / [ed] Auður Hauksdóttir, Birna Arnbjörnsdóttir, María Garðarsdóttir, Sigríður Þorvaldsdóttir, Reykjavík: Háskólaútgáfan , 2002, p. 84-110Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Johnen, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies, Portuguese.
    Review of: "Brinker, Klaus; Antos, Gerd; Heinemann Wolfgang; Sager, Sven F. (Hrsg.): Text- und Gesprächslinguistik. Linguistics of Text and Conversation: An International Handbook of Contemporary Research. 1. Halbband. Berlin; New York: de Gruyter, 2000"2002In: Informationen Deutsch als Fremdsprache : Info DaF, ISSN 0177-5596, Vol. 29, no 2/3, p. 124-127Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Kirchmeyer, Nathalie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages.
    Étude de la competence textuelle des lectes d’apprenants avancés. Aspects structurels, fonctionnels et informationnels2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Koponen, Eeva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Klintfors, Eeva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Ambient language effects on babbling: pitch contours in Swedish and American 12- and 18-month-olds2002In: Proceedings from Fonetik 2002, Stockholm Center for Physics, Astronomy and Biotechnology, Stockholm, May 29-31, 2002. / [ed] Cathrin Dunger, Björn Granström, David House, Anne-Marie Öster, Stockholm: Department of Speech, Music and Hearing, KTH, Printed by Universitetsservice AB , 2002, p. 13-16Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Results of a previous listening test have indicated that tonal word accent contours present in 12- and 18-monthers’ babbling may provide listeners with perceptually reliable cues to ambient language. In particular, Swedish 18- and, to some extent, 12-monthers were judged to produce more grave accent-like vocalizations than were American English children in the same age-groups.

         The present experiment was carried out to evaluate the phonetic substance underlying these listener judgments. It was expected that utterances that had been judged as grave in the listening test would display F0 characteristics typical of Swedish grave accent words, i.e., two-peaked contours with a marked second tone-peak. F0 measurements were made of the same disyllabic babbles that had been used in the listening test.

         Results indicated that vocalizations that had been judged as having the grave accent in the listening test differed from those that had not been judged as having the grave accent. Specifically, vocalizations judged as grave displayed higher F0 in the second vowel of the disyllabic vocalizations. Essentially, then, the result supported the view that Swedish 18-monthers (and, to a lesser extent, 12-monthers) may just be beginning to gain command of the tonal aspect of the word accent contrast, and that the relevant tonal contour can be reliably detected in listening.

  • 14.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The Circum-Baltic languages: a coastal contact-superposition zone in the European periphery2002In: Mediterranean languages: papers from the MEDTYP Workshop, Tirrenia, June 2000 / [ed] Paolo Ramat, Thomas Stolz, Bochum: Universitatsverlag Dr. N. Brockmeyer, 2002, p. 209-222Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Rakhilina, Ekaterina
    Pochemu glagol lezt' tak trudno perevesti na shvedskij jazyk2002In: Explorare necesse est: hyllningsskrift till Barbro Nilsson / [ed] Per Ambrosiani, Elisabeth Löfstrand, Laila Nordquist, Ewa Teodorowicz-Hellman, Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International , 2002, p. 133-148Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Krull, Diana
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Perception of quantity in Estonian (Part II)2002In: Fonetik 2002: QPSR 44, 2002, p. 57-60Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the experiment reported here, the speech rate of a short preceding or following context was manipulated in addition to that of a V, C or VC-sequence that carried a quantity distinction. The results showed that the durations of the other segments within the same two-syllable rhythmic foot and the presence or absence of a third syllable contributed to quantity perception.

  • 17.
    Larsson, Jenny Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Baltic Languages, Finnish and German. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Slavic and Baltic Studies, Finnish, Dutch, and German.
    Indoeuropeiska drag i den baltiska mytologin2002Other (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Larsson, Jenny Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Baltic Languages, Finnish and German. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Slavic and Baltic Studies, Finnish, Dutch, and German.
    Nominal Compounds in the Baltic Languages2002In: Transactions of the Philological Society (Print), ISSN 0079-1636, E-ISSN 1467-968X, Vol. 100, no 2, p. 203-231Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Larsson, Jenny Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Baltic Languages, Finnish and German. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Slavic and Baltic Studies, Finnish, Dutch, and German.
    Understanding the Heart – Work in Progress2002Other (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Larsson, Jenny Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Baltic Languages, Finnish and German. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Slavic and Baltic Studies, Finnish, Dutch, and German.
    Olander, ThomasJørgensen, AndersHyllested, Adam
    *Bhrghntiah2ai: Festskrift til Birgit Anette Olsen2002Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Lindblom, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. fonetik.
    Principal components analysis of tongue shapes in symmetrical VCV utterances2002In: Proceedings of FONETIK 2002, 2002, p. 1-4Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Lindblom, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. fonetik.
    Sussman, Harvey
    Modarresi, Golnaz
    Burlingame, E
    The trough effect: Implications for speech motor programming2002In: Phonetica, Vol. 59, p. 245-262Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Lindström, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The Body in Expressions of Emotion: Kuot2002In: Pragmatics & Cognition, ISSN 0929-0907, Vol. 10, no 1-2, p. 159-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This contribution examines the use of body terms in expressions of emotion in Kuot, a non-Austronesian language of New Ireland, Papua New Guinea. It is found that expressions involving the word for ‘stomach’, daləp, correspond mainly to what we would consider to be psychological states, while expressions making use of neip ‘skin; body’ are largely concerned with physical states. Some other body parts also form part of emotive expressions.

  • 24.
    Lindström, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Topics in the grammar of Kuot, a non-Austronesian language of New Ireland, Papua New Guinea2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes certain areas in the grammar of the little-known Kuot language, spoken by some 1,500 people in New Ireland Province in Papua New Guinea. Kuot is an isolate, and is the only non-Austronesian (Papuan) language of that province. The analyses presented here are based on original data from 18 months of linguistic fieldwork.

    The first chapter provides an overview of Kuot grammar, and gives details of earlier mentions of the language, and of data collection and the fieldwork situation. The second chapter presents information about the prehistory and history of the area, the social system, kinship system and culture of Kuot speakers, as well as dialectal variation and prognosis of survival of the language. Chapter three treats Kuot phonology, with particular emphasis on the factors that govern allophonic variation, and on the expression of word stress and the functions of intonation. Word classes and the criteria used to define them are presented in Chapter four, which also contains a discussion of types of morphemes in Kuot. The last chapter describes in some detail the class of nouns in Kuot, their declensions, non-singular formation, and the properties of grammatical gender.

    Appendices give the full set of person-marking forms in Kuot, a transcription of a recorded text with interlinear glossing and translation, the Swadesh 100-word list for Kuot, and diagrams of kin relations and terminology

  • 25. McWhorter, John
    et al.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Pas tout à fait du français: Une étude créole2002In: Études créoles, ISSN 0708-2398, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 179-231Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Namei, Shidrokh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    The bilingual lexicon from a developmental perspective: a word association study of Persian-Swedish bilinguals2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Naseh Lotfabbadi, Leyla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Disagreement in agreement: a study of grammatical aspects of codeswitching in Swedish/Persian bilingual speech2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Cutting off the branch2002In: Pidgin and Creole Linguistics in the Twenty-First Century / [ed] Gilbert, Glenn, New York: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2002, p. 355-367Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Review of Michel DeGraff (ed.): Language creation and language change2002In: Journal of Linguistics, ISSN 0022-2267, E-ISSN 1469-7742, Vol. 38, p. 661-666Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Spenader, Jennifer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Presuppositions in spoken discourse2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Svartholm, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Språk och skola, tvåspråkighet hos döva och hörselskadade2002In: NAS 2002: Nordiska Audiologiska Sällskapet, 14. Kongress: Program och föredrag, Helsingfors: NAS , 2002, p. 48-52Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 32.
    Tryggvason, Marja-Terttu
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education, Department of Curriculum Studies and Communication .
    Language - mirror of culture: a case study on language socialization with Finns living in Finland and Sweden, and Swedes living in Sweden2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to compare language socialization, i.e. how to use language and how to socialize children to use language, in three cultural groups: Finns living in Finland and Sweden and Swedes living in Sweden. Since language socialization is assumed to result in a conversational style, this was studied from different angles. The participants consisted of 20 families in each group with a target child, aged 9-13 years. The empirical data was collected by video recording a mealtime conversation with each family. The video recordings were transcribed by using the CHAT system. The analyses of data demonstrated cultural variations in interaction between Finns and Swedes. The Swedes displayed a higher involvement style than the Finns in different ways. The Swedes produced more talk and they had shorter inter-turn pauses. They elicited talk using more varied syntactic forms which also were somewhat more implicit than the forms used by Finns. The Swedish preference for negotiating and even arguing in immediate responses to negative comments provided a further difference. The Finns spoke mainly about facts, and did not leave an opening for discussion. The groups also differed from one another by showing different social norms and values. The Swedes commented more on moral and ethic issues whereas the Finns commented more on table manners. On the whole, a comparison of two neighbor countries indicated different conversational styles which are assumed to arise from different socialization styles. The cross-cultural comparison of Finns in two communities displayed a strong SwedishFinnish conversational adherence to the Finnish style. The children showed conversational congruity with the parents in each group. The findings indicated that Finnish and Swedish children in meeting each other, for example, in a classroom might have different conversational abilities when contributing to conversations.

  • 33.
    Wiklund, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Social networks and proficiency in Swedish: a study of bilingual adolescents in both mono- and multicultural contexts in Sweden2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    According to official statistics, bilingual students make up a disproportionate share of the students who attend individual programmes (programmes designed for students who cannot follow the ordinary national programmes) in the upper secondary school in Sweden. This seems to indicate that national programmes cause problems for many bilingual students. This situation relates to the fact that literacy in the language of schooling, proficiency in that language, cognitive development and school success are closely linked. This study investigates the importance of characteristics of social networks on proficiency in Swedish. More exactly it investigates the characteristics of individual students’ interaction with their nearest friends from different ethnic backgrounds and the frequency of a handful linguistic features typical of written and spoken texts respectively, as well as the use of Swedish in interaction. The aim of this study is twofold. One aim is to study the possible relation between social network characteristics, use of Swedish and frequency of selected features of Swedish, and, the other, to develop methods for the analyses of the informants’ network characteristics, language use and selected features of their L2 performance. Thirty-nine bilingual students participated in all parts of the study. The informants’ social networks outside the school context were defined for their density, multiplexity and for different activities and frequency of interaction with these students’ best friends from three different network orientations, namely (1) the students’ own ethnic group, (2) monolingual Swedes, and, (3) bilingual groups other than their own. Furthermore, a measure of the informants’ integration into the different groups was defined and scored, and the different interactional patterns within the networks were defined and measured. Excerpts of each informant’s production of written texts, i.e. school compositions (examples of a context-reduced and demanding register) and transcriptions of informal interviews (examples of a context-embedded and undemanding register) were analysed and scored for selected linguistic features that were correlated to network data. The frequency of the following selected linguistic features was scored, namely (1) verbal complexity: long words, mean length of words, non-recurring words and number of different words; (2) nominalisations and passive constructions (typical of context-reduced and cognitively demanding texts) and (3) first-person pronouns and negations (typical of contextembedded and cognitively undemanding texts). The study was carried out at two schools: one suburban, where bilingual students are in the majority, and one provincial, where they are in the minority. A tendency was noted that students who were more integrated into Swedish-oriented networks and whose network multiplexity was strengthened by higher frequency in interaction in networks directed towards monolingual Swedes demonstrated higher frequency of linguistic features which are typical of more advanced mastery of Swedish. The relationship between network interaction, integration and language proficiency was complex, however, and no statistically significant differences were seen among informants with different orientations of their social networks. The results point to an intricate co-variation between several social network characteristics and the selected linguistic features. Some integral components of the informants’ social networks were analysed, namely time of residence in Sweden, school year, gender and residential area, but there are assumedly a great number of other components which, solely or in combination, affect proficiency in Swedish.

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