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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    The robustness of aptitude effects in near-native second language acquisition2008In: Studies in Second Language Acquisition, ISSN 0272-2631, E-ISSN 1470-1545, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 481-509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Results from a number of recent studies suggest that nativelike adult second language (L2) learners possess a high degree of language learning aptitude, the positive effects of which may have compensated for the negative effects of a critical period in these learners. According to the same studies, child learners seem to attain a nativelike command of the L2 regardless of high or low aptitude, which has led researchers to conclude that this factor plays no role in early acquisition. The present study investigates the L2 proficiency and language aptitude of 42 near-native L2 speakers of Swedish (i.e., individuals whom actual mother-tongue speakers of Swedish believe are native speakers). The results confirm previous research suggesting that a high degree of language aptitude is required if adult learners are to reach a L2 proficiency that is indistinguishable from that of native speakers. However, in contrast to previous studies, the present results also identify small yet significant aptitude effects in child SLA. Our findings lead us to the conclusions that the rare nativelike adult learners sometimes observed would all turn out to be exceptionally talented language learners with an unusual ability to compensate for maturational effects and, consequently, that their nativelikeness per se does not constitute a reason to reject the critical period hypothesis.

  • 2.
    Aktürk, Memet
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Periphery Effects in Phonological Integration: Turkish suffixation of Swedish proper nouns by advanced bilinguals2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay investigates how certain word-final Swedish rimes are integrated phonologically into Turkish by means of suffixation. Specific Swedish rimes have been selected for their unusual characteristics from the perspective of Turkish phonology such as vowel and consonant quantity as well as coda phonotactics. The data have been collected in an experiment, which involved the oral translation of a Swedish text including potential borrowings such as proper names and place names. The participants were advanced bilingual speakers of the standard varieties of Turkish and Swedish living in Stockholm. Two phonological properties of Turkish are relevant for this essay. Firstly, every word-final rime must have a vocalic, palatal and labial classification in order to be licensed for suffixation. Secondly, Turkish has a large and diverse periphery in its phonological lexicon due to faithful or partially faithful adaptation of a plethora of historical loanwords. The focus of the investigation is if the new borrowings are integrated into the core or into the periphery of the Turkish phonological lexicon or alternatively how faithful their integration is to the Swedish originals. In terms of resolving j-final coda cluster problems, the popular strategies are found to be palatalization, deletion and metathesis. The main body of data displays low faithfulness to the Swedish originals as well as an underutilization of the Turkish periphery. The participants are found to use the periphery of their phonological lexicon to a high degree for established words in Turkish but only to a limited extent when adapting new borrowings from Swedish into Turkish. This finding is explained by the fact that the structural and sociolinguistic conditions are not conducive to periphery maintenance in the present context in contrast to the historical context during the inflow of Arabic and Persian loanwords.

  • 3.
    Alm-Arvius, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Semantics and pragmatics2008In: Linguistics Applied, ISSN 1689-7765, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 29-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Christina Alm-Arvius

    English Department,

    Stockholm University

    SE106 91 Stockholm

    Sweden

    Christina.Alm-Arvius@English.su.se

    http://www.english.su.se/

     

     

    Semantics and Pragmatics

     

    Abstract:

    Meanings in natural language use can be either systematic or incidental, but all the same it does not appear possible to identify a set of consistent and non-contradictory criteria for distinguishing two general contrasting meaning categories termed semantics and pragmatics respectively. Instead the most valid theoretical description seems to be to include any possible meanings of a language, or its use, in the qualitative notion of semantics, and, in addition, recognise the occurrence of incidental pragmatic meaning variations and additions. In other words, semantics is the wider or superordinate category, encompassing all and any language meanings, while pragmatics is a smaller, subordinate category, including only situationally induced or personally variable meaning aspects.

     

    Key words: deixis, implicatures, pragmatics, presuppositions, reference, semantics, semantics of understanding, speech acts, truth-conditional semantics

  • 4.
    Almgren, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay will focus on the actions taken by a translator to rid a children’s book of sexist content. First of all the sexist content in the book is located by studying the criticism (of sexist content) the book in question has received since it was published. By using the translation theory of shifts these actions will be exemplified and further discussed by the use of other translation theories.

    With the translator’s actions in focus certain translation strategies will be compared to the ones taken by the translator of the book. The shifts made in the translation will be located, presented and explained. Finally a discussion, of the problems occurring when editing a translation in order to change the effect on the reader and about the responsibilities of translators, will follow.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Petter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Language attitudes in the People’s Republic of China’s leading English-language newspaper, China Daily2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since time immemorial, various governments in China have attempted to promulgate writing reforms and speech reforms in order to unite the nation, mostly for political gain. The aim of this paper is to discover and analyze some language issues in the People’s Republic of China, specifically attitudes and comments on spoken usage of Putonghua (also called Modern Standard Chinese), Shanghai dialect, Cantonese and English by researching China Daily’s online newspaper article archive. A few valid articles could be retrieved and they uncovered that Putonghua, Shanghai dialect and Cantonese are all considered prestigious in different regions of the country; furthermore, English is gaining support rapidly, especially in corporate China.

  • 6.
    Bijvoet, Ellen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Fraurud, Kari
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Svenskan i dagens flerspråkiga storstadsmiljöer:: en explorativ studie av unga stockholmares perceptioner av variation och varieteter2008In: Nordand: nordisk tidsskrift for andrespråksforskning, ISSN 0809-9227, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 7-38Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Bolton, Kingsley
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Bacon-Shone, John
    University of Hong Kong.
    Bilingualism and multilingualism in the HKSAR: language surveys and Hong Kong’s changing linguistic profile2008In: Language and society in Hong Kong / [ed] Kinglsey Bolton, Han Yang, Hong Kong: Open University of Hong Kong Press , 2008, p. 25-51Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Bylund Spångberg, Emanuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Age differences in first language attrition: A maturational constraints perspective2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates age-related differences in first language (L1) attrition in a second language (L2) setting. The thesis is based on four individual studies. The aim of each of the studies has been to examine aspects of age differences that to date have remained in the background of attrition research: Study I gives an overview of research on age differences in L1 attrition and suggests a reinterpretation of age effects in attrition, using as a point of departure critical period constructs. Study I also formulates hypotheses regarding the contour and timing of attrition susceptibility and its interplay with non-biological factors. Study II investigates L1 residual knowledge and L2 ultimate attainment in international adoptees. The results suggest that a) that L1 remnants may be found if relearning activities have taken place prior to testing; b) L2 learners who have experienced a complete cut-off in L1 contact do not attain higher L2 proficiency levels than learners who have stayed in contact with the L1. The results also indicate that the level of L1 reactivation and L2 ultimate attainment are related to age of adoption. Study III examines age effects on the retention of L1 event construal patterns. The results show that the onset of puberty is a turning point for the degree of conformity with native behaviour, i.e. those who arrived in the L2 setting before puberty were more likely to exhibit non-converging patterns than those who arrived after puberty. This finding suggests that in attrition conceptual proficiency is equally affected by age as are formal language skills. Finally, Study IV explores the role of language aptitude in prepubescent attriters. The results show that nativelike grammatical intuitions are connected to language aptitude, and that speakers with high levels of language aptitude rely less on L1 contact than do speakers with low levels of language aptitude in their retention of nativelike grammatical intuitions in the L1.

  • 9.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Grammatisk finithet i trumaí2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Traditionellt har tempusböjning och person-/numeruskongruens på verb varit de starkaste kriterierna för finithet. Det har dock visat sig vara svårapplicerade kriterier för många språk och finithet på satsnivå – huruvida en sats är självständig eller ej – har blivit en viktig fråga för definitionen.

    Uppsatsen syftar till att beskriva och analysera finithetsfenomenet utifrån språket trumaí.

    Det tycks finnas flera fenomen som är tecken på en finithetsdistinktion i trumaí, framför allt -n/-e-klitikan som markerar 3Abs på verbet vid absolutivargumentets frånvaro, samt FT-partiklarna som har en tempusfunktion. För imperativ verkar det vara så att imperativpartiklarna har en intern distribution baserad på person och animathet hos absolutivargumentet, vilket kan tolkas som att det finns en argumentkongruens frikopplad från den semantiska inkorporeringen av andraperson som subjekt. Gällande finithet på satsnivå finns det i trumaí både finita och infinita satser som kan fungera som bisatser. I strukturer där verbet beter sig prototypiskt är satsen finit, medan andra strukturers verb tycks ha rört sig mot att bete sig nominellt, varpå satsen fungerar annorlunda och är infinit.

  • 10.
    Cedergren, Mickaëlle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages.
    L’écriture biblique dans la littérature du XIXe siècle finissant : le cas de Strindberg2008In: @nalyses, revue de critique et de théorie littéraire: Articles courants, XIXe siècle., ISSN 1715-9261, no printemps 2008, p. 6-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inferno constitutes a turning point in Strindberg’s literary production in that scriptural quotations appear more frequently and a new style emerges. This article presents the characteristics of the scriptural quotations appearing in Inferno (1897) and Jacob Wrestles (a fragment following Légendes, written in French and in Swedish in 1898). The linguistic analysis — with includes comparative, discourse, textual and intertextual approaches — is used to define the place and role of scriptural quotations in this literary corpus. This study has revealed three different types of biblical writings which show the spiritual disposition and the religious evolution of the narrator in each text.

  • 11.
    Cortes, Elisabet Eir
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lindblom, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    From articulatory to acoustic parameters non-stop: Phonetics in the fast lane2008In: Proceedings FONETIK 2008Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports an attempt to map the time variations of selected articulatory parameters (from X-ray profiles) directly on the F1, F2 and F3 formant tracks using multiple regression analysis (MRA). The results indicate that MRA can indeed be useful for predicting formant frequencies. Since the results reported here are limited to preliminary observations of F1 only, further studies including F2 and F3 are needed to evaluate the method more definitively.

  • 12.
    Crasborn, Onno
    et al.
    Radboud University Nijmegen.
    Kooij, Els van der
    Radboud University Nijmegen.
    Waters, Dafydd
    UCL Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience.
    Woll, Bencie
    Deafness, Cognition and Language Research Centre, UCL.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Frequency distribution and spreading behavior of different types of mouth actions in three sign languages2008In: Sign Language and Linguistics, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 45–67-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a comparative study of mouth actions in three European sign languages: British Sign Language (BSL), Nederlandse Gebarentaal (Sign Language of the Netherlands, NGT), and Swedish Sign Language (SSL). We propose a typology for, and report the frequency distribution of, the different types of mouth actions observed. In accordance with previous studies, we find the three languages remarkably similar — both in the types of mouth actions they use, and in how these mouth actions are distributed. We then describe how mouth actions can extend over more than one manual sign. This spreading of mouth actions is the primary focus of this paper. Based on an analysis of comparable narrative material in the three languages, we demonstrate that the direction as well as the source and goal of spreading may be language-specific.

  • 13.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    An exercise in a posteriori language sampling2008In: Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung, ISSN 1867-8319, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 208-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A central methodological issue in language typology is sampling – how to choose a representative set of languages for a typological investigation. Most proposed typological sampling methods are a priori in the sense that they are based on assumed, rather than observed, effects of biasing factors – such as genealogical and areal proximity.The advent of the World Atlas of Language Structures (WALS) creates for the first time a chance to attempt a posteriori sampling. The basic idea is to create a sample by

    removing from the set of available languages one member of each pair of languages whose typological distance – as defined in terms of the features in WALS – does not reach a predefined threshold. In

    this way, a sample of 101 languages was chosen from an initial set of the 222 languages that are best represented in WALS.The number of languages from different macroareas in this sample can be taken as an indication of the internal diversity of the area in question.Two issues are discussed in some detail: (i) the high diversity of the indigenous languages of the Americas and the tendency for these to be underrepresented by previous sampling methods; (ii) the extreme areal convergence of Mainland South East Asian languages. It is concluded that areal factors cannot be neglected in typological sampling, and that it must be questioned whether the creation of elaborate sampling algorithms makes sense.

  • 14.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Animacy and egophoricity: Grammar, ontology and phylogeny2008In: Lingua, ISSN 0024-3841, E-ISSN 1872-6135, Vol. 118, no 2, p. 141-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some results of earlier work on animacy by Kari Fraurud and the author are reviewed, demonstrating the close relationship between (i) the role of animacy as a determinant of grammatical rules and the choice between types of referential expressions, and (ii) statistical regularities in discourse. The idea that animacy is an ontological category is developed further. In the final section, the phylogenetic basis of the notions behind animacy and egophoricity is discussed. It is argued that the grammatical animacy hierarchy corresponds to a three-step cognitive scale: the self is the model for other animate individuals, which are in their turn models for inanimate objects when understood as individual ‘things’.

  • 15.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Grammatical resources and linguistic complexity: Sirionó as a language without NP coordination2008In: Language Complexity: Typology, contact, change, John Benjamins, Amsterdam/Philadelphia , 2008Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The paper discusses the relationship between cross-linguistic differences in grammatical resources and linguistic complexity. It is claimed that Sirionó (Tupí-Guaraní) lacks syntactic coordination as in English John and Mary are asleep. Instead, Sirionó employs a number of different strategies – the ‘with’ strategy, the list strategy, and the ‘also’ strategy – to make up for this. It is argued that one or more of these strategies may serve as a diachronic source of syntactic coordination. The development of syntactic coordination in a language exemplifies condensation processes in grammaticalization and increases complexity in the sense that a certain type of complex syntactic structure is introduced, and makes it possible to express in one syntactic unit what previously needed two or more.

  • 16.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Grammatikens grundfärg är som zebrans2008In: Språktidningen, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 44-47Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 17.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Hur exotiskt är finska?2008In: Verkko-Virittäjä, no 4/2008Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The degenerate dative in Southern Norrbothnian2008In: Case and grammatical relations: studies in honor of Bernard Comrie / [ed] Greville G. Corbett, Michael Noonan, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2008, p. 105-126Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 19.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Älvdalska - eget språk eller värsting bland dialekter?2008In: Språktidningen, Vol. 1, no 6, p. 12-18Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 20.
    Duff, Shawn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Relative clause formation in King Alfred's translation of Gregory's Pastoral Care2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, relative clauses in King Alfred’s Old English translation of Gregory the Great’s Pastoral Care were examined using relative frequency as a tool to determine whether or not certain factors influenced the choice of relativization strategy. These factors include antecedent case, antecedent gender, antecedent number, distance, animacy, noun phrase type, case of relativized NP, and syntactic function.

    The method involved gathering together all the occurrences of relative clauses using the Old English corpus and a Modern English translation. This process was not unproblematic as the correct translation from Old English to modern English sometimes was left to the discretion of the translator. Some clauses that were initially thought to be relative clauses were, in fact, not relative clauses. The components of each of the clauses were then examined and categorized after any problematic examples were discarded. Relative frequencies for each of the categories were calculated and chi-square tests were performed to check the reliability of the results.

    The results of this paper were compared to another paper which did somewhat similar research to determine if the findings were consistent although that paper did not look at as many factors as this paper.

  • 21.
    Edlund, Jens
    et al.
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Gustafson, Joakim
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Heldner, Mattias
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Hjalmarsson, Anna
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Towards human-like spoken dialogue systems2008In: Speech Communication, ISSN 0167-6393, E-ISSN 1872-7182, Vol. 50, no 8-9, p. 630-645Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an overview of methods that can be used to collect and analyse data on user responses to spoken dialogue system components intended to increase human-likeness, and to evaluate how well the components succeed in reaching that goal. Wizard-of-Oz variations, human-human data manipulation, and micro-domains are discussed ill this context, as is the use of third-party reviewers to get a measure of the degree of human-likeness. We also present the two-way mimicry target, a model for measuring how well a human-computer dialogue mimics or replicates some aspect of human-human dialogue, including human flaws and inconsistencies. Although we have added a measure of innovation, none of the techniques is new in its entirely. Taken together and described from a human-likeness perspective, however, they form a set of tools that may widen the path towards human-like spoken dialogue systems.

  • 22.
    Engstrand, Olle
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Helgasson, Petur
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The beginnings of a database for historical sound change2008In: Papers from the 21st Swedish Phonetics Conference, 2008, p. 101-104Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a preliminary version of a database from which examples of historical sound change can be retrieved and analyzed. To date, the database contains about 1,000 examples of regular sound changes from a variety of language families. As exemplified in the text, searches can be made based on IPA symbols, articulatory features, segmental or prosodic context, or type of change. The database is meant to provide an adequately large sample of areally and genetically balanced information on historical sound changes that tend to take place in the world’s languages. It is also meant as a research tool in the quest for diachronic explanations of genetic and areal biases in synchronic typology.

  • 23.
    Ericsson, Tina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    "It is certain that it can be argued a million times over" - expressions of epistemic modality in L1 and L2 writing2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This corpus-based study analyzes different types of epistemic markers used in argumentative essays by University students. More specifically it compares Swedish L2 writers and English L1 writers. The scope of the analysis covers epistemic modal verbs, lexical verbs and adverbs. A number of markers are counted to see which expressions are preferred by L1 and L2 writers respectively and if the frequency rates differ between the two groups. Further, it discusses whether the non-native writers use epistemic markers appropriate to an academic register, and an attempt is made to see whether the L1 and L2 writers show similar patterns of ‘committing’ to and ‘distancing’ themselves to their arguments. The results reveal a few notable differences between the Swedish and English writers. A tendency is seen among the L2 writers to ‘overuse’ certain expressions, particularly in the category of lexical verbs. Compared to the native writers, the L2 writers display higher frequency rates when it comes to markers that are most commonly found in spoken conversation. Further the L2 writers seem to display more ‘writer visibility’ than the L1 writers do, which could perhaps be due to differences in writing culture. The findings also suggest that Swedish L2 writers, even on a relatively advanced level, may have difficulties in mastering modal expressions in English.

  • 24.
    Eugene, Rivelis
    Slaviska.
    In the Eye of the Beholder, or Are RYBA and MJASO Antonyms?: On Enantiosemy and Imaginary Opposites2008In: Scando-Slavica, ISSN 0080-6765, Vol. 54, p. 159-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enantiosemy is usually seen as a peculiar and infrequent case of polysemy in

    which some sense of a word is somehow the opposite of another sense of the

    same word. While arguing against this common sense-defying view fed by

    objectivist semantics, the article develops an alternative account of enantiosemy

    based on conceptual analysis of lexical units and the notion of linguistic

    meaning as conceptualization. It shows that enantiosemy, far from being

    rare or whimsical, is a vastly productive cognitive mechanism of “meaning

    creation”. This account explicitly appeals to the “speaker’s stance in the language”

    (E. Benveniste), or the speaker as a sovereign instance of meaning

    production. It can also be seen as one of the steps towards a new, conceptually

    based typology of lexical units in which their combinatorial properties and

    grammatical behavior, hence the limits of the speaker’s exploitations of lexical

    units pro domo sua, are viewed as motivated by their conceptual structure.

    The article includes a number of multilingual analytical examples while maintaining

    a contrastive perspective for those taken from languages other than

    Russian, in accord with lexicographic interests of the author.

  • 25.
    Fougstedt, Mileydi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    SKORR: möjliga orsaker till fenomenet2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats avser att kartlägga förekomsten av skorr i det spansktalande Karibien. Dorsala realiseringar av fonemet /r/, dvs skorr är ett fenomen som inte är belagt i europeisk spanska. Hur kommer det sig? Jag har försökt utröna de möjliga orsakerna till varför bakre /r/ förekommer i spanskan i den karibiska övärlden trots att det inte förekommer i standardspanska. Uppsatsen har visst fokus på Kuba, men berör också Puerto Rico och Dominikanska Republiken. Syftet har varit att försöka hitta en geografisk korrelation mellan olika språk och etniska grupper samt förekomsten av skorr i karibisk spanska. Resultaten är inte enhetliga. På Puerto Rico verkar skorr ha spritts sedan 1980-talet. På Kuba har fenomenet fått mer uppmärksamhet sedan 1970-talet. Beträffande Dominikanska Republiken var underlaget bristfälligt och det gick inte att dra säkra slutsatser. Enligt befintlig litteratur har fonemet /r/ i Karibien åtminstone sju dorsala realiseringar fördelade som följer: [n],[R],[ʁ],[x],[χ],[h]och [ɣ], varav de sista sex här betraktas som instanser av skorr. Ibland förekommer skorr i hela områden och ibland fläckvis. Ibland korrelerar skorr med någon av hypoteserna, och ibland inte alls. Resultaten är inte entydiga, men i stort korrelerar skorr med det faktum att den spanska övärlden har haft stora bosättningar av franska och fransk-kreoltalare, de enda grannar som konsekvent har skorr i sitt foneminventarium.  Ingen annanstans i Spanskamerika har skorr belagts.

  • 26.
    Ganuza, Natalia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Syntactic Variation in the Swedish of Adolescents in Multilingual Urban Settings: Subject-verb Order in Declaratives, Questions and Subordinate Clauses2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the use of word order variation, in particular the variable use of subject-verb inversion and non-inversion in main declarative clauses, among adolescents in contemporary multilingual settings in Sweden. The use of non-inversion in contexts that in standard Swedish require inversion is sometimes claimed to be characteristic of varieties of Swedish spoken among adolescents in multilingual urban areas. The present study includes a wide range of data, both spontaneous and elicited, and explores how common the use of non-inversion is among a relatively large group of participants in different contexts, and how the use of non-inversion is influenced by different demographic, linguistic and socio-pragmatic factors.

    The results show that non-inversions are used to a limited extent in all types of data in the studied population. Only certain individuals frequently employ non-inversions in some contexts. Further, no direct link is found between second language acquisition and the use of non-inversion in this study. Factors related to the issue of nativeness, for example participants’ reported age of onset of Swedish acquisition, only marginally explain the results. In general, examples of non-inversion are employed more extensively, and by more participants, in peer-peer interaction than with adults. The use of non-inversion appears to be part of some adolescents’ spontaneous language use in certain contexts. More importantly, however, the results suggest that some adolescents employ non-inversions as an active linguistic resource to express their identification with the multilingual environment and the different varieties of Swedish spoken there, to show solidarity with peers, to contest official school discourses, and to play around with linguistic stereotypes.

  • 27.
    Gerholm, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Att skapa ett språk i en kontext2008In: Psyke og Logos: Tema: Spädbarnspsykologi, ISSN 0107-1211, Vol. 2, no 29, p. 557-579Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utan en språklig infrastruktur av relativt stabil natur blir det svårt för ett barn att finna tolkningsbara mönster i de verbala och ickeverbala stimuli det möter. Sådana stabila mönster verkar emellertid finnas i föräldrarnas språkliga agerande, vilket beskrivs och illustreras i artikeln. Huvudsaklig fokus är dock att lyfta fram och diskutera den hittills mindre uppmärksammade aspekten av barnets eget agerande för att tillägna sig de språkliga ramar och normer som utgör basen för samvaro. Ett agerande där de genom bl.a. blickbeteende och direkta frågor vidmakthåller föräldrarnas scaffoldingramar, samt själva laborerar med fraser och beteenden som de tillägnat sig genom interaktion med föräldrarna. I artikeln introduceras även begrepp som avser att benämna två kvalitativt olika former av beteenden som återfinns hos barn mellan 1 och 5 år: oinskränkt vs normkänsligt beteende. Utifrån den ständiga växelverkan mellan föräldrarnas reaktioner och responser och barnets tolkning av desamma argumenteras för att barnet guidas mot att välja en utvecklingsprocess där den ena formen av språkligt och ickespråkligt beteende ersätts av den andra.

  • 28.
    Golmann, Stella
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    General L2 Proficiency and Spoken Word Recognition2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    This essay concerns the ability of advanced L2 users of English to recognise spoken words in a noisy environment. Its main objective is to see whether there exists any correlation between the proficiency level of an advanced user of L2 English and his/her ability to recognise spoken words. Twenty students in the English Department at Stockholm University were given several proficiency tests as well as a test of spoken word recognition. The spoken words were embedded in a “cocktail party” background noise. The central research question is whether proficiency levels (as reflected in the tests) are related to levels of ability to recognise words in a noisy input situation.

    A secondary goal of this essay is to identify the phonemes that seemed most difficult for the informants to recognise in a noisy environment.

    The results indicate that general L2 proficiency, as measured by three types of tests (vocabulary knowledge, written word recognition, reading comprehension) has no impact on a subjects’ ability to recognise spoken words in a noisy environment. The results also indicate that some phonemes were more difficult to recognise than others. Furthermore, the analysis of mishearings indicate that in doublets (words where both the noun forms and the verb forms were given), the words with first syllable stress (nouns) were correctly recognised considerably more often than words with second syllable stress (verbs). For words with only a single form the stress pattern did not seem to influence recognition. Several lines of future research are discussed.

  • 29.
    Gustafson, Joakim
    et al.
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Heldner, Mattias
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Edlund, Jens
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Potential benefits of human-like dialogue behaviour in the call routing domain2008In: Perception in Multimodal Dialogue Systems, Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2008, p. 240-251Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a Wizard-of-Oz (Woz) experiment in the call routing domain that took place during the development of a call routing system for the TeliaSonera residential customer care in Sweden. A corpus of 42,000 calls was used as a basis for identifying problematic dialogues and the strategies used by operators to overcome the problems. A new Woz recording was made, implementing some of these strategies. The collected data is described and discussed with a view to explore the possible benefits of more human-like dialogue behaviour in call routing applications.

  • 30.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Vocal imitation in early language acquisition2008In: Interspeech2008, 2008, p. 1976-1979Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study of vocal imitation during the early stages of the language acquisition process. Utterances were extracted from recordings of adult-infant interactions in controlled but naturalistic experimental settings. For each recording session, utterances were used to create pairs of adult-infant samples that were presented to a panel of listeners, whose task was to judge whether the samples in a pair could be considered as imitations of each other or not. The results suggest an age-dependent hierarchy for the impact of different phonetic dimensions on imitation judgments and provide a basis for a quantitative model of vocal imitation.

  • 31.
    Hallonsten, Pernilla
    Lund University, Sweden.
    The English -ing Form from a Recapitulationist Hypothesis Perspective2008In: Facta Universitatis Series: Linguistics and Literature, ISSN 0354-4702, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 35-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Viewing language as an evolutionary process can offer a new insight into our understanding of historical changes. It also raises significant questions to the nature of language. In this paper, the English -ing form is examined from a recapitulationist hypothesis perspective, aiming to elucidate the complexity around the grammatical category membership of the different functions of this form. The study of the -ing form in child language acquisition as compared to its history will lead to the discussion of how the functions are connected, both structurally and cognitively. By searching outside the traditional grammatical approaches to grammatical categories, it is possible to make clear the identity of the -ing form.

  • 32.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Allmän språkvetenskap.
    En underskattad faktor i språkinlärning - rec. av Ringbom, H (2007), Similarity in Foreign Language Learning. Multilingual Matters.2008In: Finsk Tidkrift, ISSN 0015-248X, no 8, p. 429-434Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Allmän språkvetenskap.
    Konstruktioner som produkt och process - en studie av hur L1- och L2-talare utnyttjar "det är"2008In: Nordand: Nordisk tidsskrift for andrespråksforskning, ISSN 0809-9227, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 79-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Språkliga konstruktioner kan ses som produkter eller processer. Artikeln utforskar samband mellan dessa aspekter och fokuserar på L1- och L2-talares bruk av svenska konstruktioner bildade med det starkt flerfunktionella syntaktiska fragmentet det är. En användningsbaserad modell för språkets utveckling läggs till grund, där särskilt också frekvensens roll uppmärksammas. Data hämtas från en korpus av konversationer med inlärare och infödda svenskar, som uppvisar en riklig användning av olika det är-konstruktioner, såväl med avseende på bredden i repertoaren som i fråga om frekvens. Inlärarna tillägnar sig successivt ett användningsmönster som i stort liknar de infödda talarnas. Vissa strukturer uppträder tidigare än andra; en karakteristisk utvecklingsprofil framträder. Sekvensen det är har en central roll i yttrandeproduktionen, där den ofta tjänar som en (ibland bara tentativ) satsinledare. Det finns indikationer på att det är tillägnas och fungerar som en formelsekvens med en stödjande roll i yttrandeplaneringen. Av speciellt intresse är de formuleringsbrott som ofta uppträder efter det är, med olika sätt att sedan fortsätta yttrandet. Dessa fall ger inblickar i det löpande formuleringsarbetet.

    Linguistic constructions can be viewed as products or processes. The paper explores connections between these aspects, focussing on L1 and L2 speakers’ use of Swedish constructions formed with the highly polyfunctional syntactic fragment det är ‘it is’. A usage-based model of language development is adopted, and the role of frequency of use is taken into account. The data for the study were extracted from a corpus of Swedish L1 and L2 conversational speech. This displays a rich use of different det är constructions, both in terms of the width of the repertoire and in terms of the frequency of use. The learners gradually acquire a pattern of usage which is largely similar to that of the native speakers, some structures occurring earlier than others; there appears a characteristic developmental profile. Det är has a prominent role in utterance production, often serving as a (sometimes only tentative) sentence introducer. There are indications that det är is acquired and functions as a formulaic sequence with a role in supporting utterance planning and execution. A particularly interesting phenomenon is the frequent occurrence of a formulation break after det är, with various ways of continuing the utterance; this provides insights into the ongoing formulation work.

  • 34.
    Hatzopoulou, Marianna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Acquisition of reference to self and others in Greek Sign Language: From pointing gesture to pronominal pointing signs2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation explores the emergence of the linguistic use of pointing as first- and non-first-person pronoun in Greek Sign Language. Despite the similarity in form between the pointing gesture and pronominal pointing signs, children acquiring sign language pass through the same stages and acquire personal pronouns at about the same age as children acquiring spoken language. According to Petitto (1984, 1987, 1994), the transition to pronominal pointing in American Sign Language is characterised by: (a) a period of discontinuity in which children avoid using pointing directed towards persons, and (b) the occurrence of reversal errors before the acquisition of first and second-person pronouns.

    The present study offers additional evidence on the acquisition of personal pronouns through the investigation of: (a) the manner and the age at which pronominal pointing signs are acquired by a child exposed to Greek Sign Language, (b) the use of other signs for reference to persons and self, and (c) the existence of reversal errors in the child’s early use of pointing. Data consist of video-recorded spontaneous interaction between a deaf boy and his family every fortnight from the age of 12 to 36 months. Thirty hours of the child’s communicative behaviour have been transcribed and all sequences that included pointing were analysed in terms of reference and function.

    This study confirms that language modality plays a restricted role in language acquisition. The time and the frequency of occurrence of pronominal pointing signs correspond to the general developmental pattern observed in the acquisition of ASL. However, there are also important differences: (a) common nouns and proper names are used for reference to others before the acquisition of pronominal pointing, but to a limited extent (b) the existence of only one erroneous pointing sign indicates that the deaf child, from the beginning, uses pronominal signs correctly, and (c) there is no evidence of discontinuity in the transition from the early communicative pointing gesture to pronominal pointing signs.

  • 35.
    Hunley, Keith
    et al.
    Department of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
    Dunn, Michael
    Centre for Language Studies, Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Lindström, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Reesink, Ger
    Centre for Language Studies, Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Terrill, Angela
    Centre for Language Studies, Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Healey, Meghan E.
    Department of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
    Koki, George
    Human Genetics, Institute for Medical Research, Goroka, Papua New Guinea.
    Friedlaender, Françoise R.
    Independent Researcher, Sharon, Connecticut, United States of America.
    Friedlaender, Jonathan S.
    Department of Anthropology, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
    Genetic and Linguistic Coevolution in Northern Island Melanesia2008In: PLOS Genetics, ISSN 1553-7390, E-ISSN 1553-7404, Vol. 4, no 10, article id e1000239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies have detailed a remarkable degree of genetic and linguistic diversity in Northern Island Melanesia. Here we utilize that diversity to examine two models of genetic and linguistic coevolution. The first model predicts that genetic and linguistic correspondences formed following population splits and isolation at the time of early range expansions into the region. The second is analogous to the genetic model of isolation by distance, and it predicts that genetic and linguistic correspondences formed through continuing genetic and linguistic exchange between neighboring populations. We tested the predictions of the two models by comparing observed and simulated patterns of genetic variation, genetic and linguistic trees, and matrices of genetic, linguistic, and geographic distances. The data consist of 751 autosomal microsatellites and 108 structural linguistic features collected from 33 Northern Island Melanesian populations. The results of the tests indicate that linguistic and genetic exchange have erased any evidence of a splitting and isolation process that might have occurred early in the settlement history of the region. The correlation patterns are also inconsistent with the predictions of the isolation by distance coevolutionary process in the larger Northern Island Melanesian region, but there is strong evidence for the process in the rugged interior of the largest island in the region (New Britain). There we found some of the strongest recorded correlations between genetic, linguistic, and geographic distances. We also found that, throughout the region, linguistic features have generally been less likely to diffuse across population boundaries than genes. The results from our study, based on exceptionally fine-grained data, show that local genetic and linguistic exchange are likely to obscure evidence of the early history of a region, and that language barriers do not particularly hinder genetic exchange. In contrast, global patterns may emphasize more ancient demographic events, including population splits associated with the early colonization of major world regions.

  • 36.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Vilket undervisningsspråk favoriserar vilka elever?2008In: Sprogforum, Temanummer: Førstesproget som ressource, ISSN 0909-9328, no 43, p. 44-48Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Influences of form and function on the acceptability of projective prepositions in Swedish2008In: Spatial Cognition and Computation, ISSN 1387-5868, E-ISSN 1573-9252, ISSN 1387-5868, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 193-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Projective prepositions express the relation between two objects by referring to a direction in space and have traditionally been regarded as expressing purely geometric relations. Recent studies have shown that the appropriateness of English and Spanish projectives also depends on functional relations between objects. This study investigates if the acceptability of the Swedish projectives över, under, ovanför and nedanför are influenced by functional factors as well, and whether över and under are differentially influenced by function than ovanför and nedanför, as has been shown for their English cognates. It also investigates how the shape and parts of the related objects influence their functional interaction, and thereby the acceptability of the prepositions. This is done with respect to the predictions of the AVS-model, a model of the perceptual processes underlying the apprehension of projectives, which takes both the geometric and the functional relation between objects into account. It was found that acceptability judgments about the prepositions are influenced by function as their corresponding English and Spanish prepositions. The acceptability of över was more sensitive to function than ovanför, whereas under and nedanför were not differentially influenced by function, as has been shown for Spanish. It was further found that the shape and parts of both of the related objects influence acceptability regions associated with the prepositions in predictable ways, as functional interactions between objects largely depend on their parts. The results finally show that the AVS-model needs to be further developed in order to account for the form and function of the located object.

  • 38. Hörnstein, Jonas
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Santos-Victor, José
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Modelling speech imitation2008In: IROS 2008: From motor to interaction learning in robots, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of imitation is often pointed out as one of the cornerstones in infants' early language acquisition. Still there are few studies concerning vocal adult-child imitations reported in the literature and results from those are often inconsistent. One reason for the inconsistencies is the lack of a stringent model for what should be classified as imitations. This is not only a problem when trying to learn something about adult-child interactions, but also when trying to make robots that can learn to interact naturally with humans. In order to interact vocally a robot is typically equipped with artificial models of the ear and the vocal tract connected by an artificial neural network. This model is inspired by the motor theory of speech perception [1] and the more recent discovery of mirror neurons [2]. While the robot can use babbling to create an initial map between the acoustic signal and the corresponding vocal tract positions, it needs to overcome interspeaker differences and to acquire key positions of the vocal tract to be able to communicate with humans or other robots. Imitation games are therefore used to train the networks [3, 4, 5]. As we have shown in our previous work [6] these imitation games should preferably go both ways. Having the robot imitating the caregiver is useful for directing the robot towards keypoints, while having the caregiver imitating the robot is more important for learning the map and overcome interspeaker differences. As we will show in this work, both types of imitations can also be found in adult-child interactions. However, while robots usually follow very strict imitation games with predefined turn-taking behaviors, adult-child interactions tend to be much more complex. For the robot to be able to learn its maps under such natural conditions it has to be able to separate imitations from non-imitations. The question we want to answer in this work is therefore the following. How can the robot decide when a pair of utterances should be considered as vocal imitations of each other?

  • 39.
    Ilari, Rodolfo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies, Portuguese.
    Introdução2008In: Gramática do português falado no Brasil, vol. 2: Classes de palavras e processos de construção / [ed] Rodolfo Ilari & Maria Helena de Moura Neves, Campinas, SP: Editora da Unicamp , 2008, p. 7-15Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Ilari, Rodolfo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies, Portuguese.
    Castilho, Ataliba Teixeira de
    Universidade de São Paulo.
    Almeida, Maria Lúcia Leitão de
    Universidade Federal do Rio de Raneiro.
    Kleppa, Lou-Ann
    Universidade Estadual de Campinas.
    Basso, Renato Miguel
    Universidade Estadual de Campinas.
    A preposição2008In: Gramática do português culto falado no Brasil, vol. 2: Classes de palavras e processos de construção / [ed] Rodolfo Ilari & Maria Helena de Moura Neves, Campinas, SP: Editora da Unicamp , 2008, p. 623-804Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Johansson, Annika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Scandinavian Languages. Nederländska avdelningen.
    Contrastief corpusonderzoek: Het Nederlandse werkwoord komen en het Zweedse werkwoord komma2008In: Taal aan den lijve: Het gebruik van corpora in taalkundig onderzoek en taalonderwijs, Academia Press, Gent , 2008, p. 7-28Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In mijn proefschrift over het Nederlandse werkwoord komen en het Zweedse werkwoord komma heb ik deze twee multifunctionele werkwoorden gecontrasteerd met behulp van twee corpora (Johansson 2006). Het INL 27 Miljoen Woorden Krantencorpus 1995 en de concordanties van Språkbanken (24,5 miljoen woorden uit krantenteksten, Press 1995, 1996 en 1997), Göteborgs universitet, werden als empirisch materiaal gebruikt bij het in kaart brengen van grammaticale betekenissen van de twee werkwoorden. In totaal werden 1490 zinnen met komen en 1518 zinnen met komma geanalyseerd en ingedeeld in drie categorieën: zelfstandig werkwoord, hulpwerkwoord en koppelwerkwoord. In het materiaal kwamen in het bijzonder twee interessante functies van komen en komma naar voren. Het Zweedse komma blijkt in zeer beperkte contexten als koppelwerkwoord te functioneren, bv. Han kom fri med målvakten ‘hij kwam vrij voor de keeper’, en het Nederlandse komen blijkt in beperkte contexten de rol van futuraal hulpwerkwoord te kunnen spelen, bv. Hier komen huizen te staan. Deze twee functies van de werkwoorden hebben gedeeltelijk de vorm van vaste verbindingen aangenomen. Het gebruik van corpora bleek dus een bron van verrassende informatie over de betekenissen van het Nederlandse komen en het Zweedse komma.

  • 42.
    Johansson, Annika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Scandinavian Languages. Nederländska.
    Wennerberg, Jeanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Språktrotters2008Book (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Johnen, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies.
    Alemão é tupi2008In: Kultur Agenda Alemanha, Vol. 5, p. 88-89Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 44.
    Johnen, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies, Portuguese.
    Review of "Bernard Mulo Farenkia : Beziehungskommunikation mit Komplimenten : Ethnographische und gesprächsanalytische Untersuchungen im deutschen und kamerunischen Sprach- und Kulturraum. Frankfurt am Main : Lang 2006 (Im Medium fremder Sprachen und Kulturen ; 8)"2008In: Informationen Deutsch als Fremdsprache : Info DaF, ISSN 0177-5596, Vol. 34, no 2/3, p. 299-301Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Johnen, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies, Portuguese.
    Éche pikar dins ch l’arnitoèle: Text- und Diskursformen auf Pikardisch im Internet2008In: Mehrsprachigkeit in frankophonen Räumen = Multilinguisme dans les espaces francophones:   / [ed] Sabine Bastian, Elisabeth Burr, München: Meidenbauer , 2008, p. 123-146Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Jonsson, Carla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Språk och kultur som resurser i undervisningen2008In: Att äga språk - Språkdidaktikens möjligheter: En antologi om och för lärare i skolan / [ed] Inger Nordheden, Arja Paulin, Stockholm: Stockholms universitets förlag , 2008, p. 143-158Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Jonsson, Carla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Språkutvecklande ämnesundervisning: Exempel från moderna språk2008In: Att äga språk - Språkdidaktikens möjligheter: En antologi om och för lärare i skolan / [ed] Inger Nordheden, Arja Paulin, Stockholm: Stockholms universitets förlag , 2008, p. 159-176Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Junefelt, karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Equality and Academic Life: An analysis of a Swedish academic lunch table conversation2008In: Mathematics Technologies Education: The Gender Perspective / [ed] Anna Chronaki, Volos, Greece: Thessaly University Press , 2008, 1, p. 119-129Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Junefelt, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Mikhail Bakhtin - A missing link in hypothesis about children's linguistic and cognitive development.2008In: Perspectives and Limits of Dialogism in Mikhail Bakhtin.: Applications in Psychology, Education, Art and Culture. / [ed] Marios A. Pourkos, Crete, Greece: University of Crete , 2008, p. 197-213Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Jurkowski, Cassandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    A Lexical Field Analysis of Culture-Specific Vocabulary Items in Australian English: With an Examination of Comparable Word Senses in American and British English2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay presents a study of culture-specific vocabulary in Australian English (AusE) in the lexical fields of living spaces and family relations. It also examines how the senses of the chosen words used by AusE speakers correspond to comparable word senses used by British English (BrE) and American English (AmE) speakers respectively. The empirical material for the essay was collected through questionnaires filled in by native AmE, BrE and AusE speakers. 95 questionnaires were completed in total with 65 AusE, 20 BrE and 10 AmE informants taking part. Further interviews were carried out via telephone with 10 speakers from each English variety. A lexical field analysis was then carried out on the nouns apartment, flat and unit in the lexical field of living spaces and the word olds in the lexical field of family relations. These nouns are discussed in terms of sense relations, attitudinal meaning and figures of speech.

    Answers from the questionnaires and interviews revealed significant differences between the informants of each English variety as regards the use and the senses of the nouns being analysed. For example, for the English translation of the Swedish word lägenhet, AmE speakers would normally use apartment, while BrE speakers would normally use flat and AusE speakers use unit. BrE and AusE speakers also use apartment as a word for a living space but associate it with higher standards of living. AusE speakers further tend to associate flat with lower standards of living. Syntagmatic sense relations also show differences as regards how the studied lexical items in the lexical field of living spaces are used in word combinations.

    Words used in place of parents also showed differences among the three English varieties. The AusE speakers hardly use the word folks as much as the BrE speakers and especially not as much as the AmE speakers. The AusE speakers in this study are more likely to use olds, which is a word that demonstrates the use of mockery in Australian culture. Olds can be best understood as a figure of speech. It is a straightforward example of metonymy, but also has metaphoric and hyperbolic qualities.

    Generally, this study shows how there are distinct differences between the informants of each English variety, even though all informants are native English speakers. Reasons for these differences include geographical location and cultural differences. Australians, for example, are known for their witty sense of humour.

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