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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Andraspråksinlärning2009Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Denna grundbok belyser fenomenet, ämnet och forskningsfältet andraspråksinlärning. Med utgångspunkt i 1960-talets brytning med behavioristisk inlärningspsykologi och kontrastiv språkanalys diskuteras de mest centrala frågeställningarna inom den därefter följande moderna, mentalistiskt orienterade andraspråksforskningen.

    I bokens tio kapitel presenteras de huvudsakliga empiriska upptäckterna och teorierna om andraspråkets utveckling och variation, dess kognition, processning och universella egenskaper, liksom inflödets, interaktionens och undervisningens roll, effekter av sociala och individuella skillnader samt modersmålets inverkan. Många exempel ges från studier av svenska som andraspråk. Boken avslutas med en termordlista med förklaringar till centrala begrepp inom fältet.

    Boken vänder sig främst till universitetsstuderande på grundnivå i ämnen som tvåspråkighet, svenska och nordiska språk samt till blivande och verksamma lärare i svenska som andraspråk och modersmålssvenska.

  • 2.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Age of onset and nativelikeness in a second language: listener perception versus linguistic scrutiny2009In: Language learning, ISSN 0023-8333, E-ISSN 1467-9922, Vol. 59, no 2, p. 249-306Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3. Andersson, Marta
    ‘I know that women don’t like me!’.: Presuppositions in therapeutic discourse.2009In: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 721-737Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Axelsson, Monica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Education in Languages and Language Development.
    Litteracitetshändelser och litteracitetspraxis i flerspråkiga förskolor2009In: Teacher diversity in a diverse school: challenges and opportunities for teacher education / [ed] Bjørg-Karin Ringen, Ole Kolbjørn Kjørven, Antoinette Gagné, Oslo: Oplandske Bokforlag , 2009, p. 251-265Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Berglund, Jonny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    A Construction Grammar Approach to the Phrase2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay adopts a construction grammar approach to the linguistic pattern why don’t you. It argues that the pattern can have two different senses: an interrogative sense and a suggestive sense. Further it argues that the suggestive sense is a construction similar to the definition of a construction described by construction grammar theory.

    In other words, the linguistic pattern why don’t you can have a specific underlying semantics that cannot be reached by an examination of its formal pattern.

  • 6.
    Bergman, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies.
    La distinción entre préstamo y cambio de código en un discurso electrónico2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [es]

    En el presente estudio se pretende investigar la posibilidad de distinguir los préstamos de los elementos de cambio de código en un discurso electrónico entre jovenes bilingües de sueco-español, a través de un modelo de frecuencia elaborado por Myers-Scotton. También la posible co-existencia de las palabras analizadas en ambas lenguas será averiguada. El material bajo estudio consiste en conversaciones entre bilingües jóvenes de sueco/español en el foro facebook. En dichas conversaciones la alternancia entre las dos lenguas es muy frecuente, con el uso de cambio de código y préstamos. La hipotesis consiste en la convicción de que sí será posible encontrar préstamos a través de la aplicación del modelo, dado que el discurso electrónico probablemente no se distinguirá tanto de un discurso oral o escrito. Además, creemos que los préstamos encontrados con alta probabilidad serán co-existentes con las palabras en la lengua original. El análisis muestra que existe una cantidad de préstamos en el discurso investigado, y además que son co-existentes en todos los casos estudiados menos uno. El estudio también da indicios de que el modelo no es completamente fiable; el límite mínimo de frecuencia debería ser aumentado.

  • 7.
    Beskow, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Carlson, Rolf
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Edlund, Jens
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Granström, Björn
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Heldner, Mattias
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Hjalmarsson, Anna
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Skantze, Gabriel
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Multimodal Interaction Control2009In: Computers in the Human Interaction Loop / [ed] Waibel, Alex and Stiefelhagen, Rainer, Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2009, p. 143-158Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Branderud, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Traunmüller, HartmutStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Proceedings FONETIK 2009: The XXIIth Swedish Phonetics Conference, held at Stockholm University, June 10-12, 20092009Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Effects of age of L2 acquisition on L1 event conceptualization patterns2009In: Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, ISSN 1366-7289, E-ISSN 1469-1841, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 305-322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the effects that the age of onset (AO) of second language (L2) acquisition exerts on the attrition of first language (L1) event conceptualization patterns. The subjects studied are L1 Spanish–L2 Swedish bilinguals living in Sweden. The specific research questions addressed in the study concern the role of AO in endpoint encoding and temporal perspectivation in goal-oriented motion events. In view of previous findings on age effects in attrition, it is hypothesized that deviations from Spanish monolingual patterns of conceptualization would be limited basically to subjects whose AO is below 12 years of age. The analyses show that subjects with AO > 12 converge with Spanish monolingual controls on both endpoint encoding and temporal perspectivation strategies, whereas deviations from the controls' performance are found exclusively in subjects with AO < 12. It is suggested, in view of these findings, that subjects with early AO are more dependent on advantageous socio-psychological circumstances such as L1 contact and use in order to fully acquire/maintain Spanish event conceptualization patterns, while L1 maintenance in subjects with late AO is less dependent on these factors. It is concluded that patterns of event conceptualization are affected by age in the same way as formal language skills.

  • 10.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Maturational constraints and first language attrition2009In: Language learning, ISSN 0023-8333, E-ISSN 1467-9922, Vol. 59, no 3, p. 687-715Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the article is to examine how first language attrition research on maturational constraints interprets and links its findings to current views on maturation in the field of second language acquisition. It is argued that attrition research exhibits certain inconsistencies in the interpretation of the structural characteristics of the critical period and the interplay between maturation and nonmaturational factors in attrition. In view of findings from first language relearning/reactivation and theoretical-methodological advances in second language research on maturation, the article proposes a reinterpretation of maturational constraints in language attrition that, first, emphasizes the gradual decline of susceptibility to attrition and, second, puts forth the conditioning function that the maturational constraints have on nonmaturational factors.

  • 11.
    Clyne, Michael
    et al.
    Dept of Languages and Linguistics, The University of Melbourne.
    Norrby, Catrin
    Dept of Languages and Linguistics, The University of Melbourne.
    Warren, Jane
    Dept of Languages and Linguistics, The University of Melbourne.
    Language and Human Relations: Styles of Address in Contemporary Language2009 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The way in which people address one another is crucial to expressing social relationships and is closely linked with cultural values. In English we call some people by their first names, and others 'Mr' or 'Ms', followed by their surname. In some other languages there are different ways of saying 'you' depending on the degree of social distance. Exploring practices in the family, school, university, the workplace and in letters, this book reveals patterns in the varied ways people choose to address one another, from pronouns to first names, from honorifics to titles and last names. Examples are taken from contemporary English, French, German and Swedish, using rich data from focus group research, interviews, chat groups, and participant observation.

    • A revealing investigation into the different ways people choose to address each other • Data is derived from multiple sources, such as focus groups, interviews and participant observation • Explores address practices in a variety of situations including the family, school and the workplace

  • 12.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Increases in complexity as a result of language contact2009In: Convergence and Divergence in Language Contact Situations / [ed] Kurt Braunmüller, Juliane House, Amsterdam: Benjamins , 2009, p. 41-52Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Dal' (Dahl), Esten (Östen)
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Vozniknovenie i soxranenie jazykovoj slozhnosti2009Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 14.
    Edlund, Jens
    et al.
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Heldner, Mattias
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Hirschberg, Julia
    Columbia University Computer Science.
    Pause and gap length in face-to-face interaction2009In: Proceedings of Interspeech 2009, Brighton, UK: ISCA , 2009, p. 2779-2782Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Edlund, Jens
    et al.
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Heldner, Mattias
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Pelcé, Antoine
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Prosodic features of very short utterances in dialogue2009In: Nordic Prosody: Proceedings of the Xth Conference, Helsinki 2008, Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2009, p. 57-68Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Elf, Tora Isabella
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies.
    Análisis de infra y sobretraducción entre sueco y español: Un análisis lingüístico contrastivo basado en las novelas La casa de los espíritus de Isabel Allende y Simon och ekarna de Marianne Fredriksson y sus traducciones respectivas al español y al sueco2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [es]

    Resumen

    El tema del presente estudio se ubica dentro de la traductología y trata en particular los fenómenos de sobretraducción (ST) y infratraducción (IT), términos que significan una adición de información (ST) y una reducción de la información original en forma de una generalización del texto fuente (IT). Estos dos fenómenos pueden surgir por falta de isomorfismo entre los idiomas implicados en el proceso de traducción, cuando la idiosincrasia divergente de dos idiomas obliga al traductor a usar diferentes estrategias para poder expresar con la mayor equivalencia posible el mensaje del TF, en el texto meta (TM). El español, al igual que los idiomas románicas en general, se caracteriza por estructuras léxicas, dicho en terminos muy generales, menos complejas que los idiomas germánicos como el sueco y esta diferencia es uno de los aspectos que complica el trabajo del traductor. Siempre, al traducir un texto a cualquier idioma, ocurre un cambio y una pérdida inevitable del significado original, en uno o varios de los niveles sintáctico, semántico y pragmático de estructura, porque no existe isomorfismo absoluto entre dos idiomas. Por lo tanto una generalización es lo esperado de cada traducción. El objetivo de este estudio bidireccional es averiguar si dichas estructuras diferentes de los dos sistemas lingüísticos afectan la tendencia a ST o IT en las respectivas traducciones y hemos llevado a cabo el análisis mediante un corpus que consiste en las 30 primeras páginas de las dos obras La casa de los espíritus de Isabel Allende (1982) y Simon och ekarna de Marianne Fredriksson (1985), y sus respectivas traducciones. El resultado muestra, de acuerdo con la hipótesis, una tendencia a una mayor cantidad de ST en la traducción del español al sueco, y, de IT en la traducción del sueco al español.

  • 17.
    Englund Dimitrova, Birgitta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, The Institute for Interpretation and Translation Studies.
    Tiselius, Elisabet
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Exploring retrospection as a research method for studying the translation process and the interpreting process2009In: Methodology, technology and innovation in translation process research: a tribute to Arnt Lykke Jakobsen / [ed] Inger M. Mees, Fabio Alves & Susanne Göpferich, Frederiksberg: Samfundslitteratur , 2009, p. 109-134Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 18. Friedlaender, Jonathan S
    et al.
    Hunley, Keith
    University of New Mexico.
    Dunn, Michael
    Radboud University; Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics.
    Terrill, Angela
    Radboud University.
    Lindström, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Friedlaender, Françoise
    Linguistics More Robust Than Genetics: (Letter to the editors)2009Other (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Geisbauer, Dana
    Stockholm University. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Baltic Languages, Finnish and German.
    Deutsche Modenamen: Ihre Herkunft und Bedeutung2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 20.
    Ghebre, Adi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Negation in Tigrinya: An Afro-Semitic language2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Tigrinya is one of the Afro Semitic languages, traditionally classified as North Ethiopic, and spoken in Eritrean and Northern Ethiopia. In this work Tigrinya negation particles were investigated and analyzed. with the main aim to emphasise distribution of negation particles in different word classes in the language. It is designed to provide some analysis of how the North Afro Semitic languages are related, with some descriptions about how they have different distribution of negation forms. Some linguistic ideas in using Tigrinya negation by comparing it with its sister languages are also given.

  • 21.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    The language learning infant: Effects of speech input, vocal output, and feedback2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis studies the characteristics of the acoustic signal in speech, especially in speech directed to infants and in infant vocal development, to gain insight on essential aspects of speech processing, speech production and communicative interaction in early language acquisition. Three sets of experimental studies are presented in this thesis. From a phonetic point of view they investigate the fundamental processes involved in first language acquisition.

    The first set (study 1.1 and study 1.2) investigated how linguistic structure in the speech signal can be derived and which strategy infants and adults use to process information depending on its presentation. The second set (study 2.1 and study 2.2) studied acoustic consequences of the anatomical geometry of the infant vocal tract and the development of sensory-motor control for articulatory strategies. The third set of studies (study 3.1 and study 3.2) explored the infant's interaction with the linguistic environment, specifically how vocal imitation and reinforcement may assist infants to converge towards adult-like speech.

    The first set of studies suggests that structure and quality of simultaneous sensory input impact on the establishment of initial linguistic representations. The second set indicates that the anatomy of the infant vocal tract does not constrain the production of adult-like speech sounds and that some degree of articulatory motor control is present from six months of age. The third set of studies suggests that the adult interprets and reinforces vocalizations produced by the infant in a developmentally-adjusted fashion that can guide the infant towards the sounds of the ambient language. The results are discussed in terms of essential aspects of early speech processing and speech production that can be accounted for by biological general purpose mechanisms in the language learning infant.

     

  • 22.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Activation of L1 and L2 during production in L3: A comparison of two case studies2009In: Processes in third language acquisition / [ed] Björn Hammarberg, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press , 2009, p. 101-126Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Introduction2009In: Processes in Third Language Acquisition / [ed] Björn Hammarberg, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2009, 1, p. 1-16Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Processes in third language acquisition2009Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume brings together six case studies of an adult multilingual speaker who acquires a new language through social interaction. The book deals especially with the multilingual situation, the learner’s acquisitional activities, and the involvement of her background languages in the process of speaking. It offers a coherent study of various linguistic phenomena in one individual, including patterns and functions of language switching, word search in interaction, hypothetical construction of words, and articulatory settings in speaking. The main languages involved are English (L1), German (L2) and Swedish (L3). The activation of these languages in the learner’s speech is examined in a cognitive perspective in relation to current models of the speaking process. A longitudinal corpus of NNS–NS conversations covering 21 months from the beginner stage provides the main data for these studies.

  • 25.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The factor 'perceived crosslinguistic similarity' in third language production: How does it work?2009In: Processes in Third Language Acquisition / [ed] Björn Hammarberg, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press , 2009, 1, p. 127-153Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The learner's word acquisition attempts in conversation2009In: Processes in third language acquisition / [ed] Björn Hammarberg, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press , 2009, 1, p. 86-100Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Hammarberg, Britta
    Karolinska institutet, Stockholm.
    Re-setting the basis of articulation in the acquisition of new languages: A third language case study2009In: Processes in Third Language Acquisition / [ed] Björn Hammarberg, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press , 2009, 1, p. 74-85Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Hancock, Victorine
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages, French and Italian.
    Kirchmeyer, Nathalie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages, French and Italian.
    Compétence discursive des apprenants avancés et quasi-natifs: étude du marqueur polyfonctionnel vraiment.2009In: L’information grammaticale, Vol. 120, p. 14-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [fr]

    Le but de cette étude est de caractériser les occurrences de vraiment dans un corpus oral chez des locuteurs natifs francophones et chez des apprenants suédophones (Le corpus InterFra, voir Bartning & Schlyter 2004). Ces apprenants sont semi-guidés (apprentissage en milieu naturel et institutionnel). Chanet (2004) observe à propos des marqueurs discursifs en général, que dans le Corpus de référence du français parlé, la forme enfin a la fonction d'adverbe régi (= il a enfin terminé sa thèse) dans seulement 0,1 % [sic] des occurrences, et celle de marqueur discursif/particule dans 98 % des cas (2 % ambigu). L'auteur commente ces observations qui "laissent imaginer la gymnastique mentale que doivent effectuer les enfants passant d'une perception orale de la langue à un apprentissage de l'écrit [...]". Ces chiffres laissent aussi imaginer les difficultés rencontrées par les apprenants de notre corpus, qui font eux le chemin inverse. Ceux-ci doivent passer d'un apprentissage essentiellement de l'écrit (ou d'une norme de l'écrit) à une perception orale d'une langue étrangère. Étant donné cet écart écrit-oral, on pourrait faire l’hypothèse qu’un certain nombre de fonctionnements de vraiment comme marqueur discursif n’apparaissent que tardivement dans l’acquisition.

    Aux conditions d'apprentissage dans un milieu institutionnel s'ajoutent souvent une attitude normative envers les phénomènes propres à l'oralité, tels que les marqueurs discursifs : ils sont souvent catégorisés comme des « disfluences » (cf. Chanet 2004).

    Dans notre étude, nous partons de la complexité syntaxique et discursive de vraiment à la fois à l’écrit et à l'oral (cf. Fernandez 1994 et Bilger 2004) : « l’adverbe vraiment est très ambigu et peut modifier toutes les catégories » (Abeillé 2002, cité par Bilger 2004). Notre corpus nous permet aussi de caractériser les conditions externes de l'acquisition du marqueur discursif. Nous considérons la distribution fonctionnelle de vraiment dans les unités informationelles (partie thématique et modale / rhématique / postrhématique) ainsi que sa variation idiosyncrasique.

  • 29.
    Hancock, Victorine
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages, French and Italian.
    Sanell, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages, French and Italian.
    The acquisition of four adverbs in a learner corpus of L2 French2009In: Discours : revue de linguistique, psycholinguistique et informatique, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This empirical study of a learner corpus of 40 interviews, investigates the acquisition of the four adverbs aussi, peut-être, seulement and vraiment (also, mayby, only and really). Although these four adverbs are non-obligatory elements in the utterance, they seem to have two fundamental modifying functions, namely enhancement (aussi and vraiment) and mitigation (peut-être and seulement). They also appear at early stages of acquisition. The study concentrates on the positions and discourse functions of the adverbs in a developmental perspective. Each adverb is characterized with respect to these two parameters across six developmental stages (Bartning, Schlyter, 2004) and a “near-native” learner variety. We combine a functional framework for acquisition (cf. Klein, Perdue 1997; Benazzo 2000, 2005) with earlier observations from corpus studies concerning the positions and the semantics of the adverbs (Schlyter, 1977; Chanet, 2004; Bilger, 2004). We expected that the number of functions of the adverbs would increase with the stages and we focus on the very advanced levels (stages 5-6). The study is to our knowledge one of the first to cover learner production from beginners to very advanced and “near-native” speakers. One hypothesis generated by the study is that frequency patterns of the target language could be acquired earlier than positional patterns. As a result of the study, we propose an order of acquisition of the four adverbs.

  • 30.
    Heldner, Mattias
    et al.
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Edlund, Jens
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Laskowski, Kornel
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Pelcé, Antoine
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Prosodic features in the vicinity of silences and overlaps2009In: Nordic Prosody: Proceedings of the Xth Conference, Helsinki 2008, Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang , 2009, p. 95-105Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Hultgren, Annie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Using Coh-Metrix to Compare Cohesion Measures between the United States Senators John McCain and Barack Obama2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This investigation explores and analyzes speeches by John McCain and Barack Obama, who were the candidates of the United States Presidential election 2008. Ten speeches by each speaker are in a non-biased way selected from the year 2007 from their official websites when they were senators of Arizona and Illinois respectively. The analyses of the speeches concern cohesive measures and are not about what they say in their political occupation. This approach was selected to see if there are any comparisons and/or contrasts in terms of cohesion between the speakers or within their own set of speeches. The website Coh-Metrix has been used and out of it nine measures have been selected and analyzed in detail. This study looks at the average words per sentence, the average syllables per word, the Flesch Reading Ease score, the average concreteness for content words, the average minimum concreteness for content words, the mean number of higher level constituents, the type-token ratio, the syntactic structure similarity, and the average number of negations. The two speakers had overall very similar results except for a few standard deviations as in for example the average concreteness and average minimum concreteness for content words results. However, eight out of the nine measurement numbers were non-significant according to a t-test for non-matched observations and/or a chi-square goodness-of-fit test. One measurement, the average number of negation expressions per 1000 words, was nonetheless highly significant according to a t-test and chi-square test, as Obama used about twice as many negations in comparison to McCain. This study shows that the speakers’ twenty speeches are similar in terms of structure and cohesion except for the fact that Obama uses more negation expressions compared to McCain. These results do not, however, necessarily say anything else about the speakers and/or speeches.

    Keywords: cohesion, cohesion markers, cohesion measures/measurements, Coh-Metrix, speeches, texts

  • 32.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Park, Hyeon-Sook
    Dominant-language replacement. The case of international adoptees2009In: Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, ISSN 1366-7289, E-ISSN 1469-1841, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 121-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article challenges a recent proposal for the theoretical interpretation of L1 and L2 interaction that results from the abrupt change of language environment in internationally adopted children. According to this proposal (Pallier, Dehaene, Poline, LeBihan, Argenti, Depoux and Mehler, 2003; Ventureyra, Pallier and Yoo, 2004), such children experience a total loss of their L1, while, as adults, they exhibit a nativelike ultimate attainment of their L2. These authors suggest that what they see as a total loss of L1 allows a resetting of the neural network that normally subserves L1 retention and hence permits a complete acquisition of the L2. Data from two of our own research projects, one on L1 remnants in Korean adoptees in Sweden (see Park, forthcoming), and the other on age of acquisition and ultimate L2 attainment of Swedish (see Abrahamsson and Hyltenstam, in press), which included data from Latin American adoptees in Sweden among other participants, suggest (i) that L1 remnants are indeed maintained, (ii) that L2 attainment is not enhanced by severe L1 attrition, and (iii) that there is an age dimension to both the degree of L1 attrition and the level of L2 ultimate attainment in international adoptees. We therefore contend that a maturational interpretation of language replacement data is preferable.

  • 33.
    Hörnstein, Jonas
    et al.
    Institute for System and Robotics (ISR), Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Santos-Victor, José
    Institute for System and Robotics (ISR), Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Multimodal Word Learning from Infant Directed Speech2009In: The 2009 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent RObots and Systems: IROS 2009 / [ed] Nikos Papanikolopoulos, Shigeki Sugano, Stefano Chiaverini, Max Meng, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When adults talk to infants they do that in a different way compared to how they communicate with other adults. This kind of Infant Directed Speech (IDS) typically highlights target words using focal stress and utterance final position. Also, speech directed to infants often refers to objects, people and events in the world surrounding the infant. Because of this, the sound sequences the infant hears are very likely to co-occur with actual objects or events in the infant's visual field. In this work we present a model that is able to learn word-like structures from multimodal information sources without any pre-programmed linguistic knowlege, by taking advantage of the characteristics of IDS. The model is implemented on a humanoid robot platform and is able to extract word-like patterns and associating these to objects in the visual surrounding.

  • 34.
    Jonsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Milani, Tommaso M
    Department of Linguistics, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.
    Här är alla lika!: Jämlikhetsideologi och konstruktionen av den "Andre" i media och skola2009In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 67-86Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Section for Phonetics.
    Cientista português ameaçado com processo judicial(Portuguese scientist threatned by juridical process)2009Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Scientist from Stockholm University questioned the efficiency of a lie detector that had been bought by the British Governement, among others. The company threatned with a libel process and the article was removed from the publisher's on-line publication.

  • 36.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Section for Phonetics.
    Därför fungerar inte röstbaserade lögndetektorer2009In: NewsmillArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Voice-based lie detectors rely on pseudo science. Nevertheless they are used in Great Britan and a number of other locations. One of the major producers of these detectors attempts to use threats to silence swedish researchers who pointed out that their technique lacks scientific basis, writes Francisco Lacerda, professor of Phonetics at Stockholm University.

  • 37.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Section for Phonetics.
    Lögnbaserade lögndetektorer2009In: Folkvett, ISSN 0283-0795, no 3, p. 7-25Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The article discusses the underlying principles of voice-based lie-detectors, in particular Nemesysco's LVA-technology. The conclusion is that the system cannot (even in principle) work, a notion that is supported by the results from the UK's Department of Work and Pensions' systematic evaluation.

  • 38.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    On the emergence of early linguistic functions: A biologic and interactional perspective2009In: Brain Talk:: Discourse with and in the brain / [ed] Alter,Kai; Horne,Merle; Lindgren,Magnus; Roll,Mikael; von Koss Torkildsen,Janne, Lund: Media-Tryck , 2009, p. 207-230Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Human infants typically utter their first words within the second half of their first year of life and about one year later they tend to take their first steps towards the full exploration of the linguistic combinatorial power of their ambient languages. From the overwhelming exposure to continuous speech utterances produced by other speakers, the infant derives the underlying linguistic structure of the utterances occurring in the ambient language.

    This chapter proposes a model of how general perception, production and interaction mechanisms may account for the typical process of early language development leading the infant to the discovery of words embedded in the continuous speech of the ambient language.

  • 39.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Section for Phonetics.
    Stämningshotad efter kritik mot lögndetektorer2009Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Francisco Lacerda, professor i fonetik vid Stockholms universitet, skrev tillsammans med en forskarkollega en vetenskapsartikel som kritiserade röstbaserade lögndetektorer som bluff. När företaget bakom lögndetektorn fick reda på det förmådde de tidskriftsförlaget att ta bort artikeln från internet, och hotade de svenska forskarna med stämning om de publicerade artikeln någon annanstans.

  • 40.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Institutionen för lingvistik, Götebors universitet.
    Reportage om lögndetektorer (SVT, Vetenskapmagasinet)2009Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    I Storbritannien har försäkringskassan börjat använda en ny lögndetektor. Vetenskapsmagasinet träffar två svenska forskare som hävdar att tekniken är rent nonsens. Företaget som utvecklat den nya lögndetektorn har svarat med att stämma forskarna för förtal.

  • 41.
    Lainio, Jarmo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Baltic Languages, Finnish and German.
    Lyyra, Markus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Baltic Languages, Finnish and German.
    NPLD Local Youth Report: Sweden Finnish2009Report (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Laskowski, Kornel
    et al.
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Heldner, Mattias
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Edlund, Jens
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    A general-purpose 32 ms prosodic vector for hidden Markov modeling2009In: Proceedings Interspeech 2009, Brighton, UK: ISCA , 2009, p. 724-727Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Laskowski, Kornel
    et al.
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Heldner, Mattias
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Edlund, Jens
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Exploring the prosody of floor mechanisms in English using the fundamental frequency variation spectrum2009In: Proceedings of EUSIPCO 2009, Glasgow, Scotland: ISCA , 2009, p. 2539-2543Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A basic requirement for participation in conversation is the ability to jointly manage interaction, and to recognize the attempts of interlocutors to do same. Examples of management activity include efforts to acquire, re-acquire, hold, release, and acknowledge floor ownership, and they are often implemented using dedicated dialog act types. In this work, we explore the prosody of one class of such dialog acts, known as floor mechanisms, using a methodology based on a recently proposed representation of fundamental frequency variation. Models over the representation illustrate significant differences between floor mechanisms and other dialog act types, and lead to automatic detection accuracies in equal-prior test data of up to 75%. description of floor mechanism prosody. We note that this work is also the first attempt to compute and model FFV spectra for multiparty rather than two-party conversation, as well as the first attempt to infer dialogue structure from non-anechoic-chamber recordings.

  • 44.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The Dangari Tongue of Choke and Machoke: Tracing the proto-language of Shina enclaves in the Hindu Kush2009In: Acta Orientalia, ISSN 0001-6438, E-ISSN 1600-0439, no 70, p. 7-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data from four little-studied varieties of Indo-Aryan (Southern Palula, Northern Palula, Sawi and Kalkoti) spoken in the Hindu Kush is analyzed and discussed from a historical-comparative perspective. Evidence is presented showing that Kalkoti, until recently only tentatively classified, is part of this particular cluster of closely-related Shina varieties. An attempt is made at reconstructing some phonological and grammatical features of a common source speech, here named Proto-Dangari, and the order in which the present-day varieties may have split off. An important conclusion drawn is that Southern and Northern Palula probably are more distantly related than present-day similarities seem to indicate, the high degree of synchronic similarity instead being due to relatively recent convergence taking place in southern Chitral. It is hypothesized that the present speech communities are the result of two different westward routes of migration, one geographically linking Southern Palula (Ashreti) and Sawi with Chilas, the other linking Northern Palula (Biori) and Kalkoti with Tangir, both located in the same general area of the main Indus Valley.

  • 45.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Haider, Naseem
    Forum for Language Initiatives, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Palula: Illustrations of the IPA2009In: Journal of the International Phonetic Association, ISSN 0025-1003, E-ISSN 1475-3502, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 381-386Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Lindblom, Bjorn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Sussman, Harvey M.
    Agwuele, Augustine
    A Duration-Dependent Account of Coarticulation for Hyper- and Hypoarticulation2009In: Phonetica, ISSN 0031-8388, E-ISSN 1423-0321, Vol. 66, no 3, p. 188-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies investigating anticipatory coarticulation in emphatically stressed CV sequences and during fast speaking rates reported that three factors contributed to the overall extent of the documented coarticulation. These factors were: (1) vowel identity, (2) vowel space expansion (emphasis) or reduction (fast rate), and a hypothesized (3) 'deeper' and 'shallower' stop closure contact in emphatic and faster speech, respectively. The objective of the current research was to conceptually and quantitatively unify these two studies. This was accomplished by showing that the opposite changes to frequency onsets of F2 transitions due to emphatic and rapid speech systematically vary as a function of the durational changes in the stop closure interval. Specifically, the decrease in coarticulation in emphatic speech is characterized by increases in F2 onsets and longer stop closures (relative to a normal baseline); the increase in coarticulation due to rapid speech shows concomitant decreases in F2 onsets coinciding with shorter stop closure intervals. Vocal tract area function simulations corresponding to emphatic and reduced speech implicitly support 'deeper' and 'shallower' closure contacts as a third factor contributing to the overall extent of anticipatory CV coarticulation. 

  • 47.
    Lindblom, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Laryngeal mechanisms in speech: The contributions of Jan Gauffin2009In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 149-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Jan Gauffin was an early user of fiber optics which allowed him to discover that laryngeal structures above the glottal level are involved in speech. His research led him to postulate three independently controlled mechanisms: fundamental frequency control, glottal adduction/abduction, and laryngealization,the latter derived from the protective closure function. He argued that phonetic theory must be revised to account for the main phonation types of the world's languages. He saw them as combinations of two interacting dimensions: adduction/abduction and laryngealization. Secondly he gave the aryepiglottic sphincter an explanatory role in accounting for the production of low pitch and downward pitch inflections. During his lifetime his work received limited attention. However, later laryngoscopic research has confirmed and extended his thinking and findings. His contribution was a pioneering one.

  • 48.
    Lindqvist, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages.
    The use of the L1 and the L2 in French L3: examining cross-linguistic lexemes in multilingual learners’ oral production2009In: International Journal of Multilingualism, ISSN 1479-0718, E-ISSN 1747-7530, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 281-297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates to what degree, and in what manner, the L1 and L2(s) influence spoken French L3. The analysis is divided in two parts. The first examines the cross-linguistic lexemes of 30 Swedish learners, divided into three groups according to previous exposure to French. The results show that proficiency in the L3 is crucial: the least advanced learners produce the highest number of cross-linguistic lexemes, whereas the most advanced learners produce the lowest number. Moreover, the lower the proficiency in the L3, the more background languages are used, and vice versa. Overall, there is a clear dominance of L1 influences. The second part contains six case studies of learners with partly different L1s and L2s. It examines the roles of the L1 and L2(s) in L3 oral production and the decisive factors for these roles. The main result is the use of Swedish L1/L2 and English L1 as instrumental languages, i.e. with clearly communicative purposes, in eliciting and metalinguistic functions. This is due to the interlocutors' common access to these languages. It does not seem to matter if the instrumental language represents a learner's L1 or L2. The fact that there is mutual comprehension seems to outweigh other factors.

  • 49.
    Matz, Henriette
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Section for General Linguistics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    De som (som) vi använder: En korpusstudie av optionellt ’som’ i svenska objektsrelativsatser2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats behandlar förekomsten av den optionella subjunktionen som i svenska objektsrelativsatser. Sökningar gjordes i en svenskspråkig korpus för att hitta objektsrelativsatser med och utan som. Resultaten undersöktes mot bakgrund av två hypoteser gällande processningseffektivitet och tillgänglighet hos referenter. I båda fallen styrktes dessa hypoteser. Som tycks vara mer frekvent i relativsatser där många ord skiljer matrissatsens korrelat från relativsatsens finita verb vilket stödjer principen Maximize On-line Processing som formulerats av Hawkins och som grundar sig i teorier kring processningseffektivitet. Som tycktes också vara mer frekvent i relativsatser där det inbäddade subjektet var i hög grad tillgängligt, i fråga om pronominell och animat status hos referenten.

  • 50.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Att använda ELAN: Bruksanvisning för annotering och studie av teckenspråkstexter: Version 22009Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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