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  • 1.
    Anufrieva, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    “I have measured out my life with coffee spoons” – T.S. Eliot: A semantic analysis of selected metaphors in The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock by T.S. Eliot2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Metaphor is the most widely recognized and discussed type of trope. It has attracted the attention of analysts from various disciplines, e.g. philosophy, psychology, cognitive science, and literature. Research from these fields has shown that metaphors are ubiquitous and indispensable in our lives. It is not only literary discourse that is abundant with metaphors, but metaphors are also common in scientific discourse and even in our everyday language. Moreover, research from cognitive linguistics has shown that our thinking is metaphorical to a certain extent. Thus, if metaphors are so ubiquitous in our lives, how do we recognize them?

    In this paper selected metaphors from The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock by T.S. Eliot have been analyzed. These are metaphors from literary discourse; hence, the analysis was partly influenced by the genre and the specific, poetic context. The focus is on linguistic metaphors that can be identified in this poetic text, not on underlying conceptual metaphors. The aim of this paper has been to see how the metaphors in the poem are constructed and how the metaphorical part of the strings they occur in interacts with a seemingly literal part.

    According to the results of the analysis, the metaphorical constructions in the poem show a variety of modes of interaction among their constituents. Typically the metaphorical part of the poetic construction evokes a complex and directly perceptible phenomenon which serves as the basis for the understanding of the poetic persona’s feelings. Also the metaphors that describe the setting of the poem seem to be projections of the protagonist’s mood. Thus, the affective aspect of the metaphors is essential in the poem since it connects the metaphors to a network of meanings related to a prominent theme of the poem, namely the speaker’s paralysis and insecurity of himself, adding to the expressive complexity of the poem’s structure.

  • 2.
    Barra Oliveros, Daniel
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för spanska, portugisiska och latinamerikastudier.
    La oferta en la correspondencia comercial : Actos y actividades de cortesía en español y en sueco2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [es]

    En esta monografía se analiza contractivamente el uso de la cortesía en una selección de Cartas Comerciales de Oferta (CCO) en español y sueco. Se trata de identificar las similitudes y diferencias en el modo de realizar Actos de Cortesía (AC) y en cómo éstos se distribuyen y aplican en el proceso de redacción de un texto de oferta. Partimos del concepto de acto de habla y de actividades de imagen para clasificar la producción de cortesía lingüística. Se ha incorporado un breve marco teórico que nos entrega datos básicos sobre los estudios y teorías en el ámbito de la cortesía desde el punto de vista pragmático. Basados en un número específico de cartas comerciales de oferta (diez en español y diez en sueco)  hemos analizado, en encabezamientos, cuerpos centrales y cierres, los procedimientos o estrategias empleados y a partir de allí hemos clasificado los actos de cortesía lingüística que se han producido. Defendemos la hipótesis de que los actos de cortesía son expresiones centrales en la composición de este tipo de texto y que su presencia posibilita la presentación y venta del producto. Las diferencias entre las cartas suecas y las españolas dan indicios de estilos comunicativos propios, donde lo más característico sería la orientación relativa hacia lo temático en el caso sueco y hacia lo personal, en el español. Los resultados muestran también que al comparar las cartas hispanas con las suecas se ponen de manifiestos similitudes y diferencias tanto en la cantidad como en la frecuencia, en lo referente a las fórmulas de tratamiento y también  en cuanto a la estrategia general de oferta. Por otra parte nuestro trabajo nos ha permitido distinguir entre distintos tipos de cortesía que se agrupan dependiendo de los objetivos de quien produce el texto.

  • 3.
    Bjerva, Johannes
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för datorlingvistik.
    Predicting the N400 Component in Manipulated and Unchanged Texts with a Semantic Probability Model2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom datalingvistiken har tidigare forskning visat lovande resultat vid kombinering av ordrumsmodeller och n-gramsmodeller. Detta är av speciellt intresse när det är önskvärt att ha en modell som fångar både semantisk och syntaktisk information. Ett potensielt användningsområde för en sådan modell finns inom psykolingvistiken, där en neural respons kallad N400 visat sig uppstå i situationer med semantisk inkongruens. Tidigare forskning har upptäckt en stark korrelation mellan cloze probabilities och N400, medan en nyare studie har upptäckt en korrelation mellan cloze probabilities och sannolikhetsmodeller från datalingvistiken.

    Denna uppsats har som mål att undersöka huruvida en mer direkt koppling mellan sådana kombinerade modeller och N400 finns, med hypotesen att låga sannolikheter leder till stora N400-responser och vice versa. Ett antal försökspersoner läste en text manipulerad med hjälp av en probabilistisk modell, och en naturlig text, i ett EEG-experiment. Resultatsanalysen visar att manipuleringen till viss grad gav resultat som stödjer hypotesen. Motsvarande resultat hittades under resultatanalysen av responserna till den naturliga texten. Inga signifikanta korrelationer blev upptäckta mellan N400 och den kombinerade modellen. Förbättringar för vidare forskning involverar bland annat att förbättra experimentparadigmet så att en storskalig EEG-inspelning kan genomföras för att konstruera en EEG-korpus.

  • 4.
    Bohman, Rickard
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Tycker du om dem här?: En sociolingvistisk undersökning av högskolestudenters attityder till olika former av språkbruk2012Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 5.
    Bouveng, Anne
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Awareness of English varieties among Swedish secondary school pupils2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay reports on a study concerning awareness of English varieties among Swedish secondary school pupils. The aim is to find out whether Swedish secondary school pupils are aware of the differences between English varieties as regards pronunciation, spelling and vocabulary. In addition, the study aims at finding out whether pupils believe in preferences in their environment for any particular variety and what might be influencing their own preferences of English varieties.

     

    The study is questionnaire-based and the respondents are all pupils in two 8th grade classes in Stockholm. The pupils seem to believe that they are aware of the differences between varieties, although only a little more than half of the respondents claim that this includes differences in vocabulary. High recognition is claimed for Indian, Scottish and Australian English.

     

    As to preferences, British and American English dominate. Possible influences may be English textbooks claimed by the pupils to prefer mainly British English. Even English teachers are believed to have preferences mainly for British English but also American English. To the extent that friends are believed to have a preference, it is for American English. Less strong influences seem to come from the Internet, parents and school. The pupils seem to be exposed to English varieties to some extent, but apparently receive little explicit teaching which could increase awareness of English varieties.

  • 6.
    Engdahl, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för datorlingvistik.
    Tremänning eller syssling: Automatisk sökning i bloggar efter ordisoglosser i Sverige2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ibland används i två dialekter olika ord för samma sak. Syftet med denna studie är att visa vad somkan automatiseras i sökandet efter ord-isoglosser. Detta undersöks genom att skriva och utvärdera ettprogram som genom att analasyera bloggtext söker efter ordisoglosser i Sverige. En isogloss är engeografisk gräns mellan två olika språkliga egenskaper, till exempel prosodi eller betoning, eller som idetta fall ord. Programmet mappar skribentens kommun till orden från bloggtexterna i en databas. Lagttill detta låter programmet användaren söka efter antingen hur vanligt ett ord är i Sveriges kommunerjämfört med riksgenomsnittet; eller vilket av två olika ord som är vanligast inom varje kommun, enligtett två-sidigt proportionstest. Resultatet av de gjorda sökningarna skrevs till en fil och plottades sedanmanuellt. Utvärderingen visar att programmet kan hitta några ordisoglosser mellan kommuner, och attkartorna i viss utsträckning stämmer överrens med de resultat som Parkvall (Parkvall, 2011; Parkvall,2012) påvisar. Detta indikerar att programmet är en bra början för liknande studier. Förbättringar avprogrammet är att användaren tillåts använda reguljära uttryck för att få bort ambuigitet.

  • 7.
    Joandi, Linnéa
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Productivity Measurements Applied to Ten English Prefixes: A comparison of different measures of morphological productivity based on ten prefixes in English2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Morphological productivity is difficult to define and describe. Nevertheless have several measures been proposed by scholars, in order to quantify this notion. This paper investigates ten common English prefixes with meanings related to degree or size. The aims of the study are (1) to review several measures of morphological productivity, (2) via a sample of corpus occurrences of ten prefixes, to calculate productivity figures using five different measures of productivity, and (3), perhaps most importantly, to discuss the differences and similarities of the five measures. The results suggest that while several of the measures are quite similar (e.g. type frequency and hapax legomena frequency), other measures are different (e.g. 'Productivity in the narrow sense'). While three of the measures could be said to provide information concerning past or 'factual' productivity, two of the measures seem instead to indicate an aspect of productivity that is referred to as 'potential' productivity.

  • 8.
    Johansen, Josef
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för spanska, portugisiska och latinamerikastudier.
    Es femenino ponerse crema: Adjetivos que denotan género analizados desde la perspectiva contrastiva entre las variantes peninsular y mexicano del español y el sueco2012Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [es]

    Este estudio es un análisis de algunos adjetivos que denotan género desde una perspectiva contrastiva en el que se estudian ejemplos de tres regiones: México, España y Suecia. Es un estudio de lingüística de corpus donde el uso y significado de unos lexemas que denotan género se analizan mediante sus concordancias y se compara entre las regiones lingüísticas indicadas. Los usos potenciales encontrados de estos lexemas se pueden dividir en dos categorías principales: el uso relacional que indica una relación entre un concepto indicado en el contexto con uno de los géneros; y el uso caracterizador que indica una relación entre un concepto indicado y un conjunto de características que constituye uno de los estereotipos de los géneros. Además, existen contextos donde estos usos se mezclan y el significado incluye tanto referencias a las características estereotipadas como estrategias para asociar un concepto con uno de los géneros. El estudio incluye una profundización en el uso caracterizador y los estereotipos a los que alude. Las diferencias lingüísticas se han encontrado sobre todo en el uso relacional; en español se tiende a favorecer el uso de estos adjetivos en una mayor cantidad de contextos; mientras el uso relacional en sueco se predomina por el uso que atribuye género a un referente. Desde la perspectiva contrastiva el uso caracterizador ha resultado particularmente similar puesto que estos lexemas funcionan como los polos de un eje antónimo que deriva de la dicotomía de los géneros sociales.

  • 9.
    Kedziora, Beata
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Wikis in teaching and learning a foreign language: A case study of wiki usage in the course Academic reading and writing for teacher candidates2012Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing number of universities are providing the current generation of students, the socalled ‘digital natives’ (Prensky, 2001) - with more flexible and innovative language learning environments through the use of free Web 2.0 tools, such as wikis, blogs, social networking, Second Life and podcasting. However, still relatively little is known about wikis in the context of teaching English for Academic Purposes. My project aims to fill this research gap. I applied a case study strategy, where three groups of students attending a course Academic reading and writing for teacher candidates were examined. This paper demonstrates how the wiki software was employed in the course to encourage teacher candidates to proof-read and edit their own and others’ texts in order to be more accurate in academic writing. The present case study applied several research methods, including analysis of the texts written by students on the wiki and chat-room comments, an interview with the teacher of examined groups and a student questionnaire. The analysis of peer revisions was carefully conducted with a particular focus on: the variations in the way that students corrected each others’ texts, types of revised language issues, and the extent to which the teacher candidates were correcting accurately. My findings show that the students paid close attention to sentence structure (e.g. clauses, punctuation), fixing sentence problems (e.g. parallelism, choppy and stringy sentences), inflection and academic style. It is noteworthy that most of these languages issues were discussed in class. Considerably less attention was given by students to questions like paragraph structure and content. The accuracy of students’ revisions varied depending on the type of corrected language issue. The general impression of employing the wiki in this course was favourable. Many of the teacher candidates admitted that they would like to utilize the wiki tool in their future teaching courses.

  • 10.
    Kurnik, Mattias
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Mid-Atlantic Communication in the Classroom2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This study of Swedish upper secondary students aimed to make an analysis of the English that students are using in school with the hope to comment on whether there is a bias towards either one of the two major dialects, GA and RP. To this end, an upper secondary class was asked to complete tests on vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation. The pronunciation test was designed in such a way that the articulation became largely a factor of dialect. Similarly, each question in the vocabulary and spelling tests had its correct answer in both American and British English to elicit either an American or British English response. The speech analysis of the recording was done by using computer programs for spectrographic analysis. The results revealed a bias among the students for American vocabulary and British spelling, and a mix of pronunciation conventions from both varieties in addition to possible future pronunciation patterns of Swedish English.

  • 11.
    Larsson, Tove
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    A corpus-based study of anticipatory it patterns in university student writing: The role of nativeness and student levels2012Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The anticipatory it pattern has been found to serve as a means for writers not only to present propositional content in an objective way, but also to achieve a range of different rhetorical purposes. Indeed, its usefulness in academic writing has been confirmed in previous studies (e.g. Thompson, 2009). One of the rhetorical functions of the pattern is as a hedging device. Since it has been shown that appropriate use of hedges and the anticipatory it pattern may pose considerable difficulty for apprentice writers (e.g. Hewings & Hewings, 2002; Hyland & Milton, 1997), a more detailed study of “anticipatory it hedging” would be of particular interest for EAP teaching. The present study aims to investigate university students’ use of the anticipatory it pattern in general and as a hedging device by comparing non-native speaker (NNS) to native speaker (NS) use of the pattern and by investigating the use of the pattern across two NNS student levels. Swedish and British student essays from the Stockholm University Student English Corpus (SUSEC) were investigated for this purpose.

    The results from the comparison of the NS and NNS groups show that the NS students used the anticipatory it pattern significantly more frequently. With regards to function, a statistically significant tendency to use the pattern to hedge claims rather than to make strong claims was found in the NS data. The analysis of “anticipatory it-hedges” with regards to modal verb and linking verb usage shows that the NNS students generally made less frequent use of the different types of “anticipatory it-hedges” and relied more heavily on a smaller set of types. The comparison of the two Swedish student levels shows that there was no statistically significant difference in frequency of use of the pattern. The only statistically significant difference found in terms of function was the more frequent use of the pattern to express difficulty found in the first-term student data. Moreover, an analysis of “anticipatory it-hedges” in terms of modal and linking verb usage revealed that no general development in use was found across the student levels. Taken together, the findings of the study would then suggest that nativeness, contrary to what has been reported in previous studies (cf. Römer, 2009), appears to be an important factor along with other factors such as general language proficiency and expertise in academic writing. Then, in orders to help NNS students further develop their proficiency in academic writing, it would seem that greater emphasis ought to be put on teaching students to use the pattern in an appropriate and varied way.

  • 12.
    Lebenswerd, Patric Joshua
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    The Yiddish Imprint in Modern Hebrew Phonology: Tracing the regional Yiddish dialect(s) that founded Modern Hebrew phonology2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper argues that the native phonology of Modern Hebrew is derived from Yiddish phonology, specific of the regions from which the great majority of those involved in the Hebrew language revival emigrated, at the turn of the 20th century. This is evident from the striking similarities in their consonantal inventories, phonotactics and phonological rules. The regional Yiddish dialects that correspond best with Modern Hebrew phonology are situated in the mid-east speech territory, mainly the Ukraine and its surrounding areas. The study provides new data on Modern Hebrew voicing assimilation in sandhi, as well as new phonological parallels between Yiddish and Modern Hebrew.

  • 13.
    Legge, Nils
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Who is the teacher?: An investigation of upper secondary school students’ pronunciation of English and the possible underlying reasons2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish school pupils are taught English from a very young age. Many speak English at a very high level thanks to this and also thanks to readily available television programmes in English, mostly from America but also from Britain. Some, including Marko Modiano argue that the English spoken in Sweden could be a new variety. There is some evidence in support of this in the form of previous studies showing to what degree American and British English is mixed by Swedes. The present study aims at exploring if there are any recurring patterns in the way Swedish upper secondary school students mix American and British English as well as possible underlying reasons. This was done by recording 32 informants at an upper secondary school in Stockholm while reading a list of words and sentences designed to elicit phonetic markers that separate American English from British English. The data from the recordings is complemented by a short questionnaire. Here the informants are asked about their preference for English varieties and what they believe the preference of English varieties is for their teacher, the school, their textbooks as well as what they watch on television and if they have ever been or would like to go to an English speaking country. Concerning whether or not the informants mix American and British English or not, the results clearly show that most believe they do, although most of them seem to favour American English on the whole. There seems to be an overall tendency to use rhotic /r/ and there were some differences between male and female informants. Looking at the results of the present study compared to previous studies there is a connection in that formal text types like word lists elicit more British English than less formal text types do. Concerning what they watch on television, nearly all informants watch American television shows and this could be, in part, responsible for the tendency to favour the American variety. Regarding other influences, there was some uncertainty, especially when they were asked what they believed was preferred in the textbooks and by their teachers. Though it seems most believe that British English is preferred over American English except for the school in general where most believe that both varieties are preferred equally.

  • 14.
    Lindell, Klara
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Tolk- och översättarinstitutet.
    Amerikanska på svenska: En kommenterad översättning av ett utdrag ur Bill Brysons populärvetenskapliga språkhistoria Made in America2012Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats består av en kommenterad översättning från engelska till svenska. Översättningens källtext utgörs av det andra kapitlet i Bill Brysons populärvetenskapliga språkhistoria Made in America (1998). Den teoretiska kommentaren innehåller dels en analys av käll- respektive måltexten, dels en redogörelse för översättningsprocessen som helhet samt för vilka översättningsstrategier som tillämpas för att lösa källtextens översättningsproblem. Uppsatsens översättningsteoretiska perspektiv tar avstamp i Tourys normbegrepp (1995), utifrån vilket följande översättningsprincip formuleras: att på målspråket förmedla källtextens innehåll i så oförändrat skick som möjligt, men samtidigt anpassa det till måltextläsarnas källspråkliga kompetensnivå, vilken antas vara förhållandevis låg. Översättningsprincipen är följaktligen främst adekvansinriktad, men drar mot en acceptansinriktning. I kommentaren fastslås att översättningen följer denna princip då den utgör en adekvansinriktad text med tydligt acceptansinriktade drag.

  • 15.
    Lundell, Ida
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    ‘LOL’, ‘OMG’ and Other Acronyms and Abbreviations: A study in the creation of initialisms2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Marchand (1969) claims that abbreviations and acronyms, which are also known as ‘initialisms’, are used to create “names of new scientific discoveries, trade-names, names of organizations, new foundations or offices, but occasionally, and chiefly in American English, personal and geographical names are also coined in this way” (Marchand, 1969: 452). However, initialisms that originate from netspeak, such as ‘LOL’, are different from the initialisms Marchand (1969) describes. These initialisms are not names of organizations or scientific discoveries; rather, they describe everyday things or phases. This kind of initialism is a new phenomenon that seemingly did not exist before the Internet, and the aim of this essay is thus to examine whether Internet has given us increased opportunities for this type of word formation. A corpus of informal English was created for this study and ten initialisms were extracted from that corpus. These initialisms were then examined in the Corpus of Contemporary American English. The data from the COCA showed that people do form and use this kind of initialism, albeit they do it very infrequently. Furthermore, the corpus data showed that these items are used in all different genres that exist in the COCA, except for academic writing. The data found in this study indicates that people seem create a new kind of initialism, and that people therefore have new opportunities to use this kind of word formation. However, the data is too sparse to draw any definite conclusions from it.

  • 16.
    Migura García, Begoña
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för spanska, portugisiska och latinamerikastudier, Avdelningen för spanska.
    Elige tu propia aventura, ¿nudo gordiano para el tratamiento holístico de la expresión escrita?: Una experiencia de escritura narrativa creativa en Español como Lengua Extranjera, a través de trabajo cooperativo con wikis2012Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [es]

    El objetivo de la presente investigación es el de aproximarse al potencial que el género de hiperficción explorativa Elige tu propia aventura (ETPA), abordado desde la producción, puede tener de cara al desarrollo de la competencia escritora en ELE. Como muestra, se ha tomado a un grupo multicultural y plurilingüe de 18 estudiantes de la Universidad de Estocolmo, con una competencia comunicativa mínima en español de B2 marco. Se ha llevado a cabo un análisis cualitativo-cuantitativo que, de forma correlativa, abarcaba el estudio del proceso de composición, del producto alcanzado y del impacto de la tarea sobre el componente afectivo de los participantes. La investigación asignó al grupo de control, la composición cooperativa de un cuento tradicional a través de una wiki, y al experimental, la de un ETPA; todo ello en base a una hipotética oposición entre un ejercicio compositivo lineal y uno de tipo recursivo, respectivamente. Los resultados parecen sugerir que, efectivamente, la estructura no secuencial de la ficción hipertextual propicia un proceso de composición marcado por la recursividad que repercute en la consecución de un mejor producto, en especial, con relación a las propiedades textuales de adecuación, coherencia y cohesión. En lo afectivo, la composición de un ETPA también parece constituir una actividad que, por su novedad, incide positivamente en la motivación de los aprendientes y en un sentimiento de autoeficiencia generado por la resolución exitosa de la tarea.

  • 17.
    Nejström, Emelie
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för spanska, portugisiska och latinamerikastudier.
    El uso de atenuaciones en español entre alumnos suecos del bachillerato: Rechazos, consejos y peticiones2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [es]

    El objetivo principal de este estudio es examinar el uso de las atenuaciones como marcador de cortesía en español entre estudiantes suecos del bachillerato en los actos de habla de rechazos, consejos y peticiones. Compartimos la premisa de que en el uso del español como lengua extranjera hay una falta de competencia comunicativa en general, y también competencia en cuanto a las atenuaciones. Nuestra hipótesis es que en el uso de español como lengua extranjera por parte de estudiantes suecos del bachillerato, hay una competencia comunicativa suficiente como para transmitir contenidos temáticos pero no para expresarse de forma socioculturalmente adecuada en cuanto a los contenidos de cortesía, especialmente hay una falta del conocimiento y del uso de las atenuaciones. Se ha elaborado una encuesta con nueve situaciones, tres para cada tipo de acto de habla, donde 32 estudiantes suecos de bachillerato han tenido que rechazar invitaciones, dar opiniones y consejos y pedir favores. Para poder comparar los resultados tenemos un grupo de control de 10 jóvenes hispanohablantes, sin conocimientos de sueco. Según el Ministerio de Educación sueco, para poder obtener un aprobado en el nivel tres del bachillerato y poder acceder a los estudios universitarios, los estudiantes deben tener suficiente conocimiento de la lengua meta y su sociopragmática para poder adaptarse a diferentes situaciones y usar ciertas estrategias. Los resultados nos muestran que, en la mayoría de los casos, los estudiantes suecos atenúan con marcadores de cortesía, concretamente realizando un sobreuso de agradecimientos: han desarrollado así un sistema propio, o sea, una interlengua del español con elementos suecos, lo cual muestra que estos estudiantes aplican estrategias comunicativas que resultan eficaces. En general, realizan actos amenazantes para las imágenes del emisor y del destinario, bastante más que el grupo de control. Sin atenuaciones, estos actos de habla pueden ser interpretados como descortesía por el interlocutor hispanohablante y podrían surgir problemas en la comunicación.

  • 18.
    Nejström, Emelie
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    English as an academic lingua franca at Stockholm University School of Business: A sociolinguistic study of academic English in parallel-language settings2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is based on interviews with 20 students with Swedish as mother tongue, and observations from 10 lectures and seminars on advanced level at Stockholm University School of Business. The courses observed use English as a medium of instruction and the study explores how English is used as a lingua franca, how the students adapt to English in academic settings and the sociolinguistic functions of choosing English or Swedish in specific situations.

    The results show that English is used in parallel with Swedish, a great number of Swedish terms and expressions are used, both by students and teachers. Students speak Swedish with each other as well as with Swedish teachers in unofficial settings. English is used whenever a foreign teacher or student is around.

    Many students in the study claim to handle the English medium courses well but in reality they do have some difficulties. The students should be given instruction in English for academic purposes and reconsider their attitudes about what is correct and incorrect English.

  • 19.
    Noske, Karina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för baltiska språk, finska och tyska, Avdelningen för tyska.
    Einflussfaktoren auf die Aussprache einer Zweit-/Fremdsprache: Eine Forschungsübersicht2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 20.
    Nyberg, Joacim
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Negation in Japanese2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Negation has fascinated thinkers and scholars for some 2,500 years.However, within linguistics, it is only in the recent years that negation has been given the attention it deserves. Within language typology, the main subject of investigation has been the notion of standard negation. This is well covered and data from several languages has been presented.When it comes to Japanese, it has proved hard to come across a detailed description of negation. There is a rich general literature covering many aspects of Japanese grammar, but there seems to be a lack of a work that investigates and collects all negation phenomena in one place. Furthermore, the general grammars do not take the typological perspective of negation into consideration.

    The aim of this thesis is to describe various negation strategies and related phenomena in the Japanese language and to put them in a typological perspective. To carry this out, a questionnaire for describing negation is used. Information and examples are extracted from grammars, articles, and a corpus. This is a descriptive text, and the analyses and conclusions presented can clearly contribute to the already existing literature on negation in Japanese, with the addition of a typological perspective.

  • 21.
    Persson, Frej
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet.
    Kjapt och kjempebra: En studie av skandinavisk språkgemenskap på en arbetsplats2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie undersöks skandinavisk grannspråksförståelse på en arbetsplats med anställda från Danmark, Norge och Sverige. Syftet är att ta reda på hur den skandinaviska språkgemenskapen tar sig konkret uttryck på arbetsplatsen. Materialet, som omfattar ett möte och två intervjuer, analyseras med utgångspunkt i ackommodationsteorin och CA (Conversation Analysis), samt i tidigare forskning om skandinavisk grannspråksförståelse.

    Resultaten visar dels att viss ackommodation (språkliga anpassningar) görs i de interskandinaviska samtalen, dels att förståelsen är asymmetrisk: de svenska medarbetarna tycks ha svårare än sina skandinaviska kolleger att förstå grannspråken. Främst har de svårt att förstå talad danska, och väljer därför ofta att tala engelska med sina danska kolleger. Talad norska förstås däremot betydligt bättre av svenskarna. Den skandinaviska språkgemenskapen på arbetsplatsen kan därför sägas vara partiell. Dessa resultat stämmer i hög grad överens med tidigare forskning om skandinavisk grannspråksförståelse.

  • 22.
    Persson, Minna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Tempus och aspekt i pidginisering: En studie av sju pidginspråk och deras källspråk2012Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been proposed that pidgin languages are similar in their marking of tense and aspect. This study wishes to answer three questions: 1) are there similarities in the marking of tense and aspect in pidgins, 2) are there similarities between the source languages and the pidgins they result in, and 3) does the development of tense aspect marking in pidgins follow the general patterns of grammaticalisation observed in other languages. Two quite different approaches are used to analyse the languages. Firstly the concept of grams is used, that is, a representation of a grammatical category in a specific language, e.g. the perfect in Swedish. Secondly the theory of prominence is used, i.e. that a particular language tends to grammaticalise one of the categories tense or aspect (or mood) rather than the other. The study looks at a sample of seven pidgin languages from around the world and compares them with regards to their marking of tense and aspect. Furthermore the tense-aspect systems of the source languages (lexifiers and substrates) of these pidgins are studied. Regarding the first question, the most obvious similarity is the fact that there is very little grammaticalised marking of tense and aspect at all. A pattern can also be discerned were a pidgin uses either a marker for perfective aspect or for past tense and that future/present markers are grammaticalised at a later stage. As for the similarities between the source languages and the pidgins, the pidginisation process has yielded languages with less grammaticalised forms than the source languages. All gram types found in the pidgins can also be found in their lexifiers. The patterns of grammaticalisation of tense and aspect markers follow universal patterns that have been described in typological studies. The semantic change of inherited or borrowed markers follow general patterns as do the innovations in the pidgin itself.

  • 23.
    Smith, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Conventional Polysemy in the English Lexeme Boy: Differences and similarities between its polysemously related senses2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The notion of polysemy is defined as multiple meanings in one and the same lexeme. In polysemy, these meanings are different but also related. Conventional polysemy typically means that the meanings of a given lexeme are entrenched, and shared by proficient language users in a speech community. From a cognitive linguistic perspective, different senses of a polysemous lexeme – a polyseme – are explained by means of associations to certain situations, or specific experiential or cognitive domains. From a functional perspective, different senses of a polyseme can be used with various types of meaning in communicative discourse. From a structural perspective, different senses of a polyseme are described in terms of their paradigmatic or syntagmatic relations to other lexemes. These three perspectives are used as analytical methods in this study.

    This Bachelor Degree Project is a theoretical study of the conventional polysemous variation of the English lexeme boy. The analysis uses the three aforementioned interrelated analytical perspectives – (i) cognitive domains, (ii) language functions, and (iii) sense relations – to look closer at eight conventional senses of boy that appear at least two of the four well-known, synchronic, monolingual dictionaries that constitute the analytic material of study. These senses are described and analysed as regards their differences and similarities, as well as their relation to the primary sense of boy, ‘a male child’, which is also analysed and described. In other words, this analysis presents their polysemous connections – how they are related as well as how they differ – in a way that explicitly specifies the semantic intuitions that seem to have guided the lexicographers. This kind of theoretically based study could arguably be integrated in and improve also lexicographic presentations of polysemy.

  • 24.
    Vikner, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Accent preference - stereotypes or individual?: Swedish university students' attitudes towards British and American varieties of English.2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the attitudes of Swedish university students towards the British and the American variety of English. Many studies have shown that perceptions of the varieties are changing as a result of increasing exposure of the language. The present study analyses responses from a questionnaire on speech samples of the two varieties and compares them to a similar study made ten years ago, to investigate possible differences over time and between respondents. The data shows a more positive attitude towards the American variety in general, although female respondents are more prone to conform to the results of previous studies and favour the British variety in aspects of prestige and status. The data also show that this method of research is very sensitive to individual characteristics of the speakers used in the investigation and stresses the difficulties in receiving a reliable general result.

  • 25.
    Zwanenburg Widingsjö, Monique
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för baltiska språk, finska och tyska, Avdelningen för nederländska.
    Pippi Langkous: Een vergelijking van eerdere met latere drukken & een vertaalanalyse2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [nl]

    Inmiddels is Pippi een internationaal onderzoeksobject geworden. De Duitse literatuuronderzoekster Astrid Surmatz heeft een grote bijdrage geleverd met haar proefschrift Pippi Långstrump als Paradigma (2005b). Wat volgens mij nog ontbrak is een grondige analyse van de Nederlandse vertaling, en wat er met de boeken gebeurd is na hun oorspronkelijke vertaling.

    Het respect voor kinderboeken in vertaling laat nog al eens te wensen over en uitgeverijen nemen soms grote vrijheden. Geldt dat ook voor de Nederlandse uitgaven van Pippi Langkous?Deze scriptie geeft een aanzet tot het antwoord met behulp van een analyse van de vertaalnormen uit de Descriptive Translation Studies van Toury, aangevuld met de vertaalmethoden van Newmark.

    De conclusie is dat de eerste Nederlandse druk een adequate (Toury) of getrouwe (Newmark) vertaling is, en dat de wijzigingen in de volgende drukken er toe geleid hebben dat de tekst en de illustraties steeds meer zijn gaan afwijken van het Zweedse origineel, en dat er nu van een aanvaardbare (Toury), of idiomatische of zelfs vrije vertaling (Newmark) gesproken moet worden. Dat Nederlanders toch weten hoe Pippi door Astrid Lindgren is neergezet, is onder andere te danken aan de tv-serie, de films en de merchandise met de tekeningen van illustratrice Ingrid Vang Nyman.

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