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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Critical Period Hypothesis (CPH)2013In: Routledge Encyclopedia of Second Language Acquisition / [ed] Peter Robinson, London: Routledge, 2013, 146-151 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Developmental sequences2013In: Routledge Encyclopedia of Second Language Acquisition / [ed] Peter Robinson, London: Routledge, 2013, 173-177 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Fonologiska aspekter på andraspråksinlärning och svenska som andraspråk2013In: Svenska som andraspråk: i forskning, undervisning och samhälle / [ed] Hyltenstam, Kenneth & Lindberg, Inger, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2013, 2. uppl., 85-120 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    U-shaped learning and overgeneralization2013In: Routledge Encyclopedia of Second Language Acquisition / [ed] Peter Robinson, London: Routledge, 2013, 663-665 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Mognadsbegränsningar och den kritiska perioden för andraspråksinlärning2013In: Svenska som andraspråk: i forskning, undervisning och samhälle / [ed] Hyltenstam, Kenneth & Lindberg, Inger, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2013, 2. uppl., 221-257 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Alkmim, Tania
    et al.
    University of Campinas.
    Alvarez López, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    El uso del portugués en comunidades de religiones afrobrasileñas en el Uruguay: un estudio de caso2013In: Estudios afrolatinoamericanos: nuevos enfoques multidisciplinarios: Actas de las Terceras Jornadas del GEALA / [ed] María de Lourdes Ghidoli, Juan Francisco Martínez Peria, Buenos Aires: Ediciones del CCC Centro Cultural de la Cooperación Floreal Gorini , 2013, 587-601 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [es]

    Varios investigadores del campo de las ciencias sociales han señalado que la frontera de Rio Grande do Sul funciona como frente de expansión de las religiones afrobrasileñas para Uruguay y Argentina. Pi Hugarte, autor de una serie de publicaciones sobre las mencionadas religiones en el Uruguay, afirma que “la umbanda del Uruguay ya es un fenómeno cultural propio” (Pi Hugarte, 1992: 45). Eso coincide con la postura de Porzecanski (2008) que se refiere al “ritual afro-uruguayo de la Umbanda”, lo que se puede interpretar como la designación de una modalidad regional de esa religión. Según trabajos anteriores, en los rituales de dicha modalidad regional se emplea el portugués, pero no encontramos investigaciones de carácter lingüístico sobre la difusión de esa lengua como consecuencia de la expansión religiosa o sobre el uso del portugués brasileño y la convivencia de esa variedad con el español regional en el ámbito afroumbandista. Fue así que surgió la idea de realizar un trabajo de campo para observar la comunicación ritual y juntar datos lingüísticos en una comunidad montevideana que se dedica a las prácticas religiosas denominadas Batuque Quimbanda y Umbanda. Aportamos datos empíricos de un estudio de caso para describir el uso del portugués en contextos religiosos entre hablantes nativos de español. Completamos los datos recogidos consultando estudios anteriores para poder ampliar el universo observado y presentar ejemplos de comunidades que no tuvimos la oportunidad de visitar. Las preguntas discutidas son: ¿En qué situaciones comunicativas y por qué razones se utiliza el portugués en contextos religiosos y rituales en el Uruguay? ¿Cuáles son los componentes lingüísticos que se destacan y cuál es su relación con las variedades de español regional y con el lenguaje que se utiliza en comunidades de religión afro en el Brasil?

  • 7.
    Alvarez López, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies, Portuguese.
    200 años de herencia lingüística afrolatina: descendientes de Ansina y otros soldados de Artigas en el Paraguay2013In: Moderna Språk, ISSN 2000-3560, E-ISSN 2000-3560, Vol. 107, no 1, 1-10 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [es]

    Los datos lingüísticos analizados provienen en parte de comunidades afroparaguayas fundadas por los descendientes de esclavos libertos que fueron soldados de José Artigas, el "libertador y héroe nacional" del Uruguay. El objetivo del artículo es comparar los datos afroparaguayos analizados por Lipski (2009) con datos de variedades del español y portugués en contacto con lenguas africanas en Uruguay y Brasil para ver si coinciden o no. Con base en datos lingüísticos y socio-históricos, se argumenta que tal vez existan tantas o más similitudes con variedades de portugués afrobrasileño que con los datos sobre el habla de los afrouruguayos en los siglos XVIII y XIX. Esto puede explicarse a través de hechos históricos y sociales.

  • 8.
    Alvarez López, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies.
    Black through White: African words and calques which survived slavery in Creoles and transplanted European languages.2013In: Sociolinguistic Studies, ISSN 1750-8649, E-ISSN 1750-8657, Vol. 7, no 3, 355-360 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Alvarez López, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Calunga and the Legacy of an African Language in Brazil (Steven Byrd)2013In: Anthropological Linguistics, ISSN 0003-5483, E-ISSN 1944-6527, Vol. 55, no 1, 98-101 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Alvarez López, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies.
    Nomes pessoais e práticas de nomeação à sombra da escravidão2013In: Diálogos entre língua, cultura e sociedade / [ed] Lilian do Rocio Borba, Candida Mara Britto Leite, Campinas, SP: Mercado de Letras , 2013, 1, 139-172 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Alvarez López, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    SARAVÁ ZIFIU!: A integração do prefixo ZI em Afro-variedades do português2013In: Cadernos de Estudos Lingüísticos, ISSN 0102-5767, Vol. 55, no 2, 7-23 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the research on the participation of Africans and their descendants in the formation of Brazilian Portuguese, the aim of this paper is to analyze occurrences of the prefix z/zi , as well as its variant ji , in oral and written representations of speech of Africans and their descendants in Brazil as well as in Africa. The main issues are: a) what is the origin of this particle and how was it integrated into varieties of Brazilian and African Portuguese? It is argued that the particle zi  is a remnant of a Bantu noun class prefix which has lost its grammatical function

  • 12.
    Alvarez López, Laura
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies.
    Bertolotti, Virginia
    Universidad de la República.
    Usos americanos de su merced en el siglo XIX2013In: Lexis, ISSN 0254-9239, Vol. XXXVII, no 1, 5-32 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is an empirical study of the presence of the address form su merced in the XIX century, particularly in Latin American literary texts representing the speech of Africans and their descendants, based on examples taken from Lipski (2005a, 2005b) and texts included in CORDE. Based on data found in other corpora, the discussion also includes uses of su merced in official written communication. It reviews earlier studies about su merced in Latin America and concludes that this address form appears in the context of asymmetrical social relations between groups and especially in the speech of Africans and their descendants.

  • 13.
    Alvarez López, Laura
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Seiler Brylla, CharlottaStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Baltic Languages, Finnish and German.Shaw, PhilipStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Computer mediated discourse across languages2013Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Alvarez López, Laura
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies.
    Seiler Brylla, Charlotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Baltic Languages, Finnish and German.
    Shaw, Philip
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Introduction2013In: Computer mediated discourse across languages / [ed] Laura Alvarez López, Charlotta Seiler Brylla & Philip Shaw, Stockholm: Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis, 2013, 1, 11-16 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 15. Arcodia, Giorgio Francesco
    et al.
    Da Milano, Federica
    Iannaccaro, Gabriele
    University of Milano-Bicocca, Italy.
    Paolo, Zublena
    Tilelli: scritti in onore di Vermondo Brugnatelli2013Book (Other academic)
  • 16. Bakker, Peter
    et al.
    Daval-Markussen, Aymeric
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Plag, Ingo
    Creoles are typologically distinct from non-creoles2013In: Creole languages and linguistic typology / [ed] Parth Bhatt, Tonjes Veenstra, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2013, 9-45 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Bardel, Camilla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Lindqvist, ChristinaUppsala University.Laufer, BatiaUniversity of Haifa.
    L2 vocabulary acquisition, knowledge and use: New perspectives on assessment and corpus analysis.2013Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book is intended for researchers and students in the field of second language (L2) acquisition. As its title suggests, the book discusses L2 vocabulary acquisition, knowledge and use, and examines them from the perspectives of assessment and corpus analysis. The chapters also address some additional central research issues: the role of word frequency in the input, the difference between single words and multi-word units, and the distinction between vocabulary of oral and written language. The first three chapters of the book present critical reviews of different aspects of vocabulary acquisition. The other four chapters contain empirical studies that relate to the central themes of the book. The data in the studies draw on a variety of source and target languages: English, French, Italian, Swedish, Hebrew and Japanese. The book offers some new insights into the field of vocabulary and suggests avenues of research.

  • 18.
    Bjarnadóttir, Valgerdur
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Baltic Languages, Finnish and German.
    de Smit, Merlijn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Baltic Languages, Finnish and German.
    Primary Argument Case-marking in Baltic and Finnic2013In: Baltu filologija, ISSN 1691-0036, Vol. XXII, no 1, 31-65 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Bjerva, Johannes
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Genetic Algorithms in the Brill Tagger: Moving towards language independence2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The viability of using rule-based systems for part-of-speech tagging was revitalised when a simple rule-based tagger was presented by Brill (1992). This tagger is based on an algorithm which automatically derives transformation rules from a corpus, using an error-driven approach. In addition to performing on par with state of the art stochastic systems for part-of-speech tagging, it has the advantage that the automatically derived rules can be presented in a human-readable format.

    In spite of its strengths, the Brill tagger is quite language dependent, and performs much better on languages similar to English than on languages with richer morphology. This issue is addressed in this paper through defining rule templates automatically with a search that is optimised using Genetic Algorithms. This allows the Brill GA-tagger to search a large search space for templates which in turn generate rules which are appropriate for various target languages, which has the added advantage of removing the need for researchers to define rule templates manually.

    The Brill GA-tagger performs significantly better (p<0.001) than the standard Brill tagger on all 9 target languages (Chinese, Japanese, Turkish, Slovene, Portuguese, English, Dutch, Swedish and Icelandic), with an error rate reduction of between 2% -- 15% for each language.

  • 20.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    English as a lingua franca and the international university: Language policy rhetoric and ground reality2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    English as an academic lingua franca: An investigation of form and communicative effectiveness2013Book (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Exploring ELF: Academic English Shaped by Non-native Speakers2013In: English Language Teaching, ISSN 1916-4742, E-ISSN 1916-4750, Vol. 67, no 4, 494-497 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Peer assessment of spoken lingua franca English in tertiary education in Sweden: criterion-referenced versus norm-referenced assessment2013In: Of Butterflies and Birds, of Dialects and Genres: essays in Honour of Philip Shaw / [ed] Johannesson, N. L., Melchers, G., Björkman, B., Stockholm: Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis, 2013, 109-123 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Review of Philippe Van Parijs Linguistic Justice for Europe and for the World2013In: International Studies in the Philosophy of Science, ISSN 0269-8595, E-ISSN 1469-9281, Vol. 26, no 3, 354-359 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    The grammar of English as a lingua franca2013In: The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics / [ed] Chapelle, C., Oxford/UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2013Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Bolton, Kingsley
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Kwok, Helen
    Sociolinguistics today: international perspectives2013Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This collection of essays developed out of a conference held in Hong Kong in 1988. The aim was to provide a forum for an exchange of views between academics working within the field of sociolinguistics, in particular between those working in the West and those working in the East. Sociolinguistics Today has taken this aim a step further to produce an overview of contemporary research into sociolinguistics worldwide. The book contains articles by acknowledged leaders in the study of language and society, and the presence of sociolinguists working in Asia provides a new and exciting challenge to the hitherto western-dominated field. The comprehensive study of Asian sociolinguistics is unique and engages with the non-Asian contributions to great effect. The range of contributors reinforces the international emphasis of the book.

  • 27.
    Bolton, Kingsley
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English. Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
    Meierkord, Christiane
    English in contemporary Sweden: Perceptions, policies, and narrated practices2013In: Journal of Sociolinguistics, ISSN 1360-6441, E-ISSN 1467-9841, Vol. 17, no 1, 93-117 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares trends in Sweden's language planning and language policies, and particularly the rationale underlying recent government legislation, to actual language use at the grass roots' of society, in order to investigate the extent to which academic and official rationales are confirmed by observed language practices. The passing of the Swedish Language Act of 2009 followed debates in academia and the media which not infrequently characterised English as a major threat to the survival of Swedish. However, despite the strong belief in the utility of English widely held in Sweden, the Swedish language is the preferred language of Swedes as well as immigrants in most domains. These results reveal a contradiction between the arguments put forward by a number of academics, educators and journalists concerning the threat' of English, and the language practices of ordinary folk in their daily lives.

  • 28.
    Bowin, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Effekten av talarformanten och F0's styrka på otränade röstbedömare2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Speech and voice is governed by complicated processes, where a variety of different functions are used in its production and perception. Speech and voice differs in many ways from the objective measurable acoustic speech signal. The intensity of the fundamental frequency, F0, and what is called the speaker formant are two parameters that affect how voice is perceived. The purpose of the study was to investigate if the varied intensity of F0 and with or without speaker formant affect what stimuli untrained voice assessors like the most. To do so, a synthetic /a/ was created, formed by formant frequencies for Swedish vowels (Fant, 1959), varied with with or without speaker formant, and seven different intensities of the fundamental frequency, creating a total of 14 stimuli. Twelve women and eight men were asked to listen to and grade the stimuli, from the /a/ that was liked the most to the one that was liked the least. The expectations of the study were confirmed, the variation of the intensity of F0 and with or without speaker formant, did affect which stimuli the listeners preferred, and also confirmed that men and women preferred different stimuli. The two /a/’s with the weakest and the /a/ with the strongest intensity of F0, were least liked. The four /a/s with varying intensity of F0 in between, were liked approximately the same. If men and women ratings were studied separately from one another, the result differed. Women preferred stimuli with speaker formant more than the ones without, whereas men more appreciated stimuli with strong intensity of F0. If the study was the be retested and the results would be confirmed, further tests would be of interest to do, to investigate if the differences of preferences affect how speech is perceived and interpreted. 

  • 29.
    Brosig, Benjamin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    BINNICK, Robert. 2012. The past tenses of the Mongolian verb. Brill.2013In: Linguistics, ISSN 0024-3949, E-ISSN 1613-396X, Vol. 51, no 1, 235-241 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Language attrition2013In: Language, Society & Communication / [ed] Zannie Bock & Gift Mheta, van Schaik , 2013Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Athanasopoulos, Panos
    Oostendorp, Marcelyn
    Motion event cognition and grammatical aspect: Evidence from Afrikaans2013In: Linguistics, ISSN 0024-3949, E-ISSN 1613-396X, Vol. 51, no 5, 929-955 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on the relationship between grammatical aspect and motion event construal has posited that speakers of non-aspect languages are more prone to encoding event endpoints than are speakers of aspect languages (e. g., von Stutterheim and Carroll 2011). In the present study, we test this hypothesis by extending this line of inquiry to Afrikaans, a non-aspect language which is previously unexplored in this regard. Motion endpoint behavior among Afrikaans speakers was measured by means of a linguistic retelling task and a non-linguistic similarity judgment task, and then compared with the behavior of speakers of a non-aspect language (Swedish) and speakers of an aspect language (English). Results showed the Afrikaans speakers' endpoint patterns aligned with Swedish patterns, but were significantly different from English patterns. It was also found that the variation among the Afrikaans speakers could be partially explained by taking into account their frequency of use of English, such that those who used English more frequently exhibited an endpoint behavior that was more similar to English speakers. The current study thus lends further support to the hypothesis that speakers of different languages attend differently to event endpoints as a function of the grammatical category of aspect.

  • 32.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Age of acquisition effects or effects of bilingualism in second language ultimate attainment?2013In: Sensitive Periods, Language Aptitude, and Ultimate L2 Attainment / [ed] Granena, Gisela & Long, Michael, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2013, 69-101 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Här är 4 procent av invånarna döva2013In: Dövas tidning, ISSN 1402-1978, Vol. 4, 13-13 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 34.
    Cunningham, Una
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    How much linguistics do language teachers need?2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of linguistics required or available as part of an undergraduate degree with a major in a foreign language degree has varied through time and from country to country. Currently in New Zealand it is possible to graduate with a double major in in European or Asian languages without ever having come closer to linguistics than a grammar or pronunciation course. Language graduates may not have studied much in the way of linguistics during their degree study. This means that if they choose to enter initial secondary teacher education, they may be quite linguistically naive, despite years of language study.

     

    Current thinking on language education is that the combination of meaningful spoken and written input in the target language, and the possibility of meaningful interaction in the target language are enough to allow students to acquire communicative competence in the target language. However, all but the most radical believe that most learners will be helped by also learning about the target language – in effect learning something of the pragmatics, syntax, morphology, phonology and phonetics of the target language. Communicative competence is the goal for language education, and this paper examines the role of implicit and explicit linguistic knowledge and linguistic teaching in the learning and teaching of languages and the disconnect between language graduates’ linguistic understanding and language education.

  • 35.
    Cunningham, Una
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Teachability and Learnability of English Pronunciation Features for Vietnamese-Speaking Learners2013In: Teaching and Researching English Accents in Native and Non-native Speakers / [ed] E. Waniek-Klimczak & L. R. Shockey, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, 3-14 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anyone who has tried to learn a language with a very different sound system will understand the challenges faced by speakers of a language as different as Vietnamese who are attempting to learn to speak English in a way that is intelligible to non-speakers of Vietnamese. Many learners have very limited opportunity to hear model pronunciations other than their teacher’s, and no opportunity at all to speak in English outside the classroom. Vietnamese-accented English is characterised by a number of features which ride roughshod over English morphosyntax, resulting in speech that is extremely difficult to reconstruct for the non-Vietnamese-speaking listener. Some of these features appear to be more difficult to learn to avoid than others. Phonotactic constraints in L1 appear to be persistent even in L2, and L1 phonological rules will, apparently, often apply in L2 unless they are blocked in some way. Perception of salient (to native listeners) target pronunciations is often lacking, and learners may not be aware that their pronunciation is not intelligible. Despite years of language study, many learners are unable to produce some native speaker targets. Vietnamese learners typically exhibit a set of characteristic pronunciation features in English, and the aim of this study is to see which of these are susceptible to remediation through explicit teaching. This explicit teaching is compared with a less direct, less interactive kind of teaching, involving drawing native and native-like pronunciation of problematic features of English pronunciation to the learners’ attention. The results of this study can then be interpreted in terms of teachability and learnability, which do not always go hand in hand. If we understand what kinds of phonetic features are teachable and how learnability varies for different features, we can target those features where there is a good return for effort spent, resulting in efficient teaching.

  • 36.
    Cunningham, Una
    University of Canterbury.
    The role of blogs and forums in the linguistic expectations of pilgrims on the Camino to Santiago2013In: Computer mediated discourse across languages / [ed] Laura Álvarez López, Charlotta Seiler Brylla & Philip Shaw, Stockholm: Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis, 2013, 137-154 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Every year thousands of pilgrims from more than a hundred countries embark on a pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela in northwestern Spain. Many of them prepare for their pilgrimage physically and mentally.  Dozens of web pages, forums and blogs in a number of languages are dedicated to helping them with this preparation. This paper examines the role of blogs, web pages and forums in constructing pilgrims on the Camino de Santiago. One of the pervasive themes of these texts is the communitas that is experienced by pilgrims without regard to language or nationality. It appears to be unproblematic to communicate even when there is no or very limited common language. The hypothesis is that material accessed by pilgrims before beginning the journey leads them to expect to be able to communicate with everyone they meet, regardless of their actual language skills. This paper uses qualitative data analysis software (NVivo 10) to look at how the web-based material treats cross-linguistic communication in the multilingual liminal space of pilgrimage on the Camino, and at how pilgrims tell the story of their expectations after the pilgrimage is complete.

  • 37.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    How telicity creates time2013In: Journal of Slavic Linguistics, ISSN 1068-2090, E-ISSN 1543-0391, Vol. 21, no 1, 45-76 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most treatments of temporal semantics start out from the conception of time as a line stretching from the past into the future, which is then populated with eventualities or situations. This paper explores how time can be seen as emerging from the construction of representations of reality in which the basic building blocks are static—i.e., timeless—representations, which are connected to each other by events that are transitions between them and that create an ordering which can be understood as temporal. This connects to von Wright’s “logic of change” and the “hybrid semantics” suggested by Herweg and Löbner. In this context, telicity is seen as the capacity of events, or of the predicates that express them, to “create time” in the sense of defining a before and an after. The basic elements of the model are global states, which are timeless taken in isolation but are connected by transition events, which transform one global state into another and thereby define the temporal relationships between them. Transition events, corresponding to Vendlerian achievements, represent simple changes which are then the basis for all other constructs in the model, most notably delimited states, Vendlerian activities (atelic dynamic eventualities), and accomplishments (telic non-punctual eventualities), but also time points and intervals. Transition events are further instrumental in constructing narrative structures and are responsible for narrative progression.

  • 38.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Tense-aspect-mood-evidentiality (TAME) and the Organization of Human Memory2013In: Time and TAME in language / [ed] Karina Veronica Molsing; Ana Maria Tramunt Ibaños, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2013, 22-53 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 39.
    De Matos Lundström, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Los aspectos pragmáticos en manuales suecos de español como lengua extranjera: Su contribución al desarrollo de la competencia pragmática en el bachillerato2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to try to determine to what extent and in what way four Swedish textbooks on Spanish as a foreign language (SFL) treat pragmatic aspects, as well as to evaluate the potential and relevance of the metapragmatic information and activities related to pragmatic aspects provided by the textbooks, for the development of pragmatic awareness and competence in Spanish. This study parts from the notion of pragmatic competence as a skill of knowing how to create and understand meanings in interaction effectively (Thomas, 1995), which in intercultural interaction probably requires extra-linguistic knowledge more than language skills (cf. Bravo, 2005). The hypothesis postulated at the beginning of the study was that the manuals would not fully explain why certain language is being used in certain contexts, that the pragmatic content would be scarcely varied and rather difficult to assimilate and that the exercises would not be designed primarily to develop a pragmatic competence. To some extent it can be said that the hypothesis is confirmed: the manuals could have been more comprehensive in terms of the topics covered, they could also have varied and explained those issues further. Despite the fact that there seems to be an effort to incorporate extra-linguistic information and communicative activities, the results indicate that there is a lack of emphasis on or progression on how to treat these issues. For example, there are no didactic models or suggestions in the teacher’s guide, nor is additional information provided elsewhere; usually the metapragmatic information is not combined with any activities, and the activities that aim to develop communicative skills are not combined with further metapragmatic information.

  • 40.
    Dervisevic, Melisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    A Comparative Study of Possible Early Bilingual Advantages in EFL Writing2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project involved a quantitative study of written proficiency in the English Language of early balanced bilingual Bosnian/Swedish learners of English as a Foreign Language (EFL). 15 early bilingual Bosnian/Swedish EFL learners were recruited for the study and matched with their respective control groups of intermediate-advanced EFL learners (15 speakers of Bosnian as their first language (L1) and 15 speakers of Swedish as their L1). Prior to the experimental task, the participants and their respective controls were asked to self-assess their linguistic skills on a 6-point Likert scale, then they were instructed to write a reflective text in English without prior preparation about the most significant invention of the 20th century. The written data were analyzed in L2 Syntactic Complexity Analyzer and TL software programs respectively. Data analysis involved measures of syntactical and lexical complexity, specifically t-units and type token ratio. It was found that the participants’ written data were characterized by superior type token ratio values as well as by superior T-units scores.

  • 41.
    Di Garbo, Francesca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Evaluative morphology and noun classification: a cross-linguistic study of Africa2013In: SKASE Journal of Theoretical Linguistics, ISSN 1336-782X, E-ISSN 1336-782X, Vol. 10, no 1, 114-136 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims at illustrating how, in languages with grammatical gender, this feature of noun morphology interacts with evaluative morphology. This is done on the basis of a sample of sixty-two African languages. The paper shows that interactions among gender and evaluative morphology are quite regular in the African languages. Two major types of interactions are found depending on whether a language hasa rich or a limited number of noun classes. The geographic diffusion and diachronic stability of these interactions are discussed. The correlation between gender and evaluation in the African languages has promising implications for our understanding of the two grammatical domains and fostersfurther research questions as to how common the relationships between these domains are cross-linguistically, and why they emerge in the first place.

  • 42.
    Dicle, Ramazan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Location events in bilingual Danish and Turkish language contact: A comparative analysis of location events in Danish, Turkish and bilingual use of the two languages2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Location events can be mainly described as the relationship setting up the location of a particular object(s) in relation to the other object(s). Location events are akin to motion events whose typology is well studied in the literature especially in the work of Talmy (1991, 2000), but differ from them in that ‘motion events’ focuses on the motion, while location events focuses on the spatial relationships between the Figure, object that is being located, and the Ground, object(s) that conform to the location of the Figure. Languages express these locative relationships differently. This study analyzes how two typologically different languages, Turkish and Danish, express the location events and how bilingual speakers of these two languages express location events in both Danish and Turkish. The study utilizes quantitative and qualitative tools to analyze the data gathered from the picture based elicitation from the monolingual and bilingual speakers. The study suggests that language contact in bilingual Turkish and Danish has a major role in the operating typology of the two languages and in the encoding of the spatial relationships in location events.

  • 43.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Autism-spectrum traits predict humor styles in the general population2013In: Humor: An International Journal of Humor Research, ISSN 0933-1719, E-ISSN 1613-3722, Vol. 26, no 3, 461-475 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research shows that individuals with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism tend to have impaired processing of humor and laugh at things that are not commonly found funny. Here the relationship between humor styles and the broader autism phenotype was investigated in a sample of the general population. The autism-spectrum quotient (AQ) and the humor styles questionnaire (HSQ) were administered to six hundred US participants recruited through an Internet-based service. On the whole, high scores on AQ were negatively related to positive humor styles and unrelated to negative humor styles. However, AQ subscales representing different autism-spectrum traits exhibited different patterns. In particular, the factor poor mind-reading was associated with higher scores on negative humor styles and the factor attention to detail was associated with higher scores on all humor styles, suggesting a more nuanced picture of the relationship between autism-spectrum traits and humor.

  • 44.
    Eriksson, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Effects of conventionality and proficiency in metaphor processing: A response time study2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Some researchers that work with metaphor theory claim that metaphors and figurative language are understood and processed just as easily as literal language. However, as this thesis will explore in detail, other research indicates that such is not always the case. That is, if the category of metaphor is further subcategorized into conventional and non-conventional metaphor, the scope will change because of the fact that it is possible to argue that non-conventionalized metaphors require a more conscious path of processing. In order to explain this alternative path, there are two primary approaches to language processing worth introducing: implicit and explicit. These approaches vary in required attention and speed of processing. With regards to conscious effort, these approaches are rather similar to the way in which we process conventionalized and non-conventionalized metaphors. Conventional metaphors are processed more quickly and easily than non-conventional ones. Hence, the claim that all metaphors are similarly processed may not always be true. Furthermore, an individual’s level of proficiency presumably correlates with speed in language processing. However, if non-conventional metaphor requires a more deliberate path of processing, this thesis assumes that the processing of this type of metaphor will be relatively unaffected by proficiency level, thus causing informants to process them in similar manners. In this thesis, 24 non-native speakers (NNS), categorized into intermediate proficient and advanced proficient, and seven native speakers (NS) were tested with an RT-test on subjective metaphor comprehension. Results were compared using mean response times and standard deviations, as well as looking at correlations and coefficient of variation. The results showed a distinct difference in processing speed with conventional metaphors being processed significantly faster. Moreover, the findings indicate that conventional metaphor processing speed seems to be predicted by proficiency, whilst non-conventional processing speed is not. The RT differences remained relatively consistent in both conventional and non-conventional metaphor processing, but when taking correlations, variance and coefficient of variation into consideration, the findings indicate that these other factors help level out the differences in non-conventional metaphor processing in more subtle ways than simply by RT’s.

  • 45.
    Forsberg Lundell, Fanny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages.
    Qué significa pasar por nativo?: Un estudio exploratorio sobre la actuación oral de usauarios avanzados de francés y español como segundas lenguas2013In: Studia Neophilologica, ISSN 0039-3274, E-ISSN 1651-2308, Vol. 85, no 1, 89-108 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between perceived nativelikeness and scrutinized nativelikeness is examined in very advanced L2 French and L2 Spanish. First, native speaker judges are asked to evaluate the speech of non-native speakers and native speakers of both languages, determining whether they pass as native speakers. Four non-native participants from each language group are then analyzed in more detail. Interviews with these speakers are analyzed with respect to formulaic language use and morphosyntax. No obvious differences between speakers who pass as native and those who do not are found. Subsequently, the short excerpts used in the evaluations are closely analyzed, in search for other possible differences. It is found that speakers who pass as native speakers use regional variation to a larger extent. It is thus proposed that there is no necessary connection between perceived nativelikeness and scrutinized nativelikeness and that ‘passing as a native speaker’ may be more linked to sociolinguistic competence than linguistic competence

  • 46.
    Franzén, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Vokalkvalitet och duration hos diftonger i benadiri och nordsomaliska2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Descriptions of the Somali dialects include a variation in vowel quality and duration, between southern Somali (Benadiri) and northern Somali. Native speakers of Somali confirm noted variations and describe a possessive ending eey in Benadiri, different from the northern Somali equivalent ay.

    This survey aimed to investigate if, and how, vowel quality and duration vary in the diphthong ay in southern Somali and northern Somali. This study was limited to measuring vowel quality and duration of the possessive ending -ay. Values of F1 and F2 in the initial phase of the diphthong, as well as the duration, were measured in pronunciations, which native speakers have labeled as northern or southern respectively.

    The measured differences in vowel quality were in line with the expectations. Mean values of F1 and F2 were lower/higher in all measuring groups for the pronunciations labeled as southern, than for those labeled as northern. It was noted, however, that the distance between the diphthongs in northern and southern Somali, was significantly larger in the word aabahay than in hooyaday. The reason for this should be investigated further, focusing on contextual differences. The expected difference in duration between the southern and northern pronunciations could not be found. 

  • 47.
    Fuster Sansalvador, Carles
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Negation in Germanic languages: A micro-typological study on negation2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, typological classifications have been done in a macro-typological perspective; that is,they have been based on balanced world-wide samples of languages, which often avoid includingclosely related languages, since these are supposed to act alike with respect to their typologicalfeatures and structures. However, attention has recently been drawn to the idea that even closelyrelated languages, as well as dialects within languages, may differ on their typological features. Theintention of this thesis is to give an overview of and study how the Germanic languages differ fromeach other in regards to their negative word orders and negation strategies. Mainly their negativeadverbs (English equivalent not), but also their negative indefinite quantifiers, are analyzed in mainclauses, subordinate clauses, and (negative) imperative structures. The focus lies on the standardlanguage varieties, but some of their non-standard varieties are included, in order to be able to give amore detailed description of the variation within the family. The expected result that the ratherhomogeneous described area of the Germanic languages will turn out to be much more complex, withrespect to negation aspects, is confirmed. The results show that the standard language varieties behavedifferently than the non-standard ones, which are less "rare" cross-linguistically. In addition, the nonstandardNorth-Germanic varieties show that multiple negation occurs in the North-Germanic branch,which is traditionally claimed to not occur.

  • 48.
    Förnegård, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages.
    Sullet-Nylander, Françoise
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages.
    De l'influence de la langue parlée dans les forums Internet: Aspects linguistiques et variation diastratique2013In: Computer mediated discourse across languages, Stockholm: Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis, 2013, no 16, 65-96 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Gadea, Marisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies.
    La importancia de la lengua en la percepción de la identdidad en la Comunidad Valenciana: La zona rural vs la zona urbana2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [es]

    En el presente estudio vamos a indagar de qué formas influye la lengua materna en la percepción de la identidad en la Comunidad Valenciana. La investigación se basa en un estudio realizado en dos zonas claramente diferenciadas, la zona rural y la zona urbana. Supuestamente hay una diferencia en la percepción de la identidad dependiendo del uso de las dos lenguas oficiales: el valenciano y el castellano.

    La hipótesis es que las personas cuya lengua materna es el valenciano se sienten más valencianos que los que tienen como lengua materna el castellano. Para comprobar la hipótesis hemos realizado una encuesta con la ayuda de informantes de dos zonas, una zona urbana donde suponemos que el porcentaje que tiene el castellano como lengua materna será más alto y una zona rural donde el porcentaje del uso del valenciano debe ser predominante.

    Los resultados en gran medida han corroborado nuestra hipótesis, pero no siempre ha sido así. Dado que se desprendía una imagen más compleja, hemos optado por profundizar en otros factores que no sea el hábitat del individuo. Se ha visto que ambas  circunstancias pueden influir en la percepción de la identidad. En un mundo globalizado hemos llegado a la conclusión que los límites culturales no son tan fijos, especialmente entre gente joven y que la lengua entre ellos a veces no señala la pertenencia sociocultural.

    Además se ha verificado que los informantes se adaptan al entorno y a las situaciones, sintiéndose más valencianos en un micro contexto, es decir cuando están con la familia más cercana, como por ejemplo con la madre, el padre, hermanos, abuelos, incluso primos y cuando habla con éstos.

  • 50.
    Garcia-Yeste, Miguel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Press advertisements for food in Spain: Cultural orientations and communicative style2013In: Ibérica, ISSN 1139-7241, E-ISSN 2340-2784, no 26, 195-215 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the impact of cultural values on the design and communicative style of Spanish graphic advertising for food and beverages. More specifically, the influence of Hall's (1976: 101) context dependence and Hofstede's (1994: 51) individualism index is surveyed. Gnillen-Nieto's (2009) table of hypothetical correlations between culture and communicative style is adapted for the analysis of 100 Spanish advertisements at the macro- and microlinguistic levels. The study is organised in two stages: (i) a qualitative examination of the communicative strategies found in the sample; and (ii) a quantitative analysis of the previous findings in order to identify significant patterns statistically. The findings indicate that context dependence and the individualism index can be traced in the texts in relation to the verbal and nonverbal elements, the explicitness of the communicative style and the purpose of the message. A set of multimodal communicative strategies is offered at the end of the paper aimed at advertising professionals and students as well as TSP practitioners.

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