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  • 1.
    Bergqvist, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Epistemic marking in Ika (Arwako)2012In: Studies in Language, ISSN 0378-4177, E-ISSN 1569-9978, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 154-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper describes epistemic marking in Ika (Arwako-Chibchan, Colombia) and proposes an analysis in terms of a typologically unusual pattern called conjunct/disjunct, which has been attested for a small number of Asian and South American languages. Canonically, conjunct occurs with first person subjects in statements and with second person in questions, as opposed to any other combination of subject and sentence-type, which is disjunct. The pattern found in Ika both conforms to expectations and, at the same time, contributes to a more nuanced analysis of the functional motivations of the conjunct/disjunct pattern. In Ika, conjunct marking encodes the speaker's direct access to an event that involves either (or both) of the speech participants. In addition, conjunct/disjunct marking interacts predictably with a second set of epistemic markers that encode asymmetries in the epistemic authority of the speaker and the addressee. The analysis builds on first-hand data but remains tentative, awaiting further investigation.

  • 2. Borin, Lars
    et al.
    Brandt, Martha D.
    Edlund, Jens
    Lindh, Jonas
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Svenska språket i den digitala tidsåldern2012Book (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Brosig, Benjamin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    bilee sul ügiin utga, hereglee [The meaning and function of the particle bilee in Khalkha Mongolian]2012In: Hèl zohiol sudlal, ISSN 2308-510X, Vol. 5, no 37, p. 10-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the meaning and use of the evidential particle bilee and its shortened derived form lee in Khalkha Mongolian are investigated. In indicatives, bilee is used to indicate one's own recollection. Simple past is formed together with the past inferential -j. Similarly, with a hortative mood bilee indicates the recollection of one's mental state. Both confirmation and surprise can be found as connotations, but the notion of surprise even appears to have grammaticalized into the more specific construction -na lee which either expresses surprise or is used to beg for attention. In questions, bilee can both express that one has witnessed, but cannot recall a given event, or an event that the addressee is presumed to remember. With the imperfective -dag, bilee can sometimes induce mono-occasional readings, but these are even possible with -dag alone or most commonly with -dag baijee.

  • 4.
    Brosig, Benjamin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Dundad zunii mongol helnii baidal, eh üüsver, cagiin ain dürem (Tense, aspect and evidentiality in Middle Mongol)2012In: Proceedings of the 10th international congress of Mongolists: Volume II: Mongolian language and culture and their urgent problems / [ed] D. Tömörtogoo, Sh. Choimaa, E. Pürevjav, International Association for Mongolian studies, 2012, p. 33-37Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Brosig, Benjamin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Linguistic bibliography for the year 20112012Other (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Brosig, Benjamin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Review of Mongolic Phonology and the Qinghai-Gansu Languages2012In: Linguist List, ISSN 1068-4875, no 23, article id 2868Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Review of Peter Trudgill, Investigations in sociohistorical linguistics: Stories of colonisation and contact2012In: Language in Society, ISSN 0047-4045, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 393-396Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 8. Ender, Andrea
    et al.
    Leemann, Adrian
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Introduction2012In: Methods in Contemporary Linguistics / [ed] Andrea Ender, Adrian Leemann, Bernhard Wälchli, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2012, p. 1-17Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9. Ender, Andrea
    et al.
    Leemann, AdrianWälchli, BernhardStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Methods in Contemporary Linguistics2012Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present volume is a broad overview of methods and methodologies in linguistics, illustrated with examples from concrete research. It collects insights gained from a broad range of linguistic sub-disciplines, ranging from core-disciplines to topics in cross-linguistic and language-internal diversity or contributions towards language, space and society.

  • 10. Ender, Andrea
    et al.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The making of a festschrift, is it a ritual?2012In: Methods in Contemporary Linguistics / [ed] Ender, Andrea & Leemann, Adrian & Wälchli, Bernhard, De Gruyter Mouton , 2012, p. 143-167Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 11.
    heinat, fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Adjectives and clausal complementation2012In: Working Papers in Scandinavian Syntax, ISSN 1100-097X, Vol. 89, p. 37-67Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 12.
    heinat, fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Evaluative adjectives and relative clauses2012In: Discourse and Grammar: a festschrift in honor of Valéria Molnár / [ed] Brandtler, J., D. Håkansson, S. Huber and E. Klingvall, Lund University , 2012, p. 265-280Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Heinat, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Finiteness in Swedish2012In: Working Papers in Scandinavian Syntax, ISSN 1100-097X, Vol. 90, p. 81-110Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Janson, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The History of Languages: An Introduction2012Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is an introduction to the history of languages, from the distant past to a glimpse at what languages may be like in the distant future. It looks at how languages arise, change, and ultimately vanish, and what lies behind their different destinies. What happens to languages, he argues, has to do with what happens to the people who use them, and what happens to people, individually and collectively, is affected by the languages they speak.

    The book opens by examining what the languages are the hunter-gatherers might have spoken and the changes to language that took place when agriculture made settled communities possible. It then looks at the effects of the invention of writing, the formation of empires, the spread of religions, and the recent dominance of world powers, and shows how these relate to great changes in the use of languages. Tore Janson discusses the appearance of new languages, the reasons why some languages spread and others die, considers whether similar cyclical processes are found at different times and places, and examines the causes of internal changes in languages and dialects.

    The book ranges widely among the world's languages and mixes thematic chapters on general processes of change with accounts of specific languages, including Chinese, Arabic, Latin, Greek, and English.                   

  • 15.
    Janson, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Vad är svenska?2012In: Språktidningen, ISSN 1654-5028, no 2, p. 52-56Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad som är ett språk, och vad som skiljer det från ett annat, är inte lätt att definiera. En historisk djupdykning visar att mycket sitter i språkets namn.

  • 16.
    Janson, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Vulgar Latin and Middle Arabic2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract
  • 17. Jansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Strimling, Pontus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Modelling the evolution of creoles2012In: The Evolution of Language: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference (EVOLANG9) / [ed] Thomas C. Scott-Phillips et al., Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Company , 2012, p. 464-465Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Lexical typology and contact2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Lexical typology and universals – a temperature perspective2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    New directions in lexical typology2012In: Linguistics, ISSN 0024-3949, E-ISSN 1613-396X, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 373-394Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Semantic typology and change from a temperature perspective2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Typology, theory and methods2012In: Wörterbücher zur Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft (WSK) Online: (Dictionaries of Linguistics and Communication Science), Mouton de Gruyter, 2012Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Varmt kaffe, ljummen öl, heta känslor och kalla fötter: temperaturord och deras betydelser i världens olika språk2012Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 24.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Plank, Frans
    Department of linguistics, University of Konstanz, Germany.
    Kinds of adnominals: adjectives, nouns and in-between2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Vanhove, MartineCNRS, France.
    New directions of lexical typology2012Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present issue brings together a cross-section of high-quality lexical-typological work which combines strong empirical results with a spectrum of methodological approaches. It emphasizes the methodological and theoretical concerns of lexical typology and the diversity of the existing and possible approaches within this research area, as well as highlights some important issues pertaining to the interface between lexical-typological research and theoretical linguistics. The nine papers in the issue cover a whole range of cognitive domains and topics. One of them, the domain of PAIN predicates, is a new addition to the crosslinguistic and typological research, while the others have been studied earlier. The articles enhance our knowledge by supplying new data and new views on the domains of PERCEPTION, EAT, EXISTENCE, LOCATION, SPATIAL RELATIONS, MOTION, DRINK, CUT, DIMENSION, BIOLOGICAL TAXONOMY, as well as on the topic of light verb constructions. Some of the articles deal with the onomasiological issues, others take a semasiological approach, still others focus mainly on the interaction between lexicon and grammar, while two papers finally combine the semasiological perspective with the close attention to the interaction between lexicon and grammar. The synchronic outlook is central for most of the papers, but in some cases diachronic considerations are also at stake, such as historical developments within the lexicon and their implications for historical comparative linguistics. In four of the papers the main interest lies in the methodological and/or theoretical aspects of lexical- typological research; two of the papers primarily bring in a wealth of new empirical data, whereas the last three papers contribute with new insights that are relevant from both the empirical, methodological and theoretical points of view.

  • 26.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Vejdemo, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    "Hot and cold — universal or language-specific"?2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Lebenswerd, Patric Joshua
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The Yiddish Imprint in Modern Hebrew Phonology: Tracing the regional Yiddish dialect(s) that founded Modern Hebrew phonology2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper argues that the native phonology of Modern Hebrew is derived from Yiddish phonology, specific of the regions from which the great majority of those involved in the Hebrew language revival emigrated, at the turn of the 20th century. This is evident from the striking similarities in their consonantal inventories, phonotactics and phonological rules. The regional Yiddish dialects that correspond best with Modern Hebrew phonology are situated in the mid-east speech territory, mainly the Ukraine and its surrounding areas. The study provides new data on Modern Hebrew voicing assimilation in sandhi, as well as new phonological parallels between Yiddish and Modern Hebrew.

  • 28.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The linguistic identity of the Greater Hindu Kush, a transit zone between South and Central Asia2012In: 45th Annual Meeting of the Societas Linguistica Europaea: Book of Abstracts / [ed] Bert Cornillie and María Sol Sansiñena Pascual, Stockholm, 2012, p. 187-188Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regardless of the particular view one takes on areality, there are a number of reasons for trying to characterize the accumulation of languages in the highland region between, or simultaneously belonging to, South Asia (or the Indian subcontinent) and Central Asia.  This region is, to borrow the words of one of the foremost experts on South Asian linguistics, “where conflicting areal patterns meet and interact, and many peculiar languages (‘Dardic’, Burushaski [a language isolate], the Pamir group of Eastern Iranian), at once archaic and innovating, find their home” (Masica 2001:225). To the aforementioned mix should be added Tibeto-Burman Balti, spoken in the eastern part of this region, and the Nuristani languages in the border region between northern Pakistan and Afghanistan, the latter now considered a third branch of Indo-Iranian (on par with Indo-Aryan and Iranian). Historically we will have to assume several layers of settlement and highly complex patterns of language contact in this extremely mountainous region, and there are strong indications that several ancient substrata (the proto-language of Burushaski most likely one of them) have made important contributions to the resulting typologies (Tikkanen 1988:304).

    In the present study a substantial number of features (phonological, morphological, syntactic, and lexical) are taken into account in order to arrive at a non-speculative typological profile of the region. The author draws from his own fieldwork in the region, collaborating with several native-speaker consultants,  as well as from language-specific studies carried out by other researchers. In an initial stage, an intragenealogical typology of the Indo-Aryan cluster, native to and linguistically dominant in the region (often, although controversially, referred to as ‘Dardic’, see Bashir 2003:822; Strand 2001:258; Zoller 2005:10–11), is established, by investigating a sample representing each of the tentatively classified subgroups of ‘Dardic’. This is meant to shed further light on the still ongoing but very challenging classification work. This is projected to be followed up by a more extensive cross-genera comparison of the same features.

    A number of convergence features that are of particular relevance to this region have been identified (many of them confirming suggestions made by Bashir (Bashir 2003:821–823) and Tikkanen (1999; 2008). Some of those are macroareal features that either characterize South Asia at large (or the larger part of it), such as the presence of retroflex stops and non-nominative experiencers, or large parts of Central Asia, such as a contrast between velar and uvular stops and the presence of a vigesimal numeral system. Other features are better described as subareal, some covering a substantial part of the region, such as a the presence of retroflex affricates as well as fricatives, contrasting with corresponding dental and palatal sounds, and the optionality of copula verbs in nominal and adjectival predication, other features characterizing more limited subsets of (often geographically adjacent) languages, such as grammaticalization of evidentiality and animacy distinctions, multi-differentiating deictic systems, a preferred order subordinate clause followed by main clause, the development of tonal/accentual systems, the use of co-lexicalized intensifiers, and a great variety in alignment patterns and in the display and degree of ergativity.

    References:

    Bashir, Elena L. 2003. “Dardic.” Pp. 818-894 in The Indo-Aryan Languages, edited by George Cardona and Danesh Jain. London: Routledge.

    Masica. 2001. “The definition and significance of linguistic areas: Methods, pitfalls, and possibilities (with special reference to the validity of South Asia as a linguistic area).” Pp. 205-267 in The yearbook of South Asian languages and linguistics 2001. London: SAGE.

    Strand, Richard F. 2001. “The tongues of Peristân. Appendix 1.” in Gates of Peristan: History, Religion and Society in the Hindu Kush, Reports and memoirs, edited by Alberto M Cacopardo and Augusto S Cacopardo. Rome: IsIAO.

    Tikkanen, Bertil. 1988. “On Burushaski and other ancient substrata in northwestern South Asia.” Studia Orientalia 64:3030-325. Retrieved January 4, 2012.

    Tikkanen, Bertil. 1999. “Archaeological-linguistic correlations in the formation of retroflex typologies and correlating areal features in South Asia.” Pp. 138-148 in Archaeology and language. London: Routledge.

    Tikkanen, Bertil. 2008. “Some areal phonological isoglosses in the transit zone between South and Central Asia.” Pp. 250-262 in Proceedings of the third International Hindu Kush Cultural Conference. Karachi: Oxford University Press.

    Zoller, Claus Peter. 2005. A Grammar and Dictionary of Indus Kohistani: Volume 1, Dictionary. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

     

  • 29.
    Miestamo, Matti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Coding epistemic perspective in polar interrogatives: A typological perspective2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Nyberg, Joacim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Negation in Japanese2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Negation has fascinated thinkers and scholars for some 2,500 years.However, within linguistics, it is only in the recent years that negation has been given the attention it deserves. Within language typology, the main subject of investigation has been the notion of standard negation. This is well covered and data from several languages has been presented.When it comes to Japanese, it has proved hard to come across a detailed description of negation. There is a rich general literature covering many aspects of Japanese grammar, but there seems to be a lack of a work that investigates and collects all negation phenomena in one place. Furthermore, the general grammars do not take the typological perspective of negation into consideration.

    The aim of this thesis is to describe various negation strategies and related phenomena in the Japanese language and to put them in a typological perspective. To carry this out, a questionnaire for describing negation is used. Information and examples are extracted from grammars, articles, and a corpus. This is a descriptive text, and the analyses and conclusions presented can clearly contribute to the already existing literature on negation in Japanese, with the addition of a typological perspective.

  • 31.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Da África Para o Atlântico2012Book (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    ”Hen”-kulturer är inte mer jämställda2012In: Svenska dagbladet, ISSN 2001-3868, no 16 marsArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 33.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Här går gränsen!2012In: Språktidningen, ISSN 1654-5028, no oktoberArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 34.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Papiamentu as one of the most complex languages in the world: A reply to Kouwenberg2012In: Journal of Pidgin and Creole languages ( Print), ISSN 0920-9034, E-ISSN 1569-9870, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 159-166Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Simulating the genesis of Mauritian2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A simple computer simulation addresses some of the most basic issues in creole formation. Mauritius is chosen as the testing ground because of its uniquely well documented settlement history. The outcome of the simulation is compared to the actual product of the language contact situation, i. e. Mauritian Creole. The questions dealt with are the following: Were slaves trying to acquire the lexifier? How fast did the new language emerge? Did it develop from a pidgin? To what extent are the features of the creole drawn from the languages in contact?

  • 36.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Baker, Philip
    Idiomatic potential calques and semantic borrowing2012In: Black through White: African Words and Calques Which Survived Slavery in Creoles and Transplanted European Languages / [ed] Angela Bartens, Philip Baker, London: Battlebridge , 2012, p. 231-248Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Perkova, Natalia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Review of Aurelija Usonienė, Nicole Nau, Ineta Dabašinskienė (eds.), Multiple Perspectives in Linguistic Research on Baltic Languages. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2012.2012In: Baltic Linguistics, ISSN 2081-7533, Vol. 3, p. 179-192Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Persson, Minna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Tempus och aspekt i pidginisering: En studie av sju pidginspråk och deras källspråk2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It has been proposed that pidgin languages are similar in their marking of tense and aspect. This study wishes to answer three questions: 1) are there similarities in the marking of tense and aspect in pidgins, 2) are there similarities between the source languages and the pidgins they result in, and 3) does the development of tense aspect marking in pidgins follow the general patterns of grammaticalisation observed in other languages. Two quite different approaches are used to analyse the languages. Firstly the concept of grams is used, that is, a representation of a grammatical category in a specific language, e.g. the perfect in Swedish. Secondly the theory of prominence is used, i.e. that a particular language tends to grammaticalise one of the categories tense or aspect (or mood) rather than the other. The study looks at a sample of seven pidgin languages from around the world and compares them with regards to their marking of tense and aspect. Furthermore the tense-aspect systems of the source languages (lexifiers and substrates) of these pidgins are studied. Regarding the first question, the most obvious similarity is the fact that there is very little grammaticalised marking of tense and aspect at all. A pattern can also be discerned were a pidgin uses either a marker for perfective aspect or for past tense and that future/present markers are grammaticalised at a later stage. As for the similarities between the source languages and the pidgins, the pidginisation process has yielded languages with less grammaticalised forms than the source languages. All gram types found in the pidgins can also be found in their lexifiers. The patterns of grammaticalisation of tense and aspect markers follow universal patterns that have been described in typological studies. The semantic change of inherited or borrowed markers follow general patterns as do the innovations in the pidgin itself.

  • 39. Rohrdantz, Christian
    et al.
    Hund, Michael
    Mayer, Thomas
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Keim, Daniel A.
    The World's Languages Explorer: Visual Analysis of Language Features in Genealogical and Areal Contexts2012In: Computer graphics forum (Print), ISSN 0167-7055, E-ISSN 1467-8659, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 935-944Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel Visual Analytics approach that helps linguistic researchers to explore the world's languages with respect to several important tasks: (1) The comparison of manually and automatically extracted language features across languages and within the context of language genealogy, (2) the exploration of interrelations among several of such features as well as their homogeneity and heterogeneity within subtrees of the language genealogy, and (3) the exploration of genealogical and areal influences on the features. We introduce the World's Languages Explorer, which provides the required functionalities in one single Visual Analytics environment. Contributions are made for different parts of the system: We introduce an extended Sunburst visualization whose so-called feature-rings allow for a cross-comparison of a large number of features at once, within the hierarchical context of the language genealogy. We suggest a mapping of homogeneity measures to all levels of the hierarchy. In addition, we suggest an integration of information from the areal data space into the hierarchical data space. With our approach we bring Visual Analytics research to a new application field, namely Historical Comparative Linguistics, and Linguistic and Areal Typology. Finally, we provide evidence of the good performance of our system in this area through two application case studies conducted by domain experts.

  • 40.
    Vafaeian, Ghazaleh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Progressive constructions in Iranian languages2012Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Veselinova, Ljuba
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Applying the Negative Existential Cycle on the Uralic Language Family2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Veselinova, Ljuba
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Suppletion in Verb Paradigms2012Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Veselinova, Ljuba
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Typology of negation in existential sentences2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44. Wiemer, Björn
    et al.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Contact-induced grammatical change: Diverse phenomena, diverse perspectives2012In: Grammatical Replication and Borrowability in Language Contact / [ed] Wiemer, Björn & Wälchli, Bernhard & Hansen, Björn, Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton , 2012, p. 3-64Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 45. Wiemer, Björn
    et al.
    Wälchli, BernhardStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.Hansen, Björn
    Grammatical Replication and Borrowability in Language Contact2012Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The volume presents new insights into two basic theoretical issues hotly debated in recent work on grammaticalization and language contact: grammatical replication and grammatical borrowability. The key issues are: How can grammatical replication be distinguished from other, superficially similar processes of contact-induced linguistic change, and under what conditions does it take place? Are there grammatical morphemes or constructions that are more easily borrowed than others, and how can language contact account for areal biases in borrowing (vs. calquing) of grammatical formatives? The book is a major contribution to the ongoing theoretical discussion concerning the relationship between grammaticalization and language contact on a broad empirical basis.

  • 46.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Grammaticalization clines in space: Zooming in on synchronic traces of diffusion processes2012In: Grammatical Replication and Borrowability in Language Contact / [ed] Wiemer, Björn & Wälchli, Bernhard & Hansen, Björn, Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton , 2012, p. 233-272Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Indirect measurement in morphological typology2012In: Methods in Contemporary Linguistics / [ed] Ender, Andrea & Leemann, Adrian & Wälchli, Bernhard, Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton , 2012, p. 69-92Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Morphosemantics, constructions, algorithmic typology and parallel texts2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Unlike morphology (the internal formal structure of words) and semantics (the study of the meaning of words and sentences), morphosemantics is concerned with the link between marker and meaning. Traditional approaches to morphosemantics such as semiotics and construction grammar argue that the relationship between image acoustique and concept is symbolic. This works well if the links are known (in the “proficiency mode”). In this talk I argue that there is a statistical alternative which is particularly useful if the links are not known (in the “discovery mode”). Meanings and markers form collocations in texts which can be measured by means of collocation measures. However, there is a considerable non-isomorphism between marker and meaning. As is well known a marker can have many different meanings (polysemy). Somewhat less well known is that a meaning is often expressed by many different markers, both paradigmatically and syntagmatically (polymorphy).

            To make meanings and markers commensurable, they must be converted into units of the same kind. This same kind is the set of contexts in a text or corpus where a marker or meaning occurs. If the distribution of a meaning in a corpus is known, its corresponding marker complex can be determined which consists of a paradigmatically and syntagmatically ordered set of simple markers. The markers considered here are surface markers of two types: word forms and morphs (continuous character strings within word forms). More abstract marker types such as lexemes, grammatical categories and word classes might often be better markers than surface markers, but they are not available in the discovery mode.

            Marker complexes are a simple construction type. A procedural approach to construction grammar is adopted where marker complexes are viewed as an intermediate stage in a processing chain of increasingly more complex construction types from simple markers via marker complexes to syntactic constructions. Marker complexes have the advantage that they can be extracted automatically from massively parallel texts, i.e. translations of the same text into many languages, such as the New Testament used here. In parallel texts the same meanings (with certain restrictions) are expressed across different languages. This means that a functional domain can be defined as a set of contexts where a certain meaning occurs.

            The same procedure is applied to cross-linguistically similar material and the procedure applied to cross-linguistic data is fully explicit and therefore replicable. It can be implemented in a computer program and run without the intervention of a typologist (algorithmic typology). The underlying idea is that the procedure of extraction is invariant (procedural universal) whereas the extracted structures can be highly variable depending on the texts and languages to which they are applied.

            The talk considers to what extent surface markers are sufficient as input for the identification of constructions in a range of grammatical and lexical domains in a world-wide convenience sample of somewhat more than 50 languages. One of the domains considered in more detail is comparison of inequality. Comparison of inequality is expressed in most languages of the sample by an at least bipartite marker complex consisting of the parts standard marker (‘than’) and predicate intensifier (‘more’, ‘-er’). It will be argued here that both of them are intrinsic parts of the comparative construction. These findings are not fully in accordance with Leon Stassen’s typology of comparison – a classical study in functional domain typology – which is based exclusively on the encoding of the standard NP. Other domains considered in the talk include negation, ‘want’, future, and predicative possession.

  • 49.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The dynamicity of stative resultatives2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Cysouw, Michael
    Lexical typology through similarity semantics: Toward a semantic map of motion verbs2012In: Linguistics, ISSN 0024-3949, E-ISSN 1613-396X, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 671-710Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses a multidimensional probabilistic semantic map of lexical motion verb stems based on data collected from parallel texts (viz. translations of the Gospel according to Mark) for 100 languages from all continents. The crosslinguistic diversity of lexical semantics in motion verbs is illustrated in detail for the domain of 'go', 'come', and 'arrive' type contexts. It is argued that the theoretical bases underlying probabilistic semantic maps from exemplar data are the isomorphism hypothesis (given any two meanings and their corresponding forms in any particular language, more similar meanings are more likely to be expressed by the same form in any language), similarity semantics (similarity is more basic than identity), and exemplar semantics (exemplar meaning is more fundamental than abstract concepts).

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